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AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

eaoaae?a oeceieiaee /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo

?AOA?AO

Ia oaio:

«Yeaiaiou oeceieiaee eeaoee»

IEINE, 2008

Eeaoee anao aeeauo i?aaieciia ie?oaeaiu aiaoiae iaia?aiie –
ieaciieaiiie, oeeoieaiiie. Aieueoeinoai eeaoie niaea?aeao iaia?aiu e a
oeeoiieacia, iie ninoaaeytho iaiei/ee i?aaiieaeia (i?aaiaee).
Aeioeie/aneee ninoaa iaia?ai niaoeeoe/ai aeey eaaeaeiai oeia eeaoie.
Aianoa n oai ecaanoii, /oi ana iaia?aiu iino?iaiu ec eeieaeia, aaeeia e
oaeaaiaeia, i?e/ai iineaaeiea ia?acotho eiiieaenu eeai n aaeeaie
(aeeeii?ioaeaeu), eeai n eeieaeaie (aeeeieeieaeu).

A niioaaonoaee n nia?aiaiiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie, iaeaieaa iieii no?oeoo?o
e ooieoeee aeieiae/aneeo iaia?ai iienuaaao aeeaeeinoii-iicae/iay
iiaeaeue, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Neiaea?ii e Ieeieniiii a 1972 a. No?oeoo?a
aeiiaia?ai e naienoaa eiiiuo eaiaeia i?eaiaeyony ii o/aaieeo
A.I.Naiieeiaa.

No?oeoo?ioth iao?eoeo iaia?aiu ninoaaeytho eeieaeu, ia aeieth eioi?uo
i?eoiaeeony io 15 aei 50% nooie iannu. N?aaee ieo eiathony oinoieeieaeu,
aeeeieeieaeu e noa?ieaeu. Oinoieeieaeu iino?iaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oi
eiatho «aieiaeo», «oaei» e «oainou». Aaaeiaeoaa oeceei-oeie/aneia
naienoai oinoieeieaeia – aioioeeueiinoue, ca n/ao aeae?ioeeueiinoe
iiey?iie aieiaee e aeae?ioiaiinoe aee?iieeneioiuo oainoia. A aiaeiie
n?aaea iieaeoeu oinoieeieaeia auno?aeaathony naiii?iecaieueii oae, /oi
aeae?ioiaiua o/anoee eo iieaeoeu ieacuaathony oe?uouie io iieaeoe aiaeu,
a oi a?aiy eae aeae?ioeeueiua aieiaee anooiatho n iae ai
acaeiiaeaenoaea. I?e aa?aaaoeee iieaeoe nicaeaaony «eiino?oeoeey»,
iiia?a/iue aeae eioi?ie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeaieiie neie oinoieeieaeia,
aieiaee eioi?uo i?eaioe?iaaiu ia?oaeo e aioo?ue io n?aaeiae /anoe
iaia?aiu, a n?aaeeio caieiatho iaiiey?iua aee?iieeneioiua oainou. Oe?eia
eeieaeiiai aeneiy i?eaeeaeaaony e 6 ii.

Eeieaeiay iao?eoea aeeiaie/anee onoie/eaa e yaeyaony ea?eanii aeey
aeeth/aiey a iaa aaeeiauo eiiiiiaioia.

Aaeee iaia?aiu oneiaii ?acaeaeytho ia ia?eoa?e/aneea e nianoaaiiua
(eioaa?aeueiua). Ia?eoa?e/aneea aaeee ?aniieiaeaiu ia iiaa?oiinoe
eeieaeiiai aeneiy, eioaa?aeueiua aea i?iiecuaatho aai, eeai iia?oaeaiu
ia ii?aaeaeaiioth aeoaeio.

N?aaee iiiaiia?aciuo ooieoeee iaia?aiiuo aaeeia ?acee/atho:

· o?ainii?oioth (aaeee-eaiaeu e aaeee-ia?aiin/eee);

· eaoaeeoe/aneoth (aaeee-yiceiu);

· no?oeoo?ioth (aaeee-oneeeoaee i?i/iinoe iaia?aiu);

· ?aoeaioi?ioth (aaeee-?aoeaioi?u).

Oaeaaiaeu eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai i?enoonoaotho a ieaciieaiia a aeaea
niaaeeiaiee n aaeeaie (aeeeii?ioaeaeu) e eeieaeaie (aeeeieeieaeu), iie
eioaa?e?iaaiu a ?aoeaioe?othuea no?oeoo?u e iaania/eaatho ?aoeaioeeth
ae?onia, aioeaaiia, oieneiia, ai?iiiia, ae?oaeo aeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo
eee neaiaeueiuo iieaeoe.

Iai?aiaiiue eiiiiiaio iaia?ai – aiaea e niee, a aeaea eaoeiiia e
aieiiia. Iaia?aia nio?aiyao naith no?oeoo?o oieueei a aiaeiie n?aaea,
iineieueeo aeae?ioiaiua e aeae?ioeeueiua o/anoee aeiiieaeoe ieaciieaiiu
iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n iieaeoeaie aiaeu i?e no?oeoo?e?iaaiee
iaia?ai.

Iiey?iua a?oiiu oinoieeieaeia, aeeeii?ioaeaeia, aeeeieeieaeia nicaeatho
a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eeaoie iiaa?oiinoiue ca?yae
iaia?aiu, ?aaiue io –10 aei –30 ieeeeaieueo. Yoio ca?yae, iacuaaaiue
aecaoa-iioaioeeaeii, yeniiiaioeeaeueii oauaaao ii ia?a oaeaeaiey io
ieaciaeaiiu. Aecaoa – iioaioeeae i?aiyonoaoao oaniiio neeiaieth iaia?ai
ninaaeieo eeaoie i?e eo nii?eeiniiaaiee. Eciaiaiea iiaa?oiinoiiai
ca?yaea y?eo?ioeeoia i?e ?acee/iuo oeceieiae/aneeo e iaoieiae/aneeo
ninoiyieyo i?aaiecia i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth nei?inoe eo inaaeaiey a
oneiaeyo niaoeeaeueiiai oanoa (NIY).

Iaycaoaeueiie ooieoeeae iaia?aiu ethaie eeaoee, e?iia ecieyoeee
niaea?aeeiiai io eioa?noeoeeaeueiiai (iaaeeeaoi/iiai) i?ino?ainoaa
yaeyaony o?ainii?o aauanoa.

Iaia?aiiua aaeee eae ia?aiin/eee eiiia.

O?ainiaia?aiiue ia?aiin aauanoa a iai?aaeaiee, i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
aeaenoaeth nee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo oeceei-oeie/aneeie a?aaeeaioaie (i?aaeaea
anaai eiioeaio?aoeeiiiui e yeaeo?e/aneei) iacuaatho aeoeaiui
o?ainii?oii. Ii iaiaoiaeei eae aeey iaeiieaiey a eeaoeao (eee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaiieaeao) aauanoa, a eioi?uo iie ioaeaeathony, aeaaea
ec n?aaeu n eo ieceie eiioeaio?aoeeae, oae e aeey auaaaeaiey ec eeaoie
(i?aaiieaeia) oao iieaeoe, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo oai aeieaeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny ia ieceii o?iaia, aeaaea i?e iiauoaiee aai a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

Nenoaiu aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa eiiia (eiiiua ianinu, eiiiua iiiiu)
iaania/eaatho ia?aaiiaaniia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eiiia iaaeaeo eeaoeie e
iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaeie, a oaeaea iaaeaeo oeeoicieai e i?aaiieaeaie.

Eiiu aoiaeyo a ninoaa anao aeeaeeeo n?aae i?aaiecia e aeieiae/anee
aaaeiuo iieaeoe, ?aaoee?otho yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaia aauanoa. Ana
i?aa?auaiey yia?aee, aeeth/ay ia?aciaaiea e eniieueciaaiea iae?iy?aia,
eiio?iee?othony eiiaie. A i?aaiecia iie ninoaaeytho aanueia
naaeaine?iaaiiua aioo?eeeaoi/ioth e aiaeeaoi/ioth eiiiua nenoaiu. Aanue
eeaoi/iue iaoaaieeci /?acau/aeii /oanoaeoaeai e eciaiaieth niaea?aeaiey
E+ ,Na+ , Na++ e Cl- a oeeoiciea. Yoe aea eiiu ii?aaeaeytho
yeaeo?e/aneoth aeoeaiinoue aicaoaeeiuo eeaoie.

Eae onoaiiaeaii a iiiai/eneaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo, a i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo e
/aeiaaea iieiaeia anao eiiia iao?ey niaea?aeeony a iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaea
(eioa?noeoeee), i?eia?ii 40% — a einoiie oeaie e oieueei 10% – aioo?e
eeaoie. A niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie yeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiinoe e i?aaeeii
Aeiiiaia, a eioa?noeoeee iao?eth niioonoaotho aieiiu oei?a e
aeea?aiiaoa, eiioeaio?aoeee eioi?uo oai cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a
oeeoiciea. Eaoeiiu eaeey e iaaiey nin?aaeioi/aiu i?aeiouanoaaiii aioo?e
eeaoie. Ec 160 a eiiece?iaaiiiai eaeey, aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa oaea
/aeiaaea n?aaeiaai ?inoa e iannu, oieueei 3 a i?eoiaeeony ia
iaaeeeaoi/ioth n?aaeo. A oeeoiciea Na++ i?enoonoaoao a ie/oiaeiie
eiioeaio?aoeee (ieiei 10-8 iieue/e) aeaaea a iuoa/iuo aieieiao, aaea aai
niaea?aeaiea ioiineoaeueii aaeeei, ii e oai ii nin?aaeioi/ai ia a
oeeoiciea, a a oeenoa?iao na?eiieaciaoe/aneie naoe, iaia?aia eioi?ie a
ianie?auathueony iuooeao neoaeeo iai?aiaeieeiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey
ia?aiauaiey yoiai eiia.

Niaea?aeaiea eiiia a eioa?noeoeee e oeeoiciea

Eeaoi/iay no?oeoo?a

Eii

Eiioeaio?aoeey eiiia, iiieue /e

a eioa?noeoeee

a oeeoiciea

Ea?aeeiieioeeou ieaeiieoathueo

Na+

145

15

K+

4

150

Na++

2

10-4 a iieia

10-2 i?e nie?auaiee

N1-

120

6

Aenii eaeueia?a

Na+

450

50

E+

20

400

I?eaaaeaii ii A.I.Naiieeiao, 2004 a.

Noaaeeueiia iiaeaea?aeaiea eiiiiai ia?aaiiaaney, a oaeaea ia?aiauaiea
eiiia /a?ac eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu a noi?iio aieaa aunieiai
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai iioaioeeaea aeey inouanoaeaiey iiiaeo oeceieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia iaania/eaaaony ?aaioie eiiiuo ianinia.

Eaeee-iao?eaaue ianin. I/aiue aunieea a?aaeeaiou eiioeaio?aoeee Na+ e E+
iaaeaeo oeeoicieai e oeeoiieaciie ia?aiuo e iuoa/iuo, a oaeaea iiiaeo
ae?oaeo eeaoie iiaeaea?aeeaathony aeoeaiui o?ainii?oii. ?acieoea a eo
eiioeaio?aoeeyo noieue cia/eoaeueia, /oi aac nouanoaiaaiey o?ainii?oiie
nenoaiu ec-ca iinoiyiiie ooa/ee eiiia ii eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiio a?aaeeaioo
yeaeo?iaaiac aue au niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeiui.

Eaeee-iao?eaaue ianin — aanueia yia?aiaieay nenoaia. Yia?aey
cao?a/eaaaony ia aioeii?o iao?ey e eaeey.

Eiiiiiaioaie eaeee-iao?eaaie iiiiu yaeythony AOO (enoi/iee yia?aee) e
iao?ee-eaeee-aeoeae?oaiay AOOaca (nie?auaiii – Na-K-AOOaca), eioi?ay
neoaeeo iaeiia?aiaiii e nii?yaathuei oaeoi?ii, e ia?aiin/eeii.

Niaeanii iaeiie ec iiaeaeae, ia aioo?aiiae noi?iia eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu
iaoiaeyony iieaeoey?iua eiiieaenu, niiniaiua oinoi?eee?iaaoueny ca n/ao
i?eniaaeeiaiey eiioeaaie oinoaoiie a?oiiu AOO, iouaieythuaeny i?e aai
aeae?ieeca. Oinoi?eee?iaaiiue o?ainii?oiue eiiieaen ia?aiineo naycaiiue
n iei Na+- ia ia?oaeioth noi?iio eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu, aaea iaiaieaaao aai
ia K+. I?eiya eiiu eaeey, ii o?ainii?oe?oao eo aioo?ue eeaoee, iinea
/aai aeaoinoi?eee?oaony. Aeey neaaeothuaai o?ainii?oiiai oeeeea aio
iaiaoiaeeii iiaia oinoi?eee?iaaiea ca n/ao aeae?ieeca AOO.

Ii ae?oaie iiaeaee, Na-K-AOOaca ?aaioaao eae ia?aiin/ee. Iieaeoea
eioaa?aeueiiai aaeea – oa?iaioa iieiinoueth i?iiecuaaao ieaciieaiio. A
oeeoiieacia ec-ca aeoeaiinoe ieoioiiae?ee eiaaony aieueoie caian AOO,
iiyoiio eiaiii caeanue i?ienoiaeeo aai eiioaeo n Na-K-AOOacie. O?ainii?o
eiiia eieoeee?oaony eciaiaieai (iiauoaieai) aioo?eeeaoi/iie
eiioeaio?aoeee Na+, aucuaaaiui eee i?ioiaeaeaieai aieiu aicaoaeaeaiey
(iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey), eee ianneaiie ooa/eie yoiai eiia ii
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiio e yeaeo?e/aneiio a?aaeeaioo (a ia?aiii aieieia
eaeueia?a eiioeaio?aoeey Na+ ninoaaeyao 50 iiieue/e, a a eioa?noeoeee –
450 iiieue/e. ). Na-K-AOOaca aeoeae?oaony e iao?eai, e eaeeai, ii
i?iyaeyao i?e yoii y?ei au?aaeaiioth aneiiao?eth: iao?ee aeaenoaoao ia
iaa oieueei ni noi?iiu oeeoiieaciu, a eaeee — ec iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaeu,
i?e iaeioi?ii niauaiee niaoeeoe/iinoe a noi?iio iao?ey.

Aeey ano?a/iiai ia?aiauaiey (aioeii?oa) iao?ey e eaeey Na-K-AOOacie
oa?aeoa?ia noaoeiiao?ey, aeey aeniia eaeueia?a ?aaiay 3/2. Yoi icia/aao,
/oi i?e aeae?ieeca iaeiie iieaeoeu AOO i?ienoiaeeo o?ainii?o o?ao eiiia
iao?ey (ia?oaeo) e aeaoo eiiia eaeey (aioo?ue eeaoee). Iioa?y
oeeoiieaciie o?ao iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia acaiai aeaoo ianeieueei
niauaao iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae (iiauoaao yeaeo?iio?eoeaoaeueiinoue
oeeoiieaciu), /oi iaicia/aaony eae yeaeo?iaaiiinoue eiiiiai ianina.

Niaoeeoe/aneei aeieaoi?ii eaeee-iao?eaaiai ianina neoaeeo no?ioaioei A
(oaaaei), eioi?ue yaeyaony eiaeaeoi?ii Na-K-AOOacu. Aeaaea a
eiioeaio?aoeee 10-7 iieue/e oaaaei iiaeaaeyao aa aeoeaiinoue ia 50%.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ea/aaiue yooaeo na?aea/iuo aeeeiceaeia (no?ioaioeia e
aeeaeoiieia), i?eiaiyaiuo i?e na?aea/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe, iaoneiaeai eo
aeaenoaeai ia eaeee-iao?eaaue ianin ieaciieaiiu ieiea?aeeaeueiuo
aieieii.

Eaeee-iao?eaaay iiiia eieaeeciaaia ia iaia?aiao i?aeoe/anee anao eeaoie
i?aaiecia, ii ioiineoaeueii iiiai iieaeoe – ianinia eiaaony oai, aaea
inouanoaeyaony iniaaiii eioaineaiue o?ainii?o eiiia, iai?eia?, a
ii/a/iuo eee eeoa/iuo yieoaeeioeeoao eee a iaia?aiao yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiuo
eeaoie. Ii ?aei?ae i?eiaaeeaaeeo eeaoeai yeaeo?e/aneeo i?aaiia ?ua, a
oaeaea eeaoeai nieyiie aeaeacu aeueaao?ina, a eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo
ii?aniaiea ii?neie aiaeu aeoeaiui o?ainii?oii ec iaa eiiia iao?ey.
Eneeth/eoaeueii cia/eia ?ieue eieaeeciaaiiiai a eiaea eaeee-iao?eaaiai
ianina a aeecie caiiiaiaeiuo, iaeiaaea yaiethoeeiiii «auoaaeoeo» ec
aiaeiie n?aaeu ia nooo. O eyaooee eieaeeciaaiiay a yieoaeeioeeoao eiaee
iiiia ia?aea/eaaao eiiu iao?ey ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a iaaeeeaoi/ioth
aeeaeeinoue aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea eiioeaio?aoeey iao?ey a i?aniii
aiaeiaia a ouny/e ?ac ieaea, /ai a eioa?noeoeee aeeaioiiai.

Ia ?aaioo eiiiuo ianinia o?aoeoueny cia/eoaeueiay aeiey anae
au?aaaouaaaiie a i?aaiecia naiaiaeiie yia?aee.

Aua iaeiei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eiiiuo ianinia, auiieiythuei eneeth/eoaeueii
aaaeioth ?ieue, yaeyaony eaeueoeeaaue.

A eeaoea eiiai eaeueoeey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia oieueei yeaeo?iaaiiay, ii e
?aaoee?othuay ?ieue. Ii yoie i?e/eia iaiaoiaeeii no?iai ?aaoee?iaaoue
aioo?eeeaoi/ioth eo eiioeaio?aoeeth.

Eaeueoeeaaue ianin iiaeaea?aeeaaao niaea?aeaiea eiiia Na++ a oeeoiciea
ia ieceii o?iaia. A ea/anoaa aeaii eaeueoeey aunooiatho ieoioiiae?ee e
oeenoa?iu yiaeiieaciaoe/aneiai ?aoeeoeoia. Eo iaia?aiu e niaea?aeao
eaeueoeeaaue ianiniue iaoaieci.

Aeaoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey eaeueoeeaaie iiiiu i?iaaaeaiu ia ia?acoeao,
iieo/aiiuo ec iaia?ai na?eiieaciaoe/aneie naoe ieioeeoia neaeaoiuo
iuooe, aaea aa aeoeaiinoue iniaaiii auniea.

Enoi/ieeii yia?aee aeey nenoaiu aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa eaeueoeey neoaeeo
AOO. Aoi?ui eiiiiiaioii ianina yaeyaony Na++-aeoeae?oaiay AOOaca
(nie?auaiii — Na-AOOaca).

A na?eiieaciaoe/aneie naoe ia aeieth Na-AOOacu i?eoiaeeony 60% iauaai
iaia?aiiiai aaeea. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a iaia?aia na?eiieaciaoe/aneie naoe iao
ae?oaiai eioaa?aeueiiai aaeea, e?iia Na-AOOacu. Inoaeueiua 40%
iaia?aiiuo i?ioaeiia ninoaaeytho ia?eoa?e/aneea aaeee. Ia aeoeaiue
o?ainii?o aeaoo iieae Na++ cao?a/eaaaony iaeei iieue AOO.

Eaeueoeeaaue ianin, a ioee/ea io eaeee-iao?eaaiai, ia iaeaaeaao
yeaeo?iaaiiuie naienoaaie — aeoeaiue o?ainii?o Na++ ia i?eaiaeeo e
ia?aciaaieth aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aciinoe iioaioeeaeia ia iaia?aia
na?eiieaciaoe/aneie naoe. Iayeaeo?iaaiiinoue eaeueoeeaaie iiiiu
iaoneiaeaia aunieie i?iieoeaaiinoueth yoie iaia?aiu aeey iiiaeo eiiia.
Iiyoiio iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae, nicaeaaaaiue ia?aiinii ca?yaeia i?e
ia?aiauaiee eiiia Ca++ n?aco ieaaee?oaony ec-ca ooa/ee ae?oaeo eiiia.

Iaia?aiiua aaeee eae eiiiua eaiaeu.

N?aaee eioaa?aeueiuo aaeeia ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu eiaaony ianeieueei
naiaenoa, auiieiythueo ooieoeee eiiiuo eaiaeia. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo
yaeythony aunieiecae?aoaeueiuie aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiiia, eo ioiinyo e
eeanno naeaeoeaiuo (iai?eia?, aeey eiia iao?ey eee eaeey). Ae?oaea
niiniaiu ia?aiineoue oieueei eee eaoeiiu, eee aieiiu (eiiu oei?a).
Eiiiua eaiaeu iiaoo iaoiaeeoueny a ioe?uoii eee cae?uoii ninoiyiee, a
caaeneiinoe io niiniaa aeoeaaoeee e iauaai ca?yaea eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu.
Ia?aiauaiea eaoeiiia e aieiiia /a?ac ii?u eaiaeia i?ienoiaeeo ii
a?aaeeaioo eo eiioeaio?aoeee (eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiio a?aaeeaioo) eee ii
a?aaeeaioo iioaioeeaea (yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio a?aaeeaioo).

Ii niiniao aeoeaaoeee auaeaeytho:

· iioaioeeae-aeoeae?oaiua eiiiua eaiaeu (ia?aoiae ec cae?uoiai a
ioe?uoia ninoiyiea e ia?aoii inouanoaeyaony eiioi?iaoeeae aaeeiaie
iieaeoeu i?e eciaiaiee iioaioeeaea iaia?aiu). I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue
iioaioeeae-caaeneiue iao?eaaue eaiae, ii?aaeaeythuee aeaiiey?ecaoeeth
eeaoee i?e aaia?aoeee iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey.

· iaoaii/oanoaeoaeueiua eiiiua eaiaeu (ioe?uaathony i?e aicaeaenoaee ia
iaia?aio eeaoee iaoaie/aneiai noeioea, iai?eia?, i?e aeoeaaoeee
iaoaii?aoeaioi?ia eiaee).

· eeaaiae-aeoeae?oaiua eiiiua eaiaeu. Ii niiniao aeoeaaoeee iie
iiae?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa a?oiiu (yeno?aeeaoi/iua e aioo?eeeaoi/iua) a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, n eaeie noi?iiu iaia?aiu aicaeaenoaoao eeaaiae.
Anee noeioe (iai?eia?, aoeaoeeoieei) i?e inouanoaeaiee neiaioe/aneie
ia?aaea/e aicaoaeaeaiey a ia?aii-iuoa/iii neiaina aeaenoaoao ia
?aoeaioi? (a aeaiiii i?eia?a oieeii?aoeaioi?, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie
iaeio ec ianeieueeeo aaeeiauo noauaaeeieoe eiiiiai eaiaea),
?aniieiaeaiiue ia aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe iaia?aiu iuoa/iie eeaoee,
ioe?iaony eiiiue eaiae, i?iieoeaaiue aeey eaoeiiia. Anee
eeaaiae-aeoeae?oaiua eaiaeu caaenyo io aoi?e/iuo iin?aaeieeia a eeaoea,
eo ia?aoiae a ioe?uoia ninoiyiea inouanoaeyaony i?e eciaiaiee
eiioeaio?aoeee ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiiia a oeeoiieacia. I?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeoue eaeueoeee-aeoeae?oaiue eaeeaaue eaiae, aeoeae?othueeny i?e
oaaee/aiee eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia eaeueoeey a eeaoea. Oaeea eaiaeu
i?eieiatho o/anoea a ?aiiey?ecaoeee iaia?aiu i?e caaa?oaiee iioaioeeaea
aeaenoaey.

Nouanoaiaaiea iaia?aiiuo aaeeia – eiiiuo eaiaeia aeieacaii
aeioeie/aneeie, aeioece/aneeie e yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneeie iaoiaeaie. Aeey
iiiaeo ec ieo ?anoeo?iaaia no?oeoo?a, ii?aaeaeaia aieiieeneioiay
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e eieaeecaoeey a eeaoi/iie iaia?aia. Nouanoaiaaiea
eiiiuo eaiaeia i?aaeii?aaeaeyao yeaeo?iaaiac aicaoaeeiuo eeaoie.

Oneiaey e i?e/eiu nouanoaiaaiey iioaioeeaea iieiy.

?an/aou e yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ana
eeaoee i?aaiecia a ninoiyiee «iia?aoeaiiai» iieiy oa?aeoa?ecothony
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaiueth iiey?ecaoeee. Ieaciieaiia eaaeaeie eeaoee
ca?yaeaia, e a iieia ia aa aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
io?eoeaoaeueiue ioiineoaeueii iaaeeeaoi/iie n?aaeu iioaioeeae.
O?ainiaia?aiiay ?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia a ?aciuo eeaoeao ?acee/ia, ii
anthaeo aeinoeaaao ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia ieeeeaieueo. N iiiiuueth
iee?iyeaeo?iaeiie oaoieee oaeaeinue a yenia?eiaioa i?yii ecia?eoue
?aaeueioth ?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia ii iaa noi?iiu eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu.

Iioaioeeae iieiy (II) aeaaioneiai aeniia eaeueia?a i?eaeeaeaaony e -85
iA, ia?aiua e iuoa/iua aieieia ae?oaeo aeeaioiuo eiatho i?eia?ii oaeie
aea (ieiei -90 iA) iioaioeeae iieiy.

Eaeea eiiu e eiiiua eaiaeu iaania/eaatho aeiyeaeo?iaaiac? E ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie ecaanoii, /oi iniiaiie aeeaae a iioaioeeae iieiy e iioaioeeae
aeaenoaey aiinyo /aou?a eiia. Na+ K+ Ca++ Cl- niiniaiu i?iieeaoue (eee
ia i?iieeaoue) a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo /a?ac niioaaonoaothuea eiiiua
eaiaeu.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ii?aaeaeaiiue eii (eiathuee ca?yae) iia i?iieeiooue
/a?ac iaia?aio, iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aeey yoiai eiaeenue oneiaey:

1.Iaee/ea eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiai a?aaeeaioa (nicaeaaony ?aaioie eiiiuo
ianinia)

2.Iaee/ea yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai a?aaeeaioa (nicaeaaony noiiie
eiioeaio?aoeee ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe e naienoaaie eiiiuo eaiaeia
?aciauaoue eaoeiiu e aieiiu ii iaa noi?iiu iaia?aiu).

3.Iaee/ea iiaeoiaeyueo eaiaeia a ioe?uoii ninoiyiee.

I?e iioaioeeaea iieiy aioo?aiiyy noi?iia eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu eiaao
ca?yae, ciae eioi?iai (io?eoeaoaeueiinoue) ii?aaeaeyaony iaee/eai a
oeeoiieacia i?aaie/aneeo aieiiia (aaeeia e aieiieeneio), ianiiniaiuo
i?iieeaoue /a?ac eiiiua eaiaeu, e aeaoeoeeoii eo i?ioeaieiiia – eaoeiiia
eaeey, niiniaiuo i?iieeaoue /a?ac eaeeaaua eiiiua eaiaeu, aneaaenoaea
/aai a eeaoea nicaeaaony ecauoie io?eoeaoaeueiuo eiiia, a a eioa?noeoeee
–ecauoie iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea. Aaee/eio io?eoeaoaeueiiai ca?yaea a
eeaoea e iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea a iaaeeeaoi/iii i?ino?ainoaa oaeaaony
i?aaeneacuaaoue iaoaiaoe/anee, ii oieueei aeey ioiineoaeueii i?inouo
neo/aaa, iai?eia?, aeey aeaaioneiai aeniia eaeueia?a.

Aaee/eia iioaioeeaea iieiy iienuaaaony n ecaanoiui i?eaeeaeaieai
o?aaiaieai iinoiyiiiai iiey, i?aaeeiaeaiiui Oiaeaeeeiui, Aieueaeiaiii e
Eaoeai.

Vi=RT/zFln (pk[K+]i+pNa [Na+]o +pCl [Cl-]i)/ (pk[K+]i+pNa [Na+]i +pCl
[Cl-]i)

Ia neaaeoao iooaoue iiiyoey iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae, ?aaiiaaniue
iioaioeeae e iioaioeeae iieiy.

Iaia?aiiue iioaioeeae caaeaaony noiiie aeaenoaothueo ii iaa noi?iiu
iaia?aiu ca?yaeia, ii?aaeaeythuae niiniaiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiiia
i?iieeaoue /a?ac eiiiua eaiaeu.

?aaiiaaniue iioaioeeae – yoi oaeie iioaioeeae ieaciieaiiu eeaoee, i?e
eioi?ii noiia?iue oie ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiia /a?ac iaia?aio ?aaai ioeth,
ianiio?y ia aiciiaeiinoue ioaeaeueiuo eiiia i?iieeaoue /a?ac ioe?uoua
eaiaeu a iaiai ia oaeea aea eiiu, neaaeothuea a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
iai?aaeaiee. Ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai Ia?inoa.

?aaiiaaniue iioaioeeae aeey eiia eaeey

Ae=RT/ZF ln([K+]o/[K+]i)

Enoi/ieeii yeaeo?iiaaieoiie yia?aee a ethaie eeaoea neoaeeo
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiue yeaiaio, ia?aciaaiiue ?anoai?aie nieae, eioi?ua
ia?aaiiaanii ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo oeeoiieaciie e iaaeeeaoiaiie
aeeaeeinoueth, ?acaeaeaiiuie ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiie, iaeaaeathuae
iaiaeeiaeiaie i?iieoeaaiinoueth aeey eaoeiiia e aieiiia, ia eioi?ua
aeennioeee?otho yoe niee (ii?aaeaeaiea A.I.Naiieeiaa)

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, n?aaiaiea II e ?aaiiaaniiai iioaioeeaea aeey
eiie?aoiiai eiia iicaieyao iiiyoue e i?aaeneacaoue, eoaea aoaeao
ia?aiauaoueny yoio eii i?e aeaiiii II e aai eciaiaiee (eiie?aoiii
iaia?aiiii iioaioeeaea).

Oie eiia iao?ey

iNa=gNa(Vm-ENa)

?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi ?aaiiaaniue iioaioeeae i?e oeceieiae/aneeo
cia/aieyo eiioeaio?aoeee eiiia ii iaa noi?iiu ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu
aeey aaaeiaeoeo yeaeo?iaaiiuo eiiia a aieueoeinoaa eeaoie
i?eaeeceoaeueii niioaaonoaotho

Ae=-75 iA

ANa=+55 iA

ACa=+150 iA

ACl=-80 iA

A ninoiyiee iieiy aaee/eia iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea i?eia?ii ia 50%
caaeneo io ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueii iaia?aiu eiiia E+. N oi/ee
c?aiey aeioeceee yoi icia/aao, /oi ?aaiiaaniue eaeeaaue iioaioeeae Ae ii
naiae aaee/eia e ciaeo aeeaea anaai niioaaonoaoao iaia?aiiiio II. Aianoa
n oai naie aeeaae a II ?acee/iuo aicaoaeeiuo eeaoie aiineo iao?eaaay e
oei?iay i?iaiaeeiinoue, a oaeaea Na+-K+ eiiiue ianin.

Ooieoeee iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea iieiy:

1. Iiey?ecaoeey iaia?aiu yaeyaony oneiaeai aeey aicaoaeaeaiey e
oi?iiaeaiey.

2.Iiey?ecaoeey ii?aaeaeyao iauai auaeaeaiey iaaeeaoi?a ec
i?aneiaioe/aneiai ieii/aiey.

3. II nicaeaao oneiaey aeey iaoiaeaeaiey iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eaiaeia a
cae?uoii ninoiyiee (iiey?ecaoeey iaia?aiu nicaeaao oneiaey aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey).

Iaoaieciu iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey

I?e aaia?aoeee iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey (IAe) ?aoathuee aeeaae a yoio
i?ioeann aiineo iioie eiiia iao?ey (a aeaaioneii aeniia eaeueia?a) eee
iao?ey e eaeueoeey (a iae?iiao e ea?aeeiieioeeoao, aeaaeeeo ieioeeoao),
iai?aaeaiiue aioo?ue eeaoee.

Iaoiaeii oeenaoeee iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea oaeaeinue ecia?eoue oiee,
oaeouea /a?ac ieaciieaiio aeniia (aenieaiio) eaeueia?a e oaaaeeoueny a
oii, /oi a iieia oie eaoeiiia (E+) iai?aaeai ec oeeoiieaciu a
eioa?noeoeee, a i?e aicaoaeaeaiee aeiieie?oao oie eaoeiiia (Na+) a
eeaoeo. A ninoiyiee «iieiy» ieaciieaiia ii/oe iai?iieoeaaia aeey eiiia,
iaoiaeyueony a iaaeeeaoi/iii i?ino?ainoaa(Na+ N1- e INIc-,).

I?e aicaoaeaeaiee i?iieoeaaiinoue aeey eiiia iao?ey ia a?aiy, ?aaiia
ianeieueeei ieeeenaeoiaeai, ?acei aic?anoaao, a caoai niiaa iaaeaao. A
?acoeueoaoa eaoeiiu (eiiu Na+) e aieiiu (N1-, INIc) ?aciauathony ia
ieaciieaiia: Na+ aoiaeeo a oeeoiieacio, a aieiiu iao. Iioie
iieiaeeoaeueiuo ca?yaeia a oeeoiieacio ia oieueei eiiiaine?oao
iioaioeeae iieiy, ii e i?aauoaao aai. Aicieeaao oae iacuaaaiue «iaa?ooo»
(eee eiaa?ney iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea). Aoiaeyuee iioie iao?ey —
?acoeueoao aai ianneaiiai aeaeaeaiey ii ioe?uaoeiny iaia?aiiui eaiaeai
ii eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiio e yeaeo?e/aneiio a?aaeeaioai. Auoiaeyuee iioie
yoiai eaoeiia iaania/eaaaony eaeee-iao?eaaie iiiiie.

Ii aeaiiui o/aaieea A.I.Naiieeiaa, a aenieaiia aeoeaiinoue
Na-K-aeoeae?oaiie AOOacu aeiaieueii auniea. Oae, ia 1 iei2 iaia?aiu
ia?aiiai aieieia, aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa aeoaeaeathuaai ia?aa e?ieeea,
i?eoiaeeony ieiei 750 iieaeoe yoiai oa?iaioa. A iieia ano?a/iua iioiee
iao?ey o?aaiiaaoaiu, oiaaea eae i?e aicaoaeaeaiee (a oa/aiea
nouanoaiaaiey IAe) nenoaia aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa iao?ey ieacuaaaony
ianiiniaiie iiiaioaeueii eiiiaine?iaaoue ?aceia oneeaiea aoiaeyuaai
iioiea. Iia aeaeaao yoi n iaeioi?ui caiacaeuaaieai. Ec neacaiiiai
neaaeoao, /oi iaia?aiiua iioaioeeaeu (II e IAe) yaeythony ia
?aaiiaaniuie, a noaoeeiia?iuie, iineieueeo iiaeaea?aeeaathony a oneiaeyo
nouanoaiaaiey ano?a/iuo eiiiuo iioieia /a?ac ieaciaoe/aneoth iaia?aio.
Naeaeae iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea naycaiu n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaoaainy
noaoeeiia?iiai ?aaeeia, i?e/ai aicaoaeaeaiea nii?iaiaeaeaaony oneeaieai
e aoiaeyuaai, e auoiaeyuaai iioieia iao?ey. Cia/eo, aicaoaeaeaiea ia
aueeth/aao nenoaio aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa iao?ey, a, iai?ioea,
aeoeaece?oao aa. Iaeiaei aeaaea i?e iaeneiaeueiie aeoeaecaoeee
eaeee-iao?eaaay iiiia ia iiaeao aini?aiyonoaiaaoue e?aoeia?aiaiiiio
iaeiieaieth iaaieueoiai eiee/anoaa Na+ a oeeoiieacia.

Ii a iiuoa auei caoeene?iaaii e ae?oaia. Iinea e?aoeia?aiaiiiai
iiauoaiey iao?eaaie i?iaiaeeiinoe aaee/eia iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea
aeiaieueii auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaaony ia o?iaia iioaioeeaea iieiy.
Ieacaeinue, /oi a yoii i?ioeanna nouanoaaiia ?ieue eaeeaauo eaiaeia,
eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ?aiiey?ecaoeeth iaia?aiu ca n/ao auoiaea ec eeaoee
eaeiai-oi eiee/anoaa eiiia E+ eae iineoaeae iieiaeeoaeueiiai ca?yaea. A
?aciuo aicaoaeeiuo oeaiyo iaoaieci iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey iaania/eaaaony
aeeaaeii e ae?oaeo eaoeiiia, a /anoiinoe, eaeueoeey. IAe ieioeeoia
naycai n aoiaeyuei a oeeoiieacio ec eioa?noeoeey iioieii ia oieueei
Na+-, ii e Na++. A neaeaoiuo iuooeao aeeaae Na++ a IAe iaaaeee, a
ieiea?aea ii aieueoa, a a aeaaeeeo iuooeao aeiieie?oao.

Iiauoaiea i?iieoeaaiinoe iaia?aiu aeey aiaeeaoi/iuo eaoeiiia,
i?eaiaeyuaa e aaia?aoeee iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, iaania/eaaaony
nouanoaiaaieai iioaioeeae-caaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia.

Iioaioeeaecaaeneiua iao?eaaua eaiaeu a ieaciaoe/aneeo iaia?aiao
?acee/iuo eeaoie i?aaenoaaeaiu ianeieueeeie oeiaie. Yoi aaeeiaay
iieaeoea iannie ieiei 230 eAea, ninoiyuay ec 4 noauaaeeieoe e aeiiaia,
ianouaai neeueiue iieiaeeoaeueiue ca?yae.

A no?oeoo?a eiiiiai eaiaea auaeaeytho aeaa iniiaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
yeaiaioa — naeaeoeaiue oeeueo? e ai?ioiue iaoaieci (ai?ioa).

Naeaeoeaiue oeeueo? eaiaea i?aaeiacia/ai aeey caoaaoa oieueei oao eiiia,
eioi?ua i?iaiaeyony /a?ac eaiae. Noaiaiue naeaeoeaiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
noa?aiiao?eae aaeeiaie iieaeoeu e ca?yaeii aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia.
Eiiiay ii?a eiaao ?acia?, no?iai niioaaonoaothuee i?iaiaeeiiio eiio n
o/aoii aeae?aoiie iaiei/ee. Aianoa n oai noaiaiue ecae?aoaeueiinoe
eiiiie ii?u ia aaniethoia, /a?ac iao?eaaue eaiae iiaoo neaaeiaaoue,
oioue e cia/eoaeueii ooaea, e aeeceea ii ca?yaeo e aaee/eia eiiu
iao?ey.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a yenia?eiaioao auynieeinue, /oi naeaeoeaiue oeeueo?
iaeaaeaao iaeciaiyaiie no?oeoo?ie, ia niiniaiie eciaiyoue i?inaao a
?aciuo oneiaeyo. Ia?aoiaeu eaiaea ec ioe?uoiai ninoiyiey a cae?uoia e
ia?aoii naycaiu n ?aaioie ia naeaeoeaiiai oeeueo?a, a ai?ioiiai
iaoaiecia. Iiae ai?ioiuie i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeyueie a oie /anoe
eiiiiai eaiaea, eioi?ay iacuaaaony «ai?ioaie», iiieiatho oaeea eciaiaiey
eiioi?iaoeee aaeeiauo iieaeoe, ia?acothueo eaiae, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo
aai ii?a iiaeao naeeiaoueny eee ?anoe?youeny. A ia?aii neo/aa «ai?ioa»
cae?uou, a ai aoi?ii — ioe?uou. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, «ai?ioaie» i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue oa ooieoeeiiaeueiua a?oiiu aaeeiauo iieaeoe, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho ai?ioiua i?ioeannu. Aaaeii, /oi «ai?ioa» i?eaiaeyony a
aeaeaeaiea oeceieiae/aneeie noeioeaie, o.a. oaeeie, eioi?ua
i?enoonoaotho a anoanoaaiiuo oneiaeyo. N?aaee oeceieiae/aneeo noeioeia
iniaoth ?ieue ea?atho naeaeae iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea,, /oi e
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao aeoeaaoeeth iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia.

Oaa?aei onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaia?aoeey IAe iaania/eaaaony oieueei
iioaioeeaecaaeneiuie eiiiuie eaiaeaie. A eo no?oeoo?a auaeaeai o/anoie,
ianouee ca?yae e niiniaiue aunooiaoue naini?ii iai?yaeaiey.

Naini? iai?yaeaiey iao?eaaiai eaiaea niiniaai ?aaae?iaaoue ia naeaea
iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea io o?iaiy iioaioeeaea iieiy (i?eia?ii -90 iA)
aei -55 iA, o. a. ii?ia aeoeaaoeee (ia?aaiae eaiaea ec cae?uoiai a
ioe?uoia ninoiyiea) ninoaaeyao ieiei 35 iA.

Nia?aiaiiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay iiaeaeue iao?eaaiai iioaioeeaecaaeneiiai
eaiaea, iienaiiay ai anao o/aaieeao, i?aaeoniao?eaaao nouanoaiaaiea a
iai aeaoo oeiia ai?io, ?aaioathueo ni naeaeaii oac. Iie ioee/athony
eia?oeeiiiuie naienoaaie. Aieaa iiaeaeaeiua (eaaeea) iacaaiu m-ai?ioaie,
aieaa eia?oeeiiiua (oyaeaeua) — h-ai?ioaie (eniieueciaaiu aoeau m e h,
iaicia/athuea eiinoaiou a aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaieyo Oiaeaeeeia e
Oaenee, iienuaathueo eiiiua oiee /a?ac iaia?aio). I?e iioaioeeaea iieiy
m-ai?ioa ioe?uou, h-ai?ioa cae?uou, e aeaeaeaiea Na+ ii eaiaeo
iaaiciiaeii. I?e aeaiiey?ecaoeee ieaciieaiiu ai?ioa iaieo oeiia
i?eoiaeyo a aeaeaeaiea, ii a neeo iaiaeeiaeiaie eia?oeee m-ai?ioa
oniaaatho ioe?uoueny ?aiueoa, /ai cae?ithony h-ai?ioa. A yoio iea
iao?eaaue eaiae ioe?uo iieiinoueth e Na+ oniaaaao ia i?ioyaeaiee
ianeieueeeo ieeeenaeoiae aieoe a eeaoeo. Yoi e anoue oaca
aeaiiey?ecaoeee. ?aiiey?ecaoeey ia/eiaaony iinea cae?uoey oyaeaeuo
h-ai?io, oi anoue iinea i?ae?auaiey iioiea iao?ey, e iaoneiaeaia
aeoeaiinoueth eaeeaauo eaiaeia.

Iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eaeeaaua eaiaeu iaania/eaathuea ?aiiey?ecaoeeth
iaia?aiu, i?aaenoaaeaiu aieaa /ai iyoueth oeiaie, i?enoonoaotho ia
oieueei a ieaciieaiia, ii e ia aioo?eeeaoi/iuo iaia?aiao. Aeoeae?othony
i?e aeaiiey?ecaoeee iaia?aiu. Ai?ioiua i?ioeannu a eaeeaaii eaiaea
aanueia eia?oiu. Ii ioe?uaaaony i?eia?ii a 10 ?ac iaaeeaiiaa, /ai
cae?uaathony h-ai?ioa iao?eaaiai eaiaea.

Iioaioeeaecaaeneiua eaeeaaua eaiaeu aenieaiiu iaeaaeatho aieaa aunieie
naeaeoeaiinoueth ii n?aaiaieth n iao?eaauie ai?ioa eaeeaauo eaiaeia.
Iineaaeiee i?ioeann aiineo naie aeeaae a ainnoaiiaeaiea enoiaeiiai II,
o. a. a ?aiiey?ecaoeeth.

Eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu. Ai?acaei aieueoaa ?aciiia?acea ii n?aaiaieth n
iao?eaauie e eaeeaauie i?enoua eaeueoeeaaui eaiaeai. N?aaee ieo anoue
iiiai iioaioeeaeiacaaeneiuo (eeaaiae- eee ?aoeaioi?-oi?aaeyaiuo) e, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, /aou?a oeia (oieueei o ieaeiieoathueo) iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo
eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia: L, T, N, ?.

Iai?eia?, eaeueoeeaaue eaiae L-oeia (io aiae. long-lasting —
aeieaiaeeaouee, a ioe?uoii aeoeae?iaaiiii ninoiyiee i?aauaaao ieiei 500
in) aanueia /anoi eiaaony a eeaoeao ieaeiieoathueo. Ai?ioiue aai
iaoaieci oaeaea ninoieo ec aeaoo ninoaaeythueo, iaicia/aaiuo eae d
(eaaeea ai?ioa) e f (oyaeaeua).

Aeey i?eaaaeaiey a aeaeaeaiea ai?io eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia L-oeia
o?aaoaony aieueoee naeaea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea, /ai aeey iao?eaauo. A
ea?aeeiieioeeoa, eiathuai iioaioeeae iieiy ieiei -90 iA, aeey ioe?uoey
iao?eaaiai eaiaea o?aaoaony naeaea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea aei -55 iA, a
aeey aeoeaaoeee eaeueoeeaaiai eaiaea aua aeiiieieoaeueii aei-35 iA.
Iioaioeeaecaaeneiua eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu ioe?uaathony i?e naeaeaa
iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea oieueei a oinoi?eee?iaaiiii ninoiyiee, i?e
aeae?ieeca AOO.

A ?acee/iuo iaia?aiao eiaaony naie, /anoi nianai ia niaiaaeathuee n
ae?oaeie eeaoeaie, ?aia?ooa? iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia. A
iaia?aia aeaaioneiai aeniia eaeueia?a i?enoonoaotho aeaaiui ia?acii
iao?eaaua e eaeeaaua eaiaeu. A na?eieaiia iiia?a/ii-iieinaoiai iuoa/iiai
aieieia iie aeiiieiythony iiioeyoeeae eaeueoeeaauo eaiaeia. Eaeueoeeaauo
eaiaeia cia/eoaeueii aieueoa a ieaciieaiia ea?aeeiieioeeoa, a a iaia?aia
aeaaeeiiuoa/iiai aieieia iie aiiaua i?aiaeaaeatho. Niioiioaieai eaiaeia
?aciuo oeiia a ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aia oie eee eiie eeaoee
ii?aaeaeythony ia?aiao?u aaia?e?oaiuo eie iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey.
Iaeiaei aeaaiia, /oi ii?aaeaeyao iaee/ea a ieaciaeaiia
iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eaiaeia – ioianaiea iaeaaeathueo eie eeaoie e
eaoaai?ee yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiuo. Iineaaeiea niia?aaeaiey iicaieytho
ooi/ieoue iiiyoey aicaoaeeiinoe.

Ana eeaoi/iua iaia?aiu aeaeyo ia aicaoaeeiua (yeaeo?iaaiiua) e
iaaicaoaeeiua (iayeaeo?iaaiiua). Iaaicaoaeeiua iaia?aiu niiniaiu
aaia?e?iaaoue oieueei iioaioeeaeu iieiy, a oi a?aiy eae aicaoaeeiua e
II, e IAe. Oeacaiiia ?acee/ea iaoneiaeaii i?enoonoaeai a aicaoaeeiuo
iaia?aiao iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia. A iaaicaoaeeiuo iaia?aiao
iaoiaeyony oieueei iioaioeeaeiacaaeneiua eiiiua eaiaeu.

A oeceieiaee naienoai aicaoaeeiinoe ia ia?aie/eaatho iaia?aiaie, a
?ani?ino?aiytho ia oeaie, iiae?acaeaeyy eo ia aicaoaeeiua e
iaaicaoaeeiua.

Iiaeii n/eoaoue aicaoaeeiuie oaeea oeaie, eeaoi/iua no?oeoo?u eioi?uo
iaeaaeatho aicaoaeeiuie iaia?aiaie (ii?aaeaeaiea A.I.Naiieeiaa).

E iei ioiinyo aeaeacenooth, ia?aioth e iuoa/ioth oeaie. Oieueei a ieo
iiae aeaenoaeai ?acae?aaeeoaeae aicieeatho IAe, eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeatho
oeaeue eiiieaen ae?oaeo i?ioeannia, oaeaea ?acaeaathueony a ioaao ia
noeioeyoeeth.

Niiniaiinoue aicaoaeeiie oeaie eciaiyoue naie naienoaa eee ninoiyiea
iiae aeaenoaeai ?acae?aaeeoaeae iacuaatho aicaoaeeiinoueth. Aa
eiee/anoaaiiie ia?ie neoaeeo eioaineaiinoue ii?iaiaiai ?acae?aaeeoaey,
o. a. naiiai neaaiai noeioea, a ioaao ia eioi?ue aicieeaao IAe, a aneaae
ca iei e niaoeeoe/aneay ?aaeoeey. *ai ieaea ii?ia, oai auoa
aicaoaeeiinoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaeaeo ii?iaii e aicaoaeeiinoueth
eiaaony ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue.

Aucaaoue aicaoaeaeaiea eeaoie iiaeii, i?eiaiea yeaeo?e/aneea noeioeu.
Anee iaeei yeaeo?iae iiianoeoue aioo?ue eeaoee, a ae?oaie nia?oaee, e
i?iioneaoue /a?ac oeeoiieacio oie, iiaeii niauaoue o?iaaiue iaia?aiiiai
iioaioeeaea e aeiaeoueny iiyaeaiea iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, eee (neiiiei)
ia?aiiai eiioeuena, i?e oii oneiaee, /oi oie aoaeao auoiaeyuei, o.a.
io?eoeaoaeueiue yeaeo?iae (eaoiae) aeieaeai auoue a eioa?noeoeee, a
aiiae- a oeeoiieacia.

Cia/aiea iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea, i?e eioi?ii ia/eiaaony ?aceee aoiae a
eeaoeo eiiia Na+, e ?acaeaaaony aeaiiey?ecaoeey iaia?aiu, iineo iacaaiea
e?eoe/aneee o?iaaiue aeaiiey?ecaoeee (EOAe), a aaee/eia niauaiey
iioaioeeaea, aeinoaoi/iay aeey aeinoeaeaiey EOAe – ii?iaiaie aaee/eiie,
eee ii?iaii.

Ana yeaeo?e/aneea ?aaeoeee eeaoee iiaeii a?oai ?acaeaeeoue ia oa,
?aaeoeey eioi?uo ia caaeneo io neeu aeaenoaothuaai ?acae?aaeeoaey e oa,
eioi?ua i?iii?oeeiiaeueiu neea aeaenoaothuaai noeioea. Iineaaeiea iinyo
iacaaiea a?aaeoaeueiuo (iioaaiauo, i?eia?-eieaeueiue ioaao), a oi a?aiy
eae ia?aua – iaa?aaeoaeueiuo (iioaioeeae aeaenoaey). A?aaeoaeueiinoue
oa?aeoa?ia oai eeaoeai, eee oai i?ioeannai a eeaoeao, i?e eioi?uo ia
i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eaiaeia. Iiyoiio iiiyoea
a?aaeoaeueiinoe i?eiaieii aeey anao iaaicaoaeeiuo eeaoie e oeaiae (o ieo
aiiaua iao iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia), e aicaoaeeiuo a oii
neo/aa, anee ana eciaiaiey iaia?aiiiai iioaioeeaea ia aeinoeaatho EOAe
(ana aeaeu aeia?iiey?ecaoeee e aeiii?iaiaay aeaiiey?ecaoeey).

I?eiaiaiea nia?aiiuo noeioeia aeey ?acae?aaeaiey eeaoee eee ia?aiiai
aieieia iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue e ae?oaea aaaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
aicaoaeeiinoe eeaoie. Anee ia caeii/eeinue iieiinoueth ?acaeoea
i?aaeuaeouaai iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, aoi?ie noeioe iiaeao ia aucaaoue
neaaeothuee IAe. Ia?eiae iaaicaoaeeiinoe iinea i?aaeuaeouaai iioaioeeaea
aeaenoaey iacuaaaony ?ao?aeoa?iinoueth.

Aaniethoiay ?ao?aeoa?iinoue – iieiay iaaicaoaeeiinoue eeaoee-
iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi a yoo oaco ana iioaioeeae–caaeneiua iao?eaaua
eaiaeu oaea «caiyou» i?iaaaeaieai iao?eaaiai eiiiiai oiea aioo?ue eeaoee
e iiauo i?iaiaeyueo ii? a iaia?aia ioe?uoue iao aiciiaeiinoe ec-ca eo
ionoonoaey. Aaniethoiay ?ao?aeoa?iinoue (1-5 in aeey ia?aa, ieiei 300 in
aeey na?aea/iie iuooeu) i?iaeieaeaaony aanue ia?eiae ?acaeoey
ainoiaeyuae oacu iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey.

Anee iiaoi?iue noeioe i?eeiaeeoue e eeaoea /ooue iicaea, eiaaea oaea
ia/iaony ?aiiey?ecaoeey, ia caaeiai o?iioa iioaioeeaea aeaenoaey, a
ia?eiae cae?uoey h-ai?io iao?eaauo eaiaeia, IAe iiaeao iiyaeoueny, ii
i?e aieaa aunieii cia/aiee noeioee?othuaai oiea. Yoa oaca iacuaaaony
ioiineoaeueiie ?ao?aeoa?iinoueth.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?ao?aeoa?iuo oac iaoneiaeaia ?aciie
eia?oeeiiiinoueth iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eiiiuo eaiaeia. A oao eeaoeao, a
eioi?uo iaia?aiu niaaaeaiu auno?uie iao?eaauie eaiaeaie, ?ao?aeoa?iue
ia?eiae iaeiaiueoee, aaeeieoeu ieeeenaeoiae. Aicaoaeaeaiea eeaoie,
iaia?aiu eioi?uo eiatho iaaeeaiiua eaeueoeeaaua eaiaeu (a /anoiinoe, a
aeaaeeeo iuooeao), aeaiiino?e?oao aeeeoaeueiua ?ao?aeoa?iua oacu, aei
naeoiae. A iaia?aia ea?aeeiieioeeoia eiathony iao?eaaua e eaeueoeeaaua
eaiaeu, iiyoiio ?ao?aeoa?iinoue ieiea?aea n?aaeiyy ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe, aei 300 in. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai ii?aaeaeyao
/anoioo na?aea/iuo nie?auaiee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ieiea?aea eae aaeeiiai
ia?aciaaiey.

Iinea ieii/aiey oacu ?aiiey?ecaoeee a eeaoea iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny
neaaeiaua i?ioeannu – neaaeiaay aeaiiey?ecaoeey e neaaeiaay
aeia?iiey?ecaoeey.

I?e neaaeiaie aeaiiey?ecaoeee aicaoaeeiinoue iiauoaia, /oi yaeeinue
iniiaaieai aeey aaaaeaiey iiiyoey noia?ii?iaeueiinoue, eee
yecaeueoaoeey. II a yoi a?aiy i?eaeeaeai e EOAe, /oi io?aaeaaony a
oiaiueoaiee ii?iaa aicaoaeaeaiey. Iaiai?io, i?e neaaeiaie
aei?aiiey?ecaoeee aicaoaeeiin/oue iiieaeaia, II aeaeueoa io EOAe, oaca
noaii?iaeueiinoe.

Iao?eaaay e eaeeaaay i?iaiaeeiinoue iaia?aiu iaoneiaeeaaao i?iaaaeaiea
iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey ii iaia?aiai aeniiia. I?e ia?aaea/a neaiaeia ii
aeaiae?eoai e niia ia?aiuo eeaoie, eee ii iuoa/iui eeaoeai, aieueooth
?ieue ea?aao i?iaaaeaiea /a?ac iaia?aio eiiia Na++.

?ao?aeoa?iinoue e neaaeiaua i?ioeannu ii?aaeaeytho eaaeeueiinoue
aicaoaeeiie oeaie. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony niiniaiinoueth ia?aa ia?aaeaaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth iaeneiaeueioth /anoioo iioaioeeaeia aeaenoaey, aac
eneaaeaiey (o?ainoi?iaoeee ?eoia). *anoioa eiioeuenia ii?aaeaeyaony
nei?inoueth eciaiaiee eiiiie i?iieoeaaiinoe, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue,
caaeneo io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?aaeoeaaoeee iioaioeeaecaaeneiuo eaiaeia
(a aeniiao — iao?eaauo, a ieioeeoao — iao?eaauo e eaeueoeeaauo).

Iaeaieueoay eaaeeueiinoue iiaeao auoue ia auoa 1000 Aoe, iineieueeo yoie
/anoioa niioaaonoaoao aeeeoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo neaaeothueo ae?oa ca
ae?oaii eiioeuenia ieiei 1 in.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Neaiaeacia A.E. Aiaoiiey e oeceieiaey /aeiaaea: O/aaiia iiniaea aeey
nooaeaioia iaae. aocia. – 2-a ecae., noa?aioei. – I.: Ecaeaoaeueneee
oeaio? «Aeaaeaiey», 2003. – 448 no?.

2. Oa?aa? A.A. Aic?anoiay oeceieiaey e oeieueiay aeaeaia: Iiniaea aeey
nooaeaioia iaae. aocia. / A.A.O?eieiaa, I.A.Aio?iiiaa, A.A.Oa?aa?. – I.:
I?inaauaiea, 2000. – 319 no?.

3. Eaeao A.A Eeth/ e iiieiaieth oeceieiaee I.: EOe «Aeaaeaiey», 2006. –
448 no?.

4. Oea/aiei A.E. Ii?iaeueiay oeceieiaey /aeiaaea I: YEIIN, 2005

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