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Физиология крови. Эритроциты

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IEIENOA?NOAI NAEUeNEIAI OICssENOAA ?INNEENEIE

OAAeA?AOeEE

OAIO AII «AeAEUeIAAINOI*IUE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE AA?A?IUE

OIEAA?NEOAO»

EINOEOOO AAOA?EIA?IIE IAAeEOeEIU E CIIOAOIEE

Eaoaae?a oeceieiaee e iaca?aciuo aieaciae

?aoa?ao.

Oaia: Oeceieiaey e?iae. Y?eo?ioeeou.

Auiieiee: nooaeaio 2 eo?na EE a?oiiu 8217 *a?eania A.

I?iaa?ee: Aeeeeo E.I.

Aeaaiaauaine 2008 a.

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea

1. Eiee/anoai e?iae o aeeaioiuo. E?iayiia aeaii.

2. Ninoaa e?iae. Ieacia. Nuai?ioea.

3. Y?eo?ioeeou. No?iaiea, ooieoeee, eiee/anoai.

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea.

E?iaue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeaeeinoue (aeeaeeay oeaiue
iaciaea?iaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey), e?aniiai oeaaoa, neaai uaei/iie
?aaeoeee, nieiiiaaoiai aeona n oaeaeueiui aanii 1,054-1,066. Niaianoii n
oeaiaaie aeeaeeinoueth e eeioie iia ia?acoao aioo?aiithth n?aaeo
i?aaiecia. E?iaue auiieiyao iiiaiia?aciua ooieoeee. Aeaaiaeoea ec ieo
neaaeothuea:

– o?ainii?o ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa io ieuaaa?eoaeueiiai o?aeoa e oeaiyi,
ianoai ?aca?aiuo caiania io ieo (o?ioe/aneay ooieoeey);

– o?ainii?o eiia/iuo i?iaeoeoia iaoaaieecia ec oeaiae e i?aaiai
auaeaeaiey (yene?aoi?iay ooieoeey);

– o?ainii?o aacia (eenei?iaea e aeeieneaea oaea?iaea ec aeuoaoaeueiuo
i?aaiia e oeaiyi e ia?aoii; caianaiea eenei?iaea (aeuoaoaeueiay
ooieoeey);

– o?ainii?o ai?iiiia io aeaeac aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee e i?aaiai
(aoii?aeueiay ?aaoeyoeey);

– caueoiay ooieoeey – inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao oaaioeeoa?iie aeoeaiinoe
eaeeioeeoia (eeaoi/iue eiioieoao), au?aaioee eeioioeeoaie aioeoae,
iaaca?aaeeaathueo aaiaoe/anee /oaea?iaeiua aauanoaa (aoii?aeueiue
eiioieoao);

– naa?ouaaiea e?iae, i?aiyonoaothuaa e?iaiiioa?a;

– oa?ii?aaoeyoi?iay ooieoeey – ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oaiea iaaeaeo
i?aaiaie, ?aaoeyoeey oaieiioaea/e /a?ac eiaeo;

– iaoaie/aneay ooieoeey – i?eaeaiea oo?ai?iiai iai?yaeaiey i?aaiai ca
n/ao i?eeeaa e iei e?iae; iaania/aiea oeueo?aoeeueo?aoeee a eaieeey?ao
eainoe iao?iia ii/ae e ae?.;

– aiiainoaoe/aneay ooieoeey – iiaeaea?aeaiea iinoiyinoaa aioo?aiiae
n?aaeu i?aaiecia, i?eaiaeiie aeey eeaoie a ioiioaiee eiiiiai ninoaaa,
eiioeaio?aoeee aiaei?iaeiuo eiiia e ae?.

Ioiineoaeueiia iinoiyinoai ninoaaa e naienoa e?iae – aiiainoac yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui e iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe anao oeaiae
i?aaiecia. Iiyoiio i?e iiae?iaiii enneaaeiaaiee i?iecaiaeyo aiaeec
e?iae.

1. Eiee/anoai e?iae o aeeaioiuo. E?iayiia aeaii.

E?iaue oee?eoee?oao a caieiooie ninoaeenoie naoe, iiyoiio a? iau?i
aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue iau?io ninoaeenoiai ?onea. Iauee iau?i e?iae a
i?aaiecia yaeyaony aeaeiaui i?eciaeii e iau/ii au?aaeaaony a i?ioeaioao
io iannu oaea. Aaee/eia n?aaeiaai iau?ia e?iae: o eioaaee 9,8%, o
e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa 8,2, iaeeiai ?iaaoiai neioa 8,2, naeiuee
naeueiiai oeia 4,6, naeiuee iyniiai oeia 7, eo?u 8,5, e?ieeee 5,4,
niaaee – 6,8, eioee 5%. O /aeiaaea iau?i e?iae ieiei 7% iannu oaea.

O naioeia iau?i e?iae, eae i?aaeei, aieueoa /ai o naiie, ec-ca
iiauoaiiiai niaea?aeaiey y?eo?ioeeoia. N aic?anoii iau?i e?iae
oiaiueoaaony, ianooiaao aeaaeae?ioaoeey i?aaiecia.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iau?ia e?iae a ia? aaiaeyo eaeoth-eeai aaca?aaeioth
e?aneo (iai?eia?, eiiai?io). Iinea oiai eae e?anea ?ani?aaeaeeony ii
anai ninoaeai, aa?oo ii?oeeth e?iae ec aaiu e ii?aaeaeytho a iae
eiioeaio?aoeeth e?anee. Caoai ?ann/eouaatho iau?i e?iae, a eioi?ii yoa
e?anea ?ani?aaeaeeeanue. N yoie aea oeaeueth eniieuecotho iaoiae
ia/aiiuo aoiiia. Aa?oo e?iaue o aeeaioiiai, ioaeaeytho y?eo?ioeeou e
eieoae?otho eo a ?anoai?a, niaea?aeauai ?aaeeiaeoeaiue oinoi?.
Y?eo?ioeeou aaeni?ae?otho aai ec ?anoai?a e noaiiayony «ia/aiiuie». Eo
niiaa aaiaeyo a e?iaue oiai aea aeeaioiiai e /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy
ii?aaeaeytho ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue e?iae.

Ec anaai iau?ia e?iae i?eia?ii iieiaeia oee?eoee?oao ii i?aaiecio.
Inoaeueiay aea iieiaeia caaea?aeeaaaony a ?anoe?aiiuo eaieeey?ao
iaeioi?uo i?aaiia e iacuaaaony aeaiiie?iaaiiie. I?aaiu a eioi?uo
aeaiiie?iaaia e?iaue iacuaathony e?iayiui aeaii.

Naeac?iea. Aiauaao a naieo eaeoiao – io?inoeao eaieeey?ia aei 16% anae
e?iae. Yoa e?iaue i?aeoe/anee aueeth/aia ec e?oaiiai?ioa e ia
niaoeaaaony n oee?eoee?othuae e?iaueth. I?e nie?auaiee aeaaeeeo iuooe
naeac?iee eaeoiu naeeiathony e e?iaue iinooiaao a iauaa ?onei.

Ia/aiue. Aiauaao a naay aei 20% iau?ia e?iae. Ia/aiue auiieiyao ?ieue
e?iayiiai aeaii ca n/?o nie?auaiey noeieoa?ia ia/?ii/iuo aai, ii eioi?ui
e?iaue iooaeaao io ia/aie. Oiaaea a ia/aiue e?iae iinooiaao aieueoa, /ai
iooaeaao. Eaieeey?u ia/aie ?anoe?ythony, e?iaioie a iae caiaaeeyaony.
Iaeiaei aeaiiie?iaaiiay a ia/aie e?iaue iieiinoueth ia aueeth/aaony ec
e?iaioiea.

Iiaeeiaeiay eeao/aoea. Aeaiiie?oao aei 10% e?iae. A e?iaaiiniuo
eaieeey?ao eiaee eiathony aianoiiicu. *anoue eaieeey?ia ?anoe?yaony,
caiieiyaony e?iaueth, a e?iaioie niaa?oaaony ii oei?i/aiiui iooyi
(ooioai).

E?aeea oaeaea iiaeii ioianoe e i?aaiai, aeaiiie?othuei e?iaue. Iau?i
ninoaeenoiai ?onea e?aeeo oaeaea ia iinoiyiai, ii caaeneo io aaioeeyoeee
aeueaaie, aaee/eiu e?iayiiai aeaaeaiey a ieo e io e?iaaiaiieiaiey
ninoaeia aieueoiai e?oaa e?iaiia?auaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiie?iaaiiay e?iaue aueeth/aia ec e?iaioiea e a
iniiaiii ia niaoeaaaony n oee?eoee?othuae e?iaueth. Aneaaenoaea
ananuaaiey aiaeu aeaiiie?iaaiiay e?iaue aieaa aonoa, iia niaea?aeeo
aieueoaa eiee/anoai oi?iaiiuo yeaiaioia.

Cia/aiea aeaiiie?iaaiiie e?iae caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. Eiaaea
i?aaieci iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee oeceieiae/aneiai iieiy, aai i?aaiu e
oeaie ia ioaeaeathony a oneeaiiii niaaaeaiee e?iaueth. A yoii neo/aa
aeaiiie?iaaiea e?iae nieaeaao iaa?oceo ia na?aeoea, e a ?acoeueoaoa iii
?aaioaao ia 1/5 – 1/6 naiae iiuiinoe. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e?iaue iiaeao
auno?i ia?aeoe a e?iaioie, iai?eia? i?e oece/aneie ?aaioa, neeueiuo
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ia?aaeeaaieyo, aaeuoaiee aicaeooa n iiauoaiiui
niaea?aeaieai aeeieneaea oaea?iaea – oi anoue ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea
o?aaoaony, oaaee/eo aeinoaaeo eenei?iaea e ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa i?aaiai.

A iaoaieciao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e?iae iaaeaeo aeaiiie?iaaiiie e
oee?eoee?othuae o/anoaoao aaaaoaoeaiay ia?aiay nenoaia: neiiaoe/aneea
ia?au aucuaatho oaaee/aiea iau?ia oee?eoee?othuae e?iae, a
ia?aneiiaoe/aneea – ia?aoiae e?iae a aeaii. I?e iinooieaiee a e?iaue
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aae?aiaeeia i?ienoiaeeo auoiae e?iae ec aeaii.

I?e e?iaiiioa?yo iau?i e?iae ainnoaiaaeeaaaony i?aaeaea anaai ca n/?o
ia?aoiaea oeaiaaie aeeaeeinoe a e?iaue, a caoai a e?iaioie iinooiaao
aeaiiie?iaaiiay e?iaue. A ?acoeueoaoa iau?i ieaciu ainnoaiaaeeaaaony
cia/eoaeueii auno?aa, /ai eiee/anoai oi?iaiiuo yeaiaioia.

I?e oaaee/aiee iau?ia e?iae (iai?eia? i?e aaaaeaiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
e?iaacaiaieoaeae eee i?e auiaeaaiee aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aiaeu) /anoue
aeeaeeinoe auno?i aaiaeeony ii/eaie, ii aieueoay /anoue ia?aoiaeeo a
oeaie a caoai iinoaiaiii auaiaeeony ec i?aaiecia. Oaeei ia?acii
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony iau?i e?iae, caiieiythuee ninoaeenoia ?onei.

2.Ninoaa e?iae. Ieacia. Nuai?ioea.

E?iaue ioiineony e iii?ii-o?ioe/aneei oeaiyi. Iia ninoieo ec eeaoie –
oi?iaiiuo yeaiaioia e iaaeeeaoi/iiai aauanoaa – ieaciu. E oi?iaiiui
yeaiaioai e?iae i?eiaaeeaaeao y?eo?ioeeou, eaeeioeeou e o?iiaioeeou.
Ieacia e?iae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeaeeinoue. E?iaue – aaeeinoaaiiay
oeaiue i?aaiecia, aaea iaaeeeaoi/iia aauanoai yaeyaony aeeaeeinoueth.

*oiau ioaeaeeoue oi?iaiiua yeaiaiou io ieaciu, e?iaue iaaei
i?aaeio?aieoue io na??ouaaiey e iooeaio?eooae?iaaoue. Oi?iaiiua yeaiaiou
eae aieaa oyaeaeua inyaeoo, a iaae ieie aoaeao neie i?ic?a/iie, neaaea
iiaeanoee?othuae aeeaeeinoe aeaeoiai oeaaoa – ieaciu e?iae.

Ieacia e?iae ninoieo ec aiaeu e nooiai aauanoaa(9:1), eioi?ia aeeth/aao
i?aaie/aneea e iai?aaie/aneea niaaeeiaiey. I?aaie/aneea aauanoaa ieaciu
e?iae i?aaenoaaeytho aaeee aeueaoieiu, aeiaoeeiu, oea?eiiaai, i?io?iiaei
e ae?oaea – 60-90 a/e, aieiieeneiou – 5-14 ia/100 ie, ii/aaeia –
3,33-8,32 iiieue/e, aetheica – 0,6-1,2 a/e, iaeo?aeueiua aee?u – 1,5-3,0
a/e, ieia?aeueiua aauanoaa – 9 a/e(i?aeiouanoaaiii eiiu iao?ey, eaeey,
eaeueoeey, oinoi?a, oei?a), oa?iaiou, ai?iiiu e ae?oaea aauanoaa.

Oaeaeueiue aan ieaciu ninoaaeyao 1,025-1,029; ?I iacia/eoaeueii
eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 7,37 – 7,43. Nuai?ioea – yoi ieacia, a eioi?ie
iao oea?eiiaaia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aauanoa, o/anoaothueo a na??ouaaiee.
Na??ouaaoueny niiniaia ia oieueei e?iaue, ii e ieacia. Ieacia o/anoaoao
ai iiiaeo i?ioeannao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecia. Iia ia?aiineo
eeaoee e?iae, ieoaoaeueiua aauanoaa e i?iaeoeou iaoaaieecia e neoaeeo
naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo anaie yeno?aaaneoey?iuie (o.a. iaoiaeyueieny
aia e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeia) aeeaeeinoyie; iineaaeiea aeeth/atho, a
/anoiinoe, iaaeeeaoi/ioth aeeaeeinoue, e /a?ac iaa inouanoaeyaony naycue
n eeaoeaie e eo niaea?aeeiui. Oaeei ia?acii ieacia eiioaeoe?oao n
ii/eaie, ia/aiueth e ae?oaeie i?aaiaie e oai naiui iiaeaea?aeeaaao
iinoiyinoai aioo?aiiae n?aaeu i?aaiecia, o.a. aiiainoac.

?aaeoeey e?iae iiaeao eieaaaoueny iaeneioi aei ?I 7,8 e ieieioi aei ?I
7,0. ia?ooaiea ?aaeoeee e?iae, iiieaeaiea(aoeeaeic) e iiauoaiea(aeeaeic)
a? iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaaee aeeaioiiai. ?aaeoeeth ieaciu e?iae
iaania/eaatho /aou?a aooa?iua nenoaiu: ea?aiiaoiay, oinoaoiay,
aaiiaeiaeia e aaeeia ieaciu e?iae.

Eiioeaio?aoeey ?anoai?aiiuo a ieacia aauanoa iiaeao auo au?aaeaia
iniioe/aneei aeaaeaieai. Iniioe/aneia aeaaeaiea a aieueoae noaiaie
iaania/eaaaony oei?eaeii iao?ey. ?anoai? oei?eaea iao?ey a
eiioeaio?aoeee 0,85% eiaao oaeia aea iniioe/aneia aeaaeaiea, eae e
aeaaeaiea ieaciu e?iae.

Anee iau?i e?iae i?eiyoue ca 100%, oi oi?iaiiua yeaiaiou ninoaaeytho
ieiei 40-45%, a ieacia – 50-60%. Iau?i oi?iaiiuo yeaiaioia a e?iae,
aeaaiui ia?acii y?eo?ioeeoia, iacuaaaony aaiaoie?eoiie aaee/eiie eee
aaiaoie?eoii. Aaiaoie?eo iiaeao auoue au?aaeai a i?ioeaioao (40-45%) eee
a eeo?ao y?eo?ioeeoia, iaoiaeyueony a iaeiii eeo?a e?iae(0,40-0,45 e/e)

Eiaaea aeeaioiia aeaaii ia iieee eee iii iioa?yei iiiai aeeaeeinoe
(neeueiia iioaiea, iiiin, iaeeueiay ?aioa), oi aaiaoie?eoiay aaee/eia
aic?anoaao. A yoii neo/aa aiai?yo i «naouaiee» e?iae. Oaeia ninoiyiea
iaaeaaii?eyoii aeey i?aaiecia, oae eae nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaaony
nii?ioeaeaiea e?iae i?e a? aeaeaeaiee, /oi canoaaeyao na?aeoea neeueiaa
nie?auaoueny. A ii?yaeea eiiiainaoeee ia?aoiaeeo /anoue aiaeu ec
oeaiaaie aeeaeeinoe a e?iaue, oiaiueoaaony a? auaaaeaiea ii/eaie e, eae
neaaenoaea, aicieeaao aeaaeaea. Oiaiueoaiea aaiaoie?eoa /aua eiaao ianoi
i?e caaieaaaiee – i?e iiieaeaiee ia?aciaaiey y?eo?ioeeoia, oneeaiiii eo
?ac?ooaiee eee iinea e?iaiiioa?e.

3. Y?eo?ioeeou. No?iaiea, ooieoeee, eiee/anoai.

Y?eo?ioeeou aicieeee a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee eae eeaoee, niaea?aeauea
aeuoaoaeueiua ieaiaiou, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho ia?aiin eenei?iaea e
aeeieneaea oaea?iaea. C?aeua y?eo?ioeeou o ?aioeeee, aioeaee, ?ua e
ioeoe eiatho yae?a. Y?eo?ioeeou ieaeiieoathueo – aacuyaea?iua; yae?a
en/acatho ia ?aiiae noaaeee ?acaeoey a einoiii iicaa. Y?eo?ioeeou iiaoo
auoue a oi?ia aeaiyeiaiaiooiai aeenea, e?oaeua eee iaaeueiua (iaaeueiua
o eai e aa?aethaeia), aeeaiao? ninoaaeyao 0,007 ii, oieueia – 0,002 ii
,. A 1 ii3 e?iae /aeiaaea niaea?aeeony 4,5-5 iei y?eo?ioeeoia. Iauay
iiaa?oiinoue anao y?eo?ioeeoia, /a?ac eioi?oth i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiuaiea e
ioaea/a I2 e NI2, ninoaaeyao ieiei 3000 i2, /oi a 1500 ?ac i?aauoaao
iiaa?oiinoue anaai oaea.

Eaaeaeue y?eo?ioeeo aeaeoiaaoi-cae?iiai oeaaoa, ii a oienoii neia
y?eo?ioeeoa?iay ianna e?aniiai oeaaoa (a?a/. Erytros – e?aniue). E?aniue
oeaao e?iae iaoneiaeai iaee/eai a y?eo?ioeeoao aaiiaeiaeia.

Ia?acothony y?eo?ioeeou a e?aniii einoiii iicaa. N?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eo nouanoaiaaiey ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 120 noo.,
?ac?ooathony iie a naeac?iea e a ia/aie, eeoue iaaieueoay eo /anoue
iiaeaa?aaaony oaaioeeoico a ninoaeenoii ?onea.

Y?eo?ioeeou, iaoiaeyueany a ninoaeenoii ?onea, iaiaeii?iaeiu. Iie
?acee/athony ii aic?anoo, oi?ia, ?acia?o, onoie/eainoe e iaaeaaii?eyoiui
oaeoi?ai. A ia?eoa?e/aneie e?iae iaeiia?aiaiii iaoiaeyony iieiaeua,
c?aeua e noa?ua y?eo?ioeeou. Iieiaeua y?eo?ioeeou a oeeoiieacia eiatho
aeeth/aiey – inoaoee yaea?iie noanoaioeee e iacuaathony ?aoeeoeioeeoaie.
A ii?ia ?aoeeoeioeeou ninoaaeytho ia aieaa 1% io anao y?eo?ioeeoia,
iiauoaiiia eo niaea?aeaiea oeacuaaao ia oneeaiea y?eo?iiiyca.

Aeaiyeiaiaiooay oi?ia y?eo?ioeeoia iaania/eaaao aieueooth ieiuaaeue
iiaa?oiinoe, iiyoiio iauay iiaa?oiinoue y?eo?ioeeoia a 1,5-2,0 ouny/e
?ac i?aauoaao iiaa?oiinoue oaea aeeaioiiai. *anoue y?eo?ioeeoia eiatho
oa?iia?acioth oi?io n aunooiaie(oeieeaie), oaeea y?eo?ioeeou iacuaathony
yoeiioeeoaie. Iaeioi?ua y?eo?ioeeou – eoiieiia?aciie oi?iu – noiiaoeeou.

Y?eo?ioeeo ninoieo ec oiieie nao/aoie no?iiu, y/aeee eioi?ie caiieiaiu
ieaiaioii aaiiaeiaeiii e aieaa ieioiie iaiei/ee.

Iaiei/ea y?eo?ioeeoia, eae e anao eeaoie, ninoieo ec aeaoo iieaeoey?iuo
eeieaeiuo nei?a, a eioi?ua ano?iaiu aaeeiaua iieaeoeu. Iaeie iieaeoeu
ia?acotho eiiiua eaiaeu aeey o?ainii?oa aauanoa, ae?oaea yaeythony
?aoeaioi?aie, eee eiatho aioeaaiiua naienoaa. A iaia?aia y?eo?ioeeoia
aunieee o?iaaiue oieeiynoa?acu, /oi i?aaeio?aiyao eo io
ieaciaiiiai(aianeiaioe/aneiai) aoeaoeeoieeia.

*a?ac iieoi?iieoeaaioth iaia?aio y?eo?ioeeoia oi?ioi i?ioiaeyo eenei?iae
e oaeaeeneue aac, aiaea, eiiu oei?a, aeea?aiiaou. Eiiu eaeey e iao?ey
i?iieeatho /a?ac iaia?aio iaaeeaiii, a aeey eiiia eaeueoeey, aaeeiauo e
eeieaeiuo iieaeoe iaia?aia ia i?iieoeaaia. Eiiiue ninoaa y?eo?ioeeoia
ioee/aaony io ninoaaa ieaciu e?iae: aioo?e y?eo?ioeeoia
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aieaa aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey eiiia eaeey e iaiueoay
iao?ey, /ai a ieacia e?iae. A?aaeeaio eiioeaio?aoeee oeacaiiuo eiiia
nio?aiyaony ca n/ao ?aaiou iao?ee-eaeeaaiai ianina.

Ooieoeee y?eo?ioeeoia:

1. ia?aiin eenei?iaea io e?aeeo e oeaiyi e aeeieneaea oaea?iaea io
oeaiae e e?aeei.

2. iiaeaea?aeaiea ?I e?iae (aaiiaeiaei e ieneaaiiaeiaei ninoaaeytho
iaeio ec aooa?iuo nenoai e?iae)

3. iiaeaea?aeaiea eiiiiai aiiainoaca ca n/?o iaiaia eiiaie iaaeaeo
ieaciie e y?eo?ioeeoaie.

4. o/anoea a aiaeiii e nieaaii iaiaia.

5. aaeni?aoeey oieneiia, a oii /enea i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea aaeea, /oi
oiaiueoaao eo eiioeaio?aoeeth a ieacia e?iae e i?aiyonoaoao ia?aoiaeo a
oeaie

6. o/anoea a oa?iaioaoeaiuo i?ioeannao, a o?ainii?oa ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa – aetheicu, aieiieeneio.

Eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae:

A n?aaeiai o e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa a 1 e e?iae niaea?aeeony (5-7)•1012
y?eo?ioeeoia. eiyooeoeeaio 1012 iacuaaaony «oa?a», e iauee aeae caiene
neaaeothuee: 5-7 O/e. O naeiae a e?iae niaea?aeeony 5-8 O/e, o eic aei
14 O/e. O eic aieueoia eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi iie
i/aiue iaeaiueeiai ?acia?a, iiyoiio iau?i anao y?eo?ioeeoia o eic oaeie
aea eae e o ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo.

Niaea?aeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae o eioaaeae caaeneo io eo ii?iaeu e
oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey: o eioaaeae oaaiauo ii?iae – 6-8 O/e, o
?unenouo – 8-10, a o aa?oiauo aei 11 O/e. *ai aieueoa iio?aaiinoue
i?aaiecia a eenei?iaea e ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoaao, oai aieueoa
y?eo?ioeeoia niaea?aeeony a e?iae. O aunieii?iaeoeoeaiuo ei?ia o?iaaiue
y?eo?ioeeoia niioaaonoaoao aa?oiae a?aieoea ii?iu, o ieceiiiei/iuo –
ieaeiae.

O iiai?iaeaeaiiuo aeeaioiuo eiee/anoai y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae anaaaea
aieueoa , /ai o ac?ineuo. Oae o oaeyo 1-6-iany/iiai aic?anoa
niaea?aeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia aeioiaeeo aei 8-10 O/e e noaaeeece?oaony ia
o?iaia naienoaaiiii ac?ineui e 5-6 aiaeai. O naioeia a e?iae
niaea?aeeony aieueoa y?eo?ioeeoia, /ai o naiie.

O?iaaiue niaea?aeaiey y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae eciaiyaony. Oiaiueoaiea
eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia ieaea ii?iu (yiceiiiaiey) o ac?ineuo aeeaioiuo
iau/ii iaaethaeaaony i?e caaieaaaieyo, a iiauoaiea naa?o ii?iu aiciiaeii
e i?e caaieaaaieyo e o caei?iauo aeeaioiuo. Oaaee/aiea niaea?aeaiey
y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae o caei?iauo aeeaioiuo iacuaaaony oeceieiae/aneei
y?eo?ioeeoicii. ?acee/atho 3 oi?iu: ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue, enoeiiue e
ioiineoaeueiue.

Ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue y?eo?ioeeoic aicieeaao auno?i e yaeyaony
iaoaieciii n?i/iie iiaeeecaoeee y?eo?ioeeoia i?e aiacaiiie iaa?ocea –
oece/aneie, eee yiioeeiiaeueiie. I?e iaa?ocea aicieeaao eenei?iaeiia
aieiaeaiea oeaiae, a e?iae iaeaieeaathony iaaeiieeneaiiua i?iaeoeou
iaiaia. ?acae?aaeathony oaii?aoeaioi?u ninoaeia, aicaoaeaeaiea
ia?aaea?ony a OeIN. Ioaaoiay ?aaeoeey inouanoaeyaony i?e o/anoee
neiaioe/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu. I?ienoiaeeo aua?in e?iae ec e?iayiuo
aeaii e neionia einoiiai iicaa. Oaeei ia?acii iaoaieciu
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai y?eo?ioeeoica iai?aaeaiu ia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
eiathuaaieny caiana y?eo?ioeeoia iaaeaeo aeaii e oee?eoee?othuae
e?iaueth. Iinea i?ae?auaiey iaa?ocee niaea?aeaiea y?eo?ioeeoia a e?iae
ainnoaiaaeeaaaony.

Enoeiiue y?eo?ioeeoic oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaaee/aieai aeoeaiinoe
einoiiiicaiaiai e?iaaoai?aiey. Aeey ?acaeoey aai o?aaoaony aieaa
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, a ?aaoeyoi?iua i?ioeannu ieacuaathony aieaa
neiaeiuie. Eiaeooee?oaony aeeeoaeueiie eenei?iaeiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoueth
oeaiae n ia?aciaaieai a ii/eao ieceiiieaeoey?iiai aaeea – y?eo?iiiyoeia,
eioi?ue e aeoeaece?oao y?eo?ioeeoic. Enoeiiue y?eo?ioeeoic iau/ii
?acaeaaaony i?e nenoaiaoe/aneeo o?aie?iaeao, aeeeoaeueiii niaea?aeaiee
aeeaioiuo a oneiaeyo iiieaeaiiiai aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey.

Ioiineoaeueiue y?eo?ioeeoic ia naycai ie n ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai e?iae, ie
n au?aaioeie iiauo y?eo?ioeeoia. Ioiineoaeueiue y?eo?ioeeoic
iaaethaeaaony i?e iaacaiaeeaaiee aeeaioiiai, aneaaenoaea /aai aic?anoaao
aaiaoie?eo

Caeeth/aiea.

Aeey ii?iaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe anao i?aaiia e nenoai i?aaiecia
iaiaoiaeeii iinoiyiiia niaaaeaiea eo e?iaueth. I?ae?auaiea
e?iaiia?auaiey aeaaea ia ei?ioeee n?ie (a iicaa anaai ia ianeieueei
ieioo) aucuaaao iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi e?iaue
auiieiyao a i?aaiecia aaaeiua ooieoeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeecie.

A e?iae iai?a?uaii eaeoo i?ioeannu ?ac?ooaiey e ia?aciaaiey oi?iaiiuo
yeaiaioia. ?aaoeyoeey e?iaaoai?aiey i?ienoiaeeo iae?iaoii?aeueiui ioo?i.
Ia?aiua e yiaeie?eiiua aeeyiey inouanoaeythony ca n/?o niaoeeoe/aneeo
iin?aaeieeia – aaiiiiyoeiia. Y?eo?iiiyoeiu – noeioeyoi?u y?eo?iiiyca.
Iie ia?acothony a ia/aie, naeac?iea, ii aeaaiui ianoii eo ia?aciaaiey
n/eoathony ii/ee. Y?eo?iiiyoeiu yaeythony iieeiaioeaeaie ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoie iieaeoey?iie iannu. Eo eiee/anoai a e?iae oaaee/eaaaony i?e
oiaiueoaiee eiee/anoaa y?eo?ioeeoia.

E?iia oiai aeey ii?iaeueiiai nic?aaaiey y?eo?ioeeoia iaiaoiaeeiu
aeoaieiu (oeeaiieiaaeiiei, ie?eaeienei, oieeaaay eeneioa)
Oeeaiieiaaeiiei, oae iacuaaaiue aiaoiee oaeoi? e?iaaoai?aiey, iinooiaao
a i?aaieci n ei?iii. Ii ananuaaaony e onaaeaaaony oieueei a oii neo/aa,
anee neecenoay iaiei/ea ieei?e/aneie /anoe aeaeoaeea auaeaeyao iniaia
aauanoai – oae iacuaaaiue aioo?aiiee oaeoi? e?iaaoai?aiey, eee oaeoi?
Eynea. I?e ionoonoaee yoiai aauanoaa ia?ooaaony ananuaaiey
oeeaiieiaaeiieia e ia?aciaaiea y?eo?ioeeoia oi?iaceony. Ie?eaeienei
iaiaoiaeei aeey neioaca aaiia. Oieeaaay eeneioa aeey neioaca aeiaeia.
?eaioeaaei o/anoaoao a i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey eeieaeiie no?iiu
y?eo?ioeeoia, iaioioaiiaay eeneioa – a neioaca oinoieeieaeia. Aeey
y?eo?iiiyca ioaeai oaeaea aeoaiei N – oneeeaaao ananuaaiea aeaeaca ec
eeoa/ieea, niinianoauao ia?aciaaieth aaiia, noeioee?oao aeaenoaea
oieeaaie eeneiou. E?iia aeoaieiia, aeeaioiua aeieaeiu iieo/aoue n ei?iii
aeinoaoi/ii aaeeia e ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iieiioeaiiia ei?ieaiea – iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea
ia?aciaaiey e nic?aaaiey y?eo?ioeeoia

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Eunia A.O., Iaeneiia A.E. Iniiau oeceieiaee e yoieiaee aeeaioiuo. –
I.: EieinN, 2004. – 248n., [4] e. Ee.: – (O/aaieee e o/aa. Iiniaey aeey
nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee).

2. Nei?ie/aa A.A., Ooieeia A.A. Ii?oieiaey e oeceieiaey aeeaioiuo:
O/aaiia iiniaea. – NIa.: Ecae. «Eaiue», 2004.-416 n.: ee. – (O/aaieee
aeey aocia. Niaoeeaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a).

3. Oeceieiaey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo. Iiae ?aae. A.I. Aieeeiaa,
A.A. Ia?oooeia. – 2-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e aeii. – I.: Eiein, 1980. – 480
n., ee., 2e. Ee. – (O/aaieee e o/aa. Iiniaey aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo
n.-o. o/aa. caaaaeaiee)

4. A.A. Neiie/aa, O.A. Yenuiiio e ae?. Oeceieiaey e yoieiaey aeeaioiuo.
I.: EieinN, 2005. – 456n. (O/aaieee e o/aa. Iiniaey aeey nooaeaioia
aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee).

5. Oeceieiaey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aeeaioiuo/ A.I. Aieeeia, I.O.
Aacaiiaa, C.E. Eiaeaaaeia e ae?.; Iiae ?aae. A.I. Aieeeiaa. – 3-a ecae.,
ia?a?aaioaiiia e aeiiieiaiiia. – I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1991. – 432 n., [4]
e. ee.: – ee. – (O/aaieee e o/aa. iiniaey aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee).

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