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Естествознание

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Caaeaiea 1. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou anoanoaiciaiey eae nenoaiu
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. Aeaeoa eo e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Anoanoaiciaiea — iaeanoue iaoee, eco/athuay niaieoiiinoue anoanoaaiiuo
iaoe, acyoay eae oeaeia.

Anoanoaiciaiea iiyaeeinue aieaa 3000 eao iacaae. Oiaaea ia auei
?acaeaeaiey ia oeceeo, aeieiaeth, aaia?aoeth. Iaoeaie caieiaeenue
oeeiniou. N ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee e ii?aieaaaiey ia/aeinue ?acaeoea
aaia?aoee, a n ?acaeoeai oaoieee — ?acaeoea oeceee, oeiee.

Iiae?acaeaeaiey

· Ano?iiiiey – iaoea i ?aniieiaeaiee, no?iaiee, naienoaao,
i?ienoiaeaeaiee e ?acaeoee iaaaniuo oae e eo nenoai, aieioue aei
Anaeaiiie a oeaeii.

· Aeieiaey – iaoea i aeecie, iaeia ec anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, i?aaeiaoii
eioi?ie yaeythony aeeaua nouanoaa e eo acaeiiaeaenoaea n ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie.

· Aeioeceea ?acaeae oeceee e nia?aiaiiie aeieiaee, eco/athuee oece/aneea
aniaeou nouanoaiaaiey aeeaie i?e?iaeu ia anao a? o?iaiyo, ia/eiay io
iieaeoe e eeaoie e caeai/eaay aeinoa?ie a oeaeii.

· Aeioeiey – iaoea i oeie/aneii ninoaaa aeeauo eeaoie e i?aaieciia e i
oeie/aneeo i?ioeannao, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

· Aaiaoeea – iaoea i caeiiao e iaoaieciao ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e
eciai/eainoe.

· Aaia?aoey – aaeeiue eiiieaen iaoe, eco/athueo aaia?aoe/aneoth iaiei/eo
Caiee e aeoeaioe?othueony ia auyaeaiee i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae.

· Aaieiaey — eiiieaen iaoe i ninoaaa, no?iaiee, enoi?ee ?acaeoey caiiie
ei?u e ?aciauaiee a iae iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo.

· ?aaeeiaeieiaey — yoi naiinoiyoaeueiay eiiieaeniay, ooiaeaiaioaeueiay
iaoea, ninoiyuay ec iiiaeo iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee, eco/athuay aeaenoaea
eiiece?othueo e iaeiiece?othueo eceo/aiee ia aeieiae/aneea iauaeou.

· ?aaeeioeiey, eco/aao oeieth ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa, caeiiu eo
oeceei-oeie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey, oeieth yaea?iuo i?aa?auaiee e
niioonoaothuea ei oeceei-oeie/aneea i?ioeannu.

· Oece/aneay oeiey – iaoea ia iaueo caeiiao, ii?aaeaeythueo no?iaiea e
oeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey aauanoa i?e ?acee/iuo aiaoieo oneiaeyo.

· Oeiey – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo e iaoe?iuo iaeanoae anoanoaiciaiey, iaoea
i aauanoaao, eo naienoaao, no?iaiee e i?aa?auaieyo, i?ienoiaeyueo a
?acoeueoaoa oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee.

Caaeaiea 2. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa aeaenaiae?eeneee ia?eiae ?acaeoey iaoee.

Anoanoaiciaiea a yeeeienoe/aneoth yiioo noaei ia?aoiaeeoue ec noa?u
ioaea/aiiiai, oeeinioneiai ?aciuoeaiey i i?e?iaea a noa?o eiie?aoiuo
oaeoia e yaeaiee (i?iecioea nenoaiaoecaoeey iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee). A yoo
yiioo a?a/aneay iaoaiaoeea, iaoaieea e ano?iiiiey ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie
io?aneyie ciaiee aeinoeaee naiaai iaeaunoaai ?acaeoey. A?a/aneay iaoea
ia?aoea io ?anniio?aiey ie?a a oeaeii e aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiio ciaieth,
ec aaeeiie iaoee auaeaeeeenue e ?acaeeenue ioaeaeueiua iaoee
anoanoaaiiua e aoiaieoa?iua.

Ii/oe eaaeaeue o/aiue yeeeienoe/aneie yiioe aue naycai n Aeaenaiae?eae
anee ia ee/iui eiioaeoii, oi iao/iie ia?aieneie. A Aeaenaiae?ee aeeee e
?aaioaee e?oiiua o/aiua: aaiiao? Aaeeeae, aaia?ao e iaoaiaoee Y?aoinoai,
ano?iiiiu Eiiii, A?enoa?o Naiinneee e iicaea Eeaaaeee Ioieaiae. N
Aeaenaiae?eae auee naycaiu iaoaiaoee Aiieeiiee Ia?aneee, ano?iiii
Aeiia?o e A?oeiaae. Iniaoth ?ieue a yeeeienoe/aneoth yiioo nua?aee
Aaeeeae e A?oeiaae.

N?aaee /aou?ao aeenoeeieei, eco/aaiuo a Ionaeiia (Aeaenaiae?eeneee
iocae): eeoa?aoo?u, iaoaiaoeee, ano?iiiiee e iaaeeoeeiu, – iaoaiaoeea
caieiaea iniaia ianoi. A oa/aiea ia?aiai ia?eiaea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneay oeiea ioee/aeanue eioaineaiie e aeanoyuae
aeayoaeueiinoueth. Iia ia/aeanue n nenoaiaoecaoeee ciaiee, iaeiieaiiuo a
eeanne/aneoth yiioo, – Aaeeeae ?ac?aaioae ia/aea aaiiao?ee, a Aiieeiiee
nicaeae iauoth oai?eth eiie/aneeo na/aiee.

Aeaenaiae?eeneea o/aiua iieo/eee oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue naieie
enneaaeiaaieyie ii iaoaiaoeea, ano?iiiiee, aaia?aoee e oeceea. E oioy
aeieiaey ia i?eiaaeeaaeaea e /eneo iiioey?iuo a Aeaenaiae?ee iaoe,
iaeiaei, e a iae iiaeii iaeoe, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa neaaiuo eiaie: yoi
Aa?ioee (?anoeaao aai aeayoaeueiinoe ioiineony e 300-i aiaeai aei i.y.)
e aai o/aiee Y?aceno?ao (250-a aiaeu aei i.y.).

Ia ?acaeoee aeieiaee neacuaaeny aua e oio iaiaeiaaaeiue oaeo, /oi
aeeciue – aeeaay i?e?iaea a ioee/ea io iaaeeaiai ie?a – n/eoaeanue
nayuaiiie. Aiaoiie?iaaiea /aeiaa/aneiai oaea iiiaei i?aaenoaaeyeinue
aaniethoii iaaeiionoeiui. Iiyoiio anei?a ei e aiana i?ae?aoeee
caieiaoueny – aia/aea ec-ca ii?aeueiiai inoaeaeaiey, a caoai iiae
no?aoii ia?ooaiey caeiiia.

Caaeaiea 3. Oeaaeeoa iniiaiua caeiiu iaoaieee Iuethoiia.

Ia?aue caeii Iuethoiia

Eia?oeeaeueiie iacuaaaony oa nenoaia ion/?oa, ioiineoaeueii eioi?ie
ethaay, eciee?iaaiiay io aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee, iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea
nio?aiyao ninoiyiea ?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Ia?aue caeii Iuethoiia aeaneo: eia?oeeaeueiua nenoaiu ion/?oa
nouanoaotho.

Ii nooe, yoio caeii iinooee?oao eia?oeeth oae. Yoi iiaeao eacaoueny
i/aaeaeiui nae/an, ii yoi ia auei i/aaeaeii ia ca?a enneaaeiaaiee
i?e?iaeu. Oae, iai?eia?, A?enoioaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi i?e/eiie anyeiai
aeaeaeaiey yaeyaony neea, o. a. o iaai ia auei aeaeaeaiey ii eia?oeee.

Aoi?ie caeii Iuethoiia — aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue caeii aeaeaeaiey,
iienuaathuee acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo i?eeiaeaiiie e iaoa?eaeueiie oi/ea
neeie e a? onei?aieai. Iaeei ec o??o caeiiia Iuethoiia.

Aoi?ie caeii Iuethoiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaia
ion/aoa (ENI) onei?aiea, eioi?ia iieo/aao iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea, i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii i?eeiaeaiiie neea e ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna.

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O?aoee caeii Iuethoiia iauyniyao, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n aeaoiy
acaeiiaeaenoaothueie oaeaie. Aicuei?i aeey i?eia?a caieioooth nenoaio,
ninoiyuoth ec aeaoo oae. Ia?aia oaei iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue ia aoi?ia n
iaeioi?ie neeie F12, a aoi?ia — ia ia?aia n neeie F21. Eae niioiinyony
neeu? O?aoee caeii Iuethoiia ooaa?aeaeaao: neea aeaenoaey ?aaia ii
iiaeoeth e i?ioeaiiieiaeia ii iai?aaeaieth neea i?ioeaiaeaenoaey.
Iiae/a?ei?i, /oi yoe neeu i?eeiaeaiu e ?aciui oaeai, a iioiio aiana ia
eiiiaine?othony.

Nai caeii: oaea aeaenoaotho ae?oa ia ae?oaa n neeaie, iai?aaeaiiuie
aaeieue iaeiie e oie aea i?yiie, ?aaiuie ii iiaeoeth e i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie
ii iai?aaeaieth:
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40092900aa0000000000000017007b0000000000040000002701ffff030000000000.

Caaeaiea 4. Oeaaeeoa iniiaiua yoaiu nicaeaiey o/aiey ia
yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia.

Eae e yeaeo?e/anoai, iaaiaoeci a i?e?iaea iaia?oaeeee ae?aaiea a?aee.
I?eia?ii e 600 a. aei i. y. ei auee ecaanoiu naienoaa iaaieoiiai
aeaeaciyea (ieneaea aeaeaca); eae iaia?oaeeeinue, aai eonee iiaoo
aeaenoaiaaoue ae?oa ia ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee. I?eia?ii /a?ac 500 eao
eeoaeoeu ioe?uee ii?aceoaeueioth niiniaiinoue iaaieoiiai aeaeaciyea
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a i?ino?ainoaa e nicaeaee ia?aue
i?eieoeaiue eiiian. I?aaaea, aia/aea aai eniieueciaaiea ia?aie/eaaeinue
ienoe/aneeie aeaenoaaie, e eeoue /a?ac ianeieueei noieaoee eiiian noae
iaaeaaoeeiiiui i?eai?ii.

A n?aaeiea aaea ioe?uoia Oaeanii no?aiiia yaeaiea ouaoaeueii eco/ae
i?eaeai?iue iaaeee aiaeeeneie ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou I Oeeueyi Aeeueaa?o,
eioi?ue iaia?oaeee, /oi niiniaiinoue yeaeo?eciaaoueny, i?enoua e iiiaei
ae?oaei aauanoaai.

Aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a Aiaeee e ae?oaeo no?aiao
Aa?iiu, iieacaee, /oi iaeioi?ua aauanoaa aaaeoo naay eae ecieyoi?u.
O?aioeocneee o/aiue Oa?eue Aethoa onoaiiaee, /oi nouanoaotho aeaa
?aciiaeaeiinoe yeaeo?e/aneeo ca?yaeia; oaia?ue iu iacuaaai eo
iieiaeeoaeueiuie e io?eoeaoaeueiuie.

A XVIII—XIX aa. i?e?iaea yeaeo?e/anoaa /anoe/ii i?iynieeanue iinea
yenia?eiaioia Aaiaeaeaieia O?aieeeia e Iaeeea Oa?aaeay. Auynieeinue, /oi
yeaeo?e/aneea ca?yaeu iaeiiai ciaea iooaeeeaathony, a ca?yaeu
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ciaeia i?eoyaeaathony, e a oii e ae?oaii neo/aa
yeaeo?e/aneea neeu ineaaaaatho n ?annoiyieai a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
“ia?aoiuo eaaae?aoia”, eioi?ue Iuethoii auaae ?aiaa aeey a?aaeoaoeee.

?aoathuee oaa a iiciaiee yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia naeaeae a 50-o aiaeao XIX a.
Aeaeaein Eea?e Iaenaaee, iauaaeeieaoee yeaeo?e/anoai e iaaiaoeci a
aaeeiie nenoaia o?aaiaiee oai?ee yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia — ia?aie aaeeiie
oai?ee iiey — iaaeaeeiiai aicaeaenoaey, nicaeaaaaiiai iaoa?eae,
i?inoe?athuaainy aeaeaei a i?ino?ainoai e niiniaiiai aeeyoue ia
yeaeo?e/anee ca?yaeaiiua /anoeoeu, yeaeo?e/aneea oiee e iaaieou.

A 1864 aiaeo Aeae. E. Iaenaaee iioaeeeiaae ia?aua ec iniiaiuo o?aaiaiee
«eeanne/aneie yeaeo?iaeeiaieee», iienuaathuea yaiethoeeth
yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiey e aai acaeiiaeaenoaea n ca?yaeaie e oieaie.

Caaeaiea 5. Eaeea aeiioacu e iinooeaou eaaeao a iniiaa eaaioiaie
iaoaieee?

Iniiaiia o?aaiaiea eaaioiaie iaoaieee — o?aaiaiea O??aeeiaa?a,
iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao — oai?ey iao?eoe, oai?ey a?oii, iia?aoi?u, oai?ey
aa?iyoiinoae.

Enoi?ey eaaioiaie iaoaieee ia/aeanue ii nouanoao n ioe?uoey a 1838 aiaeo
eaoiaeiuo eo/ae Iaeeeii Oa?aaeaai. Aeaeueiaeoay oi?ioee?iaea a 1859
aiaeo caaea/e ia eceo/aiee aaniethoii /??iiai oaea Aonoaaii Ee?oaioii;
i?aaeiieiaeaiey a 1877 aiaeo Ethaeaeaii Aieueoeiaiii, i oii, /oi
yia?aaoe/aneea ninoiyiey oece/aneie nenoaiu iiaoo auoue aeene?aoiuie;
oi?ioee?iaee a 1900 aiaeo eaaioiaie aeiioacu Iaenii Ieaieii i oii, /oi
ethaay yia?aey iiaeiuaaony eee enioneaaony oieueei ii?oeeyie, eioi?ua
ninoiyo ec oeaeiai /enea eaaioia n yia?aeae a oaeeo, /oi yoa yia?aey
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia /anoioa i n eiyooeoeeaioii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe,
ii?aaeae?iiui ii oi?ioea:

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030000000000

aaea h — iinoiyiiay Ieaiea. Oioy Ieaie ianoaeaae, /oi yoi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea oiic?eoaeueii e ia ioiineony e oece/aneie ?aaeueiinoe
yia?aee, a 1905 aiaeo aeey iauyniaiey oioiyooaeoa Aeueaa?o Yeiooaei
iinooee?iaae ia iniiaa eaaioiaie aeiioacu Ieaiea, /oi naao nai ii naaa
ninoieo ec eaaioia, eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee iacaaee oioiiaie (1926 aiae).
Io i?inoiai iinooee?iaaiey Yeiooaeia ?iaeeeny oeaae ianoaeaeaiee,
oai?aoe/aneeo ?aaio e yenia?eiaioia, ec eioi?uo aicieeea iiaay iaeanoue
oeceee: eaaioiaay oeceea.

Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao ia?aeyoeaenoneie eaaioiaie iaoaieee no?ieony ia
neaaeothueo iieiaeaieyo:

· Ninoiyiey nenoaiu iienuaathony iaioeaauie aaeoi?aie o eiiieaeniiai
naia?aaaeueiiai aeeueaa?oiaa i?ino?ainoaa H, i?e/ai aaeoi?u o1 e o2
iienuaatho iaeii e oi aea ninoiyiea oiaaea e oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea o2 =
co1, aaea c — i?iecaieueiia eiiieaeniia /enei. Eaaeaeie iaaethaeaaiie
iaeiicia/ii niiinoaaeyaony eeiaeiue y?ieoia iia?aoi?.

· Iaaethaeaaiua iaeiia?aiaiii ecia?eiu oiaaea e oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
niioaaonoaothuea ei y?ieoiau iia?aoi?u eiiiooe?otho.

· Yaiethoeey nenoaiu ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai O?aaeeiaa?a
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000000001300120000000000040000002701ffff030000000000— aaieeueoiieai.

· Eaaeaeiio aaeoi?o
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i?ino?ainoaa H ioaa/aao iaeioi?ia ninoiyiea nenoaiu, ethaie eeiaeiue
y?ieoia iia?aoi? niioaaonoaoao iaeioi?ie iaaethaeaaiie.

Yoe iieiaeaiey iicaieytho nicaeaoue iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, i?eaiaeiue
aeey iienaiey oe?ieiai niaeo?a caaea/ a eaaioiaie iaoaieea.

Caaeaiea 6. Oeaaeeoa iniiaiua noaoeiiao?e/aneea caeiiu.

A oeiee eniieuecothony neaaeothuea noaoeiiao?e/aneea caeiiu: caeii
nio?aiaiey iannu, caeii iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa aauanoaa, caeii
yeaeaaeaioia, caeii e?aoiuo ioiioaiee.

Caeii nio?aiaiey iannu. Ianna aauanoa, anooieaoeo a oeie/aneoth
?aaeoeeth, ?aaia ianna aauanoa, ia?acothueony a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeoeee.

Caeii iinoiyinoaa ninoaaa. Anyeia oeie/anee /enoia niaaeeiaiea
iacaaeneii io niiniaa aai iieo/aiey eiaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiue ninoaa.

C + O2 = CO2

CO + 1/2O2 = CO2

Caeii yeaeaaeaioia. Oeie/aneea yeaiaiou niaaeeiythony ae?oa n ae?oaii a
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaao, niioaaonoaothueo eo yeaeaaeaioai.

Caeii e?aoiuo ioiioaiee. Anee aeaa yeaiaioa ia?acotho ae?oa n ae?oaii
ianeieueei oeie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee, oi ia iaeio e oo aea ianno iaeiiai ec
ieo i?eoiaeyony oaeea iannu ae?oaiai, eioi?ua ioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie
eae i?inoua oeaeua /enea.

Caaeaiea 7. A /?i caeeth/aaony yaeaiea eaoaeeca?

Eaoaeec (io a?a/. eaoUeeooeo, ainoiaeeo e eaoaeyaei — ?ac?ooaiea) —
yaeaiea eciaiaiey nei?inoe oeie/aneie eee aeioeie/aneie ?aaeoeee a
i?enoonoaee aauanoa, eiee/anoai e ninoiyiea eioi?uo a oiaea ?aaeoeee ia
eciaiythony (eaoaeecaoi?ia).

Oa?iei «eaoaeec» aue aaaae?i a 1835 aiaeo oaaaeneei o/?iui E?inii
sseiaii Aa?oeaeeonii.

ssaeaiea eaoaeeca ?ani?ino?aiaii a i?e?iaea (aieueoeinoai i?ioeannia,
i?ienoiaeyueo a aeeauo i?aaieciao, yaeythony eaoaeeoe/aneeie) e oe?iei
eniieuecoaony a oaoieea (a iaooaia?a?aaioea e iaooaoeiee, a
i?iecaiaenoaa na?iie eeneiou, aiieaea, acioiie eeneiou e ae?.). Aieueoay
/anoue anao i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaeoeee — yoi eaoaeeoe/aneea.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu eaoaeeca

Eaoaeecaoi? eciaiyao iaoaieci ?aaeoeee ia yia?aaoe/anee aieaa auaiaeiue,
oi anoue nieaeaao yia?aeth aeoeaaoeee. Eaoaeecaoi? ia?acoao n iieaeoeie
iaeiiai ec ?aaaaioia i?iiaaeooi/iia niaaeeiaiea, a eioi?ii ineaaeaiu
oeie/aneea nayce. Yoi iaeaa/aao aai ?aaeoeeth ni aoi?ui ?aaaaioii.
Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eaoaeecaoi?u onei?ytho ia?aoeiua ?aaeoeee, eae a
i?yiii, oae e a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaieyo.

Caaeaiea 8. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua naienoaa aeeaiai i?aaiecia.

AEeaua i?aaieciu — aeaaiue i?aaeiao eco/aiey a aeieiaee. Aeey oaeianoaa
?anniio?aiey ana i?aaieciu ?ani?aaeaeythony ii ?aciui a?oiiai e
eaoaai?eyi, /oi ninoaaeyao aeieiae/aneoth nenoaio eo eeanneoeeaoeee.

Naiia iauaa eo aeaeaiea ia yaea?iua e aacuyaea?iua.

Ii /eneo ninoaaeythueo i?aaieci eeaoie eo aeaeyo ia iaeiieeaoi/iua e
iiiaieeaoi/iua. Oi?ie?iaaiea oeaeinoiiai iiiaieeaoi/iiai i?aaiecia —
i?ioeann, ninoiyuee ec aeeooa?aioee?iaee no?oeoo? (eeaoie, oeaiae,
i?aaiia) e ooieoeee e eo eioaa?aoeee eae a iioiaaiaca, oae e a
oeeiaaiaca.

Iinooeaoaie oai?ee aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee yaeythony o?e naienoaa
aeeauo i?aaieciia – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay eciai/eainoue, ianeaaenoaaiiinoue
e ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea.

Naienoaa:

· A ninoaa aeeauo i?aaieciia aoiaeyo oa aea oeie/aneea yeaiaiou, /oi e a
iauaeou iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu. Iaeiaei niioiioaiea yeaiaioia a aeeaii e
iaaeeaii iaiaeeiaeiai. A aeeauo i?aaieciao 98 % oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
i?eoiaeyony ia /aou?a yeaiaioa: oaea?iae, eenei?iae, acio e aiaei?iae.

· Aaaeiue i?eciae aeeauo nenoai – eniieueciaaiea aiaoieo enoi/ieeia
yia?aee a aeaea ieue, naaoa e ae?. *a?ac aeeaua nenoaiu i?ioiaeyo iioiee
aauanoa e yia?aee, aio ii/aio iie ioe?uoua. Iniiao iaiaia aauanoa
ninoaaeytho acaeiinaycaiiua e naaeaine?iaaiiua i?ioeannu anneieeyoeee,
o.a. i?ioeannu neioaca aauanoa a i?aaiecia, e aeenneieeyoeee, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo neiaeiua aauanoaa e niaaeeiaiey ?aniaaeathony ia
i?inoua e auaeaeyaony yia?aey, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey ?aaeoeee aeineioaca.
Iaiai aauanoa iaania/eaaao ioiineoaeueiia iinoiyinoai oeie/aneiai
ninoaaa anao /anoae i?aaiecia.

· Nouanoaiaaiea eaaeaeie ioaeaeueii acyoie aeieiae/aneie nenoaiu
ia?aie/aii ai a?aiaie; iiaeaea?aeaiea aeecie naycaii n
naiiaini?iecaaaeaieai. Ethaie aeae ninoieo ec iniaae, eaaeaeay ec
eioi?uo ?aii eee iicaeii ia?anoaiao nouanoaiaaoue, ii aeaaiaea?y
naiiaini?iecaaaeaieth aeeciue aeaea ia i?ae?auaaony. A iniiaa
naiiaini?iecaaaeaiey eaaeeo ia?aciaaiea iiauo iieaeoe e no?oeoo?,
eioi?ia iaoneiaeaii eioi?iaoeeae, caeiaeaiiie a ioeeaeiiaie eeneioa
AeIE. Naiiaini?iecaaaeaiea oanii naycaii n yaeaieai ianeaaenoaaiiinoe:
ethaia aeeaia nouanoai ?iaeaeaao naaa iiaeiaiuo.

· Ianeaaenoaaiiinoue caeeth/aaony a niiniaiinoe i?aaieciia ia?aaeaaaoue
naie i?eciaee, naienoaa e iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.
Iia iaoneiaeaia ioiineoaeueiie noaaeeueiinoueth, o.a. iinoiyinoaii
no?iaiey iieaeoe AeIE.

Caaeaiea 9. Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa ?acee/iua oeiu eciai/eainoe.

Eciai/eainoue – aa?eaaaeueiinoue (?aciiia?acea) i?eciaeia n?aaee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiiiai aeaea. ?acee/atho ianeieueei oeiia
eciai/eainoe:

· Ianeaaenoaaiioth (aaiioeie/aneoth) e iaianeaaenoaaiioth
(oaiioeie/aneoth).

Ianeaaenoaaiiay eciai/eainoue iaoneiaeaia aicieeiiaaieai ?aciuo oeiia
iooaoeee e eo eiiaeiaoeee a iineaaeothueo ne?aueaaieyo.

A eaaeaeie aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueii nouanoaothuae niaieoiiinoe iniaae
niiioaiii e ia iai?aaeaiii aicieeatho ?acee/iua iooaoeee, eioi?ua a
aeaeueiaeoai eiiaeie?othony aieaa eee iaiaa neo/aeii n ?aciuie oaea
eiathueieny a niaieoiiinoe ianeaaenoaaiiuie naienoaaie.

Eciai/eainoue, iaoneiaeaiioth aicieeiiaaieai iooaoeee, iacuaatho
iooaoeeiiiie, a iaoneiaeaiioth aeaeueiaeoei ia?aeiiaeie?iaaieai aaiia a
?acoeueoaoa ne?aueaaiey — eiiaeiaoeeiiiie.

· Eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth (?acee/ea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iniayie) e
a?oiiiaoth (iaaeaeo a?oiiaie iniaae, iai?eia?, ?acee/iuie iiioeyoeeyie
aeaiiiai aeaea). A?oiiiaay eciai/eainoue yaeyaony i?iecaiaeiie io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie.

· Ea/anoaaiioth e eiee/anoaaiioth.

· Iai?aaeaiioth e iaiai?aaeaiioth.

Caaeaiea 10. Aeaeoa eeanneoeeaoeeth aauanoaa aeinoa?u ia iniiaa o/aiey
Aa?iaaeneiai i aeinoa?a.

Aeinoa?a — niaieoiiinoue /anoae caiiie iaiei/ee (eeoi-, aeae?i- e
aoiinoa?a), eioi?ay canaeaia aeeauie i?aaieciaie, iaoiaeeony iiae eo
aicaeaenoaeai e caiyoa i?iaeoeoaie eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Oa?iei
«aeinoa?a» aue i?aaeeiaeai aano?eeneei aaieiaii Yaeoa?aeii Cthnnii a
1875 aiaeo. Aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea o/aiey i aeinoa?a ai?n
Aa?iaaeneee.

A eieaa «Oeie/aneia no?iaiea aeinoa?u Caiee e a? ie?oaeaiey» A. E.
Aa?iaaeneee aiai?eo i neaaeothueo oeiao aauanoaa, neaaathueo aeinoa?o:

1. Any niaieoiiinoue oae aeeauo i?aaieciia ianaeythueo Caieth
oeceei-oeie/anee aaeeia, aia caaeneiinoe io eo nenoaiaoe/aneie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iacuaaaony aeeaui aauanoaii (caeii oeceei-oeie/aneiai
aaeeinoaa aeeaiai aauanoaa A. E. Aa?iaaeneiai). Ianna aeeaiai aauanoaa
n?aaieoaeueii iaea e ioeaieaaaony aaee/eiie 2,4-3,6*1012 o (a nooii
aana). Anee a? ?ani?aaeaeeoue ii anae iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou, oi iieo/eony
neie anaai a iieoi?a naioeiao?a. Ii A. E. Aa?iaaeneiio yoa «ieaiea
aeecie», ninoaaeythuay iaiaa 10-6 iannu ae?oaeo iaiei/ae Caiee, yaeyaony
«iaeiie ec naiuo iiaouanoaaiiuo aaioeie/aneeo nee iaoae ieaiaou». Ia
i?ioyaeaiee i?aaie/aneie yaiethoeee aeeaua i?aaieciu ouny/ae?aoii
i?iionoeee /a?ac naie i?aaiu, oeaie, eeaoee, e?iaue anth aoiinoa?o,
aanue iau?i ie?iaiai ieaaia, ia?iiioth ianno ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. Yoo
aaieiae/aneoth ?ieue aeeaiai aauanoaa iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ii
ianoi?iaeaeaieyi oaey, iaooe, ea?aiiaoiuo ii?iae.

2. Aeiaaiiia aauanoai — aauanoai nicaeaaaaiia e ia?a?aaaouaaaiia
aeeciueth (eaiaiiue oaieue, aeooiu, ecaanoiye iaooue e o. ae.)

3. Einiia aauanoai — a ia?aciaaiee eioi?iai aeeciue ia o/anoaoao;
oaa?aeia, aeeaeeia e aaciia?aciia.

4. Aeieiniia aauanoai, eioi?ia nicaeaaony iaeiia?aiaiii aeeauie
i?aaieciaie e einiuie i?ioeannaie, i?aaenoaaeyy aeeiaie/anee ?aaiiaaniua
nenoaiu oao e ae?oaeo. Oaeiau ii/aa, ei?a auaao?eaaiey e o. ae.
I?aaieciu a ieo ea?atho aaaeouoth ?ieue.

5. Aauanoai, iaoiaeyuaany a ?aaeeiaeoeaiii ?aniaaea.

6. ?annayiiua aoiiu, iai?a?uaii nicaeathueany ec anyeiai ?iaea caiiiai
aauanoaa iiae aeeyieai einie/aneeo eceo/aiee.

7. Aauanoai einie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

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