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Oe??? A??

I?ay ???????. A??u — ???i ??o ?????, ???a n??atho a ?? ???? ???? e ????.

N ???ey? ? ????-. 1) ???a ??? ????? ????e ???; 2) ??????ue a ??????
n??y?e; 3) ?????a ???e; 4) ?????ue e ???o ????a; 5) ????ea ?? ??i ????ey
(????e). I?? n ????e y?y?ny: 1) ???????ue; 2) ???a a ???a ????e ??? ???,
?????? ?y ????i ???a ???oi??o; 3) ????? a ???o ?????? e ??????oth?o
????a; 4) ????? ????a ?e ????i ????; 5) ?????a e ????a ???? ?????a —
????. Y? ?????e ???ey e ???ay????e ??? ???ytho ???ue ? ??e ? ??o ???o
??i y????? ?????, ? ?ath?o ?y?e y?eth???e ?y? n ???ey?, ?e ????ue ??a.
A?? e ???ey ???? ????? ? ??? ?? ???????a, ????o a ??.

E???i ??a 100 ?n. ??a ???, ?e?i ??????ny, ?i ???? ??i ? ?????i ??? —
250—300 ?n. e ??a. A ?? ???? ???atho ??a ?ny? ??o ??a. I??eyth?a ?????i
eo ???o ? ??, ??? ???ath?y ?e ?????e ?????i, ?a ??o ????a?ue ??ue.
I????i, ?i a ??? i???? 78—90% ???? ?? ???????a i????y ? ?eth ???e ??u
(???? 5 o/?).

N???a ???. A?????a ?? ???yth?? a????? ??a ??? — y? ???e, ?e ????, ??iy?y
? ??? ????? (??? ??? ?????) ??e, ?e ?o, n i??????i ??? e ???i ?????.

I??? ??? ???????ny ? ?a ??????i ????a ??e: ?????e, ???? ?y ?????ey e
????o, ????ey e o??????? ?? e ??a???o a ?e ???a, e ????e, ???ath??y ?ae
????ii e ???th?e ??? ?????y.

A ???? ??????ey e ????i ???? ???yi ???ey o ??? ???atho ??????? ??????y
???y: y? ????e, ???u, ???u, ????u, ?-i????, ????e e ?. I????, n ??uueth
???? — ????o ?????? ?o — a?a ??? ?????iy?ny ? ????o. N??? ????yth?y e
????o ????e. O??eth ?????ey ???ytho e ?????e, ?athu? ?ae ???o ?i??? ?
??? ?o. A????, ?????a ?y ???-????a, ????eytho ??e ?????a ???u ???y,
???ath?a a ??? ?cy?a e ???ath?a ? ?o ?????a ????.

??????. A?? ????th?y ???? e ???i ????e. A??e? ?????a ????? ??y? ???y ?e
????? ????, ???a ?tho ??? ??? ???th. Ae???? ??u ????th?y ?????i.

A???a ?????a ??o ????ey?ny ??a ?????i y?i- e y????o ??. Y????a ??u
???thony ??? ?a???????o ??? — a ????yo. Y????a ??u, ?e ???e, ???atho
???i ? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???y, ????? ???????. I?? a ????y?? ???y,
??a ?????, e ? ?a ?????y ?aue ???e.

I??? ?????a o ??? ???? ??????. O ????o ??i ??? ???e ???n ????? ??i ?ey?y
?????i ?? ??? ? ??? ?o. O ??a?o ??? ?e y?i ??th??ny ?ey?a n????? ????y e
???? ??? ???? ?????y (????y), ? ?????????i ? ???, a o ?????? ??? — ?ey?a
?????i ?? ?????? ???, ?e ???i ??o ?? ??i ???th?y ???u, ?e ?????.

I???. Ii ???o ???y ???atho ?a ???? ??? ???: ????? e ????u. Aeey ????o
????? ????? e ????i.

E ?????i ????y ?????i ?y??? e ????o ???, a ??a ???. I??i??ueth ??????
??? y?y?ny ?, ?i ????e ?? ??o ? ??e ????? ???e ????e ??? ?o ??a ????a.
(Ae?? ???o ?o a 1 a ??e ??u ?????i ?? ???ey? ??i 400 i, a a 1 a ??? [?ae
?????] 4—8 ?.)O?? ???e ?? e ???? ???? ???y ??????o ??? ?i ??????i? ??? n
???th?e ???, ? ?????e ?y ??? ??i y????? ?????. I???y ???a ??y??y ?o
??iey? ? ??i ??????? n ?????. I?? ?a ??? ???y ???? ? n???? ?? ??? ????e
???e. I????ae?? ????, ??ey?? ??a?, ??ue ??? ?????tho ? ???? ????a e
?????tho ?i ????? ??a???eth ?a ???e ???. O?? ???????? ???? ??i ?????y ??
?????ueth ???.

Oey??? ??u ??o ? ???e ????i ??? ??a, ? ?eyo e ??o, ???ath?y ? ?eth?e
????a (??? ??? e ???, ???e).

A ???? ? ???ey ? ???e ???oth?y ??? ?i-????y — ???? ??, ??iy?a ? ??e e
?y?e. I?? e ?y?a ????? ??i?e ???e ?o. A ?y?a ??i ????ue ?a ?iy: ???e
???e, ??i ?????, ???? ???e, e ???. O ??o ??? — ?????? — ??? ?? ?y?e ???o
? ????i ??????o ????e (o ????, ???e, ?????a, ???e iia??). O ??? ??a,
??????a, ??????, ???? ? ???o ? ??????? ????, ?y?? ? ???tho ?????. Ia
?????, a ????o, a o ????o i??????e ? ???o ?e ????o ???th?y ?ny?e ????a
??. I?? ????ey ?e ???th?y ? ??o, ???y?y ???, ??e, ????? e ???e ????e, ?i
?????? ???? ???????th ???.

N?? ?y??? ??? ?? ?e ??i??, ?e e y???a. I???a ??? ????a ??u, ???
???ath??y a ??o A???e e ???e, — ??e, ??e, ??? ??iy?e, ??????, ?????e,
??a?e, ????i.

ss???a ??u, ??a ?e ???y ???a, ??? ????, ????a ?? ???-?i??a, ????e, ?y??e
e ?., ?a ???y a ??, ??o ???? ????a, a ??? e ?????a ????ey. N??? ???ue,
?i ??e ??? ???? ??? ???eyth?y n ?????? y???o ????o ?????, ?y?? ????? ??o
?? a??? e ?y????, ? ????e ???e.

I???? ??u (?n. 6.1) ???ath?y ?????i a ??a, ? ?????o ????o, ??ao e ???, ?
???? e ?????? ????, ???y ???? ?e ?????a ??? (???ue) ???, ????, ???i, ???
??a. I???? ??u ???ath?y ??e ???oe?? (????, ???), ???? e ??????o ???. N??
????o ??? ??tho e ??????? ??, ???a ???tho ???e ???? e ???? (?????c,
?????c, ?????c) e ???? (??????, ???? e ?.).

E???? ???a???i ????o ??? y?y?ny ??-??. A? ???e ???o ? ??????o ??e,
?????o ?????a? ? ???, a ?????? ????? ??ue, ?nth? e ?i ???? «????» (?.
?n. 6.1) Ia ??? ??????o ??????a ???th?y ???e ???e, n ?i?ueth ???o ????
?????ny. Y?o ?? ?????y a ?? ???e (????, ?c?i, ???? ??a) ? ??a e ????o
??????i ??????y (? ???, ??ao, ???a, ???? ??a e ?.). I???? ?? ????a
????th?y ?y i?????ey ?????a— ??? ? ???? ????o ??????.

Ae??e ? ?atho ???y e ????eytho ??e ?????a ??? ???? ??u ???? 2—10 ?i (?n.
6.2). ????ath?y ??? ?????i ?e ????. O ?o ??th??ny e ???e ???n, ???ath?e
a ?? ??ey?e ?? ???. I?????yny ?e y?i ??? ?????ny a ??o n A—8 ???e.

I????atho, ?i ??? ????e ? ??????? ???a. O???? ? ?????e ????i a ?y? n
????i a ?ae?o ????? ???.

I????a ?????? ???? ?atho ????a ???, ??????? ?????e ??yie ?n — ???e,
???e, ??????? e ?. I? ???yth?y a ?????e, ??i???e, ?????? ???. A??a ???
???ath?y a i??? ? ?????e ??? (????, ????a), a ???a ???a, a ????yo ???? e
????th?y a ????e.

A??-???? ???tho ???????i ???ey, ?i ???? e ???eth ?????e ??? ????,
??????o ??? ?????y????? ??????. O ?????a ??????? a??a ???e ?????y ???
??? ??y, ??ey, ??a e ??a, o ????o (????, ?/-????y?o) — ? ?????e ?a??
???ey.

I?????y?a ??u ???tho ??e ??a ????? e ?????? ????. Ia ?????e ????? ???a
?????y ??e, ???a ??ath?e ???e. Ia ???e ??c ????i ?? ??a ????y ?????y
?????ay ??ey—?????? n ????e ???e. A y? ??y ????? ??? ???ee ???u ????i
???i ???e (?nth? ???? ?????y — «????y ??»).

I?????y?a ??u — ???a ???? ???u, ?e, eth??, ?????e ??, ?y?? ??, ????? e
??? ??? ????.

N????? ??u ?????tho ? ??yo a?? ????? e ?????? ??? e i?e. E ???o ????ey
??a a ??? ? ??a ????? ?ay? ???a ??e? ???y?ny e ?????ny a ????e, ???a
??tho a ??a ?e ???????, a ??? ????tho. I?????e ??a, i????e ????e,
?iy?y?ny a ?????i ???? ?????, ?????ny a ????yo. N????, ???? ??a ???a a
??, ??o ???? oy??a ?????y (????u) o eth?e, ???th??y a ?? ????? («?? ???)
?e a ????ciie ??a («???a ???). A??i?u ???? ??? ???ytho a ???? ?y ???y
????????? e ???o ?????e, a ????? e ?????e.

Ia ?????o e ????? ???eyo ??i ?????tho ????? e ????? ??u. E???u e ??? ???
??e??ey ????, ????? ???e-?????: ??? ???? ????, ???ay ??ue (????) y??e e
??e, ???? ??, ????c ??? e ?.

O???a ??u ??nyo ???e ?? ???o ?cy??o. N?? ????? ???tho ? ?? a ?? ????, ?a
????tho a ???e, ???e ????o a ????o e ???ny ??????e ????? ? ???. *??
????i ?o ??a ????y ? ??? ???th?y ??? ??????? ???? ??. I????? ??ay???
???? oa? ????? ??? ???atho ????? ???? — 0,5— 1 i a ????. Ia ??? ???a
????i ?? a i??o ????o ?e ? ???? ???atho ??u, ???a ???th?y e, ??a ?
?????? ??? ????, ???tho ?.

I?? ?ny? ??a ?e?a ???o?otho ??a ? ???? e ????, ???y ????a ?????y ??,
???, ??n (??????, ????a, ????e ??e e ?.).

A?? ??i ?y?? ???????e n ??e? ???ey?, ????y?, ??????y?, ?? n ????e. I????
????? ??o ?? ????e, ????. I???a — y? ?a?????a ?????? ??a n ??y? ???
????. I? y?i ???e ??a ???? ??e ???? e ????o ??? ?ae y???? ?e a ??? ????u
??y. I????e ?? ?????o ???ath?th ?????ue ??y a 10—14 ?c, ??a ????o ???,
??ey? ???? e ???? ????, ???a ????otho ???? ??y. Io ???i ???ey ?? ????
?????? ????ey, ???? e ???? ????y, ?????th?a i????eth ??. I???a ????? o
?????a ????.

C???a ??? a ???? e ???? ?cy??a. A?? ??y? n ???ey? ??tho ??oth ?? a ??i
?????a ???a a ????. ????y n ???th ????a ?????? ???? ? ???o ?i?????o
?????, ?e ??tho ? ???i?e ?y ?????o ?????, ???otho a ?????e ?????? ?iy
??u — ?i?a, ???ytho ???th ????oth ??? ? ???eth ??u.

A?? ??? ????th?y a ???? ?cy??a ?y ????y ????i ??a, ???? ???u, ????a,
????a, ??????, ???? ???a.

I??i ??? e ??????y ?? ???. I????oy ? ???eyo e ????, a ??a ???ay? ?????i
? ???o ????o, ?????? ????? e ???yo ? ??, ???, ???, ?????, ?????eyo
????a, ??u ???tho ? ??o e ??nyo ???e ??a ????o ?cy??o.

1.O??a e ??????? ??u a ??? n ????y? ?????y????o ????

O??a ??u – ???? ?????????a ??????e ???a ???. E ?i ??ny?y, ????, ??????e
??a Stylopage e Arthrobotris ? ??y?a ?????a. I?? ? ??? ????i ??? ???
????y E.E. I???a. A ???? y?eth?e o ??? ??? ???ny ??e ?yae ??????? ?y
???a ??? ????, ???o ?e ????tho a ??. Ii ?o??? ???ey y? ??????ey ??o ??
?? ??a: a ?? ??? ??e ??a, ????o ???e ?e ??? ??a. O?i? ??u ???? ???ue e
?????? a ?? ?ia?ae, ?????, ????? ?e ??? ????o. O??a ??u ??atho a ??a, ?a
? ???e ?????y ? ?????? ???? e ??? ??i???o ?????, ? ??ue ???y ?e i??atho
? ??? ??o ??a. O?i ??? y?y?ny ?y ?o, ?e e ?y ??? ????, ??? ??e, a ? ???
???ey, ?e ?y ????a. C??o ???u ???? (a ??? ??? ???) ????ey? ??e ????e ?o,
a ? ???n ?????i ??????y, ?e ?e ????c?.

A????? – ??? ????e a ?o???a ??? ??. AE??u ??a – ???a ?????a ???? ?e
?????a?? ???e ???ae, ????? ?y ????, ???? e ????. ??a ??u ?ayo ?? ?e ???
??? ?????, a ????a – ??? ????o, ??? ??o ????? ????, ?????i ????aey?o ? ?
????.

A???a ?????a ???e ???e ???ae, ?????ue ? ?????? a ??a, ?????ue ?????y a
???? a ???o ?????o ??i ????? ???? ??????? e y?i ??? ?e e ????i ????i a
??????e ??? n ?????. I??i ?????th?a ?????, ????? ?e ????? ????e a ????,
?e ??a ???e ????e ? ?????e?. I??? ioaeeo ???y a ??????i c??e y???e ???
???, ?i ? ????i ????? ? ????a a ??a e ?????? ?i.

?? ??????i ?????o ??a 180 ??a. Y? ??u ??? ? ??o ???eyo, ????? ????. Eo
???? ?? – ?????????a, ????a, – ???ath?y ? ??yo e ??ueyo ????, a ?ae ??
??? ??i ??e ???e, ? e??? ?? ??????, ?oy ???? ??e?? ??th?y ??????e.

I??a ???ey ??????? ??ny?y e ??o XVIII a. Ii ?? a 1907 a. A?? e E????
?????, ?i y? ??u ??? ?y?? ? ????e. Ae????a ?????ey ????, ?i ?? e ????a
?y?? ??o ??e ???? ????????e ????y?. I????? ???? y?? ?? ?? ???? ???u
?????? ????i E??i ? ??????? A?? (Septobasidium burtii).

I? ???th?e ???e ??a, a ?i ???i ????a, ??o ???e. I???? ? ?o ??th?y ????e
? ??y??e a?e ??e, ??? ???th?y ???. C???a e ????? ????a ??? ???ath?y:
???a ???, o ?o ?????o ???? ?o e ?e ???a ? ??i?ath?y. A ?a ??th??ny ????
???? ?????? ??a. A y? ? ??y ? ??????? ??e ??ath?y ???e ??a? ???i ????y.
I?e ???e ??th?y ?? ?ae ???, ?a ?e ????, ??ea ????ath?y a ???thth ???th,
a ??? ???tho ?? ??i ? ??a, ?a ?o ??a.

E??i y? ???e e ?????tho ?c???? ??a, o.e., ????y? ? ???eth, ?e ??yo ? ??
??u ??a, ???a a ????? ????tho a ???ue ?? ?????. *?? ????a ??y ?? ??a
???tho ?ae ??i ????? ????i. Aeey ?????i ??a ??a ?????, ??u ?ae ?i ??e
???a ??a ???e, ????? ???e. A?a ????? ? ???i, ? ???e ??? ????a (?e?????
?????). I????a ??ii ????a ??o ???, ?i ? ????ua. O?? ???i, ???????a e ??
n??????a ??nyo ??th???? ? ???e, ? ????ay ??ue ???a e ?????. C???a ???e
???a ? ???th?y ?o?e ??a e ??aeyo iiae ?i ??? ? ?????y?? ??????o ???e, a
??a ? ??o ??? – ?? e ????????o ????o-????a.

I??? ?????? ??????i e ??? ??? ??u ?y ??? n ????y? ??? ?????? ???i.
C?????a ??i?? a ?????i ??????e y?? ???a ?????u ?????y? ??a ????. E?ue a
????o ??ayo ???y ?e??ue ?????a ????? ??? ??? ?y ????y ??ey?e ?????, o.e.
?y ?????y ???, ?e ???i, ????y ???a ???i ????? ????o-?????.

2.Ae??e ?e ???? ????e ??? ?????????

??????

Ae??e – ???y ??? ???, ? ?ath?o ????i ???y e ????th?o a ?? ????o ??oth??y
?e ?ey??y ???.E???i ??i 500 ??a ???e. A? ??? – ?????u n ??????i (???a)
?e ????? (????) ??i ?i?a ???a. Ae??e ????otho ??e, ???, ?????? ??????,
???? ??? A. A??atho ???e: ????o (??????, ?iaee?c) e ??? ???.E??????
????i: ?????a, ????a, ????y i??????ue, ??????, ????????ay ??????? (????
??e, ????), a ??a ?e ??? ?????? a ?iy????a, ??????e, ????.A???no? ?
?????? ????i ??a ??ny?y e ?? ?????? (Saccharomyces) ? ??? ?????a
(Ascomycota), ???a ???i ????tho ???a ???? ? y???? ???. N???? ???? ?a??
?? ???? ???i E? I???i.

N?? ??e?ey ????a ? y?i?a:

??? —> ???o —> NO2 + ?????? —> y??e.

I???a ???? ???a ???? ????o ???e S.cerevisiae. I???e ??? ????e a ????u
??? ???e ????tho e ???otho («????th? ?e ????? o??????e AeIE) ??, ??????a
? ??? a???a e ??? ??? ?????.N???a ???e, ??? ?y ??????e: ??? ???, ????u
?y ????, ??? ? ???e ??a (???i, ???a, ????e ??o). I????e – ??? ??/a?
???????a ????, o.e. ??? ???u i?? ???e ????e. I???a ??i ???y?? ??? ????y
???????o ????ee – ???c, o.a. ????? ??? ?ae ????i ? ?????o ????a.

O?????a. ???a a ?????? i????? ??????? ????a ???a ??i. A? e ??? ???
????tho ?y ???e ???i ??a, a ??a a ???? ?cy?o?. Aeey ????y ??? ??a
????tho ??o – ????th ??eth ??a, ?????th ? ?????i ??? ?e ????oth ???a, ?
????i ???. A i?? ????ny e ????th?y ??? e i?????? ????, ??ath?a ???o ??o
?ey?oth ???? e ???. Ae???? ??e ?? ???tho ????? ???? – ?i?e ???tho ??? n
??e e ?. ?????? ?a? a ???? ??n. I??????? ??ae ???? ????ayny a ??a ????y
??ey?y ??????y e ?????th ?????i ???, ??, ???, ??. I????a ??i «????»,
????ay? a ??? ? ?? ?????? ????y NI2 ?e ???? ?????e ???e, ????th?o ????.

A????. Ia ?????e e ??? y?ae ??o ??????a ???????, ??e ???o ?i? ???e.
Iiy?? ???e ?e – ??i – ???? ???ue ?c ???????i ????ey ???e. Ia y?i ????
?n??? ????a.

I???o ???ey ??o ???? ??? ??i ???i- e ??????a ????, ??????a ???, ???????
??u. *?? ??th?? ?? ??e ??????a ?e i?????i ?????? ?? a ?????a n?? ??yo
???a ????? e ??????? ??? ???. I??iy?? ?? ???e, ?? ??i ??ny??y e ??????i,
e ?ae ???? ???ey ???eytho ?i ??. O?, ????, ?e ?????? ??? ????tho ?????a
???? ??? e ??e n ??i ? ?i?iytho ???o (?i ?????i ?e ?????? ae??o
?i).I???u, ?????? a ????e, ???? ??? E? I???. Ae??e ??ae?atho ???,
?????ny a ?????i ?? (?. ??o ??). A???a ?????ny ? ?o ??, ?? ??? ?
??n??tho ?? ???. Ae??e ???tho ?e? ?? a ????? ????a ?e ?e ?i ?????. A?e
????a ??i, ??? ??eytho ??? ????th ? ?????i ?? e ??. I?a ???? ????o ??i,
??eyth??y ????? ?c ????iy? ????n? ??a ? ??????ey n ????? ???a. E?? ????
?????ny, ??o n ???i ??i ?? ???o?ue. A?e y?? ? ???ue, ??????a ????, ????y
????, ???oyo ??o a ???oth ???o. E??i ??i ???i i??atho ??ue (?e y???e)
??n. Ia ????e ?????a ??o ?????? I??? ?????? ????i O??? ??thae?ue
????????oth ???o ?e ??????e ??: ????i ?? ??e e ????ue ?? ????i ?????.

I?????. I?????, ?e e ?????a, – ?????? ?????? ? ??? ???o ??. E? ???i, ?i
?????????i n???, ?i ????a, e ????e ????o ??o ??ue ?a ???a ????. I??iy??
??? – ?????a ?? ??????a. N???ath?a y??i? ??i ????a ??? ? ???? ?? ??aeyo
?ae???a a ?i ??? ? 3–5%. *?? ?i??? ???i ?????a ?????a ???e e ???? ????,
??ath?a ?? ?i ?? (????u, ???, ?????? ???), ?????th ???yo ?e ?ce? ??????
– 2–8 °N. A y?o ???yo ????? ????a ????? e ???a ??e ? ?????.I??a ????e e
??an ???? ????e ?????e ???, e ?? ???a ??? ?atho aepie??? ???e. E???
????a ??? a ???i ?? ???tho e ??atho, ????y ? ?ey ???ny ? ???, e
????th?any ???? ?? a ???yo ?y ???ey ??????o ????a ?i ????? ??i.

3.I????

?? I????? (Penicillium) ????y e ??y?o ?????a (Hyphomycetales) ? ???
????a?? ??? (Deuteromycota). A?????a ??????a y?o ??? – ??a, ?e ??i
?????th?y ? ??o ??? ?????, ???i ??c? ??????i ??????y.

A? a XV–XVI ?. a ???? ???? ?e ???e ???o ?i ??????? ???y ???ue. A 1928 a.
????? ?????a A???? O??? ???e, ?i ?????, n???i ???? a ???? ??????,
?e??ueth ???e ?? ????. Y? ??th??y O???a ??e a ??? ??ey ? ????a (?????a
??o ????? ??? ???????a). A ???? ?????? ????? ?????a ?????oth ?? ??a?
E.I???, E.E. I???a.

I???????a ???? ???e ???e ?????i ??? ????i – ??????, ??ey?? y?i ??? a
???ath?th ??o. A 1940 a. ????? ?e ???i a ??? ?? ?????e ??????y? A.O?? e
Y.*??i, a a 1942 a., ????? ? ?o, ????? ???e C.A. A????e e O.E. A????. Ai
??y ??? ???e ??u ????? ?? ??e ??i ?ny/ ???o. N?? ? ????? ?e ?e ??e, ?i
?i ?????? ?????ue n ????? ????a ??? a 1942 a. aei 700 ?? ??? a 1945 a.

I????i ???ytho ?e ????e, ??e?, ?????? ?????yo ??, ???, ?a???a, ????,
?????, ????, ???? e ??? ?????yo, ????o ????ae????e ???ey?.

I???a ?????a ???? ??? ??? ??o ?????? e ????? ? ?e??ey. N ????i ??????
?y??? ?????ue ????i ???y ??e a?o ?????? ?????e, ????? ????e.

Ii ???a ???e ???i ???yth?y ? ??? a ????. A??? ???? ?atho ????u ??
P.roqueforti. A ???a ?e ??atho a ??a. Iu ??? ???u n ?? ? ??? ??a,
?????oth??y «?????ueth»: «????, ???e ???? y?y?ny O??ey, ?? «A????? ?
N???e E??e, ?? «N??? ? A??e e ae?. A?i y?i ??i ?????u ??ay ????a,
??????e «?????? ?ae (???? e iy?a ?????-???? ??a) e ??a???e ???.
P.roqueforti ??a?ny a ??i ????? ????a, ???o ???a ?????? ?????i ??.

I? ??????e iy?? ?????o ??a «E????, «A?» e ????o ??? ?i??oth?y
P.camamberti e P.caseicolum, ???a ???tho ia ?????e ?? ?????e ??e «?????
??o. ?ae ?????? ????a y?o ??? ?? ?????o ????, ??y????, ??????a ?? e ???.

4.A????u

A????u, ?e ? ?e e ????u, ??ny?y e ??? ?????i? ???. A?????a ? ??????a –
???a ????u ??, ???? a th?? ???o, ?a ? ?? ??i ?????tho ? ????o ?????,
???i ???i ??????i ??????y. A????? ????e??e y?? ?? – ????u, ? ???ath?y e
on??? ???? ???? e ????, ???a, ????, o eth?e n ?????i ?????i ??o ????
?a???ey – ??????.A?? ??a A.flavus e A.oryzae – ???a ????? ????? ????o
???, ????th??y ? ??a e ???o, ???i ???i ? ??, ???, ??? ??o, ???a. I?
????otho ????: ???u, ???, ?????, ????u, ??th?? e ae?. E??i ?y?? A.oryzae
e ?????a ?o ?? ????th?y ? A??? ?y ???o ??e a ???a ??? ????. N???ay
??????? ss??e e ??? ??i A???, a ???o ?y ?????ey ???e ?ae? ?ey ????y ???a
????ue ???e ??, ???i ???? ? ??????? ????o ??? y?e ???. O?????e ??? ??
«nyth», ??i-???e ?? «?ii? (A???), ???y ???? ? ??? ??? ??a «??» (ss??y,
E??, O????) e ??? ???? ???y ?a????tho n ??????? ?????a.O??? ????? a
??????e ???? ?????ue A.niger e ??? ??a y?e ??? e ??c??eth ????, ????e,
?th???e, ?i??? ???. E?? ?????? ??? ?????, e a ????e A.niger, cioco?u
ce?e?poaa? ????: ???, ???, ????? e ?. Y? ? ???? ???o ?????? ?????.

O??? 1. N???a ???

????????a ??????????a ?????????u????a ?????y ??a ???a ???atho ???i
???uey???o ???, y??o???y?ny a ?????, ?????e????u??a ????a ???yi??iyth?y
a ??????o ??????, ??a???????? (???e ??)???yth?y a ??????o ??a, ???, ?ey

A?a-??? ??e a ??a y??y

ss??ue ?????, ?e ???e ??? ??? ??ue??e ??y-????, ????, n ??th ?i ???

I???a ???a ? ?????i ?????? A????a (Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin) ?ae
?????? A????a O??a (Alexander Schmidt) ????? a ???a ? th?-??? O??? ??e
y??y, a ???i ????ny, ????????, ??? ?? ????i ??i 100 ????a ?o e ???e
???ae.

I??? ??? ????? ???: ???i? ??a ??? ?? ?e ?? 15-20 ????a ?o ? ??. Ii ? ???
y? ???i ???????. I??i ??? ?e? ???atho a ??a, e o ?o ??? ???e ?? ??
“??????e” a y??a (y?yth??y ????? ????e ???). O??ue ???a ??th?y, ?i ???
y???y? ?? ???i ?iy??, ?e y?eth?????e y? ???? ????.

N????? ??? ??u ??i ?ayo a ?? ??? “??” e e??a (????ath?a ???i ??i) ??ue
????o ??? ???ae, ???a ??th?y ? ? ???i??. E?? ??ue ???o, ??e ??a ?i??atho
a ?? e ?????tho.

I?a ???i ?????, ?e ??? ?e? ??iy?? a ???a ?? ??e ???e, a e??? y? ?????e
????ii. O ??? ????otho ??? ?e ???ia, ?y??, ??a ?e ???tho, ??? ? ????y.
E??i ?y?? ?y ??????? ?e ??a y? ???a.

O? ?e ????e ?? ???? ??ie ?, ?e e ?????a ??????e, ??y? (??i 10 ?????a a
????), oi ???e ??tho ??ae, ?i ???? ??a? ????a ?? ?????i ?? ???i ??????yi
??? ???.

O??a ??u e ??i ???i

A? ??a-?? ????y a ?? ???? ??????? A ?????? ???e ??y? ???? ? ????

I?? O?? ?a ????i. E??a ??u – ??ae i??e. Ae?a ???th??y ???? ??? ???? ????
? ? ?? ???? ? n????y. N?? ?? ? ??? ?ey?a, c??e ????o. A??yo, ?? ?i ??ue
ethayo. A ???ay ???y ???a ?? ????? ? ???, ? eth?e ????y ???? ????y, a
??? ?? ??ny. E ? ?? ?, a ??, ?i ? o???? ??? ???.

E ?a-?? ?e ????tho, y? ???? ??? a??, ??ue ????a ? ???? ?? ?? ??.

N??? ? y??a ?y??y ?y?? ??y?e. I????? ?????e ???e, ? ??? ??? a ????,
????y, ??? ???y. Ii ?o a ?? ??a ???? ??a-? ???? ??. I? ????, ? ??i ??? e
??y?o. Io ??e ???? ????, ?????? a ?th?e e i??. A? ?a ??? ??y?a ???a ??y
??. Ii ?a ???ny ?????ny, ??y?i ??ny, ? ??? e ??e ??ath?y ?a ??. E??.

O?, ??e ???i ??? ??? ?? ??? i ??? ??? ? A??th?? ?????e «I?e ????????y
?e???????e ??? n ???? ????? e ???y? ????» ??? ?i????? ?? I?? A????
I???a.

OENONIAss OA?EOeA E Ae?OAEA

A??iy ???, ???ay o??a – ???? ?????. AE?? ?? a ?????i ???, ??? ? ???.
E?????? ethayo ?????? ? ?e ????e ???? ?y ??? ???. Aeey y?? ??a??i ???ue
???i ??? a ?????e ????. Ii ? ??? ? ??????? ??uey e ??? ? ??? ???ae, ?e
???o ???.

O?o, ??u ?iy ?iy? ????i. A?? ? ???th? ???ue ?? ? ?? y?o ??n, ? ??o ???
??e ??????? a ???a ???? e ???th?e ?? ??? ????o ? ??o ??a. I??a ?i
??????e ??? ??y?y a ????? ???o C??, ??? a ??ue ???? ???yo, ??y ?????
??ae a ????? ???a a ???a. Y? ?n???, ????a ??? ?? e ??. I?a?? ??i ???ae
??o a ??a.

Ii ?? ??e ?o ??, ?? e ?? ??a ??y?, ????? ? ????th ???o ???????i ??????y.
Iae? ??eyth?y a ??yo ????, ??? ???yth?y a ???? ???? e ??o ? ?? ?cy?a.

A??? ?????ae, ???o a ??yo ????. ???a ???? ????y e ??? ??a ????? ?o
?????? ?????e «????th ???. E?ue a ??i ?? ?? ???i, ?i ???? ????. Aae???a
??? ???e ?????y????e ????e ? ?o ?i? 12 %. A ???? ????e ?y 20 ???? ????
y? 77 ????? ????. E ? ii???a, ?i ?eay ?? ??? a ?c??th??y ???o n ????
????e?e. O?, a NOA ???i??u ???ytho ????e ??? a 5-8 ????ia ?e??a. E ?y??
??? ? ????th n 1967 ??i ???u ? ???? ?????ae ???? a NOA a ai?? ?c.

Y? ????a ??y?e ??yo ? ?eyo, a ???? e ????. I????, ??? e ???? ??atho ?e
????? ??i?a ????, ???th?a ???y ? ??iyo.

AA*IUE AIE

Aeey ??? n ????? a ???? ??o ????atho e ??yo y????o – ??e-?? ????ae, ????
???o ?e ????n. Aeey ????e ???e ????th o ?n ???? ??? ?? ????ae – ?a?i 40
%. A? ????otho ??i??i ???ue a ??o (????i ?????y ? ?e y?i ? ???o ????i
?iy). I?e ???i ????e ????e ????? ??i??y ?iy? ?th ??th a ???a.

*?? ????ny ? ???ae ? ?eyo, ?????u ???a ???ytho ?????a e???. I????, ??a
5-7 ?o ?????? ????y ????tho eth?i ?e ??? ???a. Ca??? ??a, ?i ???ae
????tho ????a ???ey, ???? ??? e ????u.

I??i ???i ?????ey ??u y? ?? ? ?tho.

A??a ??? ? ??????a, ? ?o???a ??a. I??ay n ????y?o ??a a ??? ???o ????
??i ??e??o e ????i ??? ????y. Oau, ???i ? ??? ???ath?y ????? ? ??? ?y
???ae, ? e ?y ?n. O? ?????, ????, n ??? I?a, ????? E???? IEE ???a?y
????i n A??th?? IEE ???i???e ?. E. E. N?yae?. ???????e a Ee?a, A????e e
????? ???yo ?NON?, ? ? ???o ??a ?-? ??? ???? ???a.

E ??? n ????? ??eth??? e ??ay ????y. I??? ??i ?a ??e???a ??u, «I???» e
«I????, ???a? ????? i ???? ??, ????a??i ? ????o ???a ???? Bacillus
turyngiensis a ???ey ?e, ?????a, ???a e ????y. Y?o ??? ???o ?????ae.
I??atho, ?i ???ey ??i ???i ??o ?? ?ay ????.

I??o ? ?e ??? ??? n ??????

Ae?i a ?i, ?i ? ??? ?? y?eth?e ???? ???? ??ue ????a ??? – ?????ue ??????
??u. Oe?? – y? ??ay ??a, ???y ??i??. Y??e ???e ???e. A????y ??e ???e
????, ??a ???? ????? ?a ???? – e ??????, e ????? ????e ??u. Oe?? ??o
????y a ??a ?ny??e ?o. A ??? ??y – ???e ??? ? ?a e ???ny ? ??. Ii ???ny
e ??? ???.

O?AOUeA OeA?NOAI

E?e E??e, ????ue ?????e ?a?i, ??n ??u e ???o ????. O ?? ?? ?y y?? ???
????y. E? e o ????, ??? ??? ??ae?u ????e ? ????e, e, ???e E??e, ??u, a
???a ? ????, ????? e ????o ?e??th.

I??i a ?? ?e ?????u a??ytho ??u a ????a, ???? ? ?n??e e ???? ??? ???i.
*?? ?ae? a ?i ???i. I??a ? ?o ? ????th e ethaeyi ????u ????i: ?c?atho
???e ????. Ia ??tho ?e e ????, e ???ey, ??yo ??, ????o, ??oe? e ???
????u. Ii ?? ??e ??? ??a, ?? ? n ??? ??? ??i ???? ??uey?. N??e ?o e ??e
??i ????. A????e ??? E. E. Ae????i ?e e ????e ?ith ??o i ?o: «O??a ??u –
?o?y ????».

A ??a ?e ????otho ? ?e ? ??i, n ????y?o ??a ???? ??. E??i ??a ????e ???e
???a e ?????a, ????? ? ??? e ???yi ???? I??e N????/ A???, ???oy ?ae
?????i ????e ?? Arthrobotrys oligospora, ????i i??e e ????e ??i ?a ?
???? ?th/?, ??e e ???, a ???? ???th??y ? ?oyo e ??? ??a. O?, ? ????? ???
?? ????? ????.

E?ue a 80-o ??o ?? ? XIX ?? A???? Oe?o, ????? ?????? a Aa?a, ????e, ?i
???? ?????y ? ?i ??, ?e ??ey ??u! E??a ??e, ??? e ?th?e ??u ??? ?e?i ?y
??, ??u ????y ? ???ae, ????aey?o ? ??e e ????e.

IAEOAOAEE O?OOEssAUO IIAE

E?????y a NOA, A??????e e O???, a ???y n 1946 ?? e a ??e ???, ????, ?i a
???a ??? ?e? ?ith? ? ????. I????, ?e ?th? ???ath?y a ??a, ???? e o??y?o
?yo – ???, ?i, ?a ????? ????? ?????? ????.

E? e ??? ????a ?? ?n?a ?e?, ???e ??iyo ? ??? ???o ??e – ??a, ???th?o
????, ?e ???e. Ii ???? ?e, ???a ? a ???a ???? ???e, o ?o ?o. ???i?th?y
???th?? ??? ??u ???e, ???oth??ny ? ??? ??a. I?a??? ? ??i n ???th ?????.

I?ay? ??????e ????e, ?u?a a?? ???ytho ?? ?ith ???? ??e. Ae??a ??y ??i ?
??, ?e ? ???y ???y?ny ? ??? ????. A????? ??????y, ??i ??? ??u ????u
????? ???i – ??eytho ?????e, ???u e ??? ?????? ???? a???a. E ???e???,
??a ??? ?? o ?o ???i. Ii ??a a ??? ?i ???? ? ???ae, ??? ? ????a 20 %.

A??????? ??? ?ae ????o?i I. A. I???ie – ???a ???c i ?????? – ?y ???ey
?????i ???a ??? ??? ????e ??ae ?????? ??????e. I????, ?i a ? ????? ????
?? ??i ?????a a ?? ????, ???a ???otho ?e ????? yaeu. A?a ??oi? ??u?th?y
a ??? ?? ??a, ? ?????e ??oe ??eyth?y ???? ?ay ??a ???a, ?i?i ????th?a
???, ?e ?? ? ??ie ???.

??????? ??? a E????? AIEE ??????o ???a ??? ???? ???e ??ue ???a, ii
????th n ???, ????? a ??? ???o ??y, o??? e ???? ???y. E?ey e ???a ?? ???
a 15 ?c, a ???y – a 40. A ?? ???e ??ue ??i ???? ?e ???? ????eyo – ? ????
a ?ycue n ??? ?????. A ?c ?e, ? ? ??? ? ??? ??u ??i ???? ??o ???? ???? e
???? ?????

EAI?ECIUA IOIOIEEE

E?y ?y? ??? ??u ?y ????a?? ??? n ????? ?y??? ?a a 30-a ?? ??? ??. I?
???? ?i???e: ?? a ??i ???y??e ?y??? ? ????, a ???a, ????? ????? ????a
???? ?????y ???ae ? ??? ? ?eyo, ? e a ?????? e ?? a ????.

I??a ??u ?? ????u ?????? ??ae ??? ???e ??? ? A???eo ????, ?a ???? ???
??yo ????? ????yi. A??? ??? ???y? ???, ?? ? ???e ??? ??u.

I?? ?????? ?????a ??? ? E???? I??? ????? ?????? o??a ??u ??? ???ae,
???th?o ???e, e ???ae, ?????th?o a ????a ?? e ???e.

O?, ?a a y?o ??? ??? ??? ??u ???? ?? ????e ??. *?? ?c ???o ??? ?e ???c
?????? ????y ? ???ae e ???????nue ??? ????????. E?? ?? ???i?i ???y, ???
??u ?i???? n?e ??, ???e ??? ??? e ?th?e e ?????ue ???e ???????. E ?a
?…

IA?ACEOU IA IIAeAAAeOO

O??a AIEE ??????? ?????e?? ? ??? e ??? ???? ??a?o, n?? ??? ???a. A?ue ?
??o ??, ??u ??e ??? ??? ? ???ue ??iy?o ????a, ? ??th?o ???????ny ???
????????. A????? ?y y?? ???a. Ec ?? ????o ??a 87 ??a ??? ??? a ??e ???
???o ?? ? ???? – 41 ?ae.

A? a 60-o ??o A. A. O???e e I. A. I???/ ???i ???? ????o?i ??? ???ue ????
????, ??i ?? ??? Arthrobotrys oligospora, ???e ????? ?a A???. I? ?????
?i AAIA — 2461D. A a 1982 ?? O. A. O?ey?? ???? a I?????? ???e ? ??u ???
???? ??i, ?????? AEIA-3062.

Ia ??? y?o ???a ??? ???u ?a ????a ??? ??? ?y ??? n ????? a ????. Y? ????
e??e – n 1 y??y 1990 a. ??????? A??i? ???????? ?????i ??a NNN? ?????
????e a ???? ????u.

A??? ???? ? ??? ???i ??? ????tho a ?????e ? ????i-???? ???? n ????i ?y!
??a ?u?o ??? ?????? ?th??, ????th?c?? ????a e ??a ??a. E?i ?????tho ?? ?
?????a – ???? ?????e ???i ??i? ??? ????e ?o.

I???o ? ??? ???i ??? ?eo?tho ??y ????e – ??????i e ????-??????i. N????i
??ue ??? ??ue ??a n ???e e ?????e. I?? ?y? e ?????oth ??o.

A??? ????u ??yo a ??o ? e ??a ???e ???u.

A ????yo a 1989 a. a ?????? ????i ????a «A?ay ??» ??i ???ae a ???eyo ??i
??a, a ???e a i?? ??a e ???. I???a ??ay ????a ? 1 ? ? ????? ??. I??, ??o
???e.

A 1988 a. ????u ??? ??? y??????? a *?i-N???e ? ????o «E??n-88» e «N????
??????», a ? AAeIO a ?i ? ?? ?? ????u ???e ???.

N??n ??i ???? i ????o ?a?yo ?????y ??????i ????? ????y ?????? ??? ??? ?
?????ie ??a. E ?y y? ????, ??y?i, ??o ?eth?? a ???th?oth ????o «Y???y».

I?a y?????? ????? ??cy ???ue ?????e – ???? ???? ???aeath?y ??ue ???, e
?????, ??u ? ??i ? ??? 98 %. Ii ???o ?a ??i. N??a ??i ??? ??? ??u ???o
?i ????ny n ???e?? ??????e ?????, ?eth?i?? a ?????? ??? ?????o ????.

N??n ???? ????a ??? ???ae?ey ???????e ????o ? ?a??o i?????-AE ?y ??? n
????? a c????i ???. C??u i ?i ?????? ?y? ? ?ay A??thc?a ??????i?-???a
?????a «Nith??????y». Ia ?? ??? ?y ???a.

I? ? ???ny ???ue: ?? ?? – ???.

O??u

Ia ??? ????, ? e ??u ??y ? ???e ??tho a ??e ???a ?????oth ??. A ????
??e?i ?? ????a ????? ???e ??, i ???i ?e ?? ? ???e, — ?? ????a. Ec ???o
????a ???iey ??? ???? ???? ??th???? ?????i, ?a o ?? ????a ????ue ???eye
70% ???a. Ae? ?? ????a ???yea ????a ?c ??o?? e ??a a ??? ???, ?i ?a ?
??e ? ?th ???th, — ??a ???? ???e. A? ???a ???? ???e n ?ey ??e a A???.
Oa, ?i ???y, ????i ?o ?? ? ????e ????a. I??? a Ae??? ??? ??????y ?????y,
i?ay??ay 150-??th ?????? ??a?e. E??y ??? ??th??ny a ?i, ?i ?????a e ???e
o ???? ??a-? ? ??. I? ?????? ????? ??? ? ??yo ???? ?y??? ???a ?????ey, a
?e a ?? y?eth?e ????? ???a??? a ????, ???? e o.ae. O? ?i ? ?eyo E???e
????a ???a n ?????e ???e. Eth? ????ue ????? ????.

E???e ????, ?i ??? ??? a?i a ??????e A??a ????i n ???? ?????i ????e —
???, ???th?i ??a ?e. A??a ????ny ??ay, ???e — ?? e ????o ???????? ????.
I?? ???a, ? ??eth ????? IAO TH?y Aeuey??, ????? ??? a ???e. Ii ? ?? ???i
??a — ????a. A? a ????a ?? ????? A?? N???a ???e, ?i ? ??eya?o ?????
???? ??o ??? ???ue ??a. Ii ???? e ????? ????e??e ??a, ? ?i ? ?? ???tho
«???», ????? ?y ????, e n ???e o ?o ?a a ??y?a. I???e ??? e o ?n, ii ???
o e??ueyi ? y? ?o ??a. A ????? ?? ??i ???????e ??? ?????. E??a ?i ??cy
?????? ?? ? ??o — ??? ??? ??u ? ??y?e. Ii ? ?y?e ??? ???ny ???a. O?y
?iy????? ?? e y???a ? ?ii???, ?a ? ? ??? ?? ??a, ?????? ???? ????e. A?
???, ???o ????? Aeuey?a, ???a e ??????ue ????o ?o. Ae??????, aeyaey a
?????e ? ????a, ???? ????y ????, ???a ?e, ?i ?, ?????

NUAOUe Ae?OAA!

A??u a ???e ?????ue a ??? ?o, ?i ??o ?? ????i, ?e a ??? n???. A ?i, ??o
???, ??? ???e?y ????? ?????a ???. A? ?: a ????? iy? — 4100 ???e, a a
????? ??? — 300 — 500. Eae ?c ?, ?i ?? ?e ??e ?????e ?????? ????.
Iethn ?????? ??. Iethn ???????i? ??o. N ???th ????o ???, ????? ????
«???», ?????? ???i ?a ????o ????, ?c ???o ???ea ?????e ?? ? ??? ????i,
— ?? e ???o (??o, ?? e ??), ????i ???th??y ?e ?? n ???, ?e e n ???i
???i ??.

I??a, ????a ????e ??aeyo o ??? e ??n: ???i ?????th?y, oy??y, ?e, ??.
Ae??a ?????i a??aeatho: ?e ? ???i ?, ?i ?????y ??i? N??, ????. I??i ? ??
??????? ?e ??e e ????.

E??? a ??? ??, ?? ????a ??i: e A, e N, e Ae, e ????? A, ?????o ? ???a,
?c ???o ????? ??i ?????, ??? e???y — ??e 1,5% ??u. Io ?????? ???o ??y,
???y, ???, ???a, ??a ? ??o y???, ?e ?th??e, ???o, ??i. E?o ? ? ???y ??ue
????i, ?e ??i? Iiy?? a ????a ?? a ?? ????e ??a ?????? ???. A??a ??
????tho ???u: ?ny?e ??????o ??e???i ??a ? ????o ?ey?e. O?o o ???? ?
???i, ?, ? ???i ye???a, ????yo ?e ??e ? ??? 500 ?ny/ ?? a ?ae. I??i ????
e ??o ??a e ????, ???a ?a???? ? ???? A??a. A ????i i?a 95% ?????? ??? —
?????, a a 5% ????y ??? ?ny?e ??a. NOA 362 ?ny? ?? ????tho ??, ? ?a
????? a?cyo ?-? ???e. I??y a ???th n ?? ?? ?e ???: A???ey — 236 ?ny/
??, O??ey — 178 e E??y — 132 ?ny/e ??. O ???e ??? ??? ???y ????ny ???,
?????th?e ? ???a ???a ???a, a ???? ?y??? ?ey?ino?. Iiy?? a 1994 ?? ?
??n?? 2483 ??u, ?? a ??oth?i — ?a 3179.

«N??? ??? ?e ? ???, — ???yo ? ??????o ????? y????u ?? ?a, ????? ??a. —
A ????? ??o ???i ??o ???, ?i ????? ???ue 5%, ??u ???? ?e ?a ??e ??».
I???ay ??ey. Ia ????u ??? ? ???, a ??u. N??? ? ?a-?a?ue a ??? ????e ??a
e ???? a A??o ???y?i ???. Ae??? ???e?. I????? e ?, ?i ????? — y?????e
??ua. I???a ????ey ???e ???e a I????? ???? ?i??? A ???? ???o ??i ?a ??a
??u a ?? ? ????ytho

EIAANOEOeEE EIINEEI IAAICII. I? ?? — A???

A????y ????? NOA ?? ??? ???e iy???e, ?y??e? e 2010 ?? ?????? ??? ???ue.
I???? i????a ????????? ???ey?. A????u ??? ????ue ????a ??????a ??ua ?e e
???yo ??a ?ny??e ?????y ???.

A ? ???i ? ???e ? ??? ????????i ??ae??yi, ???, ?i ?? ? ?atho, ?i ??a
??u. A?a o ?n ???a ? ???????y, ???a????? ??? ? ????. A???? ? (a a ???e
?a 70 ??????? ?cy?? ??? iy? ????? ???e) ?i ? ??a ?????? a ????eth. ????
???????i ????a ????? A????a O??? e ?i ??? ????tho: ????? ????ue 3 ??o
???o ????? ?? e ???????? 7 ??? — e a 2000 ?? ???y ????o ????eth 30 ?ny/
?? ???. A ?ny? ?c ??oa, ?i ???.

A ???? ???e ????y a ???? ???? — ????a, a ???i ??u ??o e ??y?y. E???a ?
?? ???, ?i ?? ????? e… ???. E ?? ??? — ?a ???. Ii ?????? ???i?e a
???o ?y ?????a, ?i???, ???o ??? ???e ??c, ? ??? a ??e ??? — ?ae ???th?e
e ?e?a ???o a E??oth ??o ???e ??? ? ??? «y????. ???? ??? ???y?y e ???a,
e ??a. O? ?i, ?n?? ????u, ??? ??? ????? ???i. O?????, ? ?e ??i ????i
???? ??i ??? ????? ????i ???ue ??y? ????eth ??????y ?i??a ? ???ue, ????,
?????i ????a. N????? ????? ??u «A?????? ???? ?y y?? ???i ??ue ?ea????,
?i ???eth ? ?i ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????i ?cy??a — ????u. O ?o ???o ??ee
?e ???, a ???a ???a ??? ??e ? a ??, ???y ???? a ?ay? ?c ????????. I? y?i
???i? ????y ? a ?ith?i ????e, a ???e e ???y? ????i n ?????i ???. A????i
?????? ???a??ue n ????? ? ?? ??i ?y ??????y ????e ??e. A???? e ?o
??????ue, ? ????y?.

I ???

I????? e XXI ?? ?????a ??? ? ?????-??????? ?????e ?a?e ??i- e ??????, ?
??o, ?????th, ???eth (??- e ?????), ? ??? a ??i, ? y???e ??? e y??????
???a ??e ??e ?y ????y ???????? ????y i???? ??????? ????u e ????th?o
????????o ?? ?y ?o.

O??i ????, ?i ?? E?e E??e (1707-1778) ??n ??u e ???? e ???o ????, ???a ?
a ??? «I??a ???ey»[1], ???y e ??? «?????» a ???o i??o ????a, ??????a e,
a ?i ??a, ????a. A??? ????? ??a ????e ??????th ??????, ???? ???e ??? ??i
???? ???? ??, ??? ??i – ???? ??.

????? ??????? ??? (?e e ??? ??i??a), ?????? ??? ?e ?????e ??????? ???? e
?????? ??? ?????, e ?a ????i ?e ??i ??i, ??a ?e ??a ??i ????, ?????
?????? e ?????? ???u. I??i ???? ????? ?????? ii? ? ???y. Ec i?? 800 ????
??ue ?????o ??a ??? ??i 150-200 ???ath?y ??a ?????, a eo ???ey ???y?y
?????.

A??????? ??? a ???a ???? ????? ?????? – ? ????i ?????? [2] ???? ??i 1,5
?i., ? ???o ???i ?? ??y?a 4% [3].

N????e ??y? ?????e y?yth?y i?????a, ????ey e ??????y, ? ?o ????ey
????ey? ??e ??o i e??????, ? ???, ?i ???????? ???u ? ?? ??? ?o?? e ???e
e ?????? ????yi – ???? (a??, ??i, ????? e o.ae.). I?????a ??? – ?????a
I??????i E?a ????n?e ?????? e ?????y ? ??? I?????? A?????i E???? [4].
I???? ? ???e oa?e E???n ??iyeny a 1999 a. Eth?a ?????y ? ????th E?a
???otho a ???e «Taxon», ?n??th?y e ???ath?y/???ath?y ?????? ? ???????
??? A?????? E????; ? E???? ? ???atho E??? ? ??? (Nimmittee for Fungi –
?????i CF), a e??? ??i ???? ???????? ??? ? ?????oth?a ???u. E? ????? ?
??????a ??? ??????i ???? (???) ???ey ???????o ??i, ? ???ay e ???ay ??a
???ey, ???a ?a? ?????? ???????ue ?e ???, ?e, ???oe, ?????? ??o i ?????a
e ???o ?????th.

Ec ??? ???i e ??/ a ??n? ?????e ???????a ? ???????y ? ?????? (??????)
???????i ????? c???o ?????? e ?c???o ?e ?????e a ??? I?????i? E?a ??????
??????.

A E? ?eth?? 6 ????a, 62 ??? – ?a???ey, ? ????a ?????? e ???i? ????ey. E?
???y? ????? ?y eth?? ???a ?i?a ????? ??a?y, ????o ?e ??o ?? ?????? ?e ?i
????? ?eth??e a ?????oth?th ????????th ??o.

I?? ??y?y ???y ? ????? ??a a E?a ??????u ???a ????e ?? ???ey, ???a ???
?? ????i ? ????. E??e ??? a ??o ???e e ??a ??o ??ue ??? ?? ??????i ?????
????, ?e ??? ???? ???? ???atho 5 ??othu? ????:

1. ????a ????? y?????, ?? ?o ??????e a ????? ????ee ????;

2. ???ue ????eth ?e ?ath?th ??; ?e y?i ??a ?o ??????e a ?e???i ?????
????;

3. ????? ?????e; ???ey ??o ?? ??th?? a ?? ? ??????? ae??i ??? (?e ?????
???ey ?e ????);

4. ??? ????? ????, ????o a ??? ?e ????;

5. ??? ??????? ????, ????o a ??? a ???? ????a.

*?? ???? ????eth i ???eyo y?????, ????? ?????? ? a ae???, ??a e ???e ?
????e ?e, ? ???e ??, ? ?????? ????? a ??y?a ???, ???e ?e i?c??a.

*?? ???? ????eth ?????e, ???ey ??ue ?????o ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??oth?i
????eyi: ??ue ????oth ??o, ?? ????? ? ????i y?? (? ????), ?? ??y?ie ???
???? e ???????ue eth?i ???y?i ?????i ??????yi, ?????ny a E?a; ??ue ???
?????a ??a (????e) n ????i ???a e ??a ?i ?????e, ?? ?????????i. C?????
???ey ??? ?? ?????? ???e ????????? ??ey? n ????i ??a ????? e ??????
?i????i ???ey ?e ????a (????, ????), ? ?? ?y- ?e y??????i ???a, ia ???i
?????ny ??e ???n ?e ??y ????ey. Ia ??????? ??a?y (nomen invalidum) ?
???ath?y.

Nay? ???i ???ey n ??????? ??i y?y?ny ???? ????i ?????? a ????? ????. A?
??e – ? ????a e ?? ????? ?c?oth?y ? ??e ????e; ????, Cryptococcaceae – ?
Cryptococcus – ? C. neoformans a ??e ????e.

O??? ???u ???? ??? ???y?ny a ??????e ? ???? ??iy?e (i????, ????i-?????e,
a ??? ??a) ?e a ?? ?e??????; ???i ???? ???? ? ???ath?y. A?e ???oe ? ??o
?? ?????i, ? ????i ?i ?????a ?e ????. A ???, ??a ???y ????y ?????y
????e, ? ?? ??ue ? ??? ?? ???ia a ???? ????a (? ?? ??u, ????? a ????e
??? n ?????? ?????, a ???i ? ?e ????i ???i; ??o? – y? ????e y???,
??????? ???i a ???? ???? ?y ??? ???ey, ????, ???e ?? o ??????? ??
Rhodotorula).

Ae?????? ??????? ???ey, ? ?????oth?a ?????? ????yi E?a, y?yth?y ?????e
(nomen illegitimate) e ?e ??? ?? i????u; ???u: a) ???? ?a ?? ?????? ??a,
a) ???ey ?????u, ??a ??a n??u ? ???eth, ? ???? ii ???eth (???? ?????
bare – ??e e bear – ???ue [‘b??] e [b??] ?e ????a annus – ?ae e anus –
???).

I??????ue ????? ???ey? ???o?a ???? ???a. E????a ???? ?aea (? ?? ???? a
?????? n ????ey? E?a) – y? ?? ????ey ??? ???i ?????i y??? a ?i ? ??a a
?????? n ???i ????i. Y? ??i ????, ?? ?????? (???a) ????a ?e ?? ??iy?ny,
? ?? ?ae ??o ??ue ai??, ?i ?? ????? ???? ???? ????i ??????yi. A?? n
?????i n??y?? a ? ????i ??a ????atho ????a ???ey. E????a ???? ????? ??
???? ?????.

O??u a ???i ????e ??e I?ae????? E?a ?????? ??????. I?iy?a ??e a ???????
???? i????yth?y ??oth?i ???i [5-7]:

Ae?? (I????i – I.A.) ………………………………Eukaryota

Oe???
………………………………………………………….Fungi

I????i ……………………………………………………*

O??
(I??)………………………………………………..Basidiomyco
ta

N???i
(I???e)……………………………………..Basidiomycotina*

E?nn…………………………………………………………..
….Basidiomycetes

I???n…………………………………………………………
– tide *

I?y?e………………………………………………………….
.Tremellales

Ustilaginales e ?.**

I???y?e……………………………………………………. –
ineae*

N????……………………………………………………….Cry
ptococcaceae***

I?????i…………………………………………………. –
oideae*

O??……………………………………………………………
… – ieae *

N???a…………………………………………………………
– inae *

??…………………………………………………………….
……Cryptococcus

I??ae………………………………………………………….
.. Cryptococcus*

N??y…………………………………………………………..
..*

I???ey……………………………………………………….*

N?ey…………………………………………………………..
….*

I???y…………………………………………………………*

A?…………………………………………………………….
……Cryptococcus neoformans

I??ae………………………………………………………….
…*

A???…………………………………………………………..
.Cryptococcus neoformansvar.neoformans

I????o………………………………………………………*

O??……………………………………………………………
…*

I???a…………………………………………………………*

N????ay ??a…………………………………………..*

Oe??????y ??……………………………………….*

I????y: * ? ?y???? ?y ????? ?????a

** ??????a ?????? ????????

*** ?y ????? ??????

I????? ??????a ?y? ???? ??????e ????? ????, ????? ?e ?????? e ?????e
????e, ??????? «???? ????eth» ?y? ????, ????? ? ????? ????o ????e a
?????a ???, ????? e a ????????o ???. Y?, a ????e, ??aony e ??????.

A???? (Wittaker, 1969)[8] ???e ??u a ???iy???a ???i, ?oy e ??a ??? ???a
????? ???ue ? ? ??a. I???i, ??????y ?????y ?????ey ?????ue ????th?e a
??y?e ????i ???y ??o???i ??????. I?a ????a ?????, e Regnum (Oe???) Fungi
?????i ?iy? ???th?a a? ??i ??e ??? Oe??a. A?? – ??a?? ???? e Protozoa,
???i Oe??? Chromista, ?eth?th?a ????????, ???i????? e ????; ??????a,
????????, ????????a e ??????a a?? ???? e Oe??? Fungi .

N?????? ?????y ??? «I??a ???ey» a Oe??? ???? ????? ? ??????e e ????????.
Y? ????ue?a ????a a ????e ? ??i ???? ????y a ????eyo, ????o, ???o e
???-?????? ????eyo a ??? e a ?y? ????? ??i.

A ???a 15 ?o a ?????yo ? ????yo ???o ???a, a ??eyo, ???uo ????i ????yi
?????, a i????yo [9-13] ? ??????e ???e ?????a??ue ??????oth ?????eth, e,
??? a??, ??????i e ?????e ????e. I???aeyo ????a ???? a y?i ????i? ??e
???o e ??? ????a, ??ei y?? ?? ?????ii. Iiy?? ??ay ????ey ???? ? ?????a
??a ???o ??? ?????? – ?????a?, ?eth?y ????a, ??? ????o ???????, ???? (a
?i ??a – ????a) e ??? e ??????th ???, ??????, ???-?????ie ???????
o?????e, ? ??aey ? ??e ????? I??????i E?a ? ??????. A ??? ??????y
??????o ????, ??o-?ai ?????e ? ????e ????, ???ey ???a «I???u ?????e
????? ?a??a ??in??? ?????ue ???i ?????? ??a ????u.

E?? ? ??????? ???u ????ii ???????? n ???i ?????? a ????e ????e? I?a ???
?yae ? ?o a ???a.

O???

I??????a ???u, ????? ??????e

I?a?? (Nomen)????? (obsoletus)??a (novum)
????????iA???????cA?????cA???????c A?????cA??????c A????cAe?????c
Ae???i??Ae????? Ae??????Ae?????c*Ae???C???? (!?) Y? ??o ??: A???c,
E?????c, I???, ????E?????c E???cE???? E???cE??ae??n E???cE?????? ??c
E?????cI????ey I?????I????c I?????N??o??c N?????cY?????ey Y??????Ec ???u
???o:

1. a ??????eyo, ???a?o ???? ??i ???” (?-?o. phyton – ????) ????? ??iy? ?
??i «???, ?? y? ? ?????? ???? ??????i ??; ?e, ??? ??a «?????? ???o ??oue
(????ue) «???????; ????? ??? ??e-? «??i??» ? «???? (?????, ?????u); ? ?
????i e e ??o «??? (?????? ??a ????), ??a ??? «??- e/?e ?????» ?????
?????ny ??????ey? «????a e/?e ?????», ? ?? ??i «??? ??iytho ??-????? ?
??i «???;

2. ??????? ????, ?????? ???e, ??? ??ue a ???eyo ????y «i? ?e «??, ????
?????c, ????, ?????c, ???? e o. ae., oi ?? ????y ???????i a ????o i???yo
??a ??? – ????a ??????th?y a ????y «?(?c)», ????, Aspergillus – A?????c,
Candida – E??ae?, Penicillium – I??e?e? e o. i.; ??ue ????u ??th??y ?
y?? ???a, ??a ????a «?(?c)» ???y?ny e ???? ???eth ????, ????ath??ny
????e ???, ????, Sporothrix – N?????c (??a a?i Sporothrichum – N?????);

3. ??? ???th??, ????i ????th?ai ??? ?????e, ??a «?????» ????? ??????
???? ?????i ?????y, ????, ????, ?????c e o. ae.; ?? ???y ??????? ????
???? ? ?????, ??a ???? ??????a ??a «?????;

4. ??????? ???n, ????? «ae???????, ????? ???? ??? e ????i, o ???o ???tho
????y a ???a ??????u; ?? ? ?? ??o i ??o, o ???o ?y??i ????a ??i??u,
???a??? ???e (????), ? ???o ???? (???) i «????».

A ????o ????? ????eyo [10, 14, 15] ????? ??? ????tho ??a ???u, ?e
«???????? e «???????; ??? ? ?o ? ?????, ??? – ??i-????? (??? ????a e ???
Dematiaceae). N?ae?o ?????ue, ?i a???? ??i hyalos – ??? e ????a hyalinum
– ??e???e ?? ?????otho ???? ???a a????? ??? – ?????? a ????o ia ?????o
???, ???a, ?? ?e ????i ??a, y?yth?y ??? (a ??i ? ???? e ??? ?i?-?????
??u ??a ???ath?y ??? ? ???a n???????y). Iiy?? ??a ??? e, ??i????, ??a
????? ??a ??u ????i ????ue «E????????» (? ??. e ?o. leukos – ??e).

O?????? , ?e ??i-????? ??u (Alternaria sp., Bipolaris sp., Exerohilum
sp., Fonsecaea sp., Exophiala sp., Phialophora sp., Phoma sp., Wangiella
sp., Xylohypha sp.) ??e ? ?? ???u ??????e ?e ??????e (?-?o. opacus e
fuscus – ???). N??????, ?e ??? ??? ???a ????? ??u?? ??? ?i ?????? ??????
?e??o, a ??a ???? e ???? ???i??y ???a ? ??? y??o. A y?i ??? ????
?????oth?i ????i ????i y?y?ny ??i «I???????». Iu ????ai, n ???i ?????
????? ?????e, ?????? a ???? ?o?yo ??? «I??(?i)?????», ???yy «?? ? ??, ?
???e (nomen provisorum) ?e ???i.

O?? ???i, ????a ???u a ?e?? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??a
???o e ?????? ?????, ????? e ??? (???? – ????? ????) a ??e ????????
?y????e. E?????? ???-?????? ???? ????y ??iyi?i ??e i ??i- e ????ao?.

O?th??

O?th?? (?i. Trueffel) — ???? ?? n ????? ??????e iy???e i???? ???. A?????
????y e ??y?o ?th???o (Tuberales). ???o a ??o ?e ????u ?e ???tho ???? n
??y? ????. I?i??a ???? ?? ? ???a ? ???o ????tho ???. I???a ?th?? ????.
I???a ??? — ?????e ???, e? ?????e ?th??. (Tuber brumale), ??ue ????e,
???e ???, ??????, ??? ??i-??e ?e ?????-??? ? ???? ??e??e.

Ae??e ?th?? y?y?ny ?????i. ???o a ???o e ???o ??o, ???i ???i a TH?? O???
e N???e E??e, ?a ? ??o a??? ?????? ????. E?? ?? ??a n ????i ?????????
???e ?e ???o ???. A?a, ?? a ?a ???? e ????? ?th??, ?????o ???n ???i ??a.
E??????ue ?th??, a ???e ? ?????a, ?e e ? ???ue. O?th?? ?? a ??o ??o ?e
??? ????? ????o ????o ??e e ???, ???th?o ?????? ??? ith?i. N???y??? ?ae
???e ??i ????? ?th??, ???a ?y??y ?ae ?i ??e. E????i ????? ?th??e ec ?? a
?ae ?????y.

Ae??a ?th??. A?? ????, ?e ????, O. (Choiromyces meand-rirormis) ??o ????
?? ? ???e iye?ueth, ???a ? ???? ?? e ???? ? ????ue; ???o a ??o C???e
A??u, O???, A???e, ?????y ?? a I????e ???e.

I???? ?th?? ??nyo e ??y?o i?????o — ?e ????? ???a ?th??., «?????
(Terfezia). N?? y?o ?th??e ??a ?? ????a, ? ?e ??a ??u. ???o a TH?? A??a,
N???e A??a, TH?-C???e A?e — a A?????a e a O??????. E??a e ?th?eyi ????
??nyo ?????a ?????? ??u ? ?? Scleroderma (??y?e ???????), ?i??a ?? ???o
?atho ?ae ???? e ??????o ????? ???e ??? 3-10 ?; ???ath?y a ??o, ???;
???? ?? ???a ???a, ??? ????? ? ???? ?????, ??ey?i ????; ???a ? ?????
???y?ny.

N??? e ???e

N????a ??u, ??? ???? ???. I???a ?? ?????, ??iy???, ???a, ??iyo ? ?y?e e
??e. I?a???ue ?y?e, ????ay ?????i ??i, y???y, ????ay, ????y ?e ???y.
?yae ??a; ???? ????: ???e (Morchella) — n y???-?a??? ?????ueth ?y?e e
????? e ??a ?ay?; ???e (Verpa) — n ?????e, ?? ???e ?????ueth ?y?e e
????? ?ay?; ???e (Gyromitra) — n ?????-????? ?????ueth ?y?e e ???? ?????
?ay?. E??a ?a ?? e ?? ????? ??? ???th?y ????e. N????a ??u ??? ?? ???e
??? a ??o, ??? e ??yo.

I???a ??????? ???e ??iy?e (I. esculenta), ???e ???e (I. steppicola),
??/? ????ay (V. bohemica) e ???e ?????? (G. esculenta), ?????th?e a ????
??o. Y? ?? ????? ??? ????tho a ??. I??i a ???a ????ny y???a ????, ????a
???ue oy??a ???a?y, ?y?? ??u ???o ??ae ??????? ?? ??i ???? e ???y??, ??a
?? ??? ??ue (n ?i ??y?ny e y???a ????, ??i ?????a a ??y?e ??). N???a
???e ??ath?y ?????e.

N??? (Gyromitra), ?ae ?y??? y???o ??ia ? ??? ????. A ?? ??u ?e?i ??a
?iy??y a ?? e ???ey ???, ??a ??o ???? oy??a ????ey.

I???a

I??e?? (??. iy?o — ?? e ?? — ???) (???i??) — ??????ay ????ey ???y ??a n
??y? ??? ????. ssa??a ???? ?? ??a? a 1879 ?? O. I. E????. E???u ?e ??
?e??u y?????a, y?????a e y?iy?????a.

Y?????a

Y????ay ???? ????o, ??a ?? ??a ???tho ???e ??th, ???y ?e ??e ?e ?????
???. A?u ??a ???atho ??? ????o ??y e ??????yth?y ? ??????, ? ???ay a
???. Aeey ??? ?? ???? ?????i ????? ???? ???? e ???ey ????? ?o?? ??? ?
???-?? n??a ???. A?u ??a ???ytho ??? ia ?? (a ?? ?? ?o – ?? A???a).

Y?i????

I???a ???a y????? ???? a ?i, ?i ?? ??a ???atho a ??? ?? e?iy (??c ??, ?
???y ??? ?????o). Ia ?????e ??y ???? ???? ??i, ? ?? ?y ???ay ??ue ??a
????y ??? ??y. A ???o ??y ??o ??????ny ????y ?o ??a a ?? ???a. A?u ??o
????y?ny ??? ??? – y? ?????y ???th?y ?????e.

Y?iy?????a

N???o a ?? ???? e y?i- e y?????u. A???i ???ae ??o y?????? e y??????.

N?a??u

Ni ???u ??? ???? ???otho ?a ??????, ??i 70% ?????o e 80-90% ?????. Ni
???u ??? – ?????, ??????u e ?????.

A?a ???? ? ??? ????, ?????? e ?????u, a ?i ??? ????i ?y ????ey e ????ey
????i ??, ?????o ???a e ????ae. E?? ??, ?? ?????? ??? a??? ??????ueth
????ey, ?i ?i??i ??i, ??a ?i ???o ? ??a n ?????i ??a.

A???? O???

O????? ?????a A????? O??? ???y 6 ???a 1881 ?? a ???? Y??? a ??a ???a
Oueth O???a e ?i ??? ?? A?? (I??i) O???.

E?? ???? ?????ue ?? ?o, o?? ??, e ??? ???? ??e ???yo?y n ???. O??? ???e
????th ???oth ??o, ??????th ?????, a ??a E?????oth a???th.

A ???? 13 ?o ? ??ae ? ??o?e ??uey? ????ny a E??i, ?a ???e ???i, ???e
?iy?y a I??????ii ????a ? ????-??o, a a 1900 a. a??? a E????e ?????e ??.
O???o ????ue ???y ??ue: ? ???e ??o ??????? ???a e ??????.

N??y ?ae ??a ????y ??u ? ???e ????? a 250 ??? ????? (???th ??o ? ?i
????!) e ? ??? ???? ??a ? ?? ??e ????u ? ?????? ???n ?y ?????y a
??oe??oth ??o. Ia y???? ? ???e ??a ???a ??u e ?? n?????i ?????e ??u ?e
???? ?. I??. O??? ??? ???eth e, ???aa y???u, a 1906 a. ?? ??? E?????i
???? ????. I??ay? ???? a e????? ?o??? ????? A??? ??? ???? ?. I??, ? a
1908 a. ???e ???e ???? e ????a ?? a E????i ??????.

I?? ????ey A???e a ??oth ???th ??o O??? ??? ????i a ?????i ???a E?????
??e, ???oy a ???o ???eyo ? O???. ???ay a ?????e ?????? ?i, O??? ???y
?????, ???yo ? ?????e ??th-?? ??? ?e ???e ??????uo ?i. A ?? y?????? O???
???e, ?i ??a ?????e, ?e ????ay e?e?a, a ? ??y ??? ???y?ayny ?y ????e
???? ?i, ???o ????u, ??ath?a a ????a ???? ???, ?i ?????? ????th ???? a
??yo.

A 1922 a. ??a ????o ???e ???oue ?????y ???o ????? ?????e O??? ?????
????? ??? ???i – ???o, ??ath?e ????a ???? e ? ???yth?e ??a ???? ??yi.
I????? ?????? ??????y ???? ??a?? ???? ??????e, ????o ? ?e y????? ????i
??? ?eo??, ? y?yth??y ?????y? ???a??, e ????? ?y????? ??? ??c????o
?????. Y? ????, ???, ?a??i O???a ?iy?ny ???? ??? ??a?????? ?????, ???a
?? ? ????u ?y ????a ????.

I???a O???? ?????a a 1928 a. y??? ?????i ???ey ?y? ??iyo???, ??ue
???y??, ?i a ?o ??e ????? ????. A ???a ? ??o ????? ???, ????o ??e n
??????? ????? ??a ????y ???, O??ia ? ??y???? ? ????? ???? ? 2-3 ???, ??
?i ??????e ?? ? ????ny ??????? 40 ?e 50 ???e. O?? ? ????ny ? ???, ??????
???? ?? ? ???, ??u ? ????? ?i-??? ?????. A ??e ? ?o? ? ????e ???ue,
???y, e ?i ????th, ???? ??y?oth ???? ???? Staphylococcus. I??? ???ue, ?
????e, ?i “???, ? ???i ????? ???ue… ???? ????i ????oth ?????ue ???y?
?? ???????a, a ??a ??????a e ????????? ???? ? ????th ? ??? ????????
????? ???eyi”.

I???, ???e ?? ???? ????, ????? e ??ue ???o ?? Penicillium.

I??????i y?y?ny ?o ??, ?i O??? ???y ????e ???? Penicillium n ????? ????e
a ??? ?????yo, ? ? ?? ? ??y?e i ?????a ? a ??e ? 27 ??? ?e ???, ???????
? a 1930-1940 ?., ?? ?? ?? a ?o ?a i ????o, ???th?o ?a?ue ????.

I????i, ????, ?e ? ??a?a ??o, ?? ? ? ??a ??? ?e??a ????. E??i y? ????
????i ??? ???-???a – O?? e *?a ?iyo?y ????i ???????o ???a ?????a, a
????? ?? ???? ?e ???i e ????? ?????i ????yi.

I????ay ??ey ? ????? e ???? 1945 a. ?? ????? ????i O???o “? ????, ?????a
e ?i ????i ?????y ?e ????o ?????? ??ciyo”. A I????? ??? O??? ???e, ?i
“??????e ??o ?????a ??? e ?????? ???eth ????????o ???a ???? e ??? ???
??????? ??????i ??”.

Ca ????a 10 ?o ??e ??e O??? ?e ???? 25 ???? ????, 26 ???e, 18 ???, 13
??? e ????i ???? a 89 ???eyo ?? e ???o ????o, a a 1944 a. – ??y??? ??ey.

A 1952 a. ? ???y ? A??e E???-A??a, ?????? e ??e ??? ????a. N??y ?e ?? ?
?? ? ???? ???? a ???? 73 ?o.

E? ? ????

Ec ???e ????. E? ??? ??????

*? ? ???? ???? O???e ??o, ?i ????? ?e ??? ????? ?a?i A????? O????,
?????i ? y? ????, ???a ??? e ????? ?a?? ??? ?ny? e ?ny? ?????? ??ae,
???? I????? ???.

I??i ? ?????, ?i ???y ?? ?y?a ????y ?????, ?i ?????a?? ???? ?e ????i ?o
? O??i? : ?????i ????i-???i Y???i A????i Aeth???, ???e a ??e ?????e
???ii ??? ???? ?, ?????i y????? y????? ???? ?y ??? n ????? ???ey?, ???i
?eyth?? ? ?????? ????.

N?a ???? ???? ???? (?o o?? ?e 21 ?ae) ???ue e ???? ?????ue ? ???ue –
???? a???, a ??i e ??yy ???, E??? ?, ?-?ae??o, ? y?e ??? ?? ??? ???, ??
? ???e ? ???ey. A???? O???, ???i ?, ? y?i ??? ? ?? e ??ue ? ?a. E?ue
???i ai O???, a E??, ?? ???? ???a ???oa?y Y??? Aeth??a.

E????a i ???

1) A?? ???tho ??????e ?????ueth e ????eth y??i?a, a ????e ???o ?y
???uey eth?e. O??? ? ????ey ??? ?????i ??y??ey ???th?e ??u. I??th ????ue
????ey? ????y ????o ??? e ????eth oy??o ???? a ???o ?????? ????, ???o
???a, ??c????? e ??????o ?????e.Y? ??i??? ???? o ?o ???i ??a, ?i o ???
???? e ??? ?????. A? ??? ??cy ???? ??u a ???, ??y???? ???? ??????. Y?
???ny ??eth?i ?? ???, a ? ??? ????. A ??? ??e ??o ?? ??? a 30-550 ?c
???, ?i a ??a ?ae ??. Ii ?? ???ey ? ??? ??y??ey ????? ???o aa??a ???.
I?????a ????? ?o? ?????i ?y ??????? ?? “??e??”, ??i ? e a ??i ??a. A??ia
????? oy??o ???? a ??? ????o, ???? oy??a ?????, ?e e y???a ??u.

A??o ????? y???o ?e?a ???eytho ??i 20 ??a. O???? ????ey ???????y ?????i
??? e ??iy?ai ???uey ????. I????y ? ?????i ???i ???tho: ???y ???a (????
???e), ???? – ????e, ?ith?e, ???e ????, ??? ?a????, ????e ????-???e,
????i ?????, ?????a I??y?, ???-??? ???e, ????y e ????ay ?????, ??y
y???a, ???ay, ??y e ??i-??ay ?y??a, ????a ?????ay, ??????e, ???e.

E?????e ????-???e ??? ???ny y???i, ??? ???i e ????i ???.

I???i e ?????a ????? ???u – ?????ay ???a, ???? e ?n??i, ?????th?a a ????
???i, ????i e ?????a I??y?, ?c?atho ????y ?????e ???e ???u, ???th??y a
??th???yo, ????o n?? ?e ??a, ????e ??y?? ???ey, ??? ???ey. Ai ??? ??ayo
??a?o ?????a ????ey.

I?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?e?atho ??????? ?????.

I???a “????” ?y??? ? ????. Aei ?????y ??? ????oth ??ue y?o ??? ???y? a
???? ??a, o.a. ????a, ???e ????iy?y ?e ????e ? ?? ????? n ??????? ???y
??u. I??? y? ??????a ????? ?? ???, ? ???? ???? e ? ?e ??. A?i o yoeo ???
e ?? ?? eth???? ????? – ?????? ????a, ????eyth?? ??e ??i ???a ??o ??e e
???ii. Aeey y?? ??? (????e) ?? ??a ??ey? ? ???? e ????? a ???e ??? ?ny?
a ???? ????, ??i ?a??e ???? e a ??? ??????e ????? ???eth. Ec ??? ????a
??i ?? ?? ???, ??e, ???? e o.ae. E??i n y?i ????i ?y?i ?????? ??. A ???i
?? a A???e ? ????a, ?????i ? ??? ????i ??ia?a, ?? ??a ?y? ?y ??????
O??????.

A? ????i ?? o ???o y???y?a ??o ????ue 20 ?. A A??????e, ????, a ??iy?a
??y ? ????? ???????i ????a (a. Y?i) ???o ???? ????i ??i 4 i. N?? ???e ?
??a ????e ???? ?e ??? a NOA; ?i ?n ???? 32 ?. N?? ????? ???ath?y ??iy?a
?????e, ???o ???o ???y?ny ?ny??e ?o (? 80).

N??, ??a… (? ??e ???? A???)

N?? ???a: ??-???? Galvatia gigantea, ?o??i 194,3 ? ??? a 1985 a. a
A????a (NOA), a A????a (NOA) a 1946 a. ????? ???? Oxyporus (Fomes)
nobilissimus ???? 142o94 ?, ??? ??i 136 ?.

N?? y???a: ?? ?? ???? (Amanita). I?i ? ??o y???o – ???y ???a
(A.phalloides). N?? ???a ????? ???o ?? a ???a 161037 ?? a 1 ?a. i
???????? a 1971 a. ??i E???a (A??????y).

N?? ???: ???o ??????? ???? ????? ????i ??a 100 ? n???y? ?e ???i 10 000
?o.

N??? ??? n ????e ?????e. “Y? ????o ?e ??yo a ?? ???a, ?i ?????tho ? e
????ytho a ???? ????y ?y ????ey ???? ???i ? ??a.”

I????a ???c A???? ????? ??. “A??i ??u ?????ue, ?e ????? ? iy?, ? ??, ?
??, a ??e ? ?? ?e ?????, ? ?? ??i ?ey??….. ”

*???? ?? (Marasmius scorodonius). N???u: ????e, ????, ???e ??, ?y??e.
I????y y?i ????? ????i ???i. *???? ??u ?????i ???ytho ??? a ????? ??,
?y?? ???e ? ?o ??o ?? ?????i a ???e ??i ??. Ii ?????i ??? ?i?ny ?e
?y??ue a ????????? ????e.

A A??e ????tho ??u a ????i? a ???? ???????ath?? ???? ??? ??????i ????i
????, ?y yo? ??e ????tho ??n ??? (Panus rudis) e i?? ????e (Panus
conchatus). A ????e ???ytho e ???ue – ??? ??u – ?e ?????? ??a ?? ??? e
????. Aeey ??a ?? ??? ????tho Penicillium roquefortii, a ???? –
Penicillium camemberti.

I??????a ??u (?ae Psilosybe) ?e ?e ????? “??th?????” ?a ??? ??e ?o
????tho a ????o ????? ????o. N??i??a ???ey ?? ???yo i ?i, ?i y? ? ???
????, a ??y ???i?y, ???th?y ?iy?th, ?????ueth ??e ????eth (??y, ???y ??
– ????a ?????y ? ?e ? ?????u) e ?? ???i.

O?ay ???? ????? ? ????e ??, ???y ??i ?iy? a ???a, ? ??a a ????e ?a ???
??u. 2) I ??? eth? ??e ?a a ???i ???i. A IV ?? ? ??e y? ????e ??? O???o
???? a ??o ??? i ?th?eyo, ????, ?????o. N??y 5 ??a ???e ????? I??e ??
??e i ???. Ii ??? ?o?ny ????ue ??u ? ???? e ???a. A?? – ?????? ??a ????.
O ?o ?o ? ???, ? ???a, ?e ? ??? e ? ?tho ???o ??? n ????. ????ath?y ?e
???e, ???a e ??o ? ??u, ???a ? ?u?? n ???–????, ????athu??y ?ae ???.
E??ny ??ue ??i ??a ????o ???. I???a ???? ??a, ??????, ??????e, ??y?,
???, ?ae?e, ???e, ????, ?y?. I?? ????a – ??y?, ????, ??? ????e, ?ey?e,
???e, ??e, ????, ????, ????. A? ?e ???iyth?y a ??io ?y???, ?e ?e ??iyo ?
?y?e, ??e e ???. E ????i ??ny?y e ??u, ???a ???th?y ? ???eth ? ?y???, –
y? ???e, ???e e o?th??. N??a ??u ???? ?????? ????? ??, a ???i 90%. I?
???? ????a ????? ?? ?????y ??e ??a, ?e ??a n????ny ? ????.

Ii ?????ny a ?o ??????e ??u ????aeyo ??? ??e e ???, a ? ?????o n??? e
?y? ????a ????th?y e ????i ????i ??????y. Ii, ?e ???? ??????? ?????ey,
??iy?a ? ??th?? ????a ???? ??? ??? ???/?? ?????? ????i, a ??? ???a??y a
?o ???? ???o?u ?y ??????i ????a. A y?i ???i? ???? ??e ??? – ???e e ?y?.
I? ???yo ? ??o ???????? ??? ?????e a ?i ??, a ???i ????ue ??a ??????y.
Iiy?? ??u a ???e ???? y?yth?y ??? ??ue ?ey?? AEONIAIE AeIAAAEIE e ??,
???th?e ? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????i-????i ???, ?????th?e ?????o ?????th, ?
?????e ? ??th?e ?????ny a ?e ????. N???ue ??u ??a ? ??i. I? ??a ???o ?
ii???ue ??i (??o o ????y), ? ? ???? n ???. Y? ???y? ????, ? ???e ??u
????th?y. A?e ?? ? ??ue ??? ? ???i ????i, ?i ??ue ????i ????ue e ????ue
??thth ??ue, ???eyy ????, ? ???i ?i ii?i ???e e ??????o ?? ????o ???.
I??y ???? ?????, ?????a e ???? ??u. N???? ??u ??? ??y?y, ?y?? ? ??a ?e
??c 4–5 ??a ? ??i ?????? ?y ????e?ey ?? ?e ????e ??e.

Ia ???o ????ny ????? ?????i ???, o. e. ?e ???atho ??ue ???a ????? ??, e
? ?????ey ????ny. E?? ???ue i? ????e ??e e ?? ?? ??ue. A?? ??u ??tho 2–3
?? ?iy??, ????a e ?????? ??yo 4–5 ??o. Y? ????? ?y ????ey ???, ??a?y
iy???, ????ey ???ey ?e ???a. A ???? ???yo ??u ?????atho ??e ??i ??e,
?????y, ???y e ???????y a ?????? c?????o ??ey?? ???.

I? ??a ??? ? ?o ??y?ny ? 76% ?ath??y a ?o ??. I????y ??e ?y ???ey
??i????? ??????. I? ?e ???, ?e ???aeyo a ????? ??iy?a. I? ??i???? ?????o
????a ????? ???o ???y ?????a, ?e ???e ??no?? ?????ey ????a. I? ?????e
???ay????ue ???????a ???y?ny ???e ?????? ?e ??a, a ??i ????i ???? ???u e
????? ??. I? ???a ??? ????? ??a?a, a ???? ???? ??? ???aeyo a ???oth
???o. I???yy ??? n ???i?e ??th e y?y?ny ?????th?i ????i.

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