.

Фотосинтез водорослей

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1281
Скачать документ

Oioineioac aiaei?ineae

Oioineioac. I?aia?aciaaiea yia?aee naaoa a oeie/aneoth yia?aeth
oioineioaca o neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae, eae e o ae?oaeo
oioineioace?othueo i?aaieciia, inouanoaeythueo ?anuaieaiea aiaeu e
auaeaeaiea eenei?iaea, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue eiiieaen ?aaeoeee. A
ia?aie ?aaeoeee (oioioece/aneie) i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiuaiea naaoa ieaiaioaie
e i?aa?auaiea aai yia?aee a ieaiaioiuo no?oeoo?ao, ai aoi?ie
(oioioeie/aneie) yia?aey yeaeo?iia ia?aiineony a yeaeo?ii-o?ainii?oiie
oeaie oioineioaca, a a o?aoueae (aeioeie/aneie) iia eniieuecoaony aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey N02. Iineieueeo eeaoee neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae niaea?aeao
aieueoia /enei ieaiaioia, oi iiaeiuaiea aeaeeiiai naaoa inouanoaeyaony a
oe?ieii aeeaiaciia (io 400 aei 800 ii), aieueoai, /ai o ae?oaeo
aiaei?ineae. Ieaiaiou oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa i?aaieciaaiu a aeaa
oioinenoaiu. Oioinenoaia I yaeyaony aeaaiui ianoii i?aa?auaiey naaoiaie
yia?aee a oeie/aneoth, Iia, eae e oioinenoaia II, niaea?aeeo oei?ioeee a
e ea?ioeiieaeu. Iaeiaei oei?ioeee a o neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae ia
yaeyaony iaeii?iaeiui ieaiaioii. Oioinenoaia I i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eiiieaen oei?ioeeea a e oeeoio?iia f.

Niaeanii eiathueiny a eeoa?aoo?a aeaiiui, neiee naao iiaeao neoaeeoue
eiaeeeaoi?ii ioiineoaeueii niaea?aeaiey aeaoo oioinenoai. A iiuoao n
eeaoeaie Chlorella vulgaris, aaoio?ioii au?auaiiuo ia neiai naaoa,
niaea?aeaiea oei?ioeeeia e ea?ioeiieaeia ia 25—30 % auoa, /ai a
aiaei?ineyo, iaeo/aaiuo e?aniui naaoii Aaee/eia niioiioaiey Oa/Oue i?e
yoii ninoaaeyea 2,9 e 5,0 aeey aiaei?ineae, au?auaiiuo ia neiai e
e?aniii naaoa niioaaonoaaiii. Caiaia aaeiai naaoa, i?e eioi?ii
niioiioaiea Oa/Oue auei ?aaiui 2,9, ia e?aniue i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth
/a?ac 20 / yoiai ia?aiao?a aei 5,0. A oaeeo eeaoeao iaeaieeaaeinue aei
80 % oei?ioeeea, a oi a?aiy eae a eeaoeao, iieo/athueo iinea aaeiai
neiee naao — 50 % oei?ioeeea Ue. Oeoi?anoeaioeey aiaei?ineae, iieo/eaoeo
a oiaea ?inoa neiee naao, ia 30 % aieueoa oaeiauo ?anoaiee, au?auaiiuo
ia e?aniii naaoa. O/eouaay, /oi oei?ioeee b ooieoeeiiaeueii naycai n
oioinenoaiie II, neiee naao neoaeeo o Chlorela nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii
oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiiie oioinenoaiu e oai naiui iioeiaeueiiai ninoaaa
oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa naaoiaiai aicaoaeaeaiey, ianooiathuaai o oioinenoaiu II,
aucuaathony ?aaeoeee oioiieeneaiey aiaeu e ia?aiina ia?aciaaaoaainy
yeaeo?iia a oeaiue iinooiaoaeueiuo ia?aiin/eeia, /oi i?eaiaeeo e eo
ainnoaiiaeaieth. Aicaoaeaeaiea aea oioinenoaiu I i?eaiaeeo e ieeneaieth
yoeo ia?aiin/eeia e ia?aa?inea yeaeo?iia ia iieaeoeo IAAeO n
iineaaeothuei aa ainnoaiiaeaieai.

Yeaeo?ii, ia?acothueeny a ?acoeueoaoa oioiaicaoaeaeaiey eae oioinenoaiu
I, oae e oioinenoaiu II, ii iooe naiaai neaaeiaaiey ioaeaao
niaea?aeauothny a iai yia?aeth. Oioinenoaia II (ei?ioeiaieiiaay, A=680),
iiaeiuay eaaio naaoa, iiauoaao yia?aeth yeaeo?iia io o?iaiy
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai iioaioeeaea aiaeu, yaeythuaeny aiaoiei
aeiii?ii yeaeo?iiia, aei o?iaiy n iaaunieei io?eoeaoaeueiui
iioaioeeaeii. Oioiaeoeaaoeey oioinenoaiu I (aeeeiiiaieiiaay) i?eaiaeeo
oaeaea e ia?aciaaieth yeaeo?iia n aunieie ainnoaiaaeeaathuae
niiniaiinoueth, eioi?ue eniieuecoaony aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey oa??aaeieneia
eee aeaeacioa?iaioa aeaaeae?iaaiacu. Iiae aeaenoaeai e?aniiai naaoa
ieaiaio ieeneyao oeeoio?ii f e ainnoaiaaeeaaao oa??aaeienei, eioi?ue,
ieeneyynue IAAeO-?aaeoeoacie, ia?acoao ainnoaiiaeaiiue IAAeO-I— iaeei ec
naiuo aaaeiuo eiiiiiaioia, ia?acothueo «ainnoaiiaeoaeueioth neeo» ca
n/ao yia?aee naaoa.

A naith i/a?aaeue, oeeoio?ii f, ioaeaaoee yeaeo?iiu ainnoaiaaeeaaaony
yeaeo?iiaie, ioaeaiiuie oioinenoaiie II, o. a. iauaaeeiyao iaa nenoaiu.
Iaaeaeo ieie iaoiaeeony e ieanoioeeaiei — iaaeueniaea?aeauee aaeie,
o/anoaothuee a o?ainii?oa yeaeo?iiia.

N oioinenoaiie II naycaiu ieanoioeiiiu — niaaeeiaiey n iaeiaiueoei
ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiui iioaioeeaeii, o/anoaothuea a o?ainii?oa
yeaeo?iiia. Aaaeiia ianoi a yoii o?ainii?oa ioaiaeeony e oeeoio?iiai b,
eioi?uo cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai oeeoio?iia. A /anoiinoe, oeeoio?iiu b,
niaea?aeaueany a oei?iieanoao, ?aniieaaathony iinea oioinenoaiu I.

Yia?aey yeaeo?iia eniieuecoaony ia ia?aciaaiea iae?iy?ae/aneie nayce AOO
aeaaaeaeu. Iaeii ec iano, aaea i?ienoiaeeo oinoi?eee?iaaiea, naycaii n
oioinenoaiie II. Iaoiaeeony iii, eae iieaaatho, iaaeaeo ieanoioeiiiaie e
oeeoio?iiii f. Aoi?ia ianoi nouanoaoao i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iaaeaeo
aeoeaioi?ii oioinenoaiu I e IAAeO. ?. I. Aaeeia e I. A. Aonaa iieacaee,
/oi ia oeeaeieaeiuo iaia?aiao oeeaiiaaeoa?ee ia?yaeo n oioinenoaiie I
oioinenoaia II niiniaia ainnoaiaaeeaaoue 02 ia o?iaia ?aaeoeeiiiue
oeaio? — ia?ae/iue aeoeaioi?. Aianoa n oai ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeaoo
nenoai niaianoii eee ?acaeaeueii n 02 eae aeoeaioi?ii yeaeo?iiia eiaao
ia?aaioth yia?aaoe/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue. Iaia?oaeaii ioeeiiaiea
oioiiaiaia 02 io ii?iu eae i?e aeoeaaoeee, oae e i?e nieaeaiee
iiaeiuaiey 02, /oi ieacuaaao iaeeiaeiai oi?iicyuaa aeaenoaea ia
oioineioac. I?e aaaaeaiee a eeaoee i?aaie/aneeo eeneio, iaeaaeathueo
niiniaiinoueth aeoeae?iaaoue iiaeiuaiea 02 a oioinenoaia II (yaei/iie,
aeeieneeiaie, iaeiiiaie, uaaaeaaie) oioineioac nieaeaeny ia 50—70 %.
Oi?iiceo oioineioac e oaeaeaiea auaeaeyaiie a n?aaeo ia?aeene
aiaei?iaea. I?e niaianoiie eieoaaoeee neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae e
oei?iieanoia aunoeo ?anoaiee n aeoeaiui oioiiiaeiuaieai 02, iaiaauathuei
n?aaeo I202, oaeaea ia 50—70 % eiaeae?oaony oioineioac. Oaeei ia?acii,
ec yoeo iiuoia auoaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaeaea?aeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai
o?iaiy ainnoaiiaeaiiuo oi?i 02 aeey i?ioeanna oioineioaca eae ia/aea
iauaai iaoaaieecia eeaoee ia naaoo. A. E. Aa?neee n niaao. iaoee, /oi
oioineioaoe/aneia auaeaeaiea 02 eioaeoiuie eeaoeaie neiacaeaiuo
aiaei?ineae caaeneo io iiaa?oiinoiiai ca?yaea iaia?ai, ?aaoee?othuaai
noueiaeo ieanoioeeaieia n ?aaeoeeiiiuie oeaio?aie oioinenoaiu I. Eaaoaca
a auaeaeaiee 02, i/aaeaeii, iaoneiaeaia o?ainiaia?aiiui
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai eaoeiiia a ioaao ia ia?aciaaiea yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea I+ i?e yia?aecaoeee eeaoie inaauaieai. Ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
eaoeiiia i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth eo eiioeaio?aoeee a iee?iie?oaeaiee
ieanoioeeaieia e noeioeyoeee auaeaeaiey 02.

Enneaaeiaaiey I. Eaeueaeia iieacaee, /oi aeaaiue iooue anneieeyoeee N02
— oeeeee/aneee i?ioeann, a eioi?ue aaiaeeony N02 e ec eioi?iai auoiaeeo
oaea?iae.

Y. Eeaaa?o ?acaeaeyao yoio i?ioeann ia o?e oacu: Oaca ea?aieneee?iaaiey
N02, naycuaaynue n ?eaoeiciaeeoinoaoii, ia?acoao aeaa iieaeoeu
oinoiaeeoea?aoa i?e o/anoee oa?iaioa ?eaoeiciaeeoinoao-ea?aieneeacu. A
oaca ainnoaiiaeaiey oinoiaeeoea?ao i?e o/anoee IAAeO-I e AOO
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony aei 3-oinoiaeeoea?aeueaeaaeae?eaea. Caoai ianooiaao
oaca ?aaaia?aoeee, eiaaea eaaeaeay oanoay iieaeoea
oinoiaeeoea?aeueaeaaeaea auoiaeeo ec oeeeea e ec yoiai aauanoaa
ia?acoaony o?oeoici-1,6-aeeoinoao, ec iaai, a naith i/a?aaeue,
neioace?othony aetheica, naoa?ica, e?aoiae e o. i. Ec inoaeueiuo iieaeoe
oinoiaeeoea?aeueaeaaeaea i?e o/anoee iiauo iieaeoe AOO ?aaaia?e?oaony
?eaoeiciaeeoinoao (5N3—3N5). A ea/anoaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iaeoeoia
ia?acothony ?acee/iua oinoaou Naoa?ia (iai?eia?,
N4-y?eo?ici-N6-o?oeoici-N7-naaeiaaiooeiciaeeoinoao). N ieii/aieai yoie
oacu oeeee caiueaaony. I?ioeann yoio iieo/ee iacaaiea «N3-iooe», e ii
oa?aeoa?ai aeey aieueoeinoaa ?anoaiee.

I. Oao/ e N. Neye, a aua ?aiueoa TH. N. Ea?ieeia iaoee, /oi o iaeioi?uo
?anoaiee, i?aeiouanoaaiii o?iie/aneeo e noao?iie/aneeo (naoa?iiai
o?inoieea, eoeo?ocu e ae?.), NI2 i?eniaaeeiyaony e
oinoiaiieie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneioa (OAI) i?e o/anoee
oinoiaiieie?oaaoea?aieneeacu:

A ?acoeueoaoa ia?acoaony uaaaeaai-oenoniay eeneioa (UOE), a eioi?ie
niaea?aeeony /aou?a aoiia oaea?iaea. Oaeia i?eniaaeeiaiea NI2 iieo/eei
iacaaiea «N4-iooe». Yoa eeneioa i?aia?acoaony a yaei/ioth (a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo a ania?aaeiiaoth), a iineaaeiyy caoai iiaeaa?aaaony
o?ainaeaea?aieneee?iaaieth. I?e yoii N02 iouaieyaony e anooiaao a oeeee
Eaeueaeia, i?eniaaeeiyynue e ?eaoeiciaeeoinoaoo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
N4-iooue aeeth/aao aeaa ?aaeoeee ea?aieneee?iaaiey, /oi iicaieyao
?anoaieyi nicaeaaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua caianu oaea?iaea a eeaoeao.
?anoaiey, inouanoaeythuea oioineioac ii N4-iooe, eiatho aeaa oeia
oei?iieanoia? e?oiiua ieanoeaeu, /anoi eeoaiiua a?ai a eeaoeao
iaeeaaeee, ie?oaeathueo ninoaeenoua io/ee iaeeea a?aiaeueiua ieanoeaeu a
eeaoeao iacioeeea eenoa.

Ea?aieneee?iaaiea oinoiaiieie?iaeiia?aaeiie eeneiou inouanoaeyaony a
eeaoeao n iaeeeie oei?iieanoaie. Ia?aciaaaoayny uaaaeaai-oenoniay
eeneioa ia?aaeaeaaaony a eeaoee iaeeaaeee, aaea i?ioaeaao ?aaeoeey
o?ainea?aieneee?iaaiey e N02 anooiaao a oeeee Eaeueaeia. TH. N. Ea?ieeia
iacaae yoio iooue eiiia?aoeaiui, iineieueeo a iai i?eieiatho o/anoea
aeaa oeia eeaoie e aeaa oeia oei?iieanoia.

Oioineioaoe/aneay oeenaoeey oaea?iaea o neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae
inouanoaeyaony ii Nc-iooe n o/anoeai ?eaoeici-1,5-aeeoinoaoea?aieneeacu
(?AeOE) Ii a ioee/ea io ?anoaiee aiaei?inee iaeaaeatho aeoeaiui
o?ainii?oiui iaoaieciii, iicaieythuei iaeaieeaaoue iai?aaie/aneee
oaea?iae aioo?e eeaoee a eiioeaio?aoeee, eioi?ay i?aauoaao
eiioeaio?aoeeth oaea?iaea ai aiaoiae n?aaea. O aunoeo ?anoaiee ?AeOE
iaoiaeeony a ?anoai?aiiie oi?ia a no?iia oei?iieanoia, a o neiacaeaiuo
aiaei?ineae aieueoay /anoue ?AeOE eieaeeciaaia a ia?ae?enoaeee/aneeo
iieeyae?aeueiuo oaeao — ea?aieneniiao.

Iiuou n eniieueciaaieai ia/aiiai oaea?iaea o Aiacystis nidulans
iieacaee, /oi ia ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo ii aeeth/aeny a ania?oao e
aeooaiao, a caoai a aeaiei, o?aiiei, ecieaeoeei e aeeoeeina?ei, /oi
oa?aeoa?ii aeey N4-iooe oioineioaca. I?e auaea?aeeaaiee eoeueoo?u A.
nidulans a oneiaeyo oioiieeneaiey (y?eee naao, ieceay oaiia?aoo?a)
i?ienoiaeyo iioa?y oioineioaoe/aneeo ieaiaioia (oei?ioeeea a,
oeeioeeaieia, ea?ioeiieaeia) e iaanoeaa/eaaiea eeaoie, a oaeaea
aeaa?aaeaoeey iaia?ai oeeaeieaeia. Eiaeoeaaoeey oioinenoaiu I
i?ienoiaeeo auno?aa ii n?aaiaieth n oioinenoaiie I-Oiaiueoaiea
aeoeaiinoe oioinenoaiu I oei ia?aeeaeueii n iioa?ae eeaoeaie ieaiaioia,
aieioue aei iieiie eo iioa?e. Iinea ia?aianaiey eoeueoo? a iioeiaeueiua
oneiaey ?inoa i?ienoiaeee ?aneioac ieaiaioia e ainnoaiiaeaiea no?oeoo?u
oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Aeoeaiinoue oioinenoai I e II
ii?iaeeciaaeinue iaeiia?aiaiii.

Eeaoee Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, eae e ae?oaea iaeiieeaoi/iua
aiaei?inee, iaeaaeatho nenoaiie eiioeaio?e?iaaiey N02, iaania/eaathuae
yooaeoeaioth oioineioaoe/aneoth anneieeyoeeth yoiai noano?aoa i?e ieceeo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo aai a n?aaea. Yoa nenoaia, aoaeo/e yia?aicaaeneiie,
caioneaaony a aeaenoaea ia naaoo e aeeth/aao ianuuaaiue eiiiiiaio
o?ainii?oa iai?aaie/aneiai oaea?iaea, aa?iyoiaa anaai, yeaeo?iaaiiue
o?ainii?o aeae?iea?aiiaoa n o/anoeai ea?aiaiaeae?acu.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi a eeaoeao A. nidulans, au?auaiiuo i?e aunieeo
eioaineaiinoyo naaoa, eiaaea ioiioaiea oei?ioeeea e oeeioeeaieio ?aaii 1
: 3, i?aiaeaaeathuaa eiee/anoai oaeaeeneiou oeene?oaony /a?ac oeeee
Eaeueaeia, a a eeaoeao, au?auaiiuo i?e neaaii inaauaiee eee ia e?aniii
naaoo, eiaaea niaea?aeaiea oeeioeeaieia oaaee/eaaaony, N02 oeene?oaony
ii N4-iooe. Aeoeaiinoue iaeaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu e
?eaoeici-1,5-aeeoinoaoea?aieneeacu a yoeo oneiaeyo oiaiueoaaony, a
aeoeaiinoue oinoiaiieie?oaaoea?aieneeacu oaaee/eaaaony. Iniiaiuie
ia?ae/iuie i?iaeoeoaie yaeythony ania?oao, aeeoeei e na?ee, e
niaea?aeaiea iaoee ec N02 a ieo oaaee/eaaaony i?e eieoaaoeee eeaoie a
aoiinoa?a acioa e ia?aiinao eo ec oaiiiou ia naao. O Anabaena flosaquae,
Anacystis nidulans, Oscillatoria sp. aeoeaiinoue oinoiaiieea?aieneeacu a
1,5—5 ?ac auoa, /ai aeoeaiinoue ?eaoeiciaeeoinoaoeeiacu, o. a. ca n/ao
N4-iooe yoe aiaei?inee iiaoo oeene?iaaoue 65—70 % N02. O Spirulina
platensis iaia?oaeaiu eae oinoiaiieie?oaaoea?aieneeacu, oae e
?eaoeiciaeeoinoaoea?ai-eneeacu, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oeenaoeee
oaea?iaea ii Nc- e N4-iooe.

Oioineioaoe/aneia auaeaeaiea I2 eioaeoiuie eeaoeaie neiacaeaiuo
aiaei?ineae caaeneo io iiaa?oiinoiiai ca?yaea iaia?ai, ?aaoee?othueo
noueiaeo ieanoioeeaieia n ?aaeoeeiiiuie oeaio?aie oioinenoaiu I.

O iaeeaaoii-aoeeaeioeeueiie iaeiieeaoi/iie aiaei?inee Cyanidium
caldarium nei?inoue oioineioaoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey eenei?iaea caaeneo io
?I n?aaeu e oi?iu iai?aaie/aneiai oaea?iaea. I?e ieceii niaea?aeaiee
iai?aaie/aneiai oaea?iaea (0,03 iI) iaeneioi oioineioaca iaaethaeaeny a
iaeo?aeueiie iaeanoe ?I; i?e aunieii (0,6 iI) — oioineioac ia caaeneo io
?I a iaeanoe aaee/ei 3—7 e iaaeaao aei 0 i?e iiauoaiee ?I aei 9.
Aeeeoaeueiay eieoaaoeey eeaoie i?e ?I 7 i?ae?auaao ?ino, i?eaiaeeo e
iaaeaieth nei?inoe oioineioaca /a?ac 1 noo ia 50 %.

A iauae caaeneiinoe eioaineaiinoe oioineioaca io noaiaie inaauaiey o
?aciuo aiaei?ineae eiathony ii?aaeaeaiiua ioee/ey. O caeaiuo,
neiacaeaiuo e iaeiieeaoi/iuo caeaiuo aiaei?ineae iieacaoaeue
eioaineaiinoe i?ioaeaiey oioineioaca, ii?aaeaeyaiue eae ioiioaiea /enea
iieae auaeaeyaiiai 02 e /eneo iieae iiaeiuaaiiai N02 caaeneo io
eiee/anoaa iiaeiuaiiiai N02 a oaiiiaie oaca, i?aaeoanoaothuae naaoiaiio
ia?eiaeo. A eiaiii, aaee/eia eioaineaiinoe i?ioaeaiey oioineioaca oai
aieueoa, /ai aieueoa eiee/anoai iinooieaoaai a eeaoee N02. Ia iinoiyiiii
naaoo ai a?aiy naaoiaiai ia?eiaea nei?inoue iiaeiuaiey eeaoeaie N02, eae
i?aaeei, aic?anoaao ni a?aiaiai, oioy nei?inoue auaeaeaiey 02 i?e yoii
nieaeaaony. I/aaeaeii, iiaeiuaaiue a oaiiioa N02 nio?aiyaony aeey
eniieueciaaiey a oioineioaca a neaaeothueo ca oaiiiaie oacie ia?eiaeao
inaauaiey. Oaeay niiniaiinoue iniaaiii aaaeia aeey aiaei?ineae,
iaeoathueo a iaei caaooa?aiiuo i?aniuo aiaeao, iau/ii niaea?aeaueo
ieceea eiioeaio?aoeee N02. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aciua aeaeu Chlorella
ii-?aciiio ooeeece?otho iai?aaie/aneee oaea?iae. Oae, eeaoee Ch.
vulgaris e Ch. miniata a iniiaiii eniieuecotho a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea
oaea?iaea N02, a oi a?aiy eae Chlorella sp. e Ch. ellipsoidea e?iia N02
aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeiuatho INI-. Niinia ooeeecaoeee oaea?iaea yoeie
eeaoeaie ia caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee a n?aaea N02 ai a?aiy eo ?inoa.
Iai?ioea, eeaoee Ch. pyrenoidosa, au?auaiiua a n?aaea n 1,5 % N02, o. a.
iaiaauaiiua N02, oeene?iaaee aeaaiui ia?acii N02, ii i?e caiaia N02
aicaeooii eniieueciaaee ia?yaeo n N02 e HCO3.

E?iia oiai, oeenaoeey N02 iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iooai eniieueciaaiey
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiiai oeeeea ea?aiiiauo eeneio. Oae, o Anacystis nidulans
i?e nieaeaiee eiioeaio?aoeee N02 aei 0,03 % aic?anoaao aeoeaiinoue ?yaea
oa?iaioia oeeo?aoneioacu, aeiieoaoaeae?aoacu, ecioeeo?aoaeaaeae?iaaiacu
e aeooaiaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu.

Eco/aiea ia?ae/iuo i?iaeoeoia oioineioaca n iiiiuueth ecioiiiiai iaoiaea
o ieo/aoie oeeaiiaaeoa?ey Anabaena cylindrica iieacaei, /oi /a?ac 5 n
90—95 % 14N aeeth/aeinue a i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou oeeeea Eaeueaeia e
oieueei 1—4 % i?enoonoaiaaei a N4- aeeea?aiiiaie eeneioa, ania?oaoa.
Eiaeaeoi?u OAI-ea?aieneeacu ia aeeyee ia nei?inoue 14N02-iiaeiuaiey. Yoi
aiai?eo i oii, /oi a iniiaiii iiaeiuaiea oaeaeeneiou eaeao ca n/ao
?AeO-ea?aieneeacu. OAI-ea?aieneeaca, oioy e i?enoonoaoao a eeaoeao, ia
ea?aao oaeie ?iee, eae a N4-?anoaieyo. Nei?aa, iia neoaeeo
aeiiieieoaeueiui enoi/ieeii oaea?iaeiiai neaeaoa aeey aeineioaca
aieiieeneio.

Anoue oeacaiey e ia oi, /oi caeaiaiea Euglena gracilis iaeuecy
iauynieoue ie iaeiie ec oioineioaoe/aneeo ?aaeoeee, yoi ?anoaiea ioaeii
ia?aianoe a iiaoth a?oiio ?anoaiee, oeene?othueo iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai
N02 a N4-niaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua caoai aeaea?aieneee?othony aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey N02 a oeeeea Eaeueaeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, neiacaeaiua aiaei?inee iiaoo anneieee?iaaoue N02
?acee/iuie iooyie, a caaeneiinoe io eo aeaeiauo iniaaiiinoae e oaeoi?ia
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Anneieeyoeey N02 eiaao ?aciue oa?aeoa? i?e inaauaiee e a oaiiioa. A
iiuoao n Anacystis nidulans ia naaoo 60 % ia/aiie N02 iaia?oaeeaaaony a
oinoaoao Naoa?ia, a iinea ei?ioeie naaoiaie ia?aeieoaaoeee a oaiiioa — a
3-oinoiaeeoea?eiiaie eeneioa, oinoiaiieie?oaaoa, aeaieia, ania?aaeia. A
oaiiioa i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ieceiiieaeoey?iie ?IE,
ieii/aoaeueiue neioac eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony i?e inaauaiee. E?iia oiai,
o A. nidulans a oaiiioa neioace?oaony aeaa iiauo aeaea ?IE,
aeaaeae?e?othuea ia naaoo e 12 iiauo aaeeia. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaeeaaoii-oioio?ioiua neiacaeaiua aiaei?inee iaeaaeatho iaai?ii oaiiiauo
yia?aaoe/aneeo i?ioeannia, o. a. ia?eiae eo iaoiaeaeaiey a oaiiioa
yaeyaony iieiyuaeny noaaeeae.

E. ss. Aeeue e niaao. auneacaee i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi a eeaoeao
iaeiieeaoi/iie caeaiie aiaei?inee Chlamydomonas reinhardtii n
aeinoaoi/ii aunieei o?iaiai oaiiiaie oeenaoeee N02, aeinoeaathuei i?e 25
°N 16 % io oioineioaca, ia?yaeo n iaioicioinoaoiui ainnoaiiaeoaeueiui
oeeeeii i?ioaeaao na?ey aeioeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, eioi?ua iicaieytho n
aunieie yooaeoeaiinoueth anneieee?iaaoue N02 ia oieueei a oaiiiaie
ia?eiae, ii e ia naaoo i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ninoaa ieceiiieaeoey?iuo i?iaeoeoia oioineioaca,
aeeth/athuee iiiinaoa?eaeu, aeenaoa?eaeu, aeeoea?ei e ae?oaea aauanoaa,
neoaeeo oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii ioaeaeueiuo oaeniiiie/aneeo a?oii
aiaei?ineae e iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny i?e onoaiiaeaiee eo
nenoaiaoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o e?aniuo aiaei?ineae
iniiaiui i?iaeoeoii oioineioaca yaeyaony oei?eaeiceae
(aeeoea?ei-aaeaeoi-ie?aiica), o oa?iauo aiaei?ineae — naoa?ica, o
caeaiuo — naoa?ica e aeeoeei, o ao?uo — iaiieo, o neia-caeaiuo —
aeeoea?ei-aetheiie?aiiceae.

Aeoeaiinoue oioineioaca caaeneo io aicaeaenoaey aiaoieo oaeoi?ia.
Eco/aiea aeaenoaey iciia iieacaei, /oi eiioeaio?aoeey aai a 3 iI ia 50 %
iiaeaaeyao oioineioac e nieaeaao auaeaeaiea eenei?iaea o Chlorella sp.
I?e aieaa aeeeoaeueiii aicaeaenoaee (8—10 iei) i?ienoiaeeei iieiia
?ac?ooaiea ieaiaioiie nenoaiu eeaoie. Auneacuaaaony i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
icii aucuaaao iooie iniioe/anee aeoeaiuo iaoa?eaeia ec eeaoee, ia?ooaao
aa yia?aaoe/aneee ?aaeei e ?ac?ooaiea i?ioiieanoia, o. a. aeaenoaoao ia
i?aaiaeeu ia i?yii, a iiin?aaeiaaiii, aa?iyoiaa anaai, ia ieaciaeaiio, a
ia iai?aaeaii ia oei?iieanou.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi aeey eeaoie ii?neie aeeaoiiiaie aiaei?inee
Phaeodactulum tricornutum, iaoiaeyueony a ?aaiiaanee n N02, oa?aeoa?ia
caaeneiinoue oioineioaoe/aneiai auaeaeaiey eenei?iaea io niaea?aeaiey
iao?ey a n?aaea, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue caiaiai eaeeai, eeoeai eee
aiiiieai e ia aeeyao ia aeuoaiea. I?e iinoaiaiiie eiioeaio?aoeee N02
eiaeae?othuaa aeaenoaea ionoonoaey iao?ey ia oioineioaoe/aneia
auaeaeaiea eenei?iaea iaiaa caiaoii i?e ?I = 6,5, /ai i?e ?I = = 8,0,
eiaaea iai?aaie/aneee oaea?iae a n?aaea i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoiaeeony a
oi?ia aeae?iea?aiiaoa. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi iao?ee a aeaiiie
aiaei?inee yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii ooeeecaoeee aeae?iea?aiiaoa —
iniiaiiai niaaeeiaiey, a oi?ia eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony oioineioaoe/aneay
anneieeyoeey iai?aaie/aneiai oaea?iaea.

A iiuoao n Chlamydomonas reinhardtii iieacaii, /oi i?e au?aueaaiee
eeaoie a i?enoonoaee N02 iniiaiie ooeeece?oaiie oi?iie iai?aaie/aneiai
oaea?iae yaeyaony N02, a a eeaoeao, iaaaeiaiiuo ai a?aiy ?inoa N02,
?ieue oaeiai niaaeeiaiey auiieiyao aeea?aiiao INI-. Iaoaieci ooeeecaoeee
aeea?aiiaoa iniiaai ia i?aa?auaiee INI- a N02 aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth
ea?aiaiaeae?acu, eieaeeciaaiiie ia aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe ieaciaeaiiu.
Oaiiiaay aeano?oeoeey e?aoiaea a aiaei?ineyo Nhlamidomonas,
aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e aiay?iaeico, nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aciaaieai I2 e N02.
Auaeaeaiea N02 ia naaoo i?ienoiaeeo n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth, a
auaeaeaiea I2 — n iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoueth a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
inaauaiey. Iiauoaiea eioaineaiinoe naaoa a eioa?aaea io 40 aei 150 Ao/i2
nii?iaiaeaeaaony nieaeaieai nei?inoe auaeaeaiey N02 e onei?aieai
auaeaeaiey I2.

Ec yoiai neaaeoao iaee/ea acaeiinayce i?ioeannia, eaaeaueo a iniiaa
ia?aciaaiey N02 e I2 a eeaoeao aiaei?ineae.

I?e acioiii aieiaeaiee i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooaiea ieaiaioia. O Chlorella
vulgaris yoi ?ac?ooaiea eaeao a aeaa noaaeee: a oa/aiea ia?auo aeaoo
nooie ?ac?ooaaony oieueei oei?ioeee a, a caoai eaeao iaaeeaiiia
?ac?ooaiea oei?ioeeea b e inoaaoaainy oei?ioeeea a. Oiaiueoaiea
auaeeaaaiinoe eeaoie ei??aee?oao n auoeaaoaieai oei?ioeeea Ue. I?e
aeiaaaeaiee ieo?aoa niaea?aeaiea oei?ioeeea a ia/eiaao oaaee/eaaoueny
/a?ac 4 /, a oei?ioeeea b — /a?ac 6 /, eiaaea niioiioaiea oei?ioeeeia
a/Ue aeinoeaiao ii?iaeueiiai cia/aiey — 3,2. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?e
ainnoaiiaeaiee oioineioaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa eeaoie aiaei?ineae nei?inoue
neioaca ieaiaioia naaoiniae?athuaai oei?ioeeea aaeeiaiai eiiieaena, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e aeoeaiuo eiiiiiaioia oioinenoai I e II — n ae?oaie,
?aaoee?oaony aaee/eiie eo ioiioaiey.

Oioiaaoa?io?ioiinoue

Oioiaaoa?io?ioiue ia?ac aeecie, eae aeieacaii a iiuoao n ?aaeeiaeoeaiui
oaea?iaeii, oa?aeoa?ai aeey iiiaeo aeaeia aiaei?ineae, onaaeaathueo aei
30 i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee. Oae, Anacystis nidulans eaaei iiaeiuaao
iaeueoico, ie?iaeiia?aaeioth, oenonioth, nieaoiaeooa?iaoth e iiei/ioth
eeneiou. Nouanoaoao oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiay ecae?aoaeueiinoue e
i?aaie/aneiio noano?aoo o ?acee/iuo aiaei?ineae, iniaaiii i?e
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo inaauaiey. N?aaee i?aaie/aneeo noano?aoia anoue e
oaeea, eioi?ua ieacuaatho eiaeae?othuaa aeaenoaea ia ?ino aiaei?ineae:
i?iieiiao, oeenoaei e eiaeie eiaeae?otho Anacystis nidulans, aenoeaeei —
Synechocystis aquatilis, a eecei, aaeei, na?ei, aenoeaeei — Anabaena
variabilis. A. variabilis iiaeao ?anoe oioiaaoio?ioii, ii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue o?oeoico eae iniiaiie enoi/iee oaea?iaea a a oaiiioa e ia
naaoo. ?ino eoeueoo?u a n?aaea aac naycaiiiai acioa eeieoe?iaai N02,
oioy aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee N02 (>2 %) eiaeae?otho ?ino aiaei?inee. A oi
aea a?aiy oeenaoeey N02 oiaiueoaaony aei 75 % a i?enoonoaee 20 iI
o?oeoicu, a nei?inoue auaeaeaiey NUe oaaee/eaaaony aei eiioeaio?aoeee 10
iI, /oi naycuaatho n eiee/anoaii a eeaoea i?iaeoeoia oeenaoeee
oaea?iaea.

?ino A. variabilis a ia?aua 10 nooie iiae aeeyieai aetheicu,
ania?aaeiiaie, aeooaieiiaie eeneio i?eia?ii oaeie aea, eae e a eiio?iea.
E 20-i nooeai, eiaaea a eiio?ieueiii aa?eaioa ia ieia?aeueiie n?aaea
eoeueoo?a eece?oaony, ?ino ia n?aaea n i?aaie/aneeie aauanoaaie
eioaineaii i?iaeieaeaaony, o. a. aic?ano eoeueoo?u, i/aaeaeii, yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii aaoa?io?ioiinoe.

A iiuoao n eniieueciaaieai aoeaoaoa, ia/aiiiai ii oaea?iaeo, aeieacaia
aai i?yiay oioineioaoe/aneay anneieeyoeey eeaoeaie Nostos muscorum e
ae?. Aeey Oijypotrix tenuis oa?aeoa?ai ?ino a oaiiioa ca n/ao ieeneaiey
aetheicu e iio?aaeaiey aa ia naaoo. Onaiaiea oaeaaiaeia ia naaoo
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaeiieaieai aeeeiaaia, ia?acothuaainy oaeaea i?e
aaoio?ioiii e aaoa?io?ioiii ia?aca aeecie o neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae.
Oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee N02 oaaee/eaaao aeieth oaea?iaea,
aeeth/aiiiai a eeaoi/iue iaoaaieeci ec aoeaoaoa e aetheicu.

Eco/aiea i?aa?auaiey aetheicu, ia/aiiie a ?acee/iuo iieiaeaieyo a
eeaoeao Anabaena cylindrica, Anacystis variabilis e ae?., iieacaei, /oi
iii i?ienoiaeeo a iniiaiii ieeneeoaeueiui iooai e N02 ia?acoaony ec
iieiaeaiey N1, a ia ec iieiaeaiey N5. Yoi oaeaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao a
iieueco iaioicioinoaoiiai iooe anneieeyoeee aetheicu. Ia?aiin eeaoie ni
naaoa a oaiiioo aaaeao e auno?iio en/aciiaaieth oinoaoia Naoa?ia e
iaeiieaieth 6-oinoiaetheiiaoa, /oi aeieacuaaao i?aa?auaiea yiaeiaaiiuo
oaeaaiaeia aaeniciiiii-oinoaoiui iooai, iaania/eaathuei eeaoeo aieueoei
eiee/anoaii IAAeO-I (a oi a?aiy eae i?e aeeeieeca e a ?aaeoeeyo oeeeea
E?aana ia?acoaony a iniiaiii IAAeO). A naith i/a?aaeue, IAAeO-I
iaiaoiaeei aeey ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo neioacia iniiaiuo aauanoa eeaoie ec
ieceiiieaeoey?iuo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia d- e N5-naoa?aie, neoaeaueie aeey
neioaca ioeeaioeaeia e iaeioi?uo aieiieeneio.

A iaioicioinoaoiii oeeeea yeciaaiiua eee yiaeiaaiiua oaeaaiaeu iiaoo
ieeneyoueny aei eiioea, oioy ia o?iaia oinoiaeeoea?eiiaiai aeueaeaaeaea
iie iiaoo iaoaaieece?iaaoueny ii aeeeieeoe/aneiio oeeeeo.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi oei?iieanoa, auaeaeaiiua ec oioiaaoa?io?ioii
au?auaiiuo eeaoie Euglena gracilis, ioee/aeenue io aiaeiae/iuo
i?aia?aoia oei?iieanoia ec oieiaoa. Iie auee aieaa onoie/eau e aunieie
eiioeaio?aoeee i?oioinoaoa a n?aaea, ianiiniaiu e auaeaeaieth 02,
caaeneiiio io ienaeiaoeaoaoa, e ioee/aeenue ieceie nei?inoueth
auaeaeaiey 02 a i?enoonoaee 3-oinoiaeeoea?eiiaie eeneiou. I?e o?aiaiee
i?e 4 °N eciee?iaaiiua oei?iieanoe Euglena nio?aiyee naith aeoeaiinoue a
2—3 ?aca aeieueoa, /ai oei?iieanou oieiaoa, a /a?ac 8 / o?aiaiey o
oei?iieanoia yaaeaiu nei?inoue auaeaeaiey 02 ninoaaeyea 80 % io
enoiaeiie aaee/eiu.

Ianiio?y ia iaaeinoaoi/iia eco/aiea oioiaaoa?io?ioiiai ia?aca aeecie,
niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, aeeceeo e anoanoaaiiiio
nouanoaiaaieth neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae, oaeie iooue onaiaiey aauanoa
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui aeey ?aciiiaeaiey, ?acaeoey e
i?aiyonoaey eeceno io oioiieeneaiey.

Oaiii?aaiio?ioiinoue

Oaiii?aaiio?ioiue ia?ac aeecie i?enou i?eia?ii 30 aeaeai neiacaeaiuo
aiaei?ineae n ieo/aoui no?iaieai (Nostoc punctiforme, Phormidium
foveolarum, Oscillatoria sp. e ae?.). Iaia?oaeai oeaeue ?yae yoeo
?anoaiee, ?acaeaathueony a oaiiioa ia n?aaea n aetheicie eee naoa?icie.
O iaeiieeaoi/iuo aiaei?ineae oaiiiaia ?acaeoea ano?a/aaony ai?acaei
?aaea, iii oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaeioi?uo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?iaeia Aphanocapsa
e Chlorogloea.

A aaoa?io?ioiuo oneiaeyo a oaiiioa i?e aeiaaaeaiee aetheicu oi?ioi
?anoao Chlorococcum infusionum, i?e/ai eioaineaiinoue ?inoa
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia eiioeaio?aoeee aetheicu, oioy i?e 0,1—0,2 % aetheicu
?inoiaua i?ioeannu ionoonoaiaaee. Oaeie aea noeioee?othuee yooaeo
ieacuaaao a?aaeiica. Aianoa n oai Chlorococcum ia ?anoao a i?enoonoaee
oenoniie eeneiou, naoa?icu, aeaeaoeia a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia oaea?iaea e
i/aiue neaai ?anoao i?e aeiaaaeaiee a ieoaoaeueiua n?aaeu aoeaoaoa
iao?ey, aeeoea?eia e aaeaeoicaieia.

Enoi/ieeii oaea?iaea aeey oaiii?aaiio?ioia yaeythony oaeaaiaeu
(aetheica, naoa?ica, ?eaica, iaeueoica, iaiiica e ae?.), a enoi/ieeii
acioa — ieo?ao, NH4 eee aieiieeneiou. A?aiy eo ia?aoiaea e ?aciiiaeaieth
a oneiaeyo oaiiiou nieaeaaony a 3—5 ?ac, ?ino iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo a
ay?iaiuo oneiaeyo. O i?aaenoaaeoaeae Nostoc ii iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny
aac aeinooia aicaeooa. Ana yoi iicaieyao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi n?aaee
neiacaeaiuo aiaei?ineae nouanoaotho ana ia?aoiaeiua oi?iu io iaeeaaoiuo
oioio?ioia aei aaoa?io?ioia. Oae, o Nostoc linckia i?e aeiaaaeaiee
aetheicu, o?oeoicu, naoa?icu, iaeueoicu e eaeoicu noeioee?oaony
oiaiaaoa?io?ioiue ?ino oeeaiiaaeoa?ee, oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea
oei?ioeeea e aaeea, oneeeaaaony iiaeiuaiea aiiea/iiai acioa e
ieo?iaaiaciay aeoeaiinoue. Aetheica, o?oeoica e naoa?ica oaeaea
iiaeaea?aeeaaee neaaue oaiiaaoa?io?ioiue ?ino, a eiaeae?otho aai
eaoiaeooa?ao, ie?oaao, noeoeeiao, aoeaoao, ni?aica e oi?iao.

?ino Nostoc muscorum aeiee?oaony a i?enoonoaee aeeo?iia — ecaanoiiai
eiaeaeoi?a anneieeyoeee N02 a oioineioace?othueo i?aaieciao. Aianoa n
oai iooaio yoie aiaei?inee onoie/ea e 5- 10-5 I aeeo?iia i?e oioio?ioiuo
oneiaeyo ?inoa, iiaeao eniieueciaaoue aeaiiia niaaeeiaiea a ea/anoaa
enoi/ieea oaea?iaea e acioa e ia niiniaai ?anoe oioiaaoio?ioii, o. a.
iooaio eeoai niiniaiinoe e oioineioaoe/aneie oeenaoeee NI2.

I. A. Oeoiiianeie e A. Ae. Aieiaea?neei auyaeaiu aioeaaiu, eioi?ua
?anniao?eaathony a ea/anoaa oaiioeie/aneeo ia?ea?ia eeaoee Euglena
gracilis a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeceieiae/aneeo ninoiyieyo — oioio?ioiii e
aaoa?io?ioiii. Iaee/ea oaeeo ia?ea?ia iicaieyao ia oieueei oanoe?iaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea eeaoee, ii e eiio?iee?iaaoue
eciaiaiea eeaoi/iiai iaoaaieecia i?e ia?aoiaea eeaoee ec aaoio?ioiiai a
aaoa?io?ioiia ninoiyiea e ia?aoii.

I?iaeoeou iaoaaieecia aetheicu iiaoo ieacuaaoue oiene/aneia aeaenoaea ia
i?aaieci oaiii?aaiio?ioia i?e aaoa?io?ioiii ?inoa a oaiiioa. Yoi, a
/anoiinoe, ioiineony e Plectonema boryanum, ?ino aa oniaoii
i?iaeieaeaaony i?e iai?a?uaiii ia?anaaa eoeueoo?u (aeeaeeca). A
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo i?iec?anoaiey ia?acothueany oiene/aneea i?iaeoeou
iinoiyiii oaeaeythony e a?aaea ia i?eiinyo.

Ii/oe ana neiacaeaiua aiaei?inee, niiniaiua e oioiaaoa?io?ioiiio ?inoo,
aeey i?ioeannia iaoaaieecia ioaeaeathony a eenei?iaea, i?e/ai yia?aeth
iie iieo/atho ca n/ao ieeneeoaeueiiai oinoi?eee?iaaiey. Nei?inoue yoiai
i?ioeanna yaeyaony iniiaiui iiiaioii, ia?aie/eaathuei ?ino
oaiiaaoa?io?ioia a oaiiioa.

A oneiaeyo oaiiiaiai ?acaeoey i?ienoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiia eiaeae?iaaiea
neioaca iaia?aiiuo no?oeoo? e ieaiaioia. Oae, eaiaeeu iaia?ai i?eieiatho
aanii?yaei/iia ?aniieiaeaiea, a oi a?aiy eae a aaoio?ioieo oneiaeyo iie
?aniieaaathony ia?aeeaeueii. A oaiiioa ianeieueei oa?yaony niaea?aeaiea
oei?ioeeea, oeeiy?eo?eia, oeeioeeaieia e ae?oaeo ieaiaioia.

Oaeei ia?acii, aieaa caiaaeeaiiue ?ino a oaiiioa i?e nio?aiaiee
ieaiaioiie nenoaiu e oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinoe iicaieyao i?aaieciai
nio?aiyoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue e yaeyaony, i/aaeaeii, i?eniiniaeaieai
e iaaeaaii?eyoiui oneiaeyi aeecie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Ne?aiei E. A., Eiceoeeay A. I. Aeieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa
aiaei?ineae e ea/anoai aiaeu. — E., 1988

2. Naeaae/ A. E. Yeciiaoaaieeou i?aniiaiaeiuo aiaei?ineae. — E., 1985

3. Iieaaie A. A. Oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. — I., 1999

4. Eo?n iecoeo ?anoaiee/Iiae ?aae. I. A. Ai?eaiei. — I.: Auno. oe., 1981

5.Aeioeiey/I. A. Eo/a?aiei, TH. Ae. Aaaaithe, A. I. Aaneeueaa e ae?. —
E.,1998

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020