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Генетика и естественный отбор

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IINEIANEAss AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss ENOI?E*ANEAss AEAAeAIEss

EAOAAe?A IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIAI I?AAA

«Aaiaoeea e anoanoaaiiue ioai?»

?aoa?ao

nooaeaioee 1 a?oiiu 3 eo?na

IOeI IOC
IATHA

Aeaenaieeia
A.A.

Ieai

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Yenia?eiaio Iaiaeaey

3. Iooaoeey

4. Anoanoaaiiue ioai?

5. Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea

Aieueoa 100 eao iacaae a *aoineiaaeee a iiianou?neii naaeo aue eaoiee
aeaiue. Aieueoeinoai iiiaoia ie/aai ia ciaee i ?inoeo oai ?anoaieyo
ai?ioa. Iaeiaei aeey iaeiiai ec ieo yoe ?anoaiey i?aaenoaaeyee aieueoie
eioa?an, oae eae ii i?iaiaeee n ieie naie iao/iue yenia?eiaio.

Aaaaoa A?aai?a Iaiaeaey iniaaiii caieiae aii?in i oii, eae ?anoaiey
ia?aaeaaaee naie i?eciaee neaaeothuaio iieieaieth. «*oi i?iecioei au,
anee au y ne?anoee ?anoaiea n aaeuie oeaaoeaie n ?anoaieai n e?aniuie
oeaaoeaie? Auei au neaaeothuaa iieieaiea aaeui eee e?aniui? *oi auei au,
anee ne?anoeoue aunieia ?anoaiea n iecei?ineui? Eaeie auniou auei au
iiaia ?anoaiea?»

I?iaaaey yoe yenia?eiaiou e ouaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaa iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou, Iaiaeaeue iiiye, /oi ioe?ue eaeea-oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
caeiiu ianeaaenoaaiiinoe. Iiae neeueiui aia/aoeaieai io naiaai ioe?uoey
ii iioaeeeiaae naie auaiaeu a iao/iii aeo?iaea, ii iao/iue ie?
iieiinoueth i?ieaii?e?iaae yoo ?aaioo Iaiaeaey. ?aci/a?iaaiiue, ii
i?ae?aoee naie enneaaeiaaiey. Oie?ay a 1884 aiaeo, Iaiaeaeue ia eiae
ieeaeiai iiiyoey i oii, /oi nionoy 20 eao ii i?eia?aoao anaie?ioth
ecaanoiinoue eae iniiaaoaeue iiaie iaoee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aaioa
Iaiaeaey n/eoaaony ia/aeii iaoee aaiaoeee, eco/athuae
ianeaaenoaaiiinoue.

Oaia?ue iu aeieaeiu ia?aoeoueny e aii?ino i oii, iiaeoaa?aeaeatho ee
auaiaeu aaiaoeee eaeath yaiethoeee, eae yoi oe?iei ooaa?aeaeaaony a
iao/iuo e?oaao.

Iaiaeaeue iioaeeeiaae naie auaiaeu a eiioea 1860-o aiaeia, eae ?ac a oi
naiia a?aiy, eiaaea oai?ey Aea?aeia noaea i?eia?aoaoue a?iiaaeioth
iiioey?iinoue. Iaiaeaeue iioaeeeiaae naith ?aaioo a ecaanoiii aeo?iaea,
e i. aai noaouea, ianiiiaiii, auei oe?iei ecaanoii. Iaeiaei eeoue a 1900
aiaeo, /a?ac oanoiaaeoeaoue eao iinea nia?oe Iaiaeaey, ?aaioa auea
ioeaiaia ii aeinoieinoao.

Ii/aio oae aeieai eaii?e?iaaee noieue aeeciaiii aaaeiua ioe?uoey? Ioaao
ii/oe ia aucuaaao niiiaiee — iioiio, /oi iie i?ioeai?a/eee aea?aeiianeie
oai?ee yaiethoeee. Oioy yoi e ?aaeei i?eciatho naaiaeiy, ioe?uoea
Iaiaeaey ii?iaa?aaei iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo aeiioac Aea?aeia. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oai oaeoii, /oi iinea oiai, eae auea aiiaue ioe?uoa
?aaioa Iaiaeaey, aea?aeienoneay yaiethoeey ia a?aiy oo?aoeea naie
iiceoeee. Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy yaiethoeeiiiia iuoeaiea aic?iaeeeinue a
ianeieueei eiii aeaea, eae aiai?eee, aiieia niaiaaeaaoai n iaiaeaeaaneie
aaiaoeeie. Iaeiaei, eae iu oaeaeei ieaea, ie oa, ie ae?oaay ia
auaea?aeeaaee e?eoeee, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaoo auoue i?eciaiu
i?aaeeueiuie.

Yenia?eiaio Iaiaeaey

*oi a ioe?uoee Iaiaeaey aiai?eei i?ioea aea?aeiianeie oai?ee yaiethoeee?
Eo/oei ioaaoii ia yoio aii?in aoaeao ioeaiea oiai, /oi ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioe?ue. Iaiaeaeue ne?aueaae ?acee/iua ni?oa ieuaaiai
ai?ioa. I?e ne?aueaaiee ?anoaiey n e?aniuie oeaaoeaie n ?anoaieai n
aaeuie oeaaoeaie iioiinoai eiaei e?aniua oeaaoee. Caoai Iaiaeaeue
ne?anoee yoi e?aniioeaaoiia iioiinoai iaaeaeo niaie e iaia?oaeee, /oi
iieo/eeinue eo iioiinoai n niioiioaieai 3 e?aniuo:1 aaeue.

Yoi aoaeao aieaa iiiyoii, anee ia?aoeoueny e aaiai, o/anoaiaaaoei a yoeo
ne?aueaaieyo. Iiiyoea «aai», ii Iaiaeaeth, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
yeaiaio ianeaaenoaaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeythuee eaeoth-oi eiie?aoioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?aaiecia, a aeaiiii neo/aa ie?aneo oeaaoea. Ii iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue a aeaoo oi?iao — aucuaathuae ?acaeoea e?aniuo oeaaoeia e
aucuaathuae ?acaeoea aaeuo oeaaoeia. Ana iioiinoai io ia?aiia/aeueiiai
ne?aueaaiey e?anii-oeaaoeiauo ?anoaiee n aaei-oeaaoeiauie eiaei e?aniua
oeaaoee, oioy enoiaeiua ?anoaiey eiaee aaiu eae aeey e?aniuo oeaaoeia,
oae e aeey aaeuo.

Iaiaeaeue naeaeae auaiae i oii, /oi aai e?aniiai oeaaoa aeieaeai
i?aiaeaaeaoue iaae aaeui, e iiyoiio ethaia iaaeaeaiiia iaieie yoeie
aaiaie ?anoaiea aeieaeii auoue e?aniui. Eiaaea yoe e?aniua ?anoaiey
ne?anoeee ae?oa n ae?oaii, noaei aiciiaeiui iauaaeeiaiea aeaoo aaeuo
aaiia e iieo/aiea iioiinoaa n aaeuie oeaaoeaie. Oain ia oi, /oi
iioiinoai iieo/eo oioy au iaeei e?aniue aai, ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai
3:1.

Iiaua aaiu, eee noa?ua?

Iaiaeaeue auyniee, /oi eiaaea ii ne?aueaae e?anii-oeaaoeiaua ?anoaiey,
iieo/aiiua a ea/anoaa iioiinoaa io aai ia?aiia/aeueiiai ne?aueaaiey, ii
iieo/ae eae aaeua oeaaoee, oae e e?aniua. Oai?ey Aea?aeia iniiauaaaony
ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee i oii, /oi a iiaeiaiii neo/aa aaeue oeaao yaeyaony
iiaui i?eciaeii, i?eia?aoaiiui iieiaeuie ?anoaieyie, eioi?ui eo
?iaeeoaee ia iaeaaeaee. A eiia/iii n/aoa, i?e i?iaeieaeaiee
yaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey ni?o aeieaeai i?eia?anoe iiaua i?eciaee.

Iaiaeaeue iieacae, /oi yoio i?eciae ia aue i?eia?aoai. Ii ana a?aiy
i?enoonoaiaae a iieieaiee ?iaeeoaeae, oioy e iiaeaaeyeny aieaa
i?aiaeaaeathuei aaiii. Anee i?eiaieoue e eaeayi Iaiaeaey noaoenoeeo,
iiaeii i/aiue eaaei iieacaoue, /oi aaiu o iiaiai iieieaiey iieacuaatho
oo aea /anoioo i?iyaeaiey, /oi e o iieieaiey ?iaeeoaeae. Iiaeii auei au
aucaaoue oo?aoo eaeeo-oi aaiia iooai oaeenoaa oao iniaae, eioi?ua eie
aeaaeatho, ii iiaua aaiu i?eia?anoe iaaiciiaeii.

Ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi aea?aeiianeay oai?ey ia/aea eneaoue auoiae ec
yoiai cao?oaeieoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, eiaaea auyaeeenue yoe oaeou. Iia
auea nianaia io iieiiai e?aoa iiyaeaieai oai?ee, niaeanii eioi?ie aaiu
iiaoo eiiaaea eciaiyoueny, i?aa?auaynue a niaa?oaiii iiaua oi?iu. Yoi
?aaeeeaeueiia eciaiaiea a aaiao ecaanoii eae iooaoeey.

A yoii aeaea e nouanoaoao iuia aea?aeiianeay oai?ey. I?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi iooaoeee iiaoo eciaiyoue aaiu a iiaoth oi?io. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi
i?ioeann anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a aeaenoaoao ca n/ao ioai?a yoeo iiauo
aaiia, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey i?aaiecia, e ioa?anuaaiey ae?oaeo.

Yaiethoeeiienou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii yoiai yaeyaony
neo/ae iyaeaieoeu aa?aciaie. A 1860-a aiaeu oeaao yoie aa?aciaie
iyaeaieoeu aue naaoeui, oioy auee ecaanoiu e ?aaeeea oaiiua yecaiiey?u.
A oa/aiea neaaeothueo 100 eao oaiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue noaiiaeeanue ana
aieaa e aieaa iau/iie, iiea ?aaeeie ia noaea naaoeay ?aciiaeaeiinoue.
I?e/eiie yoiai eciaiaiey yaeyaony oi, /oi oaiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue auea
iai?aeoe/iie ecia/aeueii, oae eae auea i/aiue caiaoia ia oiia ei?u
aea?aaueaa e eaaei noaiiaeeanue aeiau/ae oeuieeia. Naaoeoth
?aciiaeaeiinoue caiaoeoue auei iaeaaei, e iiyoiio iia auea caueuaia io
oeuieeia. Iaeiaei ii ia?a i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey noaieu aea?aaueaa
ii/a?iaee io naaee, e neooaoeey noaea ia?aoiie. Oaia?ue naaoeay
?aciiaeaeiinoue noaea caiaoiie oeuieeai, oiaaea eae oaiiay ieacaeanue
aieaa caueuaiiie.

Yoi i?eia? oiai, /oi yaiethoeeiienou iacuaatho anoanoaaiiui ioai?ii.
Oaia?ue aaiu aoaeoo ioae?aoueny a oii neo/aa, anee iie niiauatho
eaeia-oi i?aeiouanoai   i?aaiecio, e i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
iooaoeee iiaoo aicieeaoue iiaua aaiu.

Iooaoeey

Aeey nia?aiaiiie oai?ee yaiethoeee aii?in i iooaoeee eiaao aieueoia
cia/aiea. Anee au iooaoeee ia i?ienoiaeeee, yaiethoeey auea au
iaaiciiaeia. Iiyoiio iu aeieaeiu eco/eoue aii?in i iooaoeeyo e
iiniio?aoue, aeaenoaeoaeueii ee iie eiatho ianoi, eae ooaa?aeaeatho
yaiethoeeiienou.

  Ianiiiaiii, /oi iooaoeee i?ienoiaeeoue iiaoo, e i?ienoiaeyo.
Ai-aoi?uo, noieue aea ianiiiaiii, /oi ethaia eciaiaiea aaia — yoi
anaaaea eciaiaiea a ooaeooth noi?iio. Yoiai e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue.
Aaiu neiaeiu e oaeeaeoaeueiu, e ethaia e?oiiia eciaiaiea a ieo i?eaiaeeo
e eo iaiaa yooaeoeaiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth.

Yoi aaiaoeee auynieee iinea naieaeanyoe eao eioaineaiiai
yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey. Ca yoi a?aiy iie aucaaee ouny/e iooaoeee a
?acee/iuo i?aaieciao, ii ei oae e ia oaeaeinue iieo/eoue ie iaeiie
iooaoeee, eioi?ay oaaaeeoaeueiui ia?acii ieacuaaea au aeaaii?eyoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaieci. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony
iauai?eciaiiui oio oaeo, /oi iooaoeee a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo noieue
?aaeee, e noieue /anoi ieacuaathony a?aaeiuie, /oi eiaaea iie eiatho
ianoi, iie ia eiatho ieeaeiai cia/aiey aeey aaiaoeee eaeie-oi iiioeyoeee
aeeauo nouanoa. Ana iniae, i?aoa?iaaathuea iooaoeeth, i?iyaeytho
oaiaeaioeeth e aeaaee, e iiyoiio aaiaoe/aneay no?oeoo?a iiioeyoeee a
oeaeii inoaaony iacao?iiooie yoie iooaoeeae.

Iooaoeee aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau auoue niiniaiuie i?iaeooee?iaaoue iiaua,
neeueiua aaiu, eioi?ua naeaeaee au aiciiaeiie yaiethoeeth eaeie-oi
ii?iaeu i?aaieciia. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaith e?aeia ?aaeeea e
?ac?ooeoaeueiua niauoey, ia eciaiythuea aaiaoe/aneoth no?oeoo?o ii?iaeu
a oeaeii — ca eneeth/aieai iaeioi?uo neo/aaa ineaaeaiey aa. Yoi a ?aaiie
noaiaie ioiineony eae aeaaii?eyoiui iooaoeeyi (iai?eia?,
na?iiaeaeiieeaoi/iay aiaiey), oae e e noieeinoe e eaea?noaai aaeoa?ee.
Ii aeaaea e a oii neo/aa, anee au iooaoeee i?ienoiaeeee oae, eae
ooaa?aeaeatho yaiethoeeiienou, yaiethoeey ana ?aaii auea au iaaiciiaeia.

Naeaeaoaeuenoai

Oe?iei ecaanoiue aeieia, ny? Yeenoa? Oa?aee, a naiae eieaa «Iioie
aeecie» iaiiieiaao iai ia iaeiie ec naiuo iniiaiiieaaathueo eaeae
yaiethoeee — /oi iaeei e oio aea i?aai o ?acee/iuo aeeaioiuo iaecaaaeii
yaiethoeeiie?iaae ec oie aea naiie no?oeoo?u aaeeiiai iauaai i?aaeea.

Aicueiai, iai?eia?, eano otheaiy, ?oeo /aeiaaea e e?uei ioeoeu. Oioy iie
?acee/iu ii oi?ia e ooieoeee, iniiaiia ?aniieiaeaiea einoae a ieo
iaeeiaeiai. Iiyoiio i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi ana yoe nouanoaa
yaiethoeeiie?iaaee ec iaeiaai i?eieoeaiiai iicaiii/iiai, n oaeei aea
?aniieiaeaieai iniiaiuo einoae. No?oeoo?u, iiaeiaiua yoie, eioi?ua, eae
n/eoaaony, yaiethoeeiie?iaaee ec aaeeiiai iauaai i?aaeea, iacuaatho
aiiieiae/iuie no?oeoo?aie.

Aua iaeiei i?eia?ii aiiieiae/iiai i?aaia yaeyaony aeac iooe. Nouanoaoao
iiiai ?aciuo oeiia ae?icioee, e o iaeioi?uo ec ieo aeaca i/aiue neeueii
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ia aeae. Oioy iie e auaeyaeyo ii-?aciiio,
yaiethoeeiieno iieaaaao, /oi ana iie yaiethoeeiie?iaaee ec iaeiaai
?aiiaai oeia aeaca. Iiyoiio iie aiiieiae/iu. Yaiethoeeiiiay oai?ey
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ana nouanoaothuea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aiiieiae/iua
i?aaiu yaiethoeeiie?iaaee ca n/?o iooaoeee aaiia, ii?aaeaeyaoeo
ia?aiia/aeueiue i?aai. Eiuie neiaaie, aaiu, i?iaeooee?othuea
aiiieiae/iua i?aaiu a iaoa a?aiy, yoi oa aea naiua aaiu, eioi?ua
i?iaeooee?iaaee aioeano?aeueiue i?aai; i?aaaea, no?oeoo?a yoeo aaiia
eciaieeanue.

Aieueoay i?iaeaia aeey yaiethoeeiienoia ninoieo a neaaeothuai: ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo iiaeii iieacaoue, /oi oi, /oi iie iacuaatho aiiieiae/iuie
i?aaiaie, ia?acoaony aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth niaa?oaiii eiuo aaiia.
Iai?eia?, nouanoaoao aeaa ii?iaeu ae?icioeeu, aeaca eioi?uo
yaiethoeeiienou iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoue eae aiiieiae/iua, e ana aea yoe
aeaca a iaieo neo/ayo niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiii iaoneiaeaiu ?aciuie
aaiaie.

Yoi ia eciee?iaaiiue neo/ae. Ca iiiaea aiaeu oaeeo i?eia?ia auyaeeinue
iiiai. Iaaiciiaeii io?eoeaoue oiai, /oi eiioeaioeey aiiieiaee a oa?ieiao
iaeeiaeiauo aaiia, ia?aaeaaaaiuo io iauaai i?aaeea, ?acaaeeeanue. Yoi
ioiineony oaeaea e e ciaiaieoiio i?eia?o ia?aaeiae eiia/iinoe
iicaiii/iuo. Iiniio?ei ia aai, oi?aaeyaoee ?acaeoeai yoiai
ia?aiia/aeueiiai aioeano?aeueiiai iicaiii/iiai. Anee oaiaeii,
iin?aaenoaii iooaoeee iiaeii oioue ieeeeii ?ac eciaieoue yoio aai! Ii
yoi ieeiaaea ia auciaao eciaiaiey ia?aaeiae eiia/iinoe a eano otheaiy
eee a ?oeo /aeiaaea, iineieueeo yoe i?aaiu oi?aaeythony ae?oaeie aaiaie!

A oa/aiea iineaaeieo naieaeanyoe eao o/aiua ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi eco/aiea
aaiaoeee iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yaiethoeeiiioth oai?eth. Iu ?anniio?aee
aic?aaeaiey i?ioea yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey. Iu iiiyee, ai-ia?auo, /oi
eeanne/aneee yenia?eiaio Iaiaeaey iieacae, /oi iiaua i?eciaee ia
i?eia?aoathony iiioeyoeeae, a ia?aaeathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
?iaeeoaeae ?aaaieo a aeaea aaiia. Oaeei ia?acii, oaeeo eciaiaiee, ca
n/ao eioi?uo iiaea au inouanoaeyoueny yaiethoeey, ia i?ienoiaeeo. Aeaeaa
iu oaeaeaee, /oi auaeaeiooay yaiethoeeiienoaie oai?ey iooaoeee, eioi?ay,
ii eo iiaieth, aeieaeia niyoue yoi aic?aaeaiea, naia ii naaa ia
aaeaeaaoia caaea/a iauyniaiey yaiethoeee. Eia/a aiai?y, aaiaoeea ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yaiethoeeiiioth oai?eth.

Anoanoaaiiue ioai?

Iaeiaei i i?aaeeueiinoe iinooeaoia aaiaoeee aeieaeii auoue neacaii
ai?acaei aieueoa. Aeaeaeea io oiai, /oiau iiaeaea?aeaoue yaiethoeeiiioth
oai?eth, enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo naieaeanyoe eao i?eaiaeyo e
aaeeinoaaiiiio auaiaeo: yaiethoeey i?ienoiaeeoue ia iiaea, e iiaaaeaeaao
Aeaeey. ?anniio?ei oai?aoe/aneee neo/ae oiai, /oi yaiethoeeiienou
iacuaatho anoanoaaiiui ioai?ii, a caoai i?ineaaeei ca iei aei
eiae/aneiai auaiaea.

I?aaenoaaeoue naaa iiioeyoeeth ii?neeo ioeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue a oneiaeyo iaeiiai ec ianeieueeeo ?acee/iuo oeaaoia. Ii
ia?a oaaee/aiey yoie iiioeyoeee iaeioi?ua ioeoeu eieiiece?otho ninaaeiee
ino?ia, oeaao eioi?iai oaiiue. Aaeua e naaoei-na?ua ioeoeu ia yoii
ino?iaa oi?ioi caiaoiu oeuieeai, eioi?ua eo oie/oiaeatho. Auaeeaatho
oaiiua ioeoeu, eioi?ua iacaiaoiu. Iinoaiaiii ii?iaea oaiiuo ioeoe
?acaeaaaony, oiaaea eae naaoeua aeaioo.

Iiaeiaiue aea i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo ia ae?oaii ninaaeiai ino?iaa, oeaao
eioi?iai ia yoio ?ac naaoeue, e ioeoeu ia iai auaeeaatho naaoeua. Oaeei
ia?acii, ca n/ao anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a ec ia?aiia/aeueiie iiioeyoeee
?acaeaathony aeaa ii?iaeu ioeoe. A eiia/iii n/aoa eo iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae iiaua aeaeu.

Enoiuaiea aaiioiiaea

Yaiethoeeiienou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi yaiethoeey i?ienoiaeeo eiaiii ca n/ao
i?ioeanna oaeiai oeia. Ii /oi i?ienoiaeeo n aaiaoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey? A
ia?aiia/aeueiie iiioeyoeee nouanoaiaaee aaiu, ii?aaeaeythuea /a?ioth,
oaiii-na?oth, naaoei-na?oth e aaeoth ie?aneo. Ia /a?iii ino?iaa
iiioeyoeey oo?aoeea ana aaiu, e?iia oi?aaeythueo /a?iie e oaiii-na?ie
ie?aneie, iineieueeo aaiu naaoei-na?ie e aaeie ie?anee ieacaeenue
oo?a/aiiuie ca n/ao aeaaee naaoeuo ioeoe. Oaeei ia?acii, anoanoaaiiue
ioai? i?eaae e oiio, /oi aaiioiiae noae aaaeiaa. Oaia?ue a iai iaiueoa
oi?i aaiia, a ia aieueoa, /aai o?aaoao yaiethoeey (oae eae a neo/aa,
anee iiioeyoeey ia i?eia?aoaao iiauo aaiia, iia ieeiaaea ia iiaeao
noaoue aieaa neiaeiie).

Iineieueeo oaeay iiaay iiioeyoeey oaiiuo ioeoe aaiaoe/anee aaaeiaa, iia
aieaa neeiiia e auie?aieth. Iacia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, iai?eia?, iinaaoeaiea yoiai ino?iaa, aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue
eno?aaeaieth yoie ii?iaeu oeuieeaie.

Anee au oaeie i?ioeann i?ienoiaeee a e?oiiuo ianooaaao, iiaeii auei au
iaeeaeaoue auie?aiey iiiaeo aeaeia, e eiaiii yoi aeaiiino?e?oao enoi?ey.
Eiuie neiaaie, anoanoaaiiue ioai? ii?aaeaeyao oaiaeaioeeth a iai?aaeaiee
e aaiaoe/aneie nia?oe, a ia a iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey iiauo aeaeia.

Iu aeaeei, /oi i?ioeann anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a i?eaiaeeo e iiaui
?aciiaeaeiinoyi aeeauo nouanoa, ai?acaei aieaa aaaeiuo aaiaie a
n?aaiaiee n ?aiiae iiioeyoeeae, ec eioi?ie iie ?acaeeenue. N
yaiethoeeiienoneie oi/ee c?aiey yoi icia/aao, /oi aiaaiiiaeiaiua
nouanoaa, ec eioi?uo ana iu yaiethoeeiie?iaaee, aeieaeiu auee iaeaaeaoue
aaneiia/ii aieaa aiaaoui e ?aciiia?aciui aaiioiiaeii, /ai iao
nianoaaiiue! Yoi niaa?oaiii niaoioai?ii. N enoeiii iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey,
a i?ioeii aeieaeiu auee nouanoaiaaoue a?oiiu aeeaioiuo, iaeaaeaaoea
aiaaoui ?aciiia?aceai i?eciaeia, ec eioi?uo ia?aciaaeenue oa aieaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oeiu, eaeea iu iaaethaeaai a iaoe aeie. ss n/eoath,
/oi eiaiii ia yoii aiai?eony a Aeaeee, aaea neacaii, /oi Aia nioai?ee
aeeaioiuo «ii ?iaeo eo».

A yoii i?ioeanna anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a iu aeaeei ia n?aaenoai, ca n/ao
eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeea yaiethoeey, a aaeeeoth ioae?inoue e ieeinoue Aiaa.
Aniiiiei, /oi eeeiao, a eioi?ii iu aeeaai ia Caiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
nianai ia oio, eioi?ue i?aiaeaaeae ai a?aiaia nioai?aiey Caiee. Iioii
a?aiai Iiy aucaae a?iiaaeiua eciaiaiey. A naiae aaeeeie ioae?inoe Aia
nioai?ee ethaeae, e aieueoeinoai aeeaioiuo, iaaeaeaiiuie aeinoaoi/iie
aaiaoe/aneie i?eniiniaeyaiinoueth aeey auaeeaaiey a oneiaeyo yoeo
e?oiiuo eciaiaiee. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iai?eia?, aeeiicaa?u, ia niiaee
i?eniiniaeoueny, e iiyoiio auia?ee. Iu iaaethaeaai a iaoe aeie oaeea
nouanoaa, eae o?iie/aneea ?uau e iiey?iua aeeaioiua, ianoa iaeoaiey
eioi?uo ia?aie/aiu ?aieaie oceeo eeeiaoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia. Ianiiiaiii, /oi
anoanoaaiiue ioai? iaania/ee ei aiciiaeiinoue auaeeaaiey ec
ia?aiia/aeueiuo nioai?aiiuo Aiaii iiioeyoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeann anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a iia?e?oao oaeoi?aie, oaea
i?enoonoaothueie a iiioeyoeee. Iai?eia?, oaiiay ?aciiaeaeiinoue
iyaeaieoeu aa?aciaie nouanoaiaaea aua aei oiai, eae a ?acoeueoaoa
anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a iia i?aa?aoeeanue a naioth iau/ioth iooo. Aia
nioai?ee ian n aieueoeie iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, /ai
o?aaiaaeinue aia/aea. Aaeai, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeaaeae aaiaoe/aneei
iioaioeeaeii, aeinoaoi/iui aeey anao aeeaoueo oaia?ue ia caiea
/aeiaa/aneeo ?an.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaeea? N. Eaiaiue i?aoeiiaaiey. Aa?ia ee oai?ey yaiethoeee? – I.,
«I?ioanoaio», 1992.

2. Arthur Rook. «Origins and Growth of Biology», (Penguin, 1964).

3. Gregory R. L. «Eye and Brain», (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966).

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