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Биология японского журавля

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Ieienoa?noai naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

OAIO AII Aeaeueiaainoi/iue Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aa?a?iue Oieaa?neoao

Einoeooo eana

Eaoaae?a aeieiaee e ioioiaaaeaiey

?aoa?ao

ii aeenoeeieeia «Ia?ac aeecie caa?ae e ioeoe»

Aeieiaey yiiineiai aeo?aaey

Auiieiee: nooaeaio 3 eo?na

EE a?oiia 8216

Oeeiiaiei A. E.

I?iaa?ee: Eiiiiaoe E.A.

Aeaaiaauaine 2009a

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea. 3

Aeaaa 1. Aiaoiaa iienaiea aeo?aaey. 4

Aeaaa 2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea 7

Aeaaa 3. Ieoaiea 8

Aeaaa 4. ?aciiiaeaiea 9

Aeaaa 5. Oa?icu e io?aia 10

Caeeth/aiea 13

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 14

Aaaaeaiea

I oii, /oi anoue oaeay ioeoea aeo?aaeue, ciatho, i/aaeaeii, ana.
AEo?aaee oiiieiathony a neaceao e aaniyo, iauaecaanoiu iineiaeoeu e
iiaiai?ee, oiiieiathuea i aeo?aaeyo, anoue ea?oeia ooaeiaeieea A.N.
Noaiaiiaa «AEo?aaee eaoyo». Aiaoiee iaeee aeo?aaey i/aiue oa?aeoa?iue.

Iaaeaeo oai n?aaee i?ieoieiaia iao oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiiai noaeaeaiey,
eaeeo eiaiii ioeoe iaaei ioiineoue e io?yaeo aeo?aaeae. Yoi iaeei ec
naiuo iayniuo io?yaeia a i?ieoieiae/aneie nenoaiaoeea. Aieeaiaeneee
i?ieoieia Oa?oaeiai eae-oi neacae, /oi e aeo?aaeyi i?eiyoi ioiineoue
anao ioeoe, eiathueo aeiaieueii e?oiiua ?acia?u, neieueei-ieaoaeue
iaiau/iue iaeee e iaecaanoiia nenoaiaoe/aneia iieiaeaiea. ssiiineee, eee
onno?eeneee aeo?aaeue (eao. Grus japonensis) — ioeoea naiaenoaa
aeo?aaeae, iaeoathuay ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea e ssiiiee. ?aaeeee aeae, aai
iauay /eneaiiinoue ioeaieaaaony a 1700—2000 iniaae. Iaoiaeeony iiae
oa?icie iieiiai en/aciiaaiey e io?aiyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e
iaoeeiiaeueiuie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaaie.

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue caianai a E?anioth Eieao ?innee e eeanneoeoee?oaony
eae aeae, iaoiaeyueeny iiae oa?icie oie/oiaeaiey, /eneaiiinoue iniaae
eioi?iai oiaiueoeeanue aei e?eoe/aneiai o?iaiy oaeei ia?acii, /oi a
aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy ii iiaeao en/aciooue, e ioianai e 1 eaoaai?ee

Aeaaa 1. Aiaoiaa iienaiea aeo?aaey

AEo?aaeue yiiineee, eee onno?eeneee (Grus japonensis) Naiaenoai AEo?aaee
(Gruidae). ssiiineiai aeo?aaey ia?aaeei iacuaatho naiui e?aneaui ec
aeo?aaeae. Iniiaiay ie?anea aai iia?aiey niaaeii-aaeay, n
aa?oaoii-/a?iuie aieiaie e oaae e /a?iuie aoi?inoaiaiiuie e oaeeeiaiiuie
o?aoueanoaiaiiuie iaoiauie ia?ueyie. Io aeaca e caoueeo e aeaeaa ia oath
nioneaaony oe?ieay aaeay iieina, a eia e oaiy oe?aoaiu y?ei-e?aniie
«oaii/eie», ia?acoaiie iaiia?aiiie eiaeae. Ii aea iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo
aeo?aaeae: ?ino /ooue aieaa 150 ni, ianna naioeia 10—12 ea.

ssiiineee, eee onno?eeneee aeo?aaeue ioeoea a?aae eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaao
ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea e ssiiiee e yaeyaony ?aaeeei aeaeii, aai iauay
/eneaiiinoue ioeaieaaaony a 1700—2000 iniaae. Iaoiaeeony iiae oa?icie
iieiiai en/aciiaaiey e io?aiyaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e iaoeeiiaeueiuie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaaie e aianai a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth e?anioth eieao.

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue ia?acoao aeaa ?aciauaiiua iiioeyoeee. Iea?e?othuay
iaoa?eeiaay iiioeyoeey aiacaeeony a I?eaio?uea, I?eii?uea,
Naaa?i-ainoi/iii Eeoaa. Inaaeeay iiioeyoeey iaeoaao ia ino?iaa Oieeaeaei
a ssiiiee.

Ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee a?aae a nayce n aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeeae
eaiaeoaooia e ae?oaeie iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oaeoi?aie ?aniaeny ia ?yae
iainiaeaiiuo o/anoeia, ionoiyueo ae?oa io ae?oaa ia aeanyoee e nioie
eeeiiao?ia.

A Aio?neie iaeanoe auaeaeyaony ianeieueei iano aiacaeiaaiey yiiineiai
aeo?aaey: 1) iai?iineee o/anoie (ic. Iai?ii e aa?oiauey auoaeathuea ec
iaai ?. Aeai) – naiia naaa?iia ec ecaanoiuo aiacaeiaee, a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, aa?iyoii, iieeiooia aeo?aaeyie; 2) caeneee o/anoie, ioaaouaathuee
aeieeiu ?aee Oiiue, Oeueia, Aeaoi, Oaoeia; 3) ao?aeneee o/anoie,
eaaeauee ia Ao?aenei-A?oa?eineie ieciaiiinoe, aaea ?aniieaaaaony
Oeiaaineee caiiaaaeiee e aai A?oa?eineee oeeeae.

Ia N?aaeiaaio?neie ?aaieia ecaanoii 4 iniiaiuo ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai
iaeoaiey: 1) aannaei ic. Aieiiue e ieciauey aiaaeathuaai a iaai ?ae
Neiie, Oa?ie, Naeueaii; 2) aeieeia ?. Ooiaonea e aa i?eoieia O?ie, Eo?a,
a oaeaea eaaiaa?aaeuea Aio?a iaaeaeo onoueyie ?ae Onno?e e Ae?u; 3)
aannaei ?. Aeaeaeai (Aa?aeneay AI) a n?aaeiai e aa?oiai aa oa/aiee,
?aeii n. Aaanoiai; 4) ieaeiaa oa/aiea ?ae Oi? e Iiaeoi?aiie.

Ecaanoii aiacaeiaaiea ssiiineiai aeo?aaey ia ino?iaao Iaeie Eo?eeueneie
a?yaeu. Ia ino?iaa Eoiaoe? oaeaea ioia/aii aiacaeiaaiea yiiineiai
aeo?aaey. I?e n?aaiaiee oieniiaeueiiai e?eea e ie?anee yeoe yoeo ioeoe,
i?ineaaeeaaaony noiaenoai n yiiineei aeo?aaeai, ianaeythuei ssiiieth.

Oaaeeoea ?ani?ino?aiaiea yiiineiai aeo?aaey ii no?aiai.

?No?aiaI?enoonoaea aeaea1?inneyAi a?aiy ?aciiiaeaiey2EeoaeAi a?aiy
?aciiiaeaiey, iea?aoeee, ceiiaee3ssiiieyE?oaeiaiaee/iia4IiiaieeyAi a?aiy
iea?aoeee5Naa. Ei?ayAi a?aiy iea?aoeee e ceiiaee6THaeiay Ei?ayAi a?aiy
iea?aoeee e ceiiaee

A i?aaeaeao I?eoaieaeneie ?aaieiu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nio?aieeinue 2
iniiaiuo o/anoea iaeoaiey yiiineiai aeo?aaey: 1) i?eonoueaaay /anoue ?.
Eeenoie e i?eeaaeauea o/anoee iiaa?aaeuey ic. Oaiea; 2) ainoi/iia
iiaa?aaeuea ic. Oaiea e i?aaiaa?aaeuea ?. Noiaa/a (aa?oiauey ?. *a?iie,
*a?oiai aieioi, Iaiiiiai aieioi) (Oeaaaa, Aeouaiei, 1988).

E?iia oiai, a 1981 a. ca?aaeno?e?iaaii aiacaeiaaiea yiiineiai aeo?aaey a
Aeeeii-Ae/aineii iaaeaeo?a/uea a ieaeiai oa/aiee ?. Aeeei.

Ia oa??eoi?ee THai-Ainoi/iiai Eeoay yiiineee aeo?aaeue aiacaeeony
aaeieue aannaeia ?ae Noiaa?e, Iyiueoecyi, ii ?aea *ie aei ica?a
Aeaeaeii?. A i?iaeioeeyo Oaeeiiaaeaeaia, Aeaeeeia, Eeaiieia, e ia
oa??eoi?ee caiiaaaeieeia sseiia, Eneaioae, Aeaeaeii?, Aeaeeii?

*eneaiiinoue ie?iaie iiioeyoeee aeaea eae aiai?eeinue auoa ioeaieaaaony
i?eaeeceoaeueii a 1700 – 2000 ioeoe.

Ceiiaee yiiineiai aeo?aaey ?aniieiaeaiu ia Ei?aeneii iieoino?iaa e a
Eeoaa. Ei?aeneea ceiiaee ?aniieaaathony aeaoiy eciee?iaaiiuie ?aeiiaie o
a.Iaiueiuiue/aeii e a aannaeia ?. *oi?aii.

Iiiaea ioeoeu, ?aciiiaeathueany a Eeoaa, iea?e?otho aaeieue iiaa?aaeuey
Oeoiai ieaaia ia ?. ssioecu. Ioeoeu, aiacaeyueany a ?innee, iea?e?otho
/a?ac Naaa?ioth Ei?ath e ianoai ceiiaee ia Ei?aeneii iieoino?iaa.
Naiaia?aciui ?aca?aaoii neoaeeo aeaieeeoa?eciaaiiay ciia (AeIC) iaaeaeo
THaeiie e Naaa?iie Ei?aae. Ai a?aiy iea?aoeee caeanue iiieii yiiineiai
aeo?aaey inoaiaaeeaathony e ceiotho aeao?neee e /a?iue aeo?aaeue.

Ec-ca iieeoe/aneie iai?yaeaiiinoe ia oa??eoi?ee aeaieeeoa?eciaaiiie ciiu
(AeIC) e a aa i?aaeaeao ia aaaeaony eioaineaiiai naeueneiai oicyenoaa,
ca n/ao /aai ia yoie oa??eoi?ee nio?aieeenue ianoa iaeoaiey aeo?aaeae ia
iiaeaa?aeaiiua iaeei?aoeee. I?ioaeathuay ?yaeii ?aea Iai e aa i?eoiee
cae?uou aeey noaeioiaenoaa ia yoii i?ioyaeaiee .

http://mybirds.ru/groups/cranes/TK14.jpgIniiaiua ianoa iaeoaiey a
aiacaeiaie ia?eiae – iaoe?iua ei/ea?ieeiaua inieiai-iooeoeaaua aieioa e
inieiai-aaeieeiaua caaiei/aiiua eoaa, n?aaieoaeueii ioe?uoua, n oi?ioei
iaci?ii, ?aniieaaathueany iau/ii ii aeieeiai ?ae e eioeiaeiiuo ica?. Yoe
ianoa aaeaaiaeii caeeaathony aiaeie, a a na?aaeeia eaoa a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie ia?anuoatho. Aeoaeia aiaeu a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu aeinoeaaao 30-40
ni, eiiaaea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa.

A Eeoaa ioeoeu ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea o?inoieeiai-inieiaui aieioai e
oi?inoieeiai-inieiaui ieaaiyi. Ai aoi?ie – o?aoueae aeaeaaea ai?aey
aeo?aaee caieiatho aiacaeiaua o/anoee. Ii aeaiiui eaoiaai o/aoa
ieiuaaeue oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?ie ioeoeu iaoiaeyony a yoi a?aiy, ?aaia
2,6 ea. ei a Eeoaa, 1-7 ea. ei a ssiiiee e 4-12 ea. ei a ?innee,
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ninaaeieie aiacaeaie io 2,7 aei 4 ei . Io?aiyaiay
aiacaeiaay oa??eoi?ey naiuee ninoaaeyao aieaa 1% yoie ieiuaaee. A
oi?ioeo ianoao iaeoaiey ieioiinoue aiacaeyueony ia? ninoaaeyao 0,05 ia?
ia ea. ei a ?innee e 0,21-0,24 ia? ia ea. ei a Eeoaa. Naiay aieueoay
ieioiinoue ioia/aia a ssiiiee 0,26-0,53 ia? ia ea. ei.

Aeey ono?ienoaa aiacaea ioeoeu anaaaea auae?atho o/anoee, iaauai?aaoae,
aunieie nooie inieie (aunioa 30-80 ni) eee aaeieeii n i?eianueth
o?inoieea e caeeoua aiaeie, aeoaeia eioi?ie o aiacaea eieaaeaony io 10
aei 50 ni.

Aeaaa 2. ?ani?ino?aiaiea

I?e?iaeiue a?aae ioaaouaaao 84 000 ea.ei e iieiinoueth ia?aie/ai
Aeaeueiei Ainoieii e ssiiieae. ?acee/atho aeaa iainiaeaiiua iiioeyoeee
yoeo ioeoe, iaeia ec eioi?uo oneiaii iacuaaaony «ino?iaiay» e aaae?o
inaaeeue ia?ac aeecie ia ainoiea yiiineiai ino?iaa Oieeaeaei e THaeiuo
Eo?eeueneeo ino?iaao; a aoi?ay iiioeyoeey, «iaoa?eeiaay», aiacaeeony a
aannaeiao ?ae Aio? e Onno?e e e naaa?o io ica?a Aieiiue ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee, a oaeaea ia naaa?i-caiaaea Eeoay aaeieue a?aieoeu n Iiiaieeae.
E?iia oiai, eiaaony iainiaeaiiue i?e?iaeiue o/anoie aiacaeyueony
aeo?aaeae ia oa??eoi?ee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiai caiiaaaeieea
Ooaiaoae Oaeio (aiae. Shuangtai Hekou Nature Reserve) a ainoi/iie
eeoaeneie i?iaeioeee Eyiiei. Iaoa?eeiaay iiioeyoeey a ceiiaa a?aiy
iea?e?oao ia Ei?aeneee iieoino?ia a aannaei ?. *oi?aii a
aeeieeeoa?eciaaiiie ciia iaaeaeo Naaa?iie e THaeiie Ei?aae e ia
ainoi/iia iiaa?aaeuea Eeoay.

Neeueii caaeneo io enoi/ieeia aiaeu. Aiacaeeony a ieceiiuo caaiei/aiiuo
aeieeiao ?ae n iaeeeai iniee, aaeieea (Calamagrostis) eee o?inoieea
(Phragmites communis), eioeiaeiao ic??, aeaaeiuo eoaao n oi?ioei
i?iniio?ii. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aceaoneeo aeaeia aeo?aaeae,
i?aaeii/eoaao ono?aeaaoue aiacaei aaeece io aeinoaoi/ii aeoaieeo
o/anoeia aiaeu. Au? iaeiei iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony iaee/ea
noiy/ae i??oaie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Ecaaaatho o/anoeia iinea iiaea?a.
—[1]—[2] Ai a?aiy ?aciiiaeaiey neeueii /oanoaeoaeai e i?enoonoaeth
/aeiaaea e ecaaaaao iinaeaiee, aei?ia e ?aeiiia, iiaeaa?aoeny
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ai a?aiy ceiiae iea?aoeee ei?ieony ia ?eniauo e ioaie/iuo iieyo, a
i?ea?aaeiuo nieyiuo aieioao, i?aniiaiaeiuo caaiei/aiiuo oa??eoi?eyo, a
ynooa?eyo ?ae.

Aeaaa 3. Ieoaiea

ssiiineea aeo?aaee anayaeiu, ii an? aea a eo ?aoeeiia i?aiaeaaeaao
aeeaioiay ieua. Eiatho aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieee aeeaiacii ieoaiey, oiio?aaeyy
a ieoo ii/ee, iiaaae e ei?iaaeua aieioiuo ?anoaiee; c??ia ?ena, ioaieoeu
e eoeo?ocu; aiaeiuo ianaeiiuo (?eniaay eiaueea Oxia chinensis, aiaeietha
Hydrous dauricus, aiaeyiie eeii Diplonischus major); iieethneia
(onnoeeneay aeeai?iaeea Cipangopaludina ussuriensis); caiiiaiaeiuo (Rana
spp); ?uao (cieioay ?uaea Carrasius auratus, aio?neee auethi Misgurnus
anguillicaudatus, Percottus glenni) e iaeeeo a?ucoiia (aieueoay iie?aea
Microtus fortis).

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue eniieuecoao oe?ieee iaai? ei?iia, ii a oeaeii yoi
ieioiyaeiay ioeoea, eioi?ay oieueei ia ceiiaeao e a ii?aaeaeaiiua
ia?eiaeu ia?aoiaeeo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia ?anoeoaeueiua ei?ia. A
I?eii?uea aeo?aaee ei?iyony ia inieiauo nieaaeiao aie?oa ica?, ia
aa?aaao oiieeo iaaeeaiii oaeoueo n?aaee aieio ?a/ae, ia nooeo a?eaao,
iie?uouo ieceie o?aaie, ia ?eniauo iieyo, a ca?inoeo ?aaeeei o?inoieeii
eaiaaao, ?acaeaeythueo ?eniaua /aee.

A ea/anoaa iauaeoia ieoaiey aeeaioiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey caeanue ioia/aiu
e?oiiua a?thoiiiaea iieethnee (Cipangopaludina ussuriensis), ?eniaay
eiaueea (Oxia chinensis), aiaeiethau (Hidrous dauricus), aiaeyiua eeiiu
(Diplonisohus major), au/ie-aieiaioaeea (Percottus glehnis), eyaooee,
iaeeea a?ucoiu. Ianiiiaiii, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueiue e?oa aeeaioiuo ei?iia
cia/eoaeueii oe?a e aeeth/aao iiiaea aeaeu aaniicaiii/iuo (ianaeiiuo,
/a?aae, iieethneia e ae?.), ?ua, caiiiaiaeiuo, ioeoe e eo yeoea, iaeeeo
iuoaaeaeiuo a?ucoiia. Ana yoe a?oiiu aeeaioiuo iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa iioaioeeaeueiuo ei?iia yiiineiai aeo?aaey a I?eii?uea.

A ssiiiee a eaoiai ieoaiee ioia/aiu no?aeicu, ea?i, na?aa?yiue ea?anue,
neae?neay o?aayiay eyaooea e ioaioeu ?acee/iuo aeaeia ioeoe, iaeoathueo
ii ninaaenoao n yiiineei aeo?aaeai. Ia ceiiaeao ia Ei?aeneii iieoino?iaa
a ia/aea ceiu ei?ieony ia ?eniauo iieyo, a eiaaea noaiiaeony oieiaeiaa –
ieiei ?ae e iacaia?cathueo eeth/ae, aaea iouneeaaao aiaeyiuo aeeaioiuo,
aeaaiui ia?acii aioeiiae, iieethneia e iaeeoth ?uao. A na?aaeeia ia?oa
iie iieiinoueth ia?aoiaeyo ia aeeaioioth ieuo.

Aeaaa 4. ?aciiiaeaiea

Eae e o ae?oaeo aeaeia aeo?aaeae, ninoiyaoay ia?a ioia/aao nai?
niaaeeiaiea niaianoiui oa?aeoa?iui iaieai, eioi?ia iau/ii ecaea?ony n
cai?ieeiooie aieiaie e iiaeiyoui aa?oeeaeueii aaa?o eethaii e
i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay /a?aaeo neiaeiuo i?ioyaeiuo iaeiaee/iuo caoeia.
I?e yoii naiaoe anaaaea ?ani?aaeyao e?ueuey, a naiea aea?aeeo eo
neiaeaiiuie. Ia?aui ia/eiaao e?e/aoue naiaoe, naiea ia eaaeaeue aicaean
naioea ioaa/aao aeaa ?aca. Ooaaeeaaiea ni?iaiaeaeaaony oa?aeoa?iuie
aeo?aaeeiuie oaioeaie, eioi?ua iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay iiaei?uaeaaiea,
ia?aaaaeee, oeiiaiuea e?ueueyie, iiaea?anuaaiea io/eia o?aau e iaeeiiu.

E ianoo aiacaeiaee ia?ae?oiua aeo?aaee i?eauaatho a eiioea ia?oa —
ia/aea ai?aey. Ieioiinoue ai?cae ?acee/ia a caaeneiinoe io oa??eoi?ee e
a n?aaeiai ninoaaeyao 4-12 ea.ei a I?eaio?uea, 0.7-7.8 ea.ei ia
Oieeaeaei e ieiei 2.6 ea.ei a Eeoaa. —[1]—[3]—[4] O/anoie aeey aoaeouaai
aiacaea auae?aaony n o/?oii iaee/ey aiaeu aeoaeiie 10-50 ni, aieioenoie
ianoiinoe, eciaeeey aunieie (0.3-2 i) nooie noiy/ae o?aau, i?eaiaeiie
aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa aiacaea, oi?ioaai iaci?a e ionoonoaey iiaeecinoe
neaaeia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaioth ooieoeeth ii io?aia
aiacaea aa??o ia naay naiaoe.

Naiea iau/ii ioeeaaeuaaao aeaa yeoea. A eeoaeneie i?iaeioeee Eyiiei
yeoea iau/ii ioeeaaeuaathony 10-13 ai?aey, oiaaea eae a I?eaio?uea 16-22
ai?aey. —[5] Eieoaaoeeiiiue ia?eiae ninoaaeyao 29-34 aeiy. A ioee/ea io
ae?oaeo aeaeia aeo?aaeae ioaioeu iaaa?anneaiu ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e
ae?oao e, eae i?aaeei, auaeeaatho iaa. —[6] Ia e?uei ioaioeu noaiiayony
i?eia?ii /a?ac 95 aeiae.

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue oniaoii ?aciiiaeaaony a eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo a ciiia?eao Aa?iiu e Aia?eee. Nouanoaotho ?aaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe iiiieiaiey i?e?iaeiie iiioeyoeee iioiinoaii iaaieueiuo
aeo?aaeae. A Oeiaaineii caiiaaaeieea n 1994 a., aaaeoony ?aaiou ii
ainnoaiiaeaieth /eneaiiinoe yiiineiai aeo?aaey iooai nicaeaiey
iieoaeeeie iiioeyoeee.

Ioaioeu, au?auaiiua a iaaiea e ia?aaea?aeaiiua ceio, niieieii ioiinyony
e i?enoonoaeth /aeiaaea e iiaoo aiacaeeoueny a naienoaaiiuo aeioiiao ia
ia?eoa?eeiuo o/anoeao caiiaaaeieea, aaea aeeeea ioeoeu ia aiacaeeony. N
2002 a. a Oeiaaineii caiiaaaeieea ia/aoa i?ia?aiia ?aeio?iaeoeoeee
yiiineiai e aeao?neiai aeo?aaeae. Ioaioeia au?auaiiuo ?iaeeoaeueneei
iaoiaeii a ieoiiieeao Oeiaaineiai e Ieneiai caiiaaaeieeia, a Iineianeii
ciiia?ea auioneatho ia oa??eoi?ee Oeiaaineiai, a a ia?niaeoeaa –
Oaieaeneiai e Oanaineiai caiiaaaeieeia, iiiieiyy aeeeoth iiioeyoeeth
yiiineiai aeo?aaey. Ia?aua yeoea ioeeaaeuaathony iau/ii iaaeaeo 16 e 22
ai?aey. Eeaaeea ninoieo /aua ec 2 yeoe. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eieoaaoeee
ninoaaeyao 29-31 nooie. Aa?anneaiiai iiaaaeaiey o ioaioeia ae?oa e
ae?oao ia iaaethaeaaony, e a aiacaea auaeeaatho iau/ii iaa ioaioea.

Aeaaa 5. Oa?icu e io?aia

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue n/eoaaony aoi?ui ii iaei/eneaiiinoe aeaeii aeo?aaeae
iinea aia?eeaineiai. A oa/aiea XX aaea /eneaiiinoue yoeo ioeoe
eieaaaeanue — iieaaatho, /oi iia aeinoeaea e?eoe/aneie ioiaoee a aiaeu
Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeae iaoiaeeony iiae oa?icie
auie?aiey e aeeth/?i a nienee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie E?aniie Eieae e E?aniie
Eieae ?innee, a oaeaea iaoiaeeony iiae cai?aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee.

Iniiaiui eeieoe?othuei oaeoi?ii iiioeyoeee yoiai aeaea inoa?ony
aeaa?aaeaoeey e naeueneioicyenoaaiiia inaiaiea caiaeue, i?eaiaeiuo aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Oiaiueoaiea ieiuaaee aiacaeiaee aucuaaaony
eneonnoaaiiie iaeei?aoeeae, no?ieoaeuenoaii aeaia, ioaaaeaieai caiaeue
iiae iinaaeee. Nouanoaoao iioaioeeaeueiay iianiinoue aii?oae?iiiai
eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo Naaa?iie e THaeiie Ei?aae, eioi?ue a neo/aa
aicieeiiaaiey iaecaaaeii iaaaoeaii io?aceony ia /eneaiiinoe aeo?aaeae.

Iiioeyoeee yiiineiai aeo?aaey — eiioeiaioaeueiay e ino?iaiay. Iaeanoue
aiacaeiaaiey eiioeiaioaeueiie iiioeyoeee ioaaouaaao aannaei ieaeiaai e
n?aaeiaai oa/aiey Aio?a e ainoi/iia iiaa?aaeuea ica?a Oaiee, a ca
i?aaeaeaie ?innee — Naaa?i-Ainoi/iue Eeoae. Ino?iaiay iiioeyoeey
caieiaao thai-ainoi/ioth /anoue ino?iaa Oieeaeaei a ssiiiee.

Oeie/iua ianoa aiacaeiaaiey yiiineiai aeo?aaey a ?innee — yoi iaoe?iua
inieiai-iooeoeaaua aieioa e inieiai-aaeieeiaua caaiei/aiiua eoaa ii
aeieeiai ?ae e o ica?. Oaeea o/anoee ia?aiaaeathony eaioi/iuie
eenoaaiie/ii-aa?aciauie eieeaie. Aaniie e eaoii yoe aieioa n?aaieoaeueii
eaaei aeinooiiu /aeiaaeo, e iiyoiio aeo?aaee ono?aeaatho aiacaea oieueei
a naiuo oiieeo ianoao n aunieie o?aaie. A ssiiiee aeo?aaee a aiacaeiaie
ia?eiae i?eaea?aeeaathony eiuo iano: iie no?iyo aiacaea a aeoaieeo e
aonoi ca?inoeo o?inoieeii aieioao, ii/oe iaaeinooiiuo aeey /aeiaaea, ii
ae?aieaiiuo a naeueneioicyenoaaiiue eaiaeoaoo; iiyoiio ioeoeu ei?iyony a
iieyo iaiiaeaeaeo io aiacaea.

Ieoaaony yiiineee aeo?aaeue niaoaiiie ieuae, iaeiaei n?aaee iaoeo
aeo?aaeae ii iaeaieaa aeeaioiiyaeiue. Iniiao ei?ia ninoaaeytho ?uau,
eyaooee e aiaeiua aaniicaiii/iua — ?a/ee, iieethnee, ee/eiee aiaeiuo
aeoeia e o. ae. Iaeiaei e ?anoeoaeueiua ei?ia ea?atho a ieoaiee
yiiineiai aeo?aaey ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue, iniaaiii inaiueth.

ssiiineee aeo?aaeue aeeth/ai a E?anioth Eieao INII eae iaoiaeyueeny iiae
oa?icie en/aciiaaiey aeae. Ii naiui iioeienoe/aneei iiaen/aoai, ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee aiacaeeony 40—50 ia?. A ssiiiee iaeoaao ieiei 250
ioeoe, inoaeueiay /anoue aeo?aaeae aiacaeeony a Eeoaa. Ie?iaay
/eneaiiinoue ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 1500 iniaae. Iniiaiua iaaeaaii?eyoiua
oaeoi?u ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee — yoi inooaiea e iaeei?aoeey aieioenouo
o/anoeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aiacaeiaaiey aeo?aaeae.

Caeeth/aiea

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yiiineee aeo?aaeue – naiue ?aaeeee ec aeo?aaeae oaoiu
?innee e iaoiaeeony iiae oa?icie en/aciiaaiey. Iniiaiay oa?ica – yoi
iioa?y ianoiiaeoaiee. A ssiiiee, aaea iaeoaao aieaa /aoaa?oe ie?iaie
iiioeyoeee yiiineiai aeo?aaey, a i?ioeii noieaoee i?iecioei na?ueaciia
eciaiaiea iano iaeoaiey ec-ca eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia, caa?yciaiey ?ae, oie/oiaeaiey aieio.

Nae/an aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ianoa aiacaeiaaiey yiiineiai aeo?aaey a
ssiiiee i?einoaiiaeaii. A Eeoaa ianoa ?aciiiaeaiey e ceiiaee iiae
iniaoth oa?ico noaaeo iaoeeiiiia ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa. A
ia?eiae n 1979 ii 1984 aa., aeaa o?aoe caaiei/aiiuo caiaeue a aeieeia ?.
Aeoeo ia naaa?i-ainoiea Eeoay, aaea iaoiaeeeanue aieueoay oa??eoi?ey
?aciiiaeaiey, auee eoeueoeae?iaaiu. A ?acoeueoaoa, yiiineee aeo?aaeue a
yoii ?aaeiia i?ae?aoee aiacaeeoueny . ?acaeoea iaooaaeiau/e e naeueneiai
oicyenoaa oa?iaeaao anaio aeaeiaiio ?aciiia?aceth ia aieioao Iaiueyi e
ianoai ?aciiiaeaiey yiiineiai aeo?aaey anaai THaeiiai Eeoay e ceiiaeai
ia aa?aaao ?. ssioecu, aaea ceioao ieiei 40% yiiineeo aeo?aaeae. Ii
aeaiiui ?inneeneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae yiiineee aeo?aaeue a ?innee no?aaeaao
io neeueiiai aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey: inooaiey aeaaeiuo iano,
naeeaaiey o?aau, auiana neioa, aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia eneiiiuo
ianoao aiacaeiaee aeo?aaeae, ia?aaioee ca?ia ianoeoeeaeaie ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iieyo.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Naeo Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oiiaea io?aiu aeo?aaeae

2. IUCN/SSC: Iaci? ninoiyiey e ieai ii io?aia aeo?aaeae

3. ssiiineee aeo?aaeue ia naeoa Red Data Book

4. ssiiineee aeo?aaeue ia naeoa “Yioeeeeiiaaeey aeaaeaeueoea ioeoeu”

5. ssiiineee aeo?aaeue ia naeoa floranimal.ru

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