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Естествознание эпохи Античности и Средневековья

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O?a: A??????a y?? A????e e N?????uey

N????a

1. A??????a y?? A????e

1.1 I??????y e ? ??i a ???e ??????ey. A?????? ???? ??e

1.2 I?????? e ???a ????ey ??????? ?????. A????a. A??????ay ??i??y. ?a???
????? e ????

2. A??o???? y?? N?????uey

3. N??e ?????

1. A??????a y?? A????e

1.1 I???e??ey e ? ??i a ???e ??????ey. A?????? ???? ??e

I??e a ???e ????n?a ??? ??????y ??????ey ?? ?e ????ay ??????ey (? ?o.
natura — ???a), ?e ????y i???. I???yy ????????ue ??i ??????i ??????i
????? ??, ???????? a ?i ?????e. N????, ?i ????e — a ? ???????? ??a —
???? ??”??e ??”, “??? ??”, ?i ?a y?y?ny ?????i ?? ?????? ??? ? ???th?i
??, a ?????? ??e y?yth?y ?? ? ????? ??y?.

I????n??? ????a ???u ????i ??i ??????, ???????i, ???? ? ?????ue?? ????y
??. Iiy??? ??????? a ??e?????e ???e ?????? e ??ue ????? ? ??????a
?uy?y?ny ?y?i ????? ??iy???a.

E?? ?????????i ??ey (a ?i ???? ????e) ?a ?????e ? ??????, ???e ?????
???, ?uy??ey ???th?e ae???????e ?? ????i?i e ?????i ???? ??????i ???ey
??. A??ue ? XIX ???ey ??????? ?? ??i ?o??????i, ??????e ??? ?i ???e. A?
a XVIII ?? a ???? ???????ny, ???iy???o ?? ?????? ?? ????, ?????, ????ey
e ???. O?ey, ???ey, ???ey ????? e?ue a ???? ?????y. A ??e ???? ??????ey,
??y ??th ???o ???u, ????? ???? ??e ????oth?a ?????? ??e.

I????? ??eth ? ????, ya??yo ???u, ???a ??? ????a ???????, ??????ey
???????y? ?? ??????a ??????y i ??. A y?o ??????yo ? ????a ?a ??a ???u e
??????? (? ?? ?????a) ?y? ya??e ??iy?? ??????, ??????e? ????e e ?ycy?.
Aeey ?????ey i??y?? y??? ??????u ??? ????a? ??th-??? ?? (????, ????th
??) ?e ??a-??? ????? ???? (???o?, y?????ay ????, y?? e o. i.). ?????y,
??????? ???u a ?????i???i ??? ???iy?? ?e y?i ?? a ?????e. Y? ?? ?????a
????a, ???a, ???, ? ??i ?????ny ?????.

E?? a XIX ?? ??????? ???? ae????i ???? ??iy ???ey e ?e ???? e ????????
???e ??e??? ????, o. a. ??a ?? ???u ??????? ???u y???, ???? ? ???? ?y?
??o ??e, ??????a i??????e ???y? ?y?a ?????? ??a??a. A a ?y? n y?i ???i?
????e ?e “??e ??” ??a ????? ?? ??????a. A??a n ??? n ?????? ??u ???
??????? ?? ????y, ?e ? ?e e ????a ???e ??????ey, ???oe-? ??? ?? ???o.
I??i ??ay ?????yy ?y? ??o ????? e ???????i ???y?ny ? ?e ??.

A??? ??a a ???e ?????? ????o a Ae??? A??e a VI ?? aei i. y. I? ???
????ny ? ??? ?????? ??o-? ?????, ?????? ????, a ?????ay ???a ???,
y?yth?yny ?????i ?y????e ??? ??? eth?e (???? ?????) ? ????th ??o ???. A
???a ? ?y? ???o ?????e (A??a, A???a, A???) ??? a ???? Ae??? A??e
?????th?y ????a ??????? ??e. I? y?i ???????a ????e ??, ?e ???i, ?????? e
?????, e ???e-?o???????y?. A????i ??????? ????? ??a ?????e ???????e ??e,
e? ??????ue e ??????ue ? ???a?? ???. E??e ??? ????y ?????ue ?a ????? a
??i, ??? ? ???iy? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ????a i y??eyo ???u. A??a n ?i
????ey ???? ????ae a ????? e ???? ???i ??e a ???th ??e.

1.2 I?????? e ???a ????ey ??????? ?????. A????a. A??????ay ????ey. ????a
????? ????

A ??? ???????e i??????e ??????? ?ay i ????o ???? ??????, ???o a ???
????ey. E ??i ??????, ? e??? y?? ????y ?? ???th?e ??, ???? ?? ?e ?????
??? “???” (??, ???, ??ue, ??th), ?? ??a-? ????? ??i????. I???a ??????i,
?????a ???????i ???e???i A?????? e ????a ? “???i” (a ???? “??????a”,
“???????”), ??????i ????ey? ??e ??????oth ???oth ??o, ????othny a ??iy??
???? ????, ? ???e, a ??a ???, ????i ?a ?????? ??.

Ii ?a a y?o ??? ? ??o ???? ??????yi i ?? ???? ???? ? ?? ???e ??????? ???
i ???a. A?ath??y ??????? ??e ???????? ????e ???? ?e Ae???o. I???a ????
?i ???????i ??ey ??i ??? e ??oth?i ????yi.

1. Any A???ay ???o ? ????? ?????? ??? — ??? e ??????? ?????? — ???u.
I??? ???i? y?y?ny ?y????i ???? ?y ???o??ey ?????y ??? a ??????. A??
???o??u, ??u, a ??? e ?y A???ay, ? ?o ??iy?y, ????? ??i.

2. A?? ????eytho ??e ?????, ?????, ??????a e ??eth?i ????a ???u — ????a,
???i ???y, “????e ????ey”.

3. A?? ??aey?y a ??iy?? ????, ??iytho ?? ????a a ??????.

4. ????th?y ??u ? ??a e ????. Ii ?a ?e ?n??? ??, ?i ????? ?y ???y?y ????
??? ????. O?? ? ??o ?? ??? ??????e. N?? ??a ??u ?atho, ????, ?????th
??o. Y?, ? ????th Ae????, “??u ?? e ?????? ??e”.

5. A? ???? ??????i ?? ???th?y ? ??? ????o ?? e ????? ??y?a ? ????e (???i
??, ?e ??a ???th?y ? a?a).

I????y? ???n ??? Ae???? i ???? A????. Ec ???, ??? ?, ???th?y ? ???
???th?a ?n ????, ? e ??a ??, ???o ? A???? ?????? ????i. I? y?i ?? ?? ?a
??? ???oth?y, ??? — ??aey?y a ????, a o??? ?a ???ath?y. I?? ?? e ??
???atho ? ???ey ???. O???ath?y ?e ? ????ey ? ??u.

E?e ????? ???? ?? ???? a ??? Y??? (341— 270 ?. ? i.y.). Y??? ?c?eye ??o
??ey Ae????, ???? ???e ?? ???o ? ??? e ???u, a ?a ????th?a ? A???? ????o
a ????? ????ey ??? a ????o ????eyo. A??a n ?i Y??? ?? a ???? ???, ????a
Ae????i, ????a ????: ??u ? ??o ????ue ????e ????, /e?i ? ?? ?????, ??u
???tho oy??ueth e o. ae. Ii ??a ???a a ??????? ??? Y??? — y? ???a ??e
??a-? ????? ????e ??e ???. Ii ???? ??ue, ?i ????a ?????y ? ???ey ??o ??
?????i ???a?, ??????y ??? ??o ???. Y? ?e ?a ??? ? ????th n Ae????i, a
??? ???? ?? ?????i, ? ??o ??? ?ay ???? ???ey, ???e ??e.

I?? ? ???? ????o ??????ia-????a Ae???i ??a ?e O? E???e E? (E???e), ??? a
I ?? aei i. y. A? ?????y ?y? “I ???a ??e” y?ya?y ??? ?????, ????? ??i
?????o ???? ? ??????? ????yo Ae???? e Y??? (????o ? ????e ????o ? ?n ??e
?? ??ia? ???e). E???e ???? ??ue i ?/??e ???e. A?e ????, ?e ???atho e
???tho, ???ay? ? ??u — ?? ????a ????a ??e. A?? ? ??u, e ? ????? ? A????
??? ???ny ??i e ?i ?. I?th? ???e ??ae i ?/??e ???e, ???oth E???e ?????ye
n ???e.

I?? ? ????? ??? e ????a ?????, ?y ?y????ue ???a n a???i ???? ???ey
???????e ???????, ?e A????ue.

A ?? ????????? ????a A????y ???e ?????, ???, ????ey, ???ey. N?? ??????
?? ?o ???ue ???ue ????? ???a a ???? ??e ???u. Ii ????e ??ue ?e ?????ue e
???????th, a ??a e ?????? ??o e ???o. A ??o e?????yo ii ????o ????i ?o
????o ????. I??i ????o ??? ? ?o n ??e ????th e ??ue ????, ?i ? ???y?
???ey a ?i, ?i y? — ?i ?????a ??th??y. I??a ??u, ????? A?????, ??
“?????u” a ???oth?a a?a. A? ?? ????, i????, ?i ?? — ???aey?a ????, ?
???? ?y??o ?a e ?????o, i???e ???? ???? y?a ??? ? ?y??ey ???? e o. ae.

A??a n ?i o A????y ?? ??? ???o e ?? ??? ??????e i y?a?yo ???u. N??y ???
???th — I???, ?, ????, ????? ???eth ????a “?????” ????, ???eyth?a ?a ?
C?? ????ny e ??? “??????o ??o”. Iiy??, ??? ?, ?i ?????y ?????i ??o, a
??? ??? ?????i ??.

A ???e ??e A????ue ???? o? ? ?e ??? ???????? ??ey, e??? ???i ???? ?ey?a
? ??????a ??? ???oth?o ????. E????y A????y — ???????a ????a: C?ey,
?ath?y ??o ??, ??ae??i ????o a ??? A????. O?????ue C?? A????? ???o ?
??th??e, ????o ? ? ??y ??? ????. Y? ??th??y ???? ???th ??o ??? ??,
???ath??y ? ?? E?u. O??i ????? ??, ??i y?y?ny C?ey, ?uy?ye A????ue, ??o
?????ue a ???o, ???????th N??o, ??, ???y ????ey?ny ??? ??? ? ??? ??a. E
y?? ? ??aeo — i ?????? C?? — ??o, ? ??eth A????y, e ?????? C?? oy???a e
??? A????. Eae ????o y?? oy???y ??? ?? ????ny ?????ay ??a.

A????ue ???ye ?? ? ?a ???e, ?????i ???th??y ?? ? ??a: ???ue C?? e ???ue
I?a. I??? C?? ??o a ??e ??? ??? y???a: ??th, ??, ??? e i?? (y? ? ? ???
“???”, i ???o ???? ??????e ??????? ????????i ???a). I??oue I?a ??o a ??e
??? iy?e y??? — y??, ? ???? ??iyo ???? ??. N?? ?????a ? ?o — ?i???? ???.
I? ??iyo ? ???i y?? e ????i ???u ? C??, ?i ????? ???? ?????th ???o c??o
y????. E?a ?? — E?a e i???. I? ??a ??iyo ? y??, ? a ???a ? ?????o ??ae
????? ????? ?ey?th, ? ???e ??, ??ai ? y????, ???th?o C?eth. Ii ??eth
A????y, ? ????e ???a ??? C?? ????y ???? ??? ec ??? y???? — ??ue, ???e
??u??y a ?????? ??o C??e e E?? e ??????y n ???? y??.

A ???a ? ???????o ????e Ae????, ????ey A????y ?eth?? ??????a i ????????
????? ????ey. A y?e ???? ??y???? ??i? ?????u ???a ?????-????? ??u, ?
???o ????? ????? ??? e ???u. Eo a??? ???? ?uy?y?ny ????i ????o ??. N
?a?? (“???e”) ??ie ??????y “I??????ue A????”, y?yth??y ????? ?y?? ???ey.
Ii ??????, ?i yoi ?? A? (A????ue ??????o A?a ?e ??i ???? ???aa, ?th?e
yi??th “???????th”).

A??????ay ????ey A????y ?? ?????? ??????e ????a e ???a?a E???i I????
(??e. 90-168 ?. i. y.). A??oth ??ue ??e ??e I???e ??? a Ae????e e ?????
??o ??a?ny ???????i ???. Ii ?i ???y ?yo???? ????a a ???, ??a ???ay ???y
????? a ??iy?e ???? e ?eth?? a ?ay ????eth Ae??? A??e. I???e ? ??o ????y
??i ? ????? ??? ?????. Ii ???? c???ny ?????e, ????y ?????, ??i ???e
??y?e ???????i ??th??yi. A??? ?? I???y, ???? ???? “I??????y ???a”, ????e
????? ???? ????? ??a ?i ? ?ny???a. A ??? ??? ???????e ??u ????e ???? y??
????y ?e ??yi. N????y ??? ?i ???? ???ae, ???e ??i ???a, ?a a XII ??, ?e
????i ? ????e y?e. Iiy?? e?? I???y ??a ? ?n ?ae ???? ???????? ????i
“A???no”.

A y?e ??a ??a ????a ?????ay ???, ?????y I???? ? ???eth ??? ??????? ???,
???ath?e ae???a N??a e E?u, a ??a iy? ????o ??a ??? ? ???i ????a. A ??i
“A????a” I???e ??? ??othuoth ??o ????ey: a ??? A???? ????y ?????y C?ey.
A?? e C?? ????y E?a, a ??i ??otho I???e, A??a, N?i?, I?n, TH??? e N??i.
I?y?yy ??? ??y?e ???, I???e ???e ? ??i???ey, ?i ?i ???a ???ny ???a, ?i
??a e C?? ?a ?n????.

A??????ay ???a ?? A????y—I???y ???????a ?????i ??i — ??? ? ??????y
?????i ??a I. E????, ?????i y? ???o ? ??i?????oth.

Ae??????ay ????i??y ????e?ue ???i ? ??????? a ?????? e ???? ?????. C??
??? ??i ???o ???? ?????i ???????? ????y I???a. I??i ?? ????e “???u
I???a” ? ??o y?? ????i ???i ???y e ?yae ??? ???o ?????. E ? ?n? ????y,
????, ???? ?? ??a, ?i ????a ????e e ???u ???? ? ??o ?? ???? ??i ??? e
??ueth. O? ??i a ????? ?? ???i ?iy?a ????????. E?th?y ???a?y i ?i, ?i
I??? ??????y ??ey i ??????? C??, ? ???ey ??? ?????e ?e. A??a n ?i a ??o
???????o ????yo I??? ?e ??????i, o. a. ??? C?eth ???i A????.

A??e ??????e ??? ??????y I???a ?? ??? i ??a ?e ??? A????. “N?? ??? a ??
— ??i”, — o?e ?. N??y, ?i ?? ???o ? iy? y???? (??e, ?iy, ???a, ?? e
y??), I??? ?y?e ? n iy?th ??? ????? ???????, n ?i ?e ?? ??? ???. O?,
C?ey, ? ?i ??eth, ???o ? ??? ????? ??u, ??ue — ? ???, ?ath?o ??o
?o?????e ???? (??ay??), ??? — ? ???????a (??y??), ?? — ? ????????a
(??ay??), a y??— ? ??a??????? (???y??).

Aei ??? ???e ??e ???c ??i????i ???? Aiy?y (480-524 ?. i. y.) i ?i, ?e?
???i I??? ??? e ??e ???ie ??, ?i ??i — ??? ??i ????th??. E?-?, ???y ??
???u, I??? ???e, ?i ???ath?a ??u ? ????? ? ?? ???a ????yo ????a ?????a
???ey. A? ???a ??i ????. E, ??i ???i, ?????? y??? — ???? — ??i ???ey?ny
??c ?????. I?th? I??? ??? ??ae, ?i “??i ???o ???”.

I??? a ??? ???a ??i, I??? ??? y?? ???o ??o ????? y?? ??a ????. Y? ??i
??i ????? ??y???? ??? ?????.

A??a ?????? ?y ???????e i?? ???ny ????e ? ??? — ???? n 330 ? 30 a.a. ?
i.y., — ???e??ny n ?????i Ae???i ??a. I?? ? ????? ???-?????a y?? ???a ?e
A??ae, ??? a III ?? ? i.y. a A?????. A ??i ????? ??a “I??a” ? ??? a ?n??
?a ??????? ????ey ?? ??a?. N??y?a ? iy???? ?? “I??a” ????e ? ??? ?????
??? ??? A???, ? e ?eth?? ????ey ??? ??????e? ???. A “I???” ?? ???? ???
???? ?????. N???? A???i ??ae ??? ???? ?o ???e? ??? ????e, ?ny?e ? ?e ??
?i ?y.

O???? ??? a ???????e ??a ???????ny ??a e ???? ????ey? a ???e ????.
I?????? ???, ?????i e ????i y?? ???a ?e A??? (287-212a.a. ? i.y.). Ii
??e ?yae ??/ ? ????eth ???? ?????? e ???a, ????e ???? ??a y (????eyth??
??e ????a ??u ????? e ??? ????). A??? ?? ?iy?a oe??a oy??e e ????? ???
?i ?????ey ?y ????o ?e, ?e i??????e ??ae ???a ???. A? ????atho “????”
????a: “Ae?? ?a ??o ??u, e y ??? C?eth”. A??? ???e ??? ??????, ???y ??a
???a ????? ?e ???? ???e ? ?????o ???? e ?????e ???????? ????.

O????th ?????ue ???e ??i A?e??, ??th??y ????? ?e. N???i y?io ???, ? ?y?a
??, ?????a a ????, ????o ?????th?y ??, ??ay ?? ?????e ??i ????, ?????ay
??o e ?????y e ??? oy??e ?????? ???. A?e ?n ?? i??a ?????th?e ??, ? ??
????o ? ?????ue, ??? ???ue ??????e ??ath?? ? ?????e ?? ???ey?ny ??????
???? ??a y?? ?? e ????. A?e ?n ?? ai?oa ?????th?e ??, ? ?i ??o. A ??? ?,
??a ?n ?? ??i ?????th?e ??, y? ?? ???o ??? ???oe (?e ?? ?e ????y ??a).

A???a ???? y???, ?????ue ???o ?uy??? ????o ? y???. I??y ? ?????y n
???????i ?n???i I????, ???e ??e: “A?e ? ?i-?? ????? ?i ????ue y? ???, ?
? e ?? ? ??? ?, ?, ?? ? ?????ny n ???? A???a, o ?? ??? ? ????? ??a
?????a, ?i y? ???a ? n?a ? ??e e ?i — ??ue ?y?i e ???i ??i ??o ?n e ??
A???”.

I??? ??u A???a ???? ????ea a ?????? ????. I??a ?????a ????ey ?? ???e
?y?? n ?i ???. A? ?????o ??????? ?????y: ?e ????? “????a ??” (????? ?y
???a ?? ? ??a ???e ???ue), ????a ???u ???a, ???, ?????a e ??? ?y ??y?y
???o oy???, ???a ?????a ???. Ai ??y ??? I????e ??u A??? ????ye ?i?? ???
???i ??? N???u, ?????i ??y??. I? ?i ?????? ?? ?????u ??ia ?????a ? ??
???e ???, ???? ??y? e ? ???y?? ??y?i ???? ???i. E?? ? ??ueth 212 ?? ? i.
y. N???u ?? ?a ? ?y? ??y??, A??? ??a. N????o ???a, ?i ??ae ???th ? ???
??????y ?i ??ue ???? ???o: “O??i ? ??? ?? ????”.

A??? ?e ??i ? ????o ??????? ??????ey Ae??? A??e. E ?ae??eth, ?i ??i?
???? ??i ? ???? ?e ???, ???e ?i ?????i. E?ue ??oy ??a ???? ?ny/ ?o, a
y?? A????ey, ??u A???a ?? ???u ? ?????o e ???? ????? ????. I??e ???ae
??? A???a ?e ??? a 1543 ?? — a o? ? ??, ??a ??e a ?? ???i??ath?e ??
I??ay E????, ?????? ????o a ??????e.

2. A??????a y?? N?????uey

Y?? ???o ??a ????????ue a A??a ???i ?????? ?a?-???e ???? e ??ei ????i
?ey?y ??? ? ?th ???oth ??ue i???a. A? ?i ??o ? y?e y?? O. Y???: “Ae???
??? ??e ?????? e i?????? ????e, a ????? ??? i???e ? ?y?i ?? ?? ???… Y?
????a ????? ????ey ? ?? ???yo ????? ?y????e ?? a ? ? ??y ?????i ????? ??
i???ey, ???a ???? ???ue a ???? ???? ??? ???a e ???? ??e ???e ????th??
?????i ??y”.

A y? y?? ????y ??i ????ny n ????e (?????i), ????? n????y ? “????e”.
A???? ??????a ?????? ??o ???, ??th?e ?? ??? ? ????o? ??th??a ???, ?eth?y
e ????a y?o ?????a, e ??????? ?????i, ?y ???? ?o?a ??th??ny a ??a???
???.

I?a ?????y ?????ay ??a ??ae??a ????? ??? ??? (??? ? OE-OO ?.), ? A???,
????, ??th??y ???? ??e. Ni ??? ???? VIII a. ?o?? ????i y?i ??????ue ?
A??u ? A??? A??e. A IX ??, ??y? n a???iy??i ??? I???y (“A????”), ? ????
y?e ?? ????? “I??a” A??? e ????y A????y. O?? ???i, ???????y ???y ??ue
???? ?????ue a ??????i ??, ????aoy ???eth ????? e ???o?e. A ???e ??e y??
???a ???iu ??a ??a ???? ???, ?e Io??? A?-A??? (850-929 ?.), ????, ?????e
?a? ???????a ???u, E? TH?n (950-1009 ?.), ????e ??o?o ???a a ??????e e
???o? ??? ??? ??th??e ??? e ????o ????, E? A?-O??i (965-1020 ?.), ?????
?????ue ??? ???? a ???e ???, Eai-??ae (1126-1198 ?.), ????e ???o e
????????? ??? ???e, ????e A???aey ??i ????.

N?????? ???? ??a ?????o e ????? ??? a ??e. I??y? ? ????u ???????o ????a
I ?? e ????o ????? ??, ???? ??? ???? ??????i ????a a ??e i???. A ? ??o?
???y ????ii ?????? a ??th. A ?a ?nth? (a????y, ???i ???i, ????i ???) a
???a ??????a ???? ?????y o?ey.

A XI ?? ??? A??u ??? a ???????a n ?????e ???? ???c??, a ???? ???? ???a
??????e ???y?a ??? A??? ?????? ????.

A??oth ?? a ???a ???? ??o???e ??e ???e ?????? (I????, A????, I?????,
E?????e e ?.), ?o?? ??e ??????ny ???y n XII ?e. E o?y y? ?????? ??????i
???????ue ?y ????? ?????a, ? a ?o ?a ??a ???? ????y ?a??u ???????i e
?????????i ?????y, a ?? ???? ???, ??a ?i ??a-?? ???, ???????e ????. XIII
?e ????? ?y ?????e ??e ???i y?????a e ????? ?????e ???e A???a. C?? ????
?????ue ???? ?e ????o ???e ??? I????i ?????? ? ??a n E???i I????i (??ay
???? XIII a.). Iie ???e ???? ??? i ????? ???o ?????? ????a, ??a ???, n
???e ???ay ???? ????ny ? ??a, — ??? i ????? ?? ? ????e ????e.

A XIV ?? a ???? n ????e ???e ??ath?y ??a ??, ???tho ??????ny ???????
???, o. a. ?? ???? ????? ???? ???i ??????ey. E???? ????o e ??? ???
I?????i ??????, ??e ???o ???? ?????ay ??? — O?? A????i (1290-1349). A?
????ae? ???o “I ????yo” (1328 a.), ???e a ???e ??e ?????y ?e ??ay ???a
???? “I??????a ??? ?????e o????” (??? ?e ??e ??? ????yo ?o ??oy ???o ??
????? ?? E?? Iueth?i).

A? ??????a ???????o i ?i, ?i ? ??y??e ??????, ???ii ???e y??, ????e
???????, ?o?? e ???eth y??? ???th?? ?? ?a ? ? ???, e ???n ??? ?o?u
?????y. Iiy?y?? ?a ??a e ??a ????y ???, ??iy??y, ????y ? ? ?i, ???ue
???o. A??a n ?i ???a ??ey y?e y?? ???????ue a ???? ????i ????o ya??e e
??i ?????? a ??????a ???????? ??u ????ey, ????? a? a ??? ????? (???i
ia??i a ??? A????y). A ??o ???yo ??a ?a ? ??a ??y?ny ? ????y ?????o ???a
???u. A??????a — a ?i ???? ????e — ?a ? ???????. I? ????? a ??? ??????
“????e”.

3. N??e ?????

1. N??? N. E. “E???ey ?????? ??????ey”, ???a-?-Ae?o, 2001a.;

2. A????a A. O. “E???ey ?????? ??????ey”, N?????, 2007a.;

3. A??? TH.I. “E????? ????i ??i?????” – E.: O???, 2003?.;

4. N??? “Ei???y ?????? ??????ey”.– I.: I??-E, 2006a.;

5. ???? A.E. “E???? ?????? ??????ey” – I.: TH??, 2000a.

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