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Биосфера как глобальная экосистема

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Ieai

1. Aaaaeaiea.

2. AEeaia aauanoai-eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u.

3. Aaeioe/aneea (iaaeeaua) eiiiiiaiou aeinoa?u.

4. Ii/aa- oieeaeueiue eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u.

5. Aeinoa?a e einiin.

6. Yeieiae/aneea acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeaiai aauanoaa: eoi eae ieoaaony.

7. Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia- yeinenoaiiia naienoai aeinoa?u.

8. Eae ?acaeaaeanue aeinoa?a: iyoue yeieiae/aneeo eaoano?io.

9. Onoie/eainoue aeinoa?u.

10. Aeinoa?a e /aeiaae: yeieiae/aneay iianiinoue.

11. *aeiaae aeieaeai nio?aieoue ?aciiia?acea aeinoa?u.

12. Caeeth/aiea.

1. Aaaaeaiea

Naaiaeiy ai aanue ?ino iiaeieiaaony ia?aae ethaeueie iaeia ec
neiaeiaeoeo i?iaeai, iacaaeneii io oiai, aeeaoo ee iie a Ao?eea eee a
Aa?iia, a aieueoeo ai?iaeao eee a aeaeoiaeyo. Iia eanaaony eaaeaeiai ec
ian, e ecaaaeaoue a? ieeiio ia aeaii. Yoi- i?iaeaia nio?aiaiey aeecie ia
ieaiaoa, auaeeaaiey /aeiaaea, eae iaeiiai ec oieeaeueiuo aeaeia aeeauo
nouanoa.

?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei eaaeaeue ec ian e ana
/aeiaa/anoai aianoa iniciatho «cai?aoioth /a?oo», ia?anooieoue /a?ac
eioi?oth /aeiaa/anoai ia aeieaeii ie i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Oaeie
«cai?aoiie /a?oie» yaeythony caeiiu aeecie ia ieaiaoa.

*aeiaae- iaeoaoaeue aeinoa?u. Eiaiii aeinoa?a- oa iaiei/ea Caiee, a
i?aaeaeao eioi?ie i?ioaeaao aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii e eaaeaeiai ec
ian.

Oa?iei « aeinoa?a» aaae aano?aeeeneee aaieia Yaeoa?ae Cthnn (1881-1914).
Nia?aiaiiay eiioeaioeey aeinoa?u naycaia n eiaiai aeaaeaieea A.E.
Aa?iaaeneiai.

Aeinoa?a- iaeanoue iaeoaiey aeeauo i?aaieciia; iaiei/ea Caiee, ninoaa,
no?oeoo?a e yia?aaoeea eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony niaieoiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth aeeauo i?aaieciia. Aa?oiyy a?aieoea i?inoe?aaony aei
auniou iciiiaiai ye?aia ( 20-25 ei), ieaeiyy iioneaaony ia 1-2ei ieaea
aeia ieaaia e a n?aaeiai 2-3 ei ia nooa. Aeinoa?a ioaaouaaao ieaeithth
/anoue aoiinoa?u, aeae?inoa?o, iaaeinoa?o (ii/ao), e aa?oithth /anoue
eeoinoa?u ( ai?iua ii?iaeu).

2. AEeaia aauanoai- eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u

Aeinoa?a aeeth/aao a naay ana /anoe ieaiaou, inaiaiiua aeeciueth. Yoi e
aoiinoa?a , e ieaai, e ana /anoe caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, aaea ooaa?aeeeanue
aeeciue a ethauo a? oi?iao. Aeaaiue eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u- yoi a? aeeaia
aauanoai.

«…Ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe iao oeie/aneie neeu aieaa iinoiyiii
aeaenoaothuae, a iioiio e aieaa iiaouanoaaiiie ii naiei eiia/iui
iineaaenoaeyi, /ai aeeaua i?aaieciu, acyoua a oeaeii» ( A.E.
Aa?iaaeneee).

A eaeie oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaii aeeaia aauanoai a aeinoa?a ? AEeaia aauanoai
a aeinoa?a i?aaenoaaeaii a aeaea ioaeaeueiuo oae- eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?aaieciia.

AEeaia aauanoai i?aaenoaaeaii i?aaieciaie ?acee/iuo ?acia?ia. Naiua
e?oiiua ec ieo- eeou. Aeeeia oaea nia?aiaiiuo eeoia io 1,1 aei 33 i,
ianna io 30 ea aei 150 o. E auni/aeoei aea?aaueyi ioiineony naeaiey
aa/iicaeaiay, eioi?ay aeinoeaaao auniou 110-112 i e eiaao aeeaiao? 6-10
i.

Ii i?eaeeceoaeueiie ioeaiea, ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey aeecie ia Caiea a
aeinoa?a nouanoaiaaei aieaa ieeeea?aea aeaeia..

N?aaee aeeauo nouanoa i?aiaeaaeatho ianaeiiua (eo ieiei ieeeeiia
aeaeia). Iicaiii/iua ninoaaeytho anaai 2%. . Ecaanoiue iai ie? aeecie
aieaa /ai ia 70% ninoieo ec aeeaioiuo, 225 – yoi ?anoaiey e a?eau, 5%-
iaeiieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu.

AEeaia aauanoai ?ani?aaeaeaii a aeinoa?a ia?aaiiia?ii, iii ia?acoao
naouaiey ia a?aieoeao ?acaeaea eeoinoa?a- aeae?inoa?a – aoiinoa?a: a
aiaeiaiao aeec iiaa?oiinoe, ia aeia ii?ae e ieaaiia, ia iiaa?oiinoe
nooe. Ia iaoa?eeao iaaethaeathony aa?aaiaua, iieiaiiua, ica?iua,
o?iie/aneea, noao?iie/aneea naouaiey aeecie. Ia nooa i?aiaeaaeatho
?anoaiey, a a ieaaia – aeeaioiua.

Ianna aeeaiai aauanoaa iacuaaaony aeiiannie. Iia au?aaeaaony a
aaeeieoeao iannu nooiai eee nu?iai aauanoaa, ioianaiiie e aaeeieoeai
ieiuaaee eee iauaia ianoa iaeoaiey.Ecaanoii, /oi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai i?aaiecia eiaao i?aaeaeu, ii nia?oai. Eae
aea iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iai?a?uaiinoue aeecie a aeinoa?a? Iai?a?uaii
?aciiiaeaynue, aeeaua i?aaieciu ia?acotho iioie /a?aaeothueony
iieieaiee: ia niaio iiaeaathuei iiyaeythony iiaua nouanoaa. Oai naiui
nia?aiaiiia aeeaia nouanoai ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth naycaii n aeeaui
aauanoaii i?ioeuo aaieiae/aneeo yiio.

Ie?eaaeu aeeauo nouanoa ianaeytho aeinoa?o, ninoaaeytho aeeaia aauanoai
aeinoa?u. Oeie/aneee ninoaa aeeaiai aauanoaa noiaeai n ninoaaii caacae e
Nieioea, /oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aaeeinoai i?e?iaeu. O aeeaiai aauanoaa
nia?aiaiiuie iaoiaeaie iiaoo auoue ecia?aiu ianna, eiee/anoai
caeeth/aiiie a iai yia?aee, oa?aeoa? ioaa/athuaai aai i?ino?ainoaa.
Nia?aiaiiiio aeeaiio aauanoao i?enoua aieueoia oeie/aneia ?aciiia?acea.

3. Aaeioe/aneea (iaaeeaua) eiiiiiaiou aeinoa?u

Aiaea, aicaeoo, ii/au, eo oeie/aneee ninoaa, oece/aneea naienoaa, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oaiia?aoo?a, einie/aneia eceo/aiea, a?aaeoaoeey,
iaaiaoeci- oaeiau aaeioe/aneea eiiiiiaiou aeinoa?u.

E aeinoa?a ioiinyo i?aaeaea anaai oa o/anoee ieaiaou, aaea anoue oneiaey
ia oieueei aeey auaeeaaiey, ii e aeey ?aciiiaeaiey aeeauo nouanoa- yoi
iiea nouanoaiaaiey aeecie. E iaio i?eeaaatho oa??eoi?ee, a eioi?uo
aeeaua nouanoaa no?aaeatho e eeoue auaeeaatho, ii ia iiaoo
?aciiiaeaoueny- iiea onoie/eainoe aeecie.

Caiiua aaeioe/aneea oneiaey, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho iiea nouanoaiaaiey
aeecie:

– aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai eenei?iaea e oaeaeeneiai aaca,

– aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai aeeaeeie aiaeu, a ia eueaea eee ia?a,

– aeaaii?eyoiua oaiia?aoo?u: ia neeoeii aunieea, /oiau ia naa?ouaaeny
aaeie, e ia neeoeii ieceea, /oiau ii?iaeueii ?aaioaee oa?iaiou-
onei?eoaee aeioeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee,

– aeeaiio nouanoao iaiaoiaeei i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa.

Aeinoa?a- aeiaaeueiay yeinenoaia, iniaay iaiei/ea Caiee, noa?a
?ani?ino?aiaiey aeecie, a?aieoeu eioi?ie ii?aaeaeythony iaee/eai
i?eaiaeiuo aeey i?aaieciia aaeioe/aneeo oneiaee: oaiia?aoo?u, aeeaeeie
aiaeu, ninoaaa aacia, yeaiaioia ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey.

4. Ii/aa- oieeaeueiue eiiiiiaio aeinoa?u

A eiioea O1O a. aaeeeee ?onneee anoanoaieniuoaoaeue A. A. Aeieo/aaa
naieie enneaaeiaaieyie /a?iicaia e ae?oaeo ii/a ?onneie aeieeiu e
Eaaeaca onoaiiaee, /oi ii/au i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?e?iaeiua oaea e ii
naiei aiaoiei iniaaiiinoyi e naienoaai neeueii ioee/athony io ai?iuo
ii?iae, ia eioi?uo iie ia?aciaaeenue. Eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia iiaa?oiinoe
Caiee iiae/eiaii no?iaei aaia?aoe/aneei caeiiiia?iinoyi.

?aciiia?acea ii/a ia?iiii. Yoi naycaii n iiiaiia?aceai ni/aoaiey
oaeoi?ia ii/aiia?aciaaiey: ai?iuo ii?iae, aic?anoa iiaa?oiinoe,
?anoeoaeueiiai e aeeaioiiai ianaeaiey, ?aeueaoa.

Ii/aa-yoi iniaia i?e?iaeiia oaei e n?aaea aeecie, aicieeathuay a
?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiey ai?iuo ii?iae iiaa?oiinoe nooe niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth aeeauo i?aaieciia, aiaeu e aicaeooa.

Ii/aiia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu ia Caiea -yoi a?aiaeeiciua ii naiei
ieaiaoa?iui ianooaaai e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeannu nicaeaiey
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa ii/a, eo aeieiae/aneiai iaeiieaiey e
aicieeiiaaiey ieiaei?iaeey.

5. Aeinoa?a e einiin

Caiey – oieeaeueiay ieaiaoa, iia iaoiaeeony ia aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiii
?annoiyiee io Nieioea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyao oaeoth oaiia?aoo?o
iiaa?oiinoe Caiee, i?e eioi?ie aiaea iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a aeeaeeii
ninoiyiee.

Caiey iieo/aao io nieioea ia?iiiia eiee/anoai yia?aee e nio?aiyao i?e
yoii i?eia?ii iinoiyiioth oaiia?aoo?o. Cia/eo iaoa ieaiaoa eceo/aao a
einiin ii/oe oaeia aea eiee/anoai yia?aee, eaeia iieo/aao ec einiin:
i?eoiae e ?anoiae aeieaeiu auoue naaeaine?iaaiu, eia/a nenoaia
iaeiaaeaeu iioa?yao onoie/eainoue. Caiey eeai iaa?aaony, eeai caia?ciao
e i?aa?aoeony a aacaeeciaiiia oaei.

Aeinoa?a oanii naycaia n einiinii. Iioiee yia?aee, iinooiathuea e Caiea,
nicaeatho oneiaey, iaania/eaathuea aeeciue. Iaaieoiia iiea e iciiiaue
ye?ai caueuatho ieaiaoo io eceeoieo einie/aneeo eceo/aiee e eioaineaiie
nieia/iie ?aaeeaoeee. Einie/aneea eceo/aiey, aeinoeaathuea aeinoa?u,
iaania/eaatho oioineioac e aeeytho ia aeoeaiinoue aeeauo nouanoa.

6. Yeieiae/aneea acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeaiai aauanoaa: eoi eae ieoaaony

Ieaiaoa Caiey ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo ieaiao oai, /oi a? aeinoa?a
niaea?aeeo aauanoai, /oanoaeoaeueiia e iioieo nieia/iiai eceo/aiey-
oei?ioeee. Eiaiii oei?ioeee iaania/eaaao i?aia?aciaaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiie
yia?aee nieia/iiai eceo/aiey a oeie/aneoth yia?aeth, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie
eaeao i?ioeann ainnoaiiaeaiey ieeneia oaea?iaea e acioa a ?aaeoeeyo
aeineioaca.

A caeaiii ?anoaiee i?ienoiaeeo oioineioac – i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey
oaeaaiaeia ec aiaeu e aeaoieene eenei?iaea ( eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a
aicaeooa eee aiaea). I?e yoii a ea/anoaa iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa auaeaeyaony
eenei?iae. Caeaiua ?anoaiey ioiinyo e aaoio?ioai- i?aaieciai, eioi?ua
aa?oo ana ioaeiua ei aeey aeecie oeie/aneea yeaiaiou ec ie?oaeathuae eo
einiie iaoa?ee e ia o?aaotho aeey iino?iaiey naiaai oaea aioiauo
i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee ae?oaiai i?aaiecia. Iniiaiie eniieuecoaiue
aaoio?ioaie enoi/iee yia?aee-Nieioea. Aaoa?io?iou-yoi i?aaieciu, eioi?ua
ioaeaeathony aeey naiaai ieoaiey a i?aaie/aneii aauanoaa, ia?aciaaiiii
ae?oaeie i?aaieciaie. Aaoa?io?iou iinoaiaiii i?aia?acotho i?aaie/aneia
aauanoai, ia?aciaaiiia aaoio?ioaie, aeiaiaey aai aei ia?aiia/aeueiiai-
ieia?aeueiiai- ninoiyiey.

Aeano?oeoeaiay (?ac?ooathuay) ooieoeey niaa?oaaony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eaaeaeiai ec oea?noa aeeaiai aauanoaa. ?aniaae, ?aceiaeaiea –
iaiouaieaiia naienoai iaiaia aauanoa eaaeaeiai aeeaiai i?aaiecia.
?anoaiey ia?acotho i?aaie/aneea aauanoaa e yaeythony e?oiiaeoeie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oaeaaiaeia ia Caiea; ii iie aea auaeaeytho e
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey aeecie eenei?iae eae iiai/iue i?iaeoeo oioineioaca.

A i?ioeanna aeuoaiey a oaeao anao aeaeia aeeaiai ia?acoaony oaeaeeneue
aac, eioi?ue ?anoaiey aiiaue eniieuecotho aeey oioineioaca. Nouanoaotho
e oaeea aeaeu aeeaiai, aeey eioi?uo ?ac?ooaiea ioia?oaai i?aaie/aneiai
aauanoaa yaeythony niiniaii ieoaiey. Nouanoaotho i?aaieciu ni niaoaiiui
oeiii ieoaiey, eo iacuaatho ieenio?ioaie.

A aeinoa?a i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu i?aia?aciaaiey iai?aaie/aneiai, einiiai
aauanoaa a i?aaie/aneia e ia?aoiie ia?ano?ieee i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa a
ieia?aeueiua. Aeaeaeaiea e i?aia?aciaaiea aauanoa a aeinoa?a
inouanoaeyaony i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee aeeaiai aauanoaa, ana aeaeu
eioi?iai niaoeeaeece?iaaeenue ia ?acee/iuo niiniaao ieoaiey.

7. Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia- yeinenoaiiia naienoai aeinoa?u

Eiia/iia eiee/anoai aauanoaa, eioi?ia anoue a aeinoa?a, i?eia?aei
naienoai aaneiia/iinoe /a?ac e?oaiai?io aauanoa.

Ia?ac e?oaiai?ioa aauanoaa a aeinoa?a nicaeaao eieani aiaeyiie
iaeueieoeu. Iaeiaei, /oiau eieani aa?oaeinue, ioaeai iinoiyiiue i?eoie
aiaeu. Iiaeiaii yoiio , iioie nieia/iie yia?aee, iinooiathuae ec
einiina, e?ooeo « eieani aeecie» ia iaoae ieaiaoa. Ianeieueei auno?i
aa?oeony eieani? A oiaea aeiaaioeie/aneeo oeeeeia aoiiu aieueoeinoaa
oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia i?ioiaeeee aan/eneaiiia eiee/anoai ?ac /a?ac aeeaia
nouanoai. Iai?eia?, aanue eenei?iae aoiinoa?u «iai?a/eaaaony» /a?ac
aeeaia aauanoai ca 2000 eao, oaeaeeneue aac- ca 200-300eao, a any aiaea
aeinoa?u- ca 2 iei eao.

AEeaia aauanoai yaeyaony niaa?oaiiui i?eaiieeii nieia/iie yia?aee.

Yia?aey, iiaeiuaiiay e eniieueciaaiiay a ?aaeoeee oioineioaca, a caoai
caianaiiay a aeaea oeie/aneie yia?aee oaeaaiaeia, i/aiue aaeeea, anoue
naaaeaiey /oi iia niiinoaaeia n yia?aeae, eioi?oth iio?aaeytho 100 ouny/
aieueoeo ai?iaeia a oa/aiea 100 eao. Aaoa?io?iou eniieuecotho
i?aaie/aneia aauanoai ?anoaiee, eae ieuo: i?aaieea ieeneyaony
eenei?iaeii, eioi?ue aeinoaaeytho a i?aaieci i?aaiu aeuoaiey, n
ia?aciaaieai oaeaeeneiai aaca- ?aaeoeey eaeao a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee.
Oaeei ia?acii, «aa/iie» aeaeaao aeeciue iaeiia?aiaiiia nouanoaiaaiea
aaoio?ioia e aaoa?io?ioia.

Oaeou e ?annoaeaeaiey i «eieana aeecie» a aeinoa?a aeatho i?aai
aiai?eoue i caeiia aeiaaiiie iea?aoeee aoiiia, eioi?ue noi?ioee?iaae
A.E. Aa?iaaeneee: iea?aoeey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia ia caiiie iiaa?oiinoe e
a aeinoa?a a oeaeii inouanoaeyaony eee i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee
aeeaiai aauanoaa eee aea iia i?ioaeaao a n?aaea, aaioeie/aneea
iniaaiiinoe eioi?ie iaoneiaeaiu aeeaui aauanoaii, eae oai, eioi?ia
nae/an ianaeyao aeinoa?o, oae e oai, eioi?ia aeaenoaiaaei ia Caiea a
oa/aiea anae aaieiae/aneie enoi?ee.

AEeaia aauanoai ?aciuo oea?noa e ?aciiai ?iaea iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiue
e?oaiai?io aauanoa e i?aia?aciaaiea yia?aee. Oai naiui iaia?oaeeaaaony
caeii aeiaaiiie iea?aoeee aoiiia A.E. Aa?iaaeneiai: a aeinoa?a iea?aoeey
oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia i?ienoiaeeo i?e iaycaoaeueiii iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
o/anoee aeeauo i?aaieciia. Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey aoiiia iaania/eaaao
iai?a?uaiinoue aeecie a aeinoa?a i?e eiia/iii eiee/anoaa aauanoaa e
iinoiyiiii i?eoiea yia?aee.

8. Eae ?acaeaaeanue aeinoa?a: iyoue yeieiae/aneeo eaoano?io

N oao ii?, eae iniiaaoaee nia?aiaiiie iaeaiioieiaee ioe?uee, /oi
ieaiaiaeua inaaeee iicaieytho i?i/anoue iooue ?acaeoey aeecie, iu
ociaee, /oi i?aaie/aneee ie? ia Caiea ia iaeei ?ac ia?aaeeaae
o?aae/aneea niauoey, i?eaiaeeaoea ii/oe e iieiiio oie/oiaeaieth aeecie
ia ieaiaoa. Ca iineaaeiea 500 iei eao Caiey ianeieueei ?ac iaiaeeaeaiii
ieacuaaeanue oyaeaei aieueiie, a iaeiaaeaeu- yoi auei 250 iei eao
iacaae- aeeciue ia Caiea ii/oe i?ae?aoeeanue.

Niaoeeaeenou auaeaeytho iyoue e?oiiaeoeo eaoano?io, eioi?ua ia?aaeeea
aeinoa?a: eaiaiii- oaieueiue ia?eiae, ia?ineee ia?eiae, o?ean , th?neee
ia?eiae, iaeiaie ia?eiae. Eaaeaeay ec eaoano?io i?eaiaeeea e ?acaeoeth
aeeaiai aauanoaa: aieaa iieiiio i?eniiniaeaieth e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea;
iiyaeaieth aieueoaai /enea aeaeia; i?iieeiiaaieth eo a iiaua oneiaey
iaeoaiey.

I?e eaaeaeie eaoano?ioa , i?ienoiaeeaoae a aeinoa?a, ia?yaeo n iannie
iiaa?aeaiiuo aeaeia iu aeaeei e iiaaaeeoaeae. Aia/aea eo i/aiue iaei, i
iie oiaee « iiaeeiaoue» ieiaeu naiae iiaaaeu, caiieiyy naaa iiaeiaiuie
inaiaiaeeaoaany i?ino?ainoai. Iaeiaei ie iaeei iiaue aeae iaeuecy
oi?aeiooue a oii, /oi ii i?e/anoai e naiie eaoano?ioa ?aaee i?ioeaaoaiey
naiaai aeaea eee naiaenoaa. Eaoaeeeciu i?ienoiaeeee ii einie/aneei eee
/enoi caiiui i?e/eiai aneaaenoaea iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey aeeaie iaoa?ee,
eiaaea iaeie a? /anoe oaiaoaee eee aiana noe?aee n eeoea ieaiaou
ae?oaea, ia noiaaoea i?eniiniaeoueny e eciaieaoeiny i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi.

?acaeoea aeeaiai aauanoaa aeinoa?u- iiauoaiea o?iaiy aai i?aaiecaoeee e
noaiaie i?eniiniaeaiiinoe e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea i?ienoiaeeei /a?ac
eaoano?iou- ?aceea eciaiaiey aaeioe/aneie n?aaeu. I?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
neiaeeaoeieny aaeioe/aneeie e aeioe/aneeie eiiiiiaioaie aeinoa?u i?e
?aceeo aeey aaieiae/aneiai a?aiaie eciaiaieyo n?aaeu ?ac?aoaeinue anyeee
?ac ca n/ao ?aciiia?acey e eciai/eainoe aeeaiai aauanoaa aeinoa?u.
AEeaia aauanoai anyeee ?ac nio?aiyei aeeciue a aeinoa?a ca n/ao
auaeeaaiey aieaa i?eniiniaeaiiuo aeaeia.

9.Onoie/eainoue aeinoa?u

Aiaaonoai aeeaiai ie?a ecae?aaea oaeaeaei e ainoeuaei /aeiaaea.
Ii?aieaaaoaee e eoioeu ienneiia?u e aaaioth?enou, iooaoanoaaiieee e
eaea?e, a caoai e o/aiua i?eaiceee aeiiie ia?acoeu oaeeaeoaeueiuo
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo ec anao no?ai ie?a. Iaiaeui aue iauai
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee oaea a ae?aaiaeoeo oeeaeeecaoeeyo Ieea,
Aeao?a/uey, Eiaeee e Eeoay.

?aciiia?acea aeaeia ia en/a?iuaaao anaai aeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey. A
?aieao eaaeaeiai aeaea aai iiioeyoeee e iniae, a oii /enea e ethaee,
?acee/athony aaiaoe/anee a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie, /ai aeoiaee
?aiueoa. Aeaa neo/aeii aua?aiiuo /aeiaaea aoaeoo ?acee/aoueny ii nioiyi,
a aiciiaeii, e ouny/ai ?acee/ee a o?iiiniiao. Iiaeiaiua ?acee/ey i/aiue
aaaeiu, iiiaea ec ieo naycaiu n /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e eciaiaieth
ia?aiao?ia n?aaeu, ii?aaeaeytho i?eniiniaeyaiinoue eee aeaaea
aiciiaeiinoue auaeeaaiey ioaeaeueiuo i?aaieciia, iaiiieiay, /oi
anoanoaaiiue ioai? i?iaeieaeaaony.

Eaeei ia?acii aeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea iaania/eaaao onoie/eainoue
aeinoa?u? Ioaao i?ino: /a?ac iiiaeanoai acaeiinaycae e acaeiiaeaenoaee,
eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n einaaiiui aauanoaii. A aeinoa?a eiaaony
aieueoie iaai? i?ioeannia ?aaoee?iaaiey n ia?aoiie naycueth e , eae
neaaenoaea, iaai? oeeeee/aneeo i?ioeannia, iicaieythueo ae
eiiiaine?iaaoue eciaiythueany oneiaey. Iiyoiio aeinoa?a n?aaieoaeueii
eaaei ni?aaeyaony n caaea/aie aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo
ae oneiaee aeecie.

Noaaeeueiinoue aeiaaeueiie yeinenoaiu iaania/eaaaony ecauoi/iinoueth a?
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia. Anee a yeinenoaia eiaaony ianeieueei
aeaeia aaoio?ioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao naie iioeiaeueiua
oaiia?aoo?iua oneiaey oioineioaca, oi noiia?iay nei?inoue oioineioaca
iiaeao inoaoueny iaeciaiiie i?e eieaaaieyo oaiia?aoo?u.

I?eniiniaeyaiinoue aeinoa?u e eciaiaieth aiaoieo oneiaee- oii?yaei/aiiue
i?ioeann, a eioi?ii iaeei aeae iiaeao caiauaoueny ae?oaei, e aoi aea
a?aiy yoi iioie naeaeaathueony aeeiaie/aneeo ?aaiiaanee. Aeieiae/aneia
?aciiia?acea aeinoa?u iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiue aeioeie/aneee e?oaiai?io
aauanoaa e iioiee yia?aee, iiaeaea?aeeaay nayce anao aainoa?: aoiinoa?u,
eeoinoa?u, aeae?inoa?u, nicaeaaay oeaeinoiinoue i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

10. Aeinoa?a e /aeiaae: yeieiae/aneay iianiinoue

Ie? oaea ciaao i a?icyuae aio iianiinoe. E ia nae ?ac ecaanoii aeeaia
nouanoai, iiaeiiia a i?eaeeaeathuaeny eaoano?ioa, – ao?eeaineee i?eiao,
eioi?ue ca 5 iei eao neeueii ?aciiiaeeeny e oaia?ue ia?ooaao ?aaiiaanea
a aeinoa?a. Yoio ia?ooeoaeue- /aeiaae. Aai iiyaeaieth i?aaeoanoaiaae
aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae, a eioi?ii aicieeaee, yaiethoeeiie?iaaee, onooiaee
ianoi iaeie ae?oaei i?aaeee Homo sapiens- aiieieaeu. Iie ?acaeaaeenue e
aeeee a iauai iioiea aeecie, auee aai o/anoieeaie e iaeaaeaee oeaeui
?yaeii iio?aaiinoae e einoeieoia, aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeecie e
yaiethoeee. An? yoi aeaeaei iioie aeecie , n iaeiie noi?iiu, oeaeinoiui,
eaaei ?aieiui a ioaeaeueiuo caaiueyo, a n ae?oaie – oi?ioi
naiicaueuaiiui e caueuaaiui nenoaiie.

I?ioee ouny/aeaoey, aicieeaee e aeaee aaeeeea oeeaeeecaoeee, nicaeaiiua
/aeiaaeii. Ana aaeeeieaiea nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee- iaeeea e
?aciiia?acea oiaa?ia, o?ainii?o, einie/aneea iieaou, aiciiaeiinoue
ia?iiiiio eiee/anoao ethaeae caieiaoueny iaoeie, eneonnoaii, iaeiiaoe,
iaania/aiiay noa?inoue – ana yoi neaaenoaea oiai ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa
eneonnoaaiiie yia?aee, eioi?ia noaei oaia?ue i?iecaiaeeoue /aeiaa/anoai.
Iu aeeaai ia yia?aeae Nieioea, eae ?anoaiey e aeeaioiua, a ?anoiaeoai
caianu oaea?iaeia- iaooe, oaey, aaca, neaioeaa, eioi?ua iaeiieaiu
i?ioeuie aeinoa?aie ca nioie ieeeeiiia eao.

Ii /oi i?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo n oaieiaui aaeainii ieaiaou? Eneonnoaaiiay
yia?aey ?annaeaaaony e eaeao ia iaa?aaaiea Caiee, a? oaa?aee, ieaaia,
aoiinoa?u. Ianooieo a?aiy, eiaaea eneonnoaaiiay yia?aey ia/iao
neacuaaoueny ia no?oeoo?a oaieiaiai aaeaina ieaiaou.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?ani?ino?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi oaaee/aiea
eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiie ethaeueie yia?aee anaaaea aeaai, oaeaea o?aaoao
ia?aniio?a: oaaee/aiea n?aaeieo oaiia?aoo? ieaiaou ia 4-5 a?aaeonia
a?iceo /aeiaa/anoao yeieiae/aneie eaoano?ioie. E caeanue anoue /a?oa,
ia?anooiaoue eioi?oth iaeuecy.

I?aaeneacaoue ca?aiaa aeaaea a naiuo iaueo /a?oao ?acoeueoaou oaeiai
iioaieaiey nianai ia i?inoi. I?e iiauoaiee n?aaeiae oaiia?aoo?u
oiaiueoaaony ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? iaaeaeo yeaaoi?ii e iiethnii. A yoi-
aeaaiue aeaeaaoaeue, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio i?ienoiaeeo aeaeaeaiea
aoiinoa?u, ia?aiinyuaa oaiei io yeaaoi?eaeueiuo cii e iiey?iui. Anee
oaaee/eaaaony ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? , oi e eioaineaiinoue aoiinoa?iie
oee?eoeyoeee oaaee/eaaaony. Anee oiaiueoaaony- oee?eoeyoeey aoiinoa?u
aeaeaaony aieaa ayeie, oiaiueoaaony aeaaiia?aiin. Cia/eo, canooeeaua
ciiu noaiiayony aua aieaa canooeeauie, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aeiou iaaeaao.

Aua a i?ioeii aaea ecaanoiue aaia?ao, eeeiaoieia, aaioecee i?ioanni? A.
E.Aieeia, iniiaaoaeue ia?aie aaioece/aneie iana?aaoi?ee a ?innee,
noi?ioee?iaae ecaanoiue caeii: oaiei ia Naaa?a- nooi ia THaa. Yoio
caeii, eioi?ue iineo oaia?ue iacaaiea caeiia Aiaeeiaa, iiaeuoiaeeaaao
iiiaieaoiea iaaethaeaiey. Anyeee ?ac, eiaaea a oiaea oeeeee/aneiai
eciaiaiey n?aaeieo oaiia?aoo? ia Naaa?a ia/eiaao oaieaoue, a Caaieaeuea,
Eacaonoaia e ae?oaeo ?aeiiao thai – ainoiea Aa?acee oaaee/eaaaony
eiee/anoai canooeeauo eao. Iniaaiii /ooei ioeeeeaaony ia eciaiaiea
eiee/anoaa inaaeeia ?anoeoaeueiinoue ionouiue e iieoiunouiue.

*aeiaae euao niiniau ia?aie/eoue naia iaaoaiia aicaeaenoaea ia i?e?iaeo,
iioiio /oi iniciae naith caaeneiinoue io ninoiyiey aeinoa?u. Ethaee
iiiyee, /oi eo aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieoueny e
niioaaonoaiaaoue i?e?iaeiui caeiiai aeinoa?u, a a?aieoeao eioi?uo
oieueei e iiaeao i?ioaeaoue anyeay aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue.

Iu i?ineaaeeee eeoue iaeii yaeaiea, eioi?ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi /aeiaae
oaia?ue niiniaai i/aiue eaaei ia?anooieoue oo «?ieiaoth /a?oo», oo
a?aiue, ca eioi?ie ia/ioony iaia?aoeiua i?ioeannu eciaiaiey oneiaee aai
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeinoa?a ia/iao ia?aoiaeeoue a iiaia ninoiyiea, e ianoa
aeey /aeiaaea a a? iiaii ninoiyiee iiaeao ia ieacaoueny. Aio ii/aio
/aeiaa/anoai aeieaeii auoue niiniaiui i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou naieo
aeaenoaee e ciaoue, aaea i?ioiaeeo «cai?aoiay /a?oa», ioaeaeythuay
aiciiaeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee io a? aieaa eee iaiaa
auno?iai oaanaiey.

11. *aeiaae aeieaeai nio?aieoue ?aciiia?acea aeinoa?u

Eaaeaeue aeieiae/aneee aeae (e /aeiaae ooo ia eneeth/aiea)iiaeao aeeoue
a aeiaieueii oceeo ?aieao oie n?aaeu, e eioi?ie ii aaiaoe/anee
i?eniiniaeai. Anee n?aaea aeecie eciaiyaony auno?aa, /ai iiaeao
ianooieoue aaeaioaoeey eee ia?aoi?ie?iaaiea aeaea a iiaia ia?aciaaiea,
i?aaieci iaecaaaeii auie?aao.

Iie?ia aeeaiai aauanoaa ia ieaiaoa ?acei iaiyaony. Ii naeeiaaony
iiaeiaii aaeuecaeianeie oaa?aiaaie eiaea. Aea e naia eiaea enoii/aaony,
aeaaea a /enoi iaoaie/aneii niunea- en/acatho eana, eaeao aeaa?aaeaoeey
/a?iicaiia e o. i. Ec iiae iia /aeiaa/anoaa ooiaeeo ooiaeaiaio eae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie n?aaeu aai aeecie, oae e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ioeann iaaaeiaiey aeeaiai aauanoaa, en/aciiaaiey
aeaeia aeeaiai eaeao a aeanyoue, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e a noi ?ac
eioaineaiaa, /ai oei 65 ieeeeiiia eao iacaae auie?aiea aeeiicaa?ia.
Aeaeu ia i?inoi en/acatho, iaiyaony any no?oeoo?a aeeaiai aauanoaa.
E?oiiua aeeaioiua e ?anoaiey niaiythony aieaa iaeeeie: eiiuoiua-
a?ucoiaie, a?ucoiu- ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuie ianaeiiuie.

Iioa?e a ninoaaa aeeaiai aauanoaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e aa?aeueiiio
?ac?ooaieth aeiaaioeie/aneie nenoaiu ieaiaou Aeiaaeueiia eneaaeaiea
aeiaaioeie/aneeo oeeeeia a?iceo oai, /oi i?e?iaea noaiao eiie, ia oie, e
eioi?ie i?eniiniaeaii nia?aiaiiia oicyenoai. Iiiaaeiaeony a?aiaeeiciay
ia?ano?ieea. Iioiieai a ?acoeueoaoa iuiaoieo aicaeaenoaee /aeiaaea
a?iceo i?e?iaeii- ?ano?niay ieuaoa, enoiuaiea anoanoaaiiuo ?ano?nia.

*aeiaa/anoai aeieaeii nio?aieoue aeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea aeinoa?u,
oae eae aai nie?auaiea aaaeao e ia?ooaieth aeinoa?iuo i?ioeannia, e
eaoano?i-

oe/aneei eciaiaieyi oneiaee aeecie ia ieaiaoa.

12. Caeeth/aiea

*aeiaa/anoai iniciaei, eae iaea iaoa Caiey, iiiyei, /oi aiaoeaaoueny a
i?ioeannu, i?ioaeathuea a i?e?iaea, ioaeii e?aeia inoi?iaeii.

Iaoa ieaiaoa oieeaeueia, iioiio /oi ia iae anoue aeeciue. AEeciue
i?iiecuaaao ia oieueei aiaeioth e aicaeooioth noeoee, ii e caiioth
oaa?aeue. AEeciue a Caiea i?aaenoaaeaia aeeaui aauanoaii, eioi?ia
ia?aciaaii ieeeeiiaie aeaeia e ieeeea?aeaie iniaae. AEeaia aauanoai, ana
aeieiae/aneia ?aciiia?acea Caiee caueuaii io einie/aneeo eo/ae
aaiiaaieoiui iieai e iciiiaui ye?aiii. Ana oi?iu e i?iyaeaiey aeecie ia
nouanoaotho naie ii naaa, iie naycaiu neiaeiuie acaeiiioiioaieyie a
aaeeiue eiiieaen aeecie- aeiaaeueioth yeinenoaio (aeinoa?o). Yoe
acaeiiioiioaiey e nayce a aeeaie i?e?iaea oaeeaeoaeueiu! Eaaeaeay a?oiia
?iaenoaaiiuo aeaeia, ia?acothueo oea?noai, auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth
?ieue a e?oaiai?ioa aauanoa: nicaeaiea, i?aia?aciaaiea, ?ac?ooaiea
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii yia?aee a aeinoa?a yaeyaony Nieioea. Aeiaaiiue
e?oaiai?io aauanoa ia aeaao i?a?aaoueny aeecie ia ieaiaoa Caiey. AEeaua
nouanoaa aeinoa?u i?aia?aciaaee oeie/aneee ninoaa aicaeooa, aiaeu,
ii/au, ii?aaeaeeee e eo nia?aiaiiue ninoaa, iiaeeyee ia oi?ie?iaaiea
ieia?aeia e ai?iuo ii?iae, ia ?aeueao Caiee. Aeinoa?a- n?aaea aeecie e
?acoeueoao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo caaea/ OO1 aaea, a ?aoaiea eioi?ie nouanoaaiiue aeeaae
aeieaeia aianoe yeieiaey, – yoi aeinoeaeaiea aa?iiiee iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii
e i?e?iaeie.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?iaeneee A.E. E?aoeee eo?n iauae yeieiaee: O/aa.iiniaea.-NIa., 2001.

2. Aeaaeeie?ia A.A., Eciaeeia A.E. Eaoano?iou e yeieiaey.- I.,2000.

3. Aeaieeia- Aeaieeueyi A.E., Einaa E.N. Yeieiae/aneee aucia e
onoie/eaia ?acaeoea. – I., 2000.

4. Iaiaaeia I.I. Iniiau iauae yeieiaee: O/aaiee.-I.,1998.

5. Iauay yeieiaey: O/aaiee aeey aocia/ aaoi?-ninoaaeoaeue A.N.Noa-

iaiianeeo /.- I., 2001.

6. Ie?oaeathuay n?aaea: yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue-
ni?aai/iee:-O.1.-I.,1999.

7. Oaai O.A., Oaai I.A. Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.-

?inoia i/Ae., 2001

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