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Физиология терморегуляции

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AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

eaoaae?a oeceieiaee /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo

?AOA?AO

Ia oaio:

«Oeceieiaey oa?ii?aaoeyoeee»

IEINE, 2008

Ii niiniaiinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iinoiyiioth oaiia?aoo?o oaea aeeaioiua
aeaeyony ia iieeeeioa?iiuo, aiiieioa?iiuo e aaoa?ioa?iiuo.

Iieeeeioa?iiua i?aaieciu (io a?a/. poikilos — eciai/eaue) ia niiniaiu
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaiia?aoo?o oaea ia iinoiyiiii o?iaia, oae eae iie
au?aaaouaatho iaei oaiea e eiatho ianiaa?oaiiua iaoaieciu aai
nio?aiaiey.

Aiiieioa?iiua i?aaieciu (io a?a/. homeo — iiaeiaiue, iaeeiaeiaue), e
eioi?ui ioiineony e /aeiaae, au?aaaouaatho iiiai oaiea, ioee/athony
ioiineoaeueiui iinoiyinoaii oaiia?aoo?u oaea, iacia/eoaeueii
eciaiythuaeny a oa/aiea nooie.

Aaoa?ioa?iiua i?aaieciu (io a?a/. heteros — ae?oaie) ioee/athony oai,
/oi eieaaaiey oaiia?aoo?u eo oaea i?aauoatho a?aieoeu, naienoaaiiua
aiiieioa?iiui aeeaioiui. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?aiieo yoaiia iioiaaiaca,
ceiiae niy/ee iaeioi?uo aiiieioa?iiuo aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea aeey
ieaeiieoathueo e ioeoe n i/aiue iaeuie ?acia?aie oaea.

Oaiia?aoo?iue oaeoi? ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue i?ioaeaiey oa?iaioaoeaiuo
i?ioeannia, ananuaaiey, i?iaaaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey e iuoa/iiai
nie?auaiey.

Ecaanoii, /oi a iiaa?oiinoiuo e aeoaieeo o/anoeao oaea /aeiaaea
oaiia?aoo?a ?acee/ia. Aioo?aiiea iaeanoe oaea, ninoaaeythuea i?eia?ii 50
% aai iannu, iacaaiu «yae?ii». Nthaea ioiinyo iica, na?aeoea, ia/aiue e
ae?oaea aioo?aiiea i?aaiu. Oaiia?aoo?a «yae?a» aa?uee?otho
iacia/eoaeueii, ninoaaeyy aaee/eio ii?yaeea 36,7—37°N. Aianoa n oai a
?aciuo o/anoeao «yae?a» iieacaoaee oaiia?aoo?u iiaoo ianeieueei.

Aeey eeeie/aneeo oeaeae ioeaiea oaiia?aoo?u «yae?a» i?iaiaeeony a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo, eaaei aeinooiiuo o/anoeao oaea, oaiia?aoo?a eioi?uo
i?aeoe/anee ia ioee/aaony io oaiia?aoo?u aioo?aiieo i?aaiia. Oaeeie
aeinooiiuie o/anoeaie yaeythony i?yiay eeoea, iieinoue ?oa, iiaeiuoa/iay
aiaaeeia. Ecaanoii, /oi i?aeueiay (iiaeuycu/iay) oaiia?aoo?a iau/ii
ieaea ?aeoaeueiie ia 0,2—0,5 °N, aeneeey?iay (a iaeanoe iiaeiuoa/iie
yiee) ieaea ia 0,5—0,8 °N. I?e ieioiii i?eaeaoee ?oee e a?oaeiie eeaoea
a?aieoea aioo?aiiaai neiy «yae?a» ii/oe aeioiaeeo aei iiaeiuoa/iie
aiaaeeiu, iaeiaei aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoiai aeieaeii i?ieoe ieiei 10 iei.
Aeneeey?iay oaiia?aoo?a caei?iaiai /aeiaaea ?aaia 36,0— 36,9 °N.

Oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy oaea oieueiie 2,5 ni, iacuaaaiiai
«iaiei/eie» oaea, aa?uee?oao a ?aciuo iaeanoyo oaea i?e ?aciie
oaiia?aoo?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. I?e eiioi?oiie ie?oaeathuae oaiia?aoo?a
n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a eiaee iaiaaeaiiiai /aeiaaea ninoaaeyao 33—34 °N.
I?e yoii oaiia?aoo?a eiaee noiiu cia/eoaeueii ieaea oaiia?aoo?u
i?ieneiaeueiuo o/anoeia ieaeieo eiia/iinoae e a aua aieueoae noaiaie —
ooeiaeua e aieiau. Oaiia?aoo?a eiaee a iaeanoe noiiu a eiioi?oiuo
oneiaeyo iiaeao auoue ?aaia 24—28 °N, a i?e eciaiaieyo aiaoiae
oaiia?aoo?u — 13—53 °N, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy oaeoi?aie —
oaiia?aoo?ie aiaoiae n?aaeu e e?iainiaaaeaieai eiaee noiiu.

O aieueoeinoaa ieaeiieoathueo oaiia?aoo?a oaea niioaaonoaoao aeeaiaciio
36—39 °N, ianiio?y ia oe?ieea aa?eaoeee ?acia?ia oaea o ?acee/iuo
aeeaioiuo. Eioaineaiinoue iaoaaieecia (oaieii?iaeoeoeee) ii?aaeaeyaony
eae iannie oaea, oae e aaee/eiie ioaea/e oaiea n iiaa?oiinoe oaea. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei oaieii?iaeoeoeey ia 1 ea iannu aeieaeia auoue auoa o
aeeaioiuo n iaaieueoeie ?acia?aie oaea e n aieueoei, /ai o e?oiiuo
aeeaioiuo, ioiioaieai ieiuaaee iiaa?oiinoe e aaee/eia iannu oaea.

Oaiia?aoo?a oaea ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai aeaoo i?ioeannia —
oaieii?iaeoeoeee e oaieiioaea/e. Eiaaea iie ia niioaaonoaotho ae?oa
ae?oao e aicieeaao oa?ica eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u oaea, i?ioeannu
?aaoeyoeee a ninoaaa ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu oa?ii?aaoeyoeee aaeaioeaii
iaiytho oaieii?iaeoeoeeth (oeie/aneay oa?ii?aaoeyoeey) e oaieiioaea/o
(oece/aneay oa?ii?aaoeyoeey). Oai naiui iaania/eaaaony ioiineoaeueiay
noaaeeueiinoue oaiia?aoo?iie eiinoaiou aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia, /oi
auei iacaaii E.Aa?ia?ii iniiaie «naiaiaeiie, iacaaeneiie aeecie». A
naiii aeaea, oaiia?aoo?a oaea iaiaaeaiiiai /aeiaaea iiaeao inoaaaoueny
noaaeeueiie a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo ieioo i?e eciaiaieyo oaiia?aoo?u
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a i?aaeaeao 21—53 °N.

Iiae oeie/aneie oa?ii?aaoeyoeeae iiieiatho eciaiaiey eioaineaiinoe
iaoaaiee/aneeo yecioa?ie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, a oiaea eioi?uo ia?acoaony
oaiei. I?e aeaenoaee ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea oieiaea ia?aciaaiea oaiea
iiaeao iiauneoueny a 3—5 ?ac.

?acee/atho nie?aoeoaeueioth e ianie?aoeoaeueioth oaieii?iaeoeoeeth.

Nie?aoeoaeueiay oaieii?iaeoeoeey naycaia n i?iecaieueiuie e
iai?iecaieueiuie nie?auaieyie neaeaoiuo iuooe.

I?iecaieueiua nie?auaiey iiaoo i?eaanoe e iiiaie?aoiiio oaaee/aieth
oaieiia?aciaaiey, i?e yoii iiauoathony e oaieiiioa?e ca n/ao oneeaiey
ioaea/e oaiea eiiaaeoeeae.

Iaeiei ec aeaeia iai?iecaieueiie oaieii?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony ae?iaeue —
niaoeeoe/aneee oei iuoa/iiai nie?auaiey, aicieeathuee o /aeiaaea i?e
cia/eoaeueiii nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia e
iiauoathuee ia?aciaaiea oaiea a ianeieueei ?ac. A ioee/ea io
oaieiia?aciaaiey i?e i?iecaieueiuo iuoa/iuo nie?auaieyo oaieiia?aciaaiea
i?e ae?iaee yaeyaony yeiiiiiui niiniaii oaieii?iaeoeoeee, oae eae iniaue
oei nie?aoeoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe aunieiii?iaiauo aeaeaaoaeueiuo aaeeieoe
i?e ae?iaee iaania/eaaao ia?aoiae a oaieiaoth yia?aeth ii/oe anae
yia?aee iuoa/iiai nie?auaiey.

Ae?oaei aeaeii iai?iecaieueiie oaieii?iaeoeoeee yaeythony
oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iua oiie/aneea nie?auaiey (oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iue oiion),
?acaeaathueany a iaeanoe iuooe nieiu, oae e a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
iaeanoyo. Oaieii?iaeoeoeey i?e yoii aic?anoaao i?eia?ii ia 40—50 %.
Oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iua oiie/aneea nie?auaiey neaeaoiuo iuooe ia/eiathony i?e
nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u aiaoiae n?aaeu i?eia?ii ia 2°N ioiineoaeueii
o?iaiy eiioi?oa. Oaeea nie?auaiey eiatho oa?aeoa? coa/aoiai oaoaiona,
aeeceiai e ?aaeeio iaeeii/iuo nie?auaiee. Oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iue oiion
yaeyaony aieaa oiieei n?aaenoaii iiauoaiey oaieii?iaeoeoeee, /ai aeaa
i?aaeuaeoueo.

Ianie?aoeoaeueiue oa?iiaaiac oaeaea yaeyaony iaoaieciii oeie/aneie
oa?ii?aaoeyoeee, cia/eoaeueii au?aaeaiiui a aaeaioe?iaaiiii e oieiaeo
i?aaiecia. Aeiey oaeiai iaoaiecia a iaania/aiee i?e?inoa
oaieii?iaeoeoeee ia oieiaea iiaeao ninoaaeyoue 50—70 %. ?acaeaaaony yoi
yaeaiea a ?acee/iuo oeaiyo. Niaoeeoe/aneei noano?aoii oaeie
oaieii?iaeoeoeee n/eoaaony ao?ay aee?iaay oeaiue, iinea oaeaeaiey
eioi?ie onoie/eainoue i?aaiecia e oieiaeo nouanoaaiii nieaeaaony. Ianna
ao?ie aee?iaie oeaie, iau/ii ninoaaeythuay 1— 2 % iannu oaea, i?e
aaeaioaoeee e oieiaeo iiaeao oaaee/eaaoueny aei 5 % iannu oaea. O?iaaiue
yia?aaoe/aneiai iaiaia aeaiiie oeaie, au?aaeaiiue ia aaeeieoeo iannu,
aieaa /ai ao?ia i?aauoaao o?iaaiue ?aaioathueo iuooe; nei?inoue
ieeneaiey aee?iuo eeneio a ao?ie aee?iaie oeaie a 20 ?ac i?aauoaao yoo
nei?inoue a aaeie aee?iaie oeaie.

Oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iay ?ieue ao?ie aee?iaie oeaie iieiinoueth iaynia.
I?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iia yaeyaony aiaaoui enoi/ieeii naiaiaeiuo aee?iuo
eeneio — noano?aoa ieeneeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee, nei?inoue eioi?uo i?e
aeaenoaee oieiaea aic?anoaao. A naiie ao?ie aee?iaie oeaie i?e aeaenoaee
oieiaea ?anooo e?iaioie e o?iaaiue iaiaia aauanoa, oaaee/eaaaony
oaiia?aoo?a, ianiio?y ia nieaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u eiaee iaae yoie oeaiueth.
Ionthaea aicieeea iiioey?iay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeiioaca i eaei?eoa?iie
?iee ao?ie aee?iaie oeaie: i?e aeaenoaee oieiaea iia iaia?aaaao
aeeceaaeauea e?oiiua ninoaeu, iai?aaeythuea e?iaue e aieiaiiio iicao. O
ac?ineiai /aeiaaea yoa oeaiue eieaeeciaaia a iaeanoe oae, a
iaaeeiiaoi/iie iaeanoe, a n?aaeinoaiee ieiei ai?ou, e?oiiuo aai e
neiiaoe/aneie oeaii/ee. A ceiiaa a?aiy aiaea o ethaeae, ?aaioathueo aia
iiiauaiey, ao?ay aee?iaay oeaiue aeia?o?ioe?iaaia e aieaa aeoeaia, /ai a
eaoiaa a?aiy.

Oaieiioaea/a inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai iioieia
oaiea. Aieaa iieiaeiu aioo?aiiaai iioiea io enoi/ieeia ia?aciaaiey oaiea
e iiaa?oiinoe oaea iaania/eaaaony iooai eiiaaeoeee e?iaueth, inoaeueiia
oaiei i?iaiaeeony /a?ac ae?oaea oeaie. I?e yoii oaieii?iaiaeiinoue oeaie
caaeneo io aa oieueiu e eiee/anoaa aee?iaie eeao/aoee, a oaeaea io
o?iaiy e?iaioiea a yoii neia.

?ieue e?iaioiea naycaia n oai, /oi ii iiaeao cia/eoaeueii aa?uee?iaaoue
ca n/ao eciaiaiee i?inaaoa ninoaeia, a /anoiinoe ninoiyiey
a?oa?eiei-aaioey?iuo aianoiiicia.

E?iainiaaaeaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo o/anoeia oaea ea?aao aanueia aaaeioth
oa?ii?aaoeyoi?ioth ?ieue, iaania/eaay aiaoiee iioie oaiea. «Ea?a»
ninoaeia eiaee iaeueoeaa iiaeao iaiyoue e?iaioie a iae a 100 ?ac. I?e
iieiie aaciaeeeaoaoeee oaieiioaea/a iiaeao oaaee/eoueny a 8 ?ac ii
n?aaiaieth n o?iaiai iieiie aacieiino?eeoeee.

Oaieii?iaiaeiinoue oeaiae, e?iia oiai, ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii
eniieueciaaiey i?ioeaioi/iie nenoaiu ninoaeia, eioi?ay eiaaony,
iai?eia?, a eiia/iinoyo. Oae, a oneiaeyo oieiaea aaiiciay e?iaue
iooaeaao a iniiaiii ia ii iiaa?oiinoiui aaiai, eae yoi auaaao a oaiea, a
ii aeoaieei aaiai. A ?acoeueoaoa aaiiciay e?iaue nia?aaaaony e?iaueth
ia?aeeaeueii i?ioiaeyueo ?yaeii a?oa?ee e ia ioeaaeaeaaony a oie
noaiaie, eae yoi auaaao i?e iiaa?oiinoiii iioiea e?iae.

Iaeiaei cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea e?iaioiea a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo oaea i?e
aeaenoaee oieiaea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e ia?ooaieth e?iainiaaaeaiey yoeo
oeaiae e ioii?iaeaieyi..

Ia?oaeiue iioie oaiea iaania/eaaaony iooai aai i?iaaaeaiey, eiiaaeoeee,
eceo/aiey e enia?aiey.

1. Anee eiaea oaieaa ie?oaeathuaai aicaeooa, i?ienoiaeeo anoanoaaiiay
eiiaaeoeey, o.a. ia?aiauaiea iaa?aaaaiiai eiaeae neiy aicaeooa aaa?o e
aai caiauaiea aieaa oieiaeiui aicaeooii. Oi?ne?iaaiiay eiiaaeoeey,
eiathuay ianoi i?e aeaeaeaieyo oaea eee aicaeooa, cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao
eioaineaiinoue oaieiioaea/e.

2. I?e iia?oaeaiee /aeiaaea a aiaeo, oaiia?aoo?a eioi?ie ieaea
iaeo?aeueiie (aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae yoa oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu ?aaia
31—36 °N), iiaeao a 2—4 ?aca iiauneoueny ia?oaeiue iioie oaiea ca n/ao
i?iaaaeaiey, oae eae oaieii?iaiaeiinoue aiaeu a 25 ?ac i?aauoaao
oaieii?iaiaeiinoue aicaeooa. Iniiaiui iaoaieciii ioaea/e oaiea oaeii
/aeiaaea a aiaea yaeyaony, iaeiaei, eiiaaeoeey. Ca n/ao iaa
ioeaaeaeathuaa aeaenoaea i?ioi/iie aiaeu a 50—100 ?ac i?aauoaao
aicaeaenoaea aicaeooa. Anee oaiia?aoo?a aiaeu aeecea e ioeth («eaaeyiay
aiaea»), oi oaei /aeiaaea ioeaaeaeaaony ni nei?inoueth 6 °N a /an, a
/a?ac 1— 3 / iiaeao ianooieoue nia?oue.

Ieaaaiea a aiaea, oaiia?aoo?a eioi?ie ieaea o?iaiy eiioi?oa,
cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao ioaea/o oaiea eiiaaeoeeae. Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey
a i?aaiecia aee?a iiaeao ia?aie/eoue oaeie yooaeo.

3. Oaieiioaea/a eceo/aieai iaania/eaaaony eio?ae?aniuie eo/aie n aeeeiie
aieiu 5—20 iei. Yoe eo/e enioneathony eiaeae i?e iaee/ee ia iaeioi?ii
?annoiyiee io iaa i?aaeiaoia n aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie. Iaiaaeaiiue
/aeiaae iiaeao oa?youe oaeei iooai aei 60 % oaiea.

4. Ieiei 20 % oaieiioaea/e oaea /aeiaaea a oneiaeyo eiioi?oiie
oaiia?aoo?u n?aaeu inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao enia?aiey. Yoio iooue yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii ioaea/e oaiea a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, anee aa
oaiia?aoo?a ieacuaaaony ?aaiie oaiia?aoo?a oaea. Iooai enia?aiey 1 e
aiaeu /aeiaae iiaeao ioaeaoue o?aoue anaai oaiea, au?aaaouaaaiiai a
oneiaeyo iieiy a oa/aiea nooie. Iiauoaiea nei?inoe iioiioaeaeaiey
yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iaoaieciia aaeaioaoeee e aea?eiio eeeiaoo.

Nouanoaoao aeaa aa?eaioa enia?aiey aiaeu n iiaa?oiinoe oaea: 1)
enia?aiea iioa a ?acoeueoaoa aai auaeaeaiey, 2) enia?aiea aiaeu,
ieacaaoaeny ia iiaa?oiinoe iooai aeeooocee, — «iaiuooeiua» iioa?e aiaeu.
Iineaaeiee iaoaieci iaania/eaaao iioa?e aiaeu (aei 600 ie a nooee) e
oaiea, iai?eia?, /a?ac neecenoua iaiei/ee aicaeooiiiniuo iooae.
Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a iaania/aiea aaeaioeaiuo iaoaieciia eciaiaiey
oaieiioaea/e aiineo iiaaaeai/aneee eiiiiiaio ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu
oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. A oneiaeyo oieiaea iiaaaeai/aneay ?aaoeyoeey iiaeao
auoue aanueia yooaeoeaiie, nouanoaaiii ia?aie/eaay eiioaeo i?aaiecia n
aiaoiae n?aaeie. Iaeaaeaea /aeiaaea i?eia?ii aaeaia oiaiueoaao iioa?e
oaiea ii n?aaiaieth n oaieiioaea/ae iaiaaeaiiiai oaea, iaeaaeaea
«a?eoe/aneiai oeia» iiaeao oiaiueoaoue ioaea/o oaiea a 5—6 ?ac.

Ciia oaiia?aoo?iiai eiioi?oa /aeiaaea caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a aiaoiae
n?aaeu, ii?aaeaeyaiiai aa aeaeii, oaiia?aoo?ie, aeaaeiinoueth (anee yoie
n?aaeie yaeyaony aicaeoo), nei?inoueth aeaeaeaiey, iaee/eai i?aaeiaoia n
eiie oaiia?aoo?ie ii n?aaiaieth n oaiia?aoo?ie oaea. A ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo ?acaeaaaony ninoiyiea oaiia?aoo?iiai eiioi?oa, i?e yoii
aeoeaiinoue iaoaieciia oa?ii?aaoeyoeee ieacuaaaony ieieiaeueiie. Ciia
eiioi?oa (oa?iiiaeo?aeueiay ciia) i?e aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa ieiei 50 % e
?aaainoaa oaiia?aoo? aicaeooa e noai iiiauaiey aeey eaaei iaeaoiai
/aeiaaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a iieiaeaiee neaey, niioaaonoaoao oaiia?aoo?a
25—26 °N. Aeey iaiaaeaiiiai /aeiaaea oaiia?aoo?a eiioi?oa a yoeo
oneiaeyo niauaaony e 28 °N.

?aaoeyoeey oaiia?aoo?u oaea.

Ia?eoa?e/aneea oa?ii?aoeaioi?u, ia?aciaaiiua naiaiaeiuie ieii/aieyie
oiieeo naini?iuo aieieii oeia A (aeaeueoa) e N, eieaeeciaaiu a eiaea e
aioo?aiieo i?aaiao. Nouanoaotho e oeaio?aeueiua, eieaeeciaaiiua a
aeiioaeaiona, oa?ii?aoeaioi?u.

Eiaeiua oa?ii?aoeaioi?u ?aaeecotho ia?aaea/o a oeaio?u oa?ii?aaoeyoeee
neaiaeia ia eciaiaieyo oaiia?aoo?u n?aaeu, a oaeaea iaania/eaatho
oi?ie?iaaiea oaiia?aoo?iuo iuouaiee. *enei oieiaeiauo ?aoeaioi?ia eiaee
ai iiiai ?ac i?aauoaao /enei oaieiauo ?aoeaioi?ia. Ai aioo?aiieo i?aaiao
e oeaiyo oaeaea i?aiaeaaeatho oieiaeiaua ?aoeaioi?u.

A nieiiii e n?aaeiai iicaa, a oaeaea a aeiioaeaiona (aieaa anaai a aai
iaaeeaeueiie i?aiioe/aneie iaeanoe) iaeaeaiu oeaio?aeueiua
oa?ii?aoeaioi?u, iacuaaaiua oaeaea oa?iinaini?aie. Yoi iae?iiu, eioi?ua
iiaoo aicaoaeaeaoueny i?e eo iaiin?aaenoaaiiii ioeaaeaeaiee, iaa?aaaiee
ia 0, 1iN eee aieaa e a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiyoue eioaineaiinoue eae
oaieii?iaeoeoeee, oae e oaieiioaea/e i?aaiecia a oeaeii. Iai?eia?, i?e
iaa?aaaiee i?aiioe/aneie iaeanoe aeiioaeaiona iaiaaeeaiii oaaee/eaaaony
iioiioaeaeaiea, ?anoe?ythony ninoaeu eiaee, i?e yoii oaieii?iaeoeoeey
oiaiueoaaony. O/auaiea ?ac?yaeia oaieiauo iae?iiia i?aaeoanoaoao
iiauoaieth /anoiou aeuoaiey, i?e eioi?ii oaeaea ?anoao oaieiioaea/a. N
caaeiei aeiioaeaionii a naith i/a?aaeue naycaiu oa?ii/oanoaeoaeueiua
no?oeoo?u n?aaeiaai e nieiiiai iicaa. Oaeei ia?acii, oeaio?aeueiua
aiia?aou ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu oa?ii?aaoeyoeee eiatho aieueoia /enei
aoiaeiuo eaiaeia.

Oeaio? oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Aaaeouoth ?ieue a oa?ii?aaoeyoeee ea?atho
no?oeoo?u aeiioaeaiona, /oi auei aeieacaii iaoiaeii ia?a?acie iicaa.
Oae, o eioee ia?a?acea ?ino?aeueiaa aeiioaeaiona ia i?eaiaeeo e
nouanoaaiiui eciaiaieyi oa?ii?aaoeyoeee, ii iinea ia?ooaiey naycae
aeiioaeaiona ni n?aaeiei iicaii aeeaioiua i?aeoe/anee oa?ytho
niiniaiinoue eciaiyoue oaieii?iaeoeoeeth e oaieiioaea/o i?e
oaiia?aoo?iii ?acae?aaeaiee.

I?aaeiieaaaaony iaee/ea a aeiioaeaiona o?ao aeaeia oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iuo
iae?iiia:

1) aooa?aioiuo iae?iiia, i?eieiathueo neaiaeu io ia?eoa?e/aneeo e
oeaio?aeueiuo oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia;

2) anoaai/iuo, eee eioa?iae?iiia;

3) yooa?aioiuo iae?iiia, aeniiu eioi?uo eiio?iee?otho aeoeaiinoue
yooaeoi?ia nenoaiu oa?ii?aaoeyoeee.

Io ia?eoa?e/aneeo oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia eioi?iaoeey iinooiaao a ia?aaeiee
aeiioaeaion — aai iaaeeaeueioth i?aiioe/aneoth iaeanoue. Caeanue
i?ienoiaeeo n?aaiaiea iieo/aiiuo n ia?eoa?ee neaiaeia n aeoeaiinoueth
oeaio?aeueiuo oa?iinaini?ia, io?aaeathueo oaiia?aoo?iia ninoiyiea iicaa.

Ia iniiaa eioaa?aoeee eioi?iaoeee yoeo aeaoo enoi/ieeia caaeiee
aeiioaeaion iaania/eaaao au?aaioeo neaiaeia, oi?aaeythueo i?ioeannaie
oaieii?iaeoeoeee e oaieiioaea/e. Eiaiii caeanue iaia?oaeaiu iae?iiu,
aeoeaiinoue eioi?uo caaeneo io eieaeueiiai oaieiaiai ?acae?aaeaiey eae
i?aiioe/aneie iaeanoe aeiioaeaiona, oae e iae?iiia oaeii-a?oaeii-ai
ioaeaea nieiiiai iicaa.

Aunoea no?oeoo?u aieiaiiai iicaa, a /anoiinoe iiaay ei?a, oaeaea
i?eieiatho o/anoea a oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Aeieacaia ?ieue
oneiaii?aoeaeoi?iiai iaoaiecia a i?aaiecaoeee iia?aaeathueo aaaaoaoeaiuo
e iiaaaeai/aneeo ?aaeoeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaeaea?aeaiea iioeiaeueiie
aaee/eiu oaiia?aoo?iie eiinoaiou i?aaiecia ii iia?aaeaieth. A ?acaeoee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie onoie/eainoe e oieiaeo aaaeioth ?ieue iiaeao ea?aoue
eii?eioeia — ?aiiyy oi?ia iaiyoe.

Yooa?aioiua iooe oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Nenoaia oa?ii?aaoeyoeee yaeyaony
eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu, iineieueeo ia eiaao
iiae/a?eiooi au?aaeaiiiai nianoaaiiiai eniieieoaeueiiai (yooaeoi?iiai)
eiiiiiaioa. ?aaoeyoeey oaieii?iaeoeoeee inouanoaeyaony niiaoe/aneie
ia?aiie nenoaiie, caioneathuae nie?aoeoaeueiua oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iua
?aaeoeee, e neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiie, aeoeae?othuae
ianie?aoeoaeueioth oaieii?iaeoeoeeth. I?e oa?iaeieiae/aneie aeieaaea
aaoa-aae?aii-?aoeaioi?ia o/anoea iaae?iaeaoaeueiiai iaoaiecia
oaieii?iaeoeoeee eneeth/aaony. Ii?aae?aiaeei, inaiaiaeaeaaiue
neiiaoe/aneeie ia?aiuie ieii/aieyie, noeioee?oao auaeaeaiea ec ao?ie
aee?iaie oeaie naiaiaeiuo aee?iuo eeneio e iineaaeothuaa aeeth/aiea eo a
iaoaaiee/aneea ?aaeoeee. Auaeaeaiea eaoaoieaieiia ec iaaeii/a/ieeia
aucuaaao oa aea yooaeou. A ?acoeueoaoa oneeeaaaony ?anniaeaniaaiea
i?ioeannia ieeneaiey e oinoi?eee?iaaiey, iiauoaaony auaeaeaiea
ia?ae/iiai oaiea.

O/anoea aoii?aeueiuo iaoaieciia oa?ii?aaoeyoeee iniaaiii cia/eoaeueii
i?e aaeaioaoeee e iiaoi?iui eciaiaieyi oaiia?aoo?u n?aaeu. ?ieue
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu a aaeaioaoeee e oieiaeo /aeiaaea oi/ii ia auyniaia.
O aeeaioiuo iiauoaiea nae?aoeee oe?ieneia ?acaeaaaony i?e aeaenoaee
oieiaea a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue, i?e yoii ia 20—40 %
oaaee/eaaaony ianna aeaeacu. Iiauoaiea nae?aoeee oe?ieneia i?eaiaeeo e
aeoeaaoeee eeaoi/iiai iaoaaieecia. *aeiaae ?aaeei iiaeaa?aaaony oaeiio
ioeaaeaeaieth. Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo ?aaioao iieacaii, /oi o nieaeao,
ianoueo neoaeao a a?eoe/aneeo ?aeiiao aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, a oaeaea o
yneeiinia iaaethaeaaony iiauoaiea iniiaiiai iaiaia. Aiciiaeii,
noeioee?othuaa aeaenoaea oieiaea ia ueoiaeaeioth aeaeaco yaeyaony iaeiie
ec i?e/ei iiauoaiey /anoiou ?acaeoey o aeeoaeae oieiaeiuo ?aeiiia
oiene/aneiai oe?aieaeiiai ciaa.

?aaoeyoeey oaieiioaea/e naycaia n aeoeaiinoueth ii?aae?aia?ae/aneeo
neiiaoe/aneeo iae?iiia, aicaoaeaeaiea eioi?uo iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e
nieaeaieth i?inaaoa e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia eiaee, e oieeia?ae/aneeo
neiiaoe/aneeo iae?iiia, aicaoaeaeathueo iioiaua aeaeacu. ?anoe?aieth
e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia eiaee a oneiaeyo aea?u iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
auaeaeaiea ec iioiauo aeaeac a?aaeeeeieia. Eiathony aeaiiua ia o/anoee
eeieiia a oi?ie?iaaiee oieiaeiaie aaciaeeeaoaoeee.

I?e cia/eoaeueiii ineoe/aneii iai?yaeaiee noaeaiea e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia
eiaee eenoae e noii iiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny auaeaeaieai a yoeo o/anoeao
iioa. Oaeia ia?aaeienaeueiia n oi/ee c?aiey oa?ii?aaoeyoeee yaeaiea
iiaeii iacaaoue yiioeeiiaeueiui iioiioaeaeaieai; iii ia yaeyaony
aaeaioeaiui e iaoneiaeaii /?acia?iie aeoeaaoeeae neiiaoe/aneie ia?aiie
nenoaiu.

I?e ioeeiiaiee n?aaeiae eioaa?aeueiie oaiia?aoo?u oaea ia iaaieueooth
aaee/eio eciaiyaony eeoue oaieiioaea/a ca n/ao ninoaeenouo ?aaeoeee
iaiei/ee. Anee ioeeiiaiey oaiia?aoo?u nio?aiythony, oi ?acaeaathony
iiaaaeai/aneea i?eniiniaeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee, a i?e aunieie aiaoiae
oaiia?aoo?a oaeaea iiauoaaony iioiioaeaeaiea. I?e ieceie aea oaiia?aoo?a
aiaoiae n?aaeu iiyaeyaony aeaeaa iuoa/iay ?aaeoeey: nia/aea iiauoaaony
oiion, a i?e nieaeaiee aioo?aiiae oaiia?aoo?u iiyaeyaony ae?iaeue.

?aaoee?oaiui ia?aiao?ii a nenoaia aunooiaao oaiia?aoo?a aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu i?aaiecia. Aeey iaeioi?iai onoie/eaiai ninoiyiey ooieoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu ?aaoee?oaiay oaiia?aoo?a — yoi noiia?iay oaiia?aoo?a «yae?a»
oaea, i?e eioi?ie ia aeeth/athony ie iaoaieciu auaeaeaiey eceeoeia
oaiea, ie iaoaieciu, iaania/eaathuea caueoo i?aaiecia io oieiaea

I?e oaiaeaioeee nieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u «yae?a» oaea (oaiia?aoo?a
oee?eoee?othuae e?iae) i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey oieiaeiauo
aeiioaeaie/aneeo oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia. Iiieii aeiioaeaie/aneeo
oa?ii/oanoaeoaeueiuo iae?iiia (oieiaeiaua oa?iinaini?u), i?ienoiaeeo
aeoeaaoeey oieiaeiauo ninoaeenouo e i?aaiiuo oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia. Eo
eiioeuenaoeey aucuaaao aeiiieieoaeueioth aeoeaaoeeth iae?iiiiai aiia?aoa
aeiioaeaie/aneiai oeaio?a oeie/aneie oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa
iiauoaiey aeoeaiinoe yoiai oeaio?a oneeeaaaony ?aaioa ia?eoa?e/aneeo
aiia?aoia oeie/aneie oa?ii?aaoeyoeee — aiia?aoia i?iecaiaenoaa oaiea a
i?aaiecia. Iae?ioeceieiae/aneay aeoeaiinoue oeaio?a oece/aneie
oa?ii?aaoeyoeee, a oaeaea ia?eoa?e/aneeo aiia?aoia oaieiioaea/e a yoie
neooaoeee nieaeaaony. Oai naiui iaicia/eaoayny oaiaeaioeey oiaiueoaiey
oaiia?aoo?u aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia aeiee?oaony.

I?e iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia ?acua?uaathony
i?ioeannu i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai ieaia — aeoeae?othony aeiioaeaie/aneea
oaieiaua oa?ii?aoeaioi?u, oaieiaua ?aoeaioi?u ninoaeia, aioo?aiieo
i?aaiia. I?e yoii aeoeae?othony oeaio?aeueiua e ia?eoa?e/aneea iaoaieciu
oece/aneie oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. I?ioeann «na?ina» oaiea oneeeaaaony,
i?iaeoeoeey oaiea a i?aaiecia oi?iiceony.

Aiaeiae/iua iaoaieciu oa?ii?aaoeyoeee caioneathony i?e oaiia?aoo?iuo
aicaeaenoaeyo ia eiaeiua oa?ii?aoeaioi?u, ?aaae?othuea ia eciaiaiea
oaiia?aoo?u aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia. I?e aeaenoaee ia oa?ii?aoeaioi?u
eiaee iiieaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?u ca n/ao aooa?aioiie eiioeuenaoeee
i?ienoiaeeo aicaoaeaeaiea oeaio?a, eiio?iee?othuaai i?iecaiaenoai oaiea,
— oeaio?a oeie/aneie oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e aeoeaaoeee
ia?eoa?e/aneeo iaoaieciia i?iecaiaenoaa oaiea a i?aaiecia, iaoaieciu
«na?ina» oaiea oi?iicyony. I?e iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
i?ienoiaeeo aicaoaeaeaiea oaieiauo ?aoeaioi?ia, ?aaioa aiia?aoia
«na?ina» oaiea oneeeaaaony, i?iaeoeoeey oaiea a i?aaiecia oi?iiceony.
Iaee/ea eiaeiuo oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia iicaieyao ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia
aieaa oiiei i?aaieciaaoue i?ioeann noaaeeecaoeee ?aaoee?oaiie eiinoaiou
ia iioeiaeueiii o?iaia.

Aeia?oa?iey — iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u yae?a oaea auoa 37 °N. Iia aicieeaao
a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey aunieie oaiia?aoo?u aiaoiae
n?aaeu, ioiineoaeueii iaaeinoaoi/iie oaieiioaea/e i?aaiecia e ecauoi/iie
oaieii?iaeoeoeee.

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi a oa/aiea ei?ioeeo ia?eiaeia a?aiaie /aeiaae iiaeao
auaea?aeeaaoue oaiia?aoo?o oaea ia o?iaia 43 °N, i?aaeaeueiie aeey aai
auaeeaaiey a oa/aiea aieaa aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie yaeyaony
oaiia?aoo?a 42 °N. Iaeiaei oaea i?e oaiia?aoo?a 40—41 °N ?acaeaathony
oyaeaeua ii?aaeaiey iicaa — ioae oeaie iicaa, aeaaeue iae?iiia.

Aeiioa?iey — nieaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u yae?a oaea aei 35 °N e aieaa. Iia
iiaeao auoue ?acoeueoaoii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai i?aauaaiey i?aaiecia a
n?aaea n ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie. Ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee ioeaaeaeaiey
i?aaiecia i?ioeannu oa?ii?aaoeyoeee cia/eoaeueii aeoeaece?othony,
iaeiaei anee iii i?iaeieaeaaony, oaiia?aoo?a oaea ia/eiaao nieaeaoueny;
i?e aeinoeaeaiee ath 31 °N i?ienoiaeeo iioa?y niciaiey, a i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 24—28 °N iau/ii ianooiaao nia?oue.

EEOA?AOO?A

1) Iae-Ith?ae A. Iaiai aauanoa o /aeiaaea. I., 1980.

2) Iauee eo?n oeceieiaee /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo / iiae ?aae A. Ae.
Iicae?a/aaa. I., 1991. ei.

3) Iniiau oeceieiaee / iiae ?aae. I. Noa?ee. I., 1984.

4) Neiiei A. Ae. Yaiethoeey oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Nia., 2005.

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