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Enoi?ey /a?iee

«Iaeiie eaiee /a?iee aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau aicaoaeeoue iuneue o ieeeeiiia
ethaeae»

Aae?ii

Eae oieueei o /aeiaa/anoaa aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue /oi-oi caienaoue,
nio?aieoue aeey iioiinoaa – iiyaeeenue iniaua ninoaau aeey ienueia.

Naaiaeiy iu ciaai, /oi /a?ieea auaatho ia oieueei /a?iua, ii e neiea,
aeaeoua, caeaiua, e?aniua. Aeaaea ia?eaioo?iaua e ?oaeiiaua, eioi?ua
ninoaaeytho aei neo ii? oaeio iiiaoia iiiaieueneeo iiianou?ae. Ii neiai
«/a?ieea» a ?onneii ycuea i?iecioei io i?eeaaaoaeueiiai «/a?iue» ia
neo/aeii.

Ia?aua naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua /a?ieea auee /a?iua ec naaee. A Aaeioa
aeey yoeo oeaeae eniieueciaaee naaeo io naeeaaiey ei?iae iaie?ona
(ethaeiia ?anoaiea ae?aaieo aaeioyi), eioi?oth niaaeeiyee n ?anoai?ii
eaiaaee – eeaeeiai aonoiai niea aeaoeee, aeoie. I/aiue aeaaii
i?eiaiyeenue /a?ieea a Eeoaa.

Oi/iaa, yoi auea oooue, eiaaoay aanueia nouanoaaiiue iaaeinoaoie: ni
a?aiaiai iia noaiiaeeanue eiieie e ioneaeeaaea io aoiaae ia naeaao.
E?iia oiai, oooue auea aeiaieueii aonoie e ieioi noaeaea n ia?a,
aiciiaeii, iiyoiio ia Ainoiea i?aaeii/eoaee ienaoue (oi/iaa, ?eniaaoue)
ea?iaeeou eenoi/eie.

A Aa?iia /a?ieea iiyaeeenue cia/eoaeueii iicaea. A?oaieiae a canuiaiiii
iaieii ae?aaia?eineii ai?iaea Aa?eoeaioia iaoee aeeiyioth /aoa/eo, ia
aeia eioi?ie aeaeiaeny eaeie-oi oaiiue inaaeie. Ieacaeinue, /oi yoi
naiay noa?ay ec anao ecaanoiuo ia caiea /a?ieeueieoe! Aieaa ouny/e eao a
iae nioee “/a?ieea” – iaueiiaaiiay naaea, ?acaaaeaiiay ia ianea.

Eaeeie auaatho /a?ieea

Nio?aieeny i/aiue aeoniue ae?aaia?eineee ?aoeaio /a?iee: iaaei acyoue
iiiai aeiia?aaea… e nuanoue aai! A einoi/ee auiethiooue, naea/ue e
iieo/aiioth naaeo niaoaoue n ianeii.

Eiaaea /eoaaoue i?i noa?ua niiniau iieo/aiey /a?iee, oi, eaaeaony, /oi
eo ni/eiyee aieueoea eaeiiee. *aai oieueei a /a?ieea ia aeiaaaeyee! Iaae
e iaoieo, /a?ieeo e aoceio, iieiei e yeoea, eaan e i?inoieaaoo, aeaaea
eeneua ue.

Ecaanoii au? ianeieueei yecioe/aneeo ?aoeaioia /a?iee, e n?aaee ieo –
eaooaiiaua – ec ioaa?a eiaeo?u caeaiuo eaooaiia, ec niaeuo yaiae aoceiu
e eiaeo?u a?aoeeeo i?aoia. Aeaeaeenue /a?ieea e ec /a?ieee. “Oeac i
/a?ieea /a?ie/iii” nio?aieeny a ?oeiiene OVI- OVII aaeia.

Caeanue oianoii aniiiieoue no?iee ec ?iiaia Ae. Aeaoi “AEeciue e
iaiaueiiaaiiua i?eeeth/aiey ?iaeiciia E?oci, ii?yea ec Ei?ea”:

“… ss acye n ei?aaey ia?uey, /a?ieea e aoiaao. ss yeiiiiee eo aei
iineaaeiae aiciiaeiinoe e, iiea o iaiy auee /a?ieea, aeeo?aoii caienuaae
ana, /oi neo/eeinue ni iiie; ii eiaaea iie auoee , iia i?eoeinue
i?ae?aoeoue iie caiene, oae eae y ia oiae aeaeaoue /a?iee e ia iia
i?eaeoiaoue, /ai eo caiaieoue”.

?iaeicii, oaeei ia?acii, aue a iieiaeoai iaaaaeaiee a “/a?ieeueiii
aii?ina”. Eia/a ii iia au ainiieueciaaoueny iaeiei ec iaoeo?uo niiniaia
ecaioiaeaiey yoiai ioaeiiai aauanoaa, a oae o?oaeiethaey e iaoiae/eainoe
?iaeiciio auei ia caieiaoue.

Ii naiua eo/oea /a?ieea auee ana-oaee ia aeoniua. Eo aeaeaee ec aaeeia.
Aaeeu yoi – yoi ie?oaeua ia?inou ia eenoueyo aeoaa. Iie ia?acothony,
eiaaea ianaeiiia i?aoioai?ea ioeeaaeuaaao ye/ee a oeaiue eenoa.

Aea?aao yoi ia i?aaeony, iii iuoaaony «auoieeiooue» i?eoaeueoeaa e
ie?oaeaao eo niaoeeaeueiie ?ac?inoaeny iaiei/eie – aaeeaie. Eo oieeee,
ianoaeaaee a aiaea, aeiaaaeyee iaaeiue eoii?in e eeae.

A 1885 aiaeo naeniineee o/aiue Eaiiaa?aee cia/eoaeueii oeo/oee /a?ieea.
A /a?ieea ec aaeeia ii aeiaaaee e?aiia. A /a?ac ianeieueei eao
iiyaeeenue aieeeiiaua e?aneoaee, e /a?ieea noaee aeaoaau.

Aua iaeie iaaeoniua «/a?ieea» ethaee iicaeinoaiaaee o… ea?aeaoeoe.
I?e/ai aeaaii aua a aioe/iua a?aiaia. O ea?aeaoeoe e eo aeaith?iaeiuo
a?aoueaa inueieiiaia anoue iniaue /a?ieeueiue iaoie, ec eioi?iai
aeeaioiua a ieiooo iianiinoe auioneatho «/a?ieeueioth aiiao» – aeey
ianee?iaee.

*a?ieeueiua iaoi/ee nooao ia nieioea, oieeoo, aeiaaaeytho uaeie e
iaa?aaatho, iioii aeiaaaeytho na?ioth eeneioo, iiyoue nooao e i?annotho.
Iieo/aaony naiey, eioi?ay oe?iei eniieuecoaony ooaeiaeieeaie aei neo
ii?. Iaaa?iia, yoi naiua ae?aaiea a ie?a /a?ieea, ei 100 ieeeeiiia eao!

I/aiue e?aneau auee cieioua e na?aa?yiua /a?ieea, eo /aua anaai
i?eiaiyee aeey ioi?ieaiey ?aeeaeiciuo eiea. Ii i?eiaiaiea cieioa e
na?aa?a aeey ecaioiaeaiey /a?iee aiana ia auei ec ?yaea aii auoiaeyuei.
Aecaioeeneea e ?onneea ia?aien/eee ?anoe?aee iaae n oiieeie cieiouie e
na?aa?yiuie eenoi/eaie, iioii iaae auiuaaee, a ia?yaeiua cieioua e
na?aa?yiua aoeau inoaeenue.

Niaa?oaiii iniauie auee e?aniua /a?ieea. A Ae?aaiai ?eia eo aeaeaee ec
eeiiaa?e. Oaeeie e?aniuie /a?ieeaie ienaee oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiua
aeieoiaiou e oieueei ia oa??eoi?ee eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?oea, a anee
e?aniua /a?ieea eniieueciaaee iau/iua ethaee, oi eo aeaeaea nia?oiay
eaciue. *a?ieea auee i/aiue aei?iae, eo io?aiyea no?aaea. Ec aeanyoe
ouny/ ?aeooae iieo/aaony oieueei iaeei a?aii e?anee. A Eoaeee aei neo
anoue ai?a, ninoiyuay ec io?aaioaiiuo ?aeiaei io?io?ieoe.

A?yae ee “aiaeanoaaiiue” Aaaono aeoiae, /oi /a?ac 2000 eao e?aniuie
/a?ieeaie aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny o/eoaey anaai ie?a, eni?aaeyy ioeaee e
aunoaaeyy oeieueieeai ioeaiee. Ia ?one oaeeo no?iainoae, naycaiiuo n
e?aniuie /a?ieeaie, ia auei. Eo aeaeaee ec ianaeiiuo /a?aaoeia, eioi?uo
oieeee a ii?ioie. E?aniua /a?ieea auee aeey iaoeo i?aaeeia i/aiue
ioaeiu. Ii/aio? Iioiio /oi a XI-XIII aaeao iiiaoe ia?aien/eee eiea ia
?acaeaeyee neiaa i?e ienueia, ana ienaeinue nieioiui oaenoii. *eoaoue
oaeia auei neiaeii. Iiyoiio ana ?acaeaeu a eieaa ioia/aee e?aniie
aoeaie, /anoi ia?eniaaiiie a aeaea ea?oeiee. Yoi iaeaa/aei /oaiea.
Ionthaea e iioei iiiyoea «e?aniay no?iea» – aacaoe.

*oi iaienaii ia?ii – ia au?oaeoue e oiii?ii

Ana ciatho, /oi ?aiueoa ethaee ienaee eieae a?o/ioth. Eaeie-ieaoaeue
ae?aaiee iiiao-ia?aien/ee ii/aie, i?e naaoa naa/e, neaeae iaae
iaione?eioaie, auaiaey caiuneiaaoua aoeau.

Iaienaoue io ?oee oeaeoth eieao iaaa?iyoii neiaeii, iiyoiio a ae?aaiinoe
eieae n/eoaeenue aaee/aeoae oeaiiinoueth. Ii?ie ienaoe ?aaioae iiiaea
ianyoeu e, ieii/ea naie o?oae, iaeaa/aiii ienae a eiioea: “Eae ?aaeoaony
cayoe, oaaaeaaoee io eiaooee, oae ?aaeoaony e ienaoe, ieii/eaoee yoo
eieao”. A iioii a XV aaea Eiaaii (a ii-iaoaio — Eaai) Aooaiaa?a ecia?ae
ia/aoiue noaiie. N oao ii? eieae iaaiaeieee ie?.

Anoue iineiaeoea: “*oi iaienaii ia?ii – ia au?oaeoue oiii?ii”. Ii
/a?ieea anaaaea niuaaee, noe?aee, e aanueia oniaoii naiaeeee. Iaeei ec
iaiiiaeo iaaeaaeiuo ?aoeaioia /a?iee i?aaeeiaeee a naia a?aiy
E.ss.Aa?oeaeeon. Oaeno, iaienaiiue aai /a?ieeaie, iiaeii oie/oiaeeoue
oieueei aianoa n aoiaaie. Neaaa Aiao, /oi ia ieooo o/eoaey oaeeie
/a?ieeaie a oeieueiuo aeiaaieeao! Caoi ?aoeaioia iaaeaeeiuo
(neiiaoe/aneeo) /a?iee aaeeeia iiiaeanoai. Oaeno, auiieiaiiue
neiiaoe/aneeie /a?ieeaie, iaaeaeei a iau/iuo oneiaeyo. Eo eniieueciaaee
oieiiu, ?aaiethoeeiia?u, aethaeaiiua. Neiiaoe/aneea /a?ieea i?inooiaee
ia no?aieoea oieueei i?e iaa?aaaiee. Iiaeii iaienaoue iaaeaeeiia ienueii
iieieii eee eeiiiiui nieii. Aae?anao i?i/eoaao aai, iaa?aa iaae iaiai
eee i?iaeaaeea ienueii oothaii.

A ssiiiee nianai iaaeaaii auiouaiu /a?ieea, en/acathuea n aoiaae /a?ac
aeaa aeiy – aeey a?aiaiiuo iiiaoie ia iieyo eiea.

Auaiae

Enoi?ey /a?iee o?aieo iiiai eioa?aniiai. Aua a i?ioeii aaea aaeeeee
ecia?aoaoaeue Yaeenii i?eaeoiae /a?ieea aeey neaiuo. Noieei iaienaoue
eie oaeno e iaiiiai iiaeiaeaeaoue, eae aoiaaa a oao ianoao, aaea auee
ia/a?oaiu aoeau, oaa?aeaea e iiaeieiaeanue, ia?acoy ?aeueao. Inoaeny
caaaaeeie ?aoeaio “/a?iee ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae” – ?oaeiiauo, naioe?iauo,
ia?eaioo?iauo, oaeiie eioi?iai aeaaeaee a ae?aaiinoe iiiaoe
iiiaieueneiai iiianou?y Y?aeaie-Oeco. Iaecaanoai iaiinayuaiiui e ninoaa
/a?iee, eioi?uie i?iaeieaeatho iieueciaaoueny iiiaoe-aoaeaeeeoeu a
Ae?ia, Oaeeaiaea e O?e-Eaiea.

A 1938 aiaeo aaiaa?neee ooaeiaeiee, neoeueioi? e aeo?iaeeno E.Ae?i e aai
a?ao (ii niaoeeaeueiinoe oeiee) iieo/eee iaoaio ia eiino?oeoeeth ?o/ee,
a eioi?ie /a?ieea iiaeaaaeenue e ieoouaio oa?eeo aeaaeaieai ii?oiy.
Iicaeiaa a Aano?ee caiaieee aeeaeeea /a?ieea eo iiaeeoeeaoeeae —
/a?ieeueiie ianoie, eioi?ay i?e nii?eeiniiaaiee n aicaeooii auno?i
aunuoaao. Oae iiyaeeanue oa?eeiaay ?o/ea e caeii/eeanue aanniaiiay aaooa
aaee/aeoaai e i?inoaeoaai ecia?aoaiey /aeiaa/anoaa — aeeaeeeo /a?iee.

*a?ieea ec iieiea, eeiiia, ec ianaeiiuo e uae, ec ea?aeaoeoe e yaiae, ec
cieioa e na?aa?a…Oaia?ue /aeiaa/anoai ieoao /a?ieeaie, naeaeaiiuie
oeie/aneei iooai. Iie ea/anoaaiiu e aeaoaau. Eaaeaeia a?aiy ?iaeaeaei
naie /a?ieea, ii ni?in ia ieo ieeiaaea ia i?ioiaeee.

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