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NOINEIE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE IAAeAAIAE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

ei. A.N. Iaea?aiei

Oaeoeueoao
anoanoaaiii-aaia?aoe/aneee

Eaoaae?a ciieiaee, aiaoiiee e
oeceieiaee

/aeiaaea e
aeeaioiuo

Ia i?aaao ?oeiiene

OAeE 598.813 (477.52)

AEIEIAEss IOOIEIAEE – AAEIOAEEE A EANINOAIIUO AeOA?AAAO
NAAA?I-AINOI*IIE OE?AEIU

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

Eniieieoaeue

Nooaeaioea 651 a?oiiu

Aauaiei Aeeoi?ey Aeaaeeie?iaia

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Eaaaaeue A.A.

eaiaeeaeao aeieiae/aneeo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Noiu – 1999

Niaea?aeaiea

No?.

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………………….3

Aeaaa 1. Iaci?
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
………5

Aeaaa 2. Iaoa?eae e iaoiaeeea
enneaaeiaaiee…………………………………8

Aeaaa 3. E?aoeay oeceeiaaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea

?aeiia
enneaaeiaaiee…………………………………………………..
….12

Aeaaa 4. Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea, aeioiie/aneia

?aciauaiea e /eneaiiinoue iooieiaee –
aaeioaeee……….15

Aeaaa 5. N?iee naciiiuo
yaeaiee…………………………………………………..19

Aeaaa 6. ?aciiiaeaiea
iooieiaee-aaeioaeee………………………………..24

Auaiaeu e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee………………………………………………….
………………48

Eeoa?aoo?a……………………………………………………..
……………………………….49

I?eeiaeaiea…………………………………………………….
……………………………….53

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Aaaaeaiea.

?ac?aaioea iao/iuo iniia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu
i?e?iaeu iiaeao auoue oniaoiie eeoue i?e aeaoaeueiii eco/aiee anao
eiiiiiaioia aeiaaioeaiicia. A aeecie i?e?iaeiuo niiauanoa iaiaeiaaaeiay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ioeoeai, iiyoiio iiciaiea ?acee/iuo noi?ii eo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay i?ioeannu ?aciiiaeaiey e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey, inoaaony iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo i?iaeai
i?ieoieiaee (Iaeue/aaneee, 1959). Ia iaiaa aeooaeueii eco/aiea
aeioeaiioe/aneeo naycae ioeoe, /oi yaeyaony iniiaie aeey ioeaiee eo ?iee
a i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannao , e i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey. A ?yaeo aaaeiaeoeo
caaea/ nia?aiaiiie i?ieoieiae/aneie iaoee – oneeaiea aieiaiey e
eco/aieth ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia, /oi, a eiia/iii eoiaa aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue i?ia?anno ai anao aa ?acaeaeao ( Iaeoaeueaeo, 1960).

A nayce n auoaeceiaeaiiui, a ea/anoaa iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e auea
eca?aia iooieiaea – aaeioaeea ( Ficcdula albicollis L ). Yoi,
ii?aaaeaii, i?aaeaea anaai, neoaeiinoueth naaaeaiee ii iiiaei aii?inai
aeieiaee e yeieiaee aeaiiiai aeaea, i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeaa?aaaoaainy
nenoaiaoe/aneiio eco/aieth, ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iooieiaeaie.
ssaeyynue oe?iei?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii a eaninoaiiuo aeoa?aaao Naaa?i –
Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu e ia?niaeoeaiui a ieaia ai?ueau n a?aaeeoaeyie eaniuo
e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, iooieiaea – aaeioaeea aeinoieia naiiai
i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey.

Oeaeue ?aaiou – eco/aiea ia?aca aeecie, aeieiaee e auyaeaiea
yeieiae/aneeo aaeaioaoeee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e oneiaeyi eaninoaiiuo
aeoa?aa Naaa?i – Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu. Enoiaey ec yoiai, auea iinoaaeaia
aeaaiay caaea/a – iiae?iaiia eco/aiea yeieiaee, iiaaaeaiey e
aeioeaiioe/aneeo naycae oeacaiiiai aeaea. Iaeaieaa aeaoaeueii
ieaie?iaaeinue eco/aiea ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai ia?eiaea, a /anoiinoe aai
oaiieiaee, ?acaeoey oi?i iiaaaeaiey a nayce n oacie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai
oeeeea, ii?oieiae/aneie eciai/eainoe yeoe, oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey e
oaeoi?ia, iaoneaaeeaathueo aeaaeue iioiinoaa, aeeeeuiuo e o?ioe/aneeo
ioiioaiee aeaea.

Nia?aiu ea/anoaaiii iiaua iaoa?eaeu ii yeieiaee e iiaaaeaieth iooieiaee
– aaeioaeee. I?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeyiea yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia oeaeue
?yae i?eciaeia aeaea, aeeth/ay aaee/eio eeaaeee, ia?aiao?u yeoe,
oaiieiaeth aiacaeiaie aeecie, oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey e

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o. ae. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua ii ii?oieiae/aneie eciai/eainoe yeoe,
oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey, /eneaiiinoe e iiaaaeaieth aaeioaeee.

Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea – iaeia ec ianniauo aeaeia ioeoe a eaninoaiiuo
aeiaaioeaiicao, yaeythuayny eo aaaeiui caaiii e ea?athuay

aaaeioth ?ieue a ?aaoeyoeee /eneaiiinoe a?aaeeoaeae eana ( Eiicaioeaa,
1978). Iiaua aeaiiua ii aa aeieiaee aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
niaa?oainoaiaaoue ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia, i?eaea/aieth e oi?aaeaieth
/eneaiiinoueth aeaea.

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Aeaaa 1. Iaci? eeoa?aoo?u

Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea neoaeiinoue naaaeaiee ii iiiaei aii?inai
aeieiaee e yeieiaee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee. A i?ieoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
ano?a/athony eeoue n/eoaiiua ?aaiou, iinayuaiiua aeaiiiio aeaeo. Iau/ii
oieaa?naeueiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai nai. Iooieiaeiauo (Muscicapidae) a
iiioeyoeeiiii – yeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo aieueoeinoaa i?ieoieiaia
yaeyaony aeeceee aaeioaeea aeae – iooieiaea – iano?ooea. (Ficedula
hypolcuca).

Ia oa??eoi?ee Naaa?i – Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu niaoeeaeueii aeieiaeae
iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ieeoi ia caieiaeny. Eiathony oieueei iauea e
aanueia o?aaiaioa?iua yeieiai – oaoienoe/aneea i/a?ee ia yoii aeaea a
enneaaeoaiii ?aaeiia.

N ia/aea eco/aiey i?ieoioaoiu oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Noineie iaeanoe
i?ioei aieueoa 100 eao. THai – ainoi/iua ?aeiiu iaeanoe (Aaeeei –
Iena?aaneee, Aoou?neee, O?inoyiaoeeee, Eaaaaeeineee, Noineie),
aoiaeeaoea ?aiaa a ninoaa Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee, iienaiu a
i?ieoieiae/aneii ioiioaiee 100 eao iacaae ( Niiia, 1897 ).

Iaoa?eae aeey naiae eaieoaeueiie ?aaiou ” I?ieoieiae/aneay oaoia
Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee” I.I. Niiia ia/ae niae?aoue a ia/aea 70 – o aiaeia
i?ioeiai noieaoey.

A ia/aea OO aaea, ?acaeaay ?aaiou I.I. Niiiaa, eco/aiea oaoiu ioeoe
Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee inouanoaeye i?ioanni? A.A.Aaa?ei. Iaeiaei
aieueoeinoai aai ?aaio iinayuaiu ioeoeai nia?aiaiiie Oa?ueeianeie
iaeanoe. Ioeoeai aea oa??eoi?ee Noineie iaeanoe ( thai – ainoi/iua
?aeiiu) oaeaeaii iaiueoa aieiaiey ( Aaa?ei, 1910 ).

A 1917 aiaeo i ioeoeao enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee oiiieiaaony a ?aaioa
I.E. Aaa?eeaiei ” I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua naaaeaiey i ioeoeao Iieoaaneie
aoaa?iee”. Ii a yoie ?aaioa ionoonoaotho eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee.

Iaoa?eaeu ii i?ieoioaoia Noiueiu, nia?aiiua yeniaaeeoeeyie
Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa a 50 – o aiaeao oaeouaai noieaoey
iioaeeeiaaiu a ?yaea noaoae i?ioanni?a E.A. Aie/aiaoeeiai ( 1950, 1954,
1962 ). A ieo inaauathony aii?inu ninoaaa e ?aciauaiey ii aeioiiai ioeoe
iaeanoe.

Iauea naaaeaiey i ?ani?ino?aiaiee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e ia?aca aeecie
niaea?aeaony a ?yaea yeieiai – oaoienoe/aneeo e nenoaiaoe/aneeo naiaeie
?aciiai iauaia e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ioaaoa ( Aeaiaioueaa, Aeaaeeia,
1954; Aieinoaaineee, 1984; Ia?eniaa, Oaeiio, 1984; Aieiaaiiaa, 1985;
Eieo, 1998). Aieaa iieiia iienaiea aeieiaee,

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yeieiaee e iiaaaeaiey yoiai aeaea aeaii A.I. Iaeei ( 1987 ). Aai eieaa
“Iooieiaee oaoiu NNN?” – aaeeinoaaiiay niaoeeaeueiay ?aaioa, iinayuaiiay
iooieiaeai.

Aii?inu aaia?aoe/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e aeioiie/aneiai ?aciauaiey
iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiu, auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca e
Oe?aeiu iiae?iaii iienaiu A.I. Iaeei ( 1987 ). Iaiiiai/eneaiiu aeaiiua
ii ieioiinoe aiacaeiaaiey aaeioaeee ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu ( Iaoaeaiei,
1971; Eiiaei, Ca?thoeia, 1977; Nai/oe, 1998 ), ii iiae?iaii iienaiu
aii?inu oneiaee aiacaeiaaiey,i?eaea/aiey e io?aiu ioeoeu (
Aeaaineeiiia, 1952,1991 ). I.O. Nai/oe a noaouea ” E aii?ino i
i?eaea/aiee ioeoe – aeoieiaiacaeieeia a eaniua aeioeaiicu” i?eaiaeeo
i?eia? oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e aa ?aaoeyoeee a
oneiaeyo aeoeaiiai i?eaea/aiey ioeoe a eaniua aeioeaiicu ia oa??eoi?ee
Eoaaineie iaeanoe ( 1998 ).

A oaoienoe/aneeo naiaeeao iniaue eioa?an aucuaaao aii?in naciiiuo
yaeaiee o iooieiaee – aaeioaeee, a /anoiinoe, oaiieiaey iea?aoeee (
Iaoaeaiei, 1971; Iaeei, 1987; Eieo, 1998).

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a enneaaeiaaieyo ii aeieiaee aaeioaeee caieiaao
eco/aiea ?aciiiaeaiey. Iiae?iaiue aiaeec aaia?aoe/aneeo aa?eaoeee
?acia?a eeaaeee i?iaaee Eye (Lack, 1954; 1968 ), Eioaee ( Cody, 1966 ) e
Eeiii (Clomp, 1970 ). Eo ?acoeueoaou iaiauaiu A.A. Iaaaneei a aai eieaa
“Aeaiia?aoey ioeoe” (1985).

A ca?oaaaeiie e ioa/anoaaiiie i?ieoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a oi?ioi
inaauaiu aii?inu ii?oieiaee yeoe ( Ai?aeaaaa ,1977; Iaaaneee,1985;
Iyiae, 1988; Palleskova, Janiga, 1988; Oaeiio,

Iaeo?oe, 1995). A /anoiinoe, ?.Iyiae caieiaeny enneaaeiaaieyie
ii?oieiae/aneie eciai/eainoe yeoe (1988). A.N. Oaeiio e I.E. Iaeo?oe
eco/aee ii?oieiae/aneoth eciai/eainoue yeoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee a
caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu eeaaeee (1995). Oaaoeeee i?ieoieia O.Ia?o eco/ae
i?e/eiu e ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua neaaenoaey iinoaiaoaeueiie aeenia?nee ( Part,
1990)

Iaiiiai/eneaiiua aeaiiua ii oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee –
aaeioaeee e aa aeeceiai aeaea – iooieiaee – iano?ooee i?eaaaeaiu a
ioaeeeaoeeyo ii?aaaeneeo ( Sorensen O., Haevar, 1990 ) e aaiaa?neeo
i?ieoieiaia (Meszena, Torok, 1990). Aieaa iiae?iaii eco/aieai yoiai
aii?ina caieiaeny A.A. Iaaaneee (1985). Ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu iiaeiaiua
enneaaeiaaiey ia i?iaiaeeeenue.

Ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an a i?ieoieiae/aneii ieaia aucuaatho naaaeaiey i
i?e/eiao aeaaee iioiinoaa o iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ( Iaeei,
1987;Sorensen, Haevar, 1990). Ia oa??eoi?ee aeinoaoeeiia?a “Aaeaeiaueia”
eco/aeanue oeuie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue eaniie niie ia

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iaeeeo ioeoeao – aeoieiaiacaeieeao. Aaeioaeea ieacaeanue aaniethoiui
aeiieiaioii ii eiee/anoao oie/oiaeaiiuo aiacaeiaee ( Eaaiaeue,
Eieo,1998).

Iaiueoa iaoa?eaea ii ieoaieth aaeioaeee (Aeaaineeiiia, Aiiinoaainueeee,
1960; Aeaauaeia, 1977; Pavelka, 1990) e iaeioi?ui aniaeoai iiaaaeaiey
aeaea ( Aeaaineeiiia, 1991; Aaia, 1987; Eaaieoeeee, 1989 ). E.A. Nieieia
eco/ae niiniaiinoue e aeeaeiaio oiieiao o iooieiaie (1991).

Iaeiaei ai anao iacaaiiuo ?aaioao, aeieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea
aaeioaeee inoaaony aeaeaei iaiieiie. Iaaeinoaoi/ii oe?iei inaauaiu
yeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeaea, aai iiaaaeaiea, no?oeoo?a iiioeyoeee,
aeioeaiioe/aneea nayce e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

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Aeaaa 2. Iaoa?eae e iaoiaeeea enneaaeiaaiee

Iaoa?eae aeey ianoiyuae ?aaiou aue nia?ai ai a?aiy iieaauo ?aaio,
i?iaaaeaiiuo a aanaiia – eaoiee ia?eiae 1995 – 1998 aa. ia oa??eoi?ee
aeinoaoeeiia?a “Aaeaeiaueia” Noineiai ?aeiia.

Enoiaey ec niia?aaeaiee io?aiu i?e?iaeu a iniiao anae ?aaiou auee
iieiaeaiu uaaeyuea ioeoe i?eaeeciaiiua iaoiaeu eo eco/aiey.

O/aou /eneaiiinoe i?iaiaeeeenue ia?o?ooiui iaoiaeii ia iinoiyiiuo
o?ainaeoao. Oaeea o/aou aeatho naaaeaiey ia ioiineoaeueiie /eneaiiinoe
ioeoe a aeaea ieioiinoe ianaeaiey – /enea iniaae ( ia? ) ia aaeeieoeo
ieiuaaee (10 aa, 1 ea.ei.).

O/aoiua ia?o?oou caeeaaeuaaeenue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ii aiciiaeiinoe
iaeaieaa iieii ioaaoeoue ana oeiu ianoiiaeoaiee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia
oa??eoi?ee.

Eiioeao?aoeey o?ainaeo i?aaenoaaeyea niaie eiiaioth eee e?eaoth, eioi?ua
iaania/eaaee aieaa ?aaiiia?iue ioaao oeaio?aeueiuo e ia?eoa?e/aneeo
o/anoeia eana. Iu eniieueciaaee no?iai oeene?iaaiiua ia?o?oou aeeeiie 1
ei e oe?eiie 50 i.

I?e eco/aiee iniaaiiinoae ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee
i?eiaiyeanue neaaeothuay iaoiaeeea. Eniieueciaaeenue i?iioia?iaaiiua
ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiua neie/ieee. Iaaethaeaiea i?iaiaeeeinue a oeie/iuo
aeey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee aeioiiao.

Ca aanue ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiee iiae eiio?ieai iaoiaeeeinue 56 neie/ieeia
iaiaoeeie iiaeaee (Aeaaineeiiia, 1991). I?ineaaeaia noaeueaa 51 aiacaea.
A 48 – auyniaiu n?iee ioeeaaeee ia?aiai yeoea e onoaiiaeaia aaee/eia
eeaaeee, a 42 – n?iee aueoieaiey ioaioeia. Ioeaieaaee aaee/eio eeaaeee e
/enei aueoieaoeony ioaioeia. Ec aiacaea oaeaeyeenue oooeua yeoea.

Aiacaea eco/aeenue e iienuaaeenue ii noaiaea?oiie iaoiaeeea. Ecia?yee
aunioo aiacaea, aeeaiao? eioea, aeoaeio, aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaaee
iaoa?eae aiacaea (Ieoaaa, 1976).

Eco/aeenue ii?oieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u yeoe. Ii?oiiao?e/aneie ia?aaioea
iiaeaa?aeinue 34 yeoea ec 5 eeaaeie.

I?e yoii ioeaieaaeenue:

1) eeiaeiua ?acia?u, o.a. aeeeia yeoea (L) e iaeneiaeueiue aeeaiao? (A)
n iiiiuueth ooaiaaioee?eoey (oi/iinoue aeaeaiey 0,1 ii).

2) iauai (V) yeoea au/eneyeny ii oi?ioea, i?aaeeiaeaiiie ?aeai Iyiaeii
(1988):

2

V=0,51*L*B ,

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aaea L – aeeeia

B – aeeaiao?.

I?eiaiaiea eiinoaiou 0,51, ii aeaiiui Ae.Oieoa (Hoyt, 1979) ia aeaao
ioeaee aieaa 2% ie i?e iaeiii aeaea ioeoe.

3) eiaeaen oi?iu a aai ea/anoaa eniieueciaaeinue niioiioaiea aeeaiao?a e
aeeeiu. A ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee ii iacuaaaony eiaeaenii ie?oaeaiiinoe
(Sph) (Iyiae, 1988)

L

Sph = —– ,

B

aaea L – aeeeia yeoea

A – aeeaiao?.

Nia?aiiue iaoa?eae ia?aaioai n eniieueciaaieai iauai?eiyouo

iaoiaeia aa?eaoeeiiiie noaoenoeee (Eaeei, 1980).

I?e yoii eniieueciaaeenue neaaeothuea noaoenoe/aneea
iieacaoaee:

1) n?aaeiaa a?eoiaoe/aneia yeoe (I) – yoi iaeia ec iniiaiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee aa?eaoeeiiiiai ?yaea, yaeythuayny, oeaio?ii
?ani?aaeaeaiey, aie?oa eioi?iai a?oiie?othony ana aa?eaiou
noaoenoe/aneie niaieoiiinoe:

o1 + o2 + o3 + … + on 1 n

I = —————————- = — oi

n n i=1

aaea oi – cia/aiea aa?eaio

n

– ciae noiie?iaaiey aa?eaio a i?aaeaeao io ia?aie aei n-e

i=1 aa?eaiou

n – iauaa /enei aa?eaio, ninoaaeythueo aeaiioth niaieoiiinoue

(eiee/anoai yeoe).

2) eeieou (Lim) – iieacaoaeue aa?eaoeee, cia/aiey ieieiaeueiuo (Omin) e
iaeneiaeueiuo (Omax) aa?eaio, iaaeaeo, eioi?uie ?aniieaaathony ana /eaiu
aeaiiie niaieoiiinoe.

3) eiyooeoeeaio aa?eaoeee (NV). *oiau n?aaieoue eciai/eainoue i?eciaeia
au?aaeaiiuo ?aciuie aaeeieoeaie, i?eoiaeeoueny iieueciaaoueny
ioiineoaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie aa?eaoeee. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony CV,
i?aaeeiaeaiiue E. Ia?niiii. CV i?aaenoaaeyao i?ioeaioiia ioiioaiea

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n?aaeiaai eaaae?aoe/aneiai ioeeiiaiey (Sx) e n?aaeiae a?eoiaoe/aneie
(I), o. a.

Sx

NV = —- * 100%

I

N?iee naciiiuo yaeaiee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e aa iiaaaeaiea, eco/aeinue
iaoiaeii aecoaeueiuo iaaethaeaiee.

E i?eia?o, ei?ieaiea iooieiaee – aaeioaeee enneaaeiaaeinue neaaeothuei
ia?acii: ia?eiae ei?ieaiey ?acaeaaeny ia a?aiaiiua io?acee ii 10 ieioo.
I?e yoii oeene?iaaeenue ana i?eeaou aaeioaae e neie/ieeo.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee iu
eniieueciaaee iaoiae Iaeoeeaea a iiaeeoeeaoeee A.A.Iaaaneiai, (1985).
?acoeueoaou ca aanue ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiee iaiauaiu.

Noaia ?an/aoia yoiai aaaeiaeoaai aioo?eiiioeyoeeiiiiai iieacaoaey
auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Ionoue na – eiee/anoai yeoe a aiacaea,ne – eiee/anoai yeoe a aiacaea, n?
– eiee/anoai ioaioeia, de -eiee/anoai iiaeaoeo ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai ia
aueoieaoeony yeoe, d? – eiee/anoai iiaeaoeo ioaioeia, t –
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ?enea, aeie.

Oiaaea nei?inoe aaeaaeiaaiie nia?oiinoe yeoe (qa) e ioaioeia (q?)
ii?aaeaeythony oae:

qa = de / t*ne ; qp = dp / t*np

Aa?iyoiinoe auaeeaaiey yeoea (se) a ia?eiae auneaeeaaiey aoaeao ?aaia

La

sa = (1 – qa ) ,

a aa?iyoiinoue auneaeeaaiey ioaioea aei aueaoa (s?) aoaeao ?aaia

LP

sp = ( 1 – qp ) ,

aaea Le – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ianeaeeaaiey yeoe, a Lp –
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue auea?ieeaaiey ioaioeia a aiacaea.

Aa?iyoiinoue auneaeeaaiey eiaeeaeaeooia io noaaeee ioeiaeaiiiai yeoea
aei aueaoa ec aiacaea (sa) aoaeao ?aaia :

Le Lp

sesp = ( 1 – qe ) * ( 1 – qp )

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Noaiaea?oiua ioeaee iieo/aiiuo aaee/ei oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey iiaeii
?ann/eoaoue eae ioeaee auai?i/iuo aeieae :

S Es = s ( 1 – s ) / t*n ;

S Esa = se sp ( S Ese / se) + ( S Esp / sp) ,

Iacaaiea ?anoaiee aeaiu ii “Ii?aaeaeeoaeth aunoeo ?anoaiee Oe?aeiu ”
(1987).

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Aeaaa 3. E?aoeay oeceeiaaia?aoe/aneay

oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeiia enneaaeiaaiee

Enneaaeoaiay oa??eoi?ey iaoiaeeoueny a Naaa?i -Ainoi/iie Oe?aeia a
i?aaeaeao eaninoaiiie ciiu. Yoi aieueoie ii ieiuaaee (i?eaeeceoaeueii
1500 aa) iannea oe?ieieenoaaiiiai eana, eioi?ue ?aniieaaaaony ia
thai-caiaaeiuo io?iaao N?aaeia?onneie aicauoaiiinoe (140 – 210 i iaae
o?iaiai ii?y), ia i?aaii ei?aiiii aa?aao ?.Inae. Aai ?aeueao i/aiue
?an/eaiai, n aonoie naoeie aeoaieeo ( aei 30-60 i) aaeie, e?ooecia
neeiiia eioi?uo aeinoeaaao 25-30°. Neeiiu ia?aciaaiu o?aoe/iuie ianeaie,
iie?uouie oieuae eana. Ii/au eciaiythony niioaaonoaaiii ?aeueaoo e oeio
oeaiicia: io na?uo eaniuo noaeeienouo e oaiii-na?uo eaniuo noaeeienouo
aei aieioiuo oyaeaei-noaeeienouo. Aeey neeiiia aaeie oa?aeoa?iu n?aaeia
– e neeueiiniuoua ii/au ( Aaeae, Ea?iaiei, 1998).

Caeanue neiioeaio?e?iaaiu iniiaiua, oa?aeoa?iua aeey Noineie aicauoaiiie
eaninoaie eaiaeoaooiua oa??eoi?ee: aiaei?acaeaeueiay neeiiiaay,
i?e?a/iay aiaei?acaeaeueiay, iieiaiiay. Eaiaeoaooiay no?oeoo?a ?aeiia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iauaaeeiaieai iieiaiii-aieioiuo e e?oai?a/iuo
eoaeii-aaei/iuo oa??eoi?ee. Iieiaiiua ian/aii-ai?iaua e eani-oa??anoiua
ianoa i?eaycaiu e aeieeia Inea ( Aeeaieei, 1961).

Enneaaeoaiay oa??eoi?ey oa?aeoa?ecoaony oia?aiiui oaieui eeeiaoii i?e
cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa inaaeeia e ia i/aiue oieiaeiie ceiie n
iooaiaeyie.

Iaeaieaa oieiaeiui ianyoeai yaeyaony yiaa?ue. N?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a
yiaa?y – 7,5°N, aaniethoiue ieieioi oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa – 36°N.

Iaeaieaa oaieue ianyoe – etheue : n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa
ninoaaeyao +19,5°N, aaniethoiue iaeneioi oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa +39°N.

Aiaeiaia eiee/anoai inaaeeia ninoaaeyao 575 ii. Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai
inaaeeia auiaaeaao eaoii, o.e. a yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?iu eeaie.
Iaeeueiua aeiaeaee /anoi nii?iaiaeaeathony a?icie e a?aaeii.

Aeae?ia?aoe/aneay naoue aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiue
eioa?an, iioiio /oi eiaiii ooo iaoiaeyony iiiai/eneaiiua auoiaeu /enouo
iiaecaiiuo aiae, eioi?ua ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue i?e oi?ie?iaaiee
i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoe/aneiai eiiieaena e yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiie
ninoaaiie /anoueth aiaeinai?a ?.Inae.

Iiaa?oiinoiua aiaeu enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee i?aaenoaaeaiu ?.Inae,
eioi?ay i?ioaeaao ca 6 ei ia ainoie io n.Aaeaeiaueia; ?.Aeoeoea (i?aaue
i?ioie Inea), a oaeaea i?oaeii, ?aniieiaeaiiui ?yaeii n aeinoaoeeiia?ii.

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?aea Inae eiaao oe?eio iieiu io 1 aei 2 ei i?e oe?eia ?onea aei 50 i
?onei ecaeaaaony, n ia?aeaoaie, iniiaiay nei?inoue oa/aiey 0,2-0,4 i/n.
Aa?aaa ?aee oia?aiii ?aciuoua, e?ooua eee ia?uaenoua, ?aaea iieiaea,
aunioie 1-1,5 i, ianoaie aieueoea.

A iaeioi?ua aiaeu, aaniie, iieia caoiieyaony aiaeie io 1 aei 2 i ia 1-4
iaaeaee (1994-1995aa.).

I?oae a aa?oiai oa/aiee ?.Aeoeoea ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii aeeyao ia
iee?ieeeiao ?yaeii eaaeauae oa??eoi?ee. Aaniie ii nicaeaao
ioeaaeaeathuaa aeeyiea (niaa aicea aiaeiaia eaaeeo ia 10 – 12 aeiae
aeieueoa, /aua iaaethaeathony caii?icee), a inaiueth-
iiaeia?aaaoaeueiia. Iaeii ec io?eoeaoaeueiuo aeeyiee yoiai i?oaea ia
aeeceaaeauoth oa??eoi?eth eaaeeo a iiauoaiee o?iaiy ii/aaiiuo aiae e,
eae neaaenoaea – caaieaaaiea caiaeue /a?ac ia?ooaiea ?aaoeyoeee noiea,
/oi iniaaiii i?iyaeeinue ca iineaaeiea 20 eao. I/aiue caaiei/aiu eaniua
aaeee, aa?o i?oaea. Yoi aaaeao e cia/eoaeueiui eciaiaieyi ii/aaiiiai e
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa aa?aaiaie ciiu iinoiyiiia caoiieaiea aaaeao e
aeaaee ?aiaa nouanoaothuae iacaiiie nooiaeieueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe. Yoi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aaeaaony e ia aeeaioiii ie?a aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

A i?aaeaeao iienuaaaiie oa??eoi?ee anoue auoiaeu iiaecaiiuo aiae a aeaea
?iaeieeia. Aeaaiue ec ieo – ?iaeiee “Aaeaeianeee”, – eioi?ue iaoiaeeony
naaa?iaa naea ia ?annoiyiee 1-2 ei. Aiaeu ?iaeieeia ?anoiaeynue ec
ai?iiie, i?iaeieaeatho oa/ue a aeaea ?o/aeea, eioi?ue aiaaeaao a
?.Aeoeoea ( Aooe, 1998 ).

Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue eaiaeoaooa oa??eoi?ee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a
i?aaeaeao eaninoaiiie ciiu – ?acaeoea ia ieaei?a aeaoo aeeaiao?aeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo e a iaeioi?ii ?iaea aioiaiienoe/iuo oeiia
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa – iaii?aeueii-eaniiai e eoai-noaiiiai (*a?iia,
1975).

?anoeoaeueiinoue enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee a oeaeii i?aaenoaaeyao
?anoeoaeueiinoue Aaeeei/a?ia//aineiai iiae?aeiia E?aniiiieuenei –
O?inoyiaoeeiai aaiaioaie/aneiai ?aeiia Noineiai ie?oaa N?aaeia?onneie
eaninoaiiie i?iaeioeee a i?aaeaeao Oe?aeiu. Aeey i?e?iaeiie
?anoeoaeueiinoe iacaaiiiai aaiaioaie/aneiai ?aeiia oa?aeoa?iu
eeaiiai-eeiiai-aeoaiaua, eeiiai-aeoaiaua, aeoaiai-niniiaua eana ia
ian/aiuo oa??anao, eo/iua noaie e yao?ioiua iieiaiiua aieioa.
Aaeeei/a?ia//eineee iiae?aeii oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeiieie?iaaieai
eeiiai-aeoaiauo e eeaiiai-eeiiai-aeoaiauo eania (Aiae?ae/aiei, Aaeee e
ae?., 1977; Oaeya-Niniiei, 1974, 1982), i?iec?anoathueo ia na?uo e oaiii
– na?uo eaniuo ii/aao. Ia?aue y?on i?aaenoaaeai aeoaii, ynaiai; aoi?ie
y?on – eeiie, eeaiii, ?aaea ineiie e aa?acie. A iiaeeanea –

-14-

eaueia, a?onieea, iieiaeua aeoaee e eeaiu. A o?aayienoii iie?iaa
aeiieie?oao niuoue iaueiiaaiiay, a e?iia iaa – caacae/aoea eaniay
(A?aaeen, 1971).

Ano?a/athony oaeaea /enoua iinaaeee niniu e aa?acu. A ieciaiiinoyo n
aeeceei caeyaaieai aiaeu ?anooo ieueoaiieee, a ioe?uoie ianoiinoe –
?anoeoaeueiinoue, oa?aeoa?iay aeey yao?ioiuo aieio. Ia aicauoaieyo e
thaeiuo e?oouo, a iiyoiio ia ?aniaoaiiuo neeiiao nio?aieeenue o/anoee
eoaiai – noaiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe (Aaeae, Ea?iaiei, 1998).

Ca o?e iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aeiaaioeaiicu a ?aeiia enneaaeoaiie
oa??eoi?ee nouanoaaiii eciaieeenue, /oi eieoeee?iaaii a iniiaiii
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia neaaeothuea:

1) oaaee/aiea eanenoinoe oa??eoi?ee (caeaniaiiinoue aaeie e ia?aaia);
oi?ie?iaaiea ia au?oaeao eenoaaiiuo iieiaeiyeia, noa?aiea ae?aaaniuo
ianaaeaeaiee;

2) caaiea/eaaiea eaniuo aaeie, noeoeanneiiiua eciaiaiey eo
?anoeoaeueiinoe;

3)inooaiea aieioa a iieia ?o/uey, ni?yieaiea e oaeoaeaiea aai ?onea ia
io?acea n.Aaeaeiaueia – n.Aeoeoea (1990), oi?ie?iaaiea ia inooaiiuo
ieiuaaeyo cia/eoaeueiuo ca?ineae eaiyea;

4) iinoaiaiiia oiaiueoaiea ieiuaaee naiieinia a eaniuo e inoaiiaiiuo
aaeeao, /oi /anoe/ii naycaii n oiaaeeii iiaieiauey iauanoaaiiiai neioa;

5) /anoe/iia caionoaiea iieae i?aia?aciaaiea iaeioi?uo ec ieo a caeaaee
(ca iineaaeiea 5-7 eao), /oi aucaaii niaaeii naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa;

6) anoaeueoe?iaaiea aei?iae io naea ( 1991a.), no?ieoaeuenoai aea/ ia
aai oa??eoi?ee, /oi i?eaaei e i?eeeao ioaeuoathueo e niioaaonoaaiii, e
oaaee/aieth ?ae?aaoeeiiiie iaa?ocee ia aeioeaiicu ( Eieo, 1998).

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Aeaaa 4. Aaia?aoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea,

aeioiie/aneia ?aciauaiea e /eneaiiinoue

iooieiaee – aaeioaeee

Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea ?ani?ino?aiaia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia ia caiaae io
Ainoi/iie O?aioeee e e naaa?o aei 51-52°n.o. e thao aei thaeiuo
ieiia/iinoae Aiiaieineiai e Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaia e naaa?i-caiaaeiuo
/anoae Iaeie Acee e ainoieo aei Oi?anaineeo ai?. E naaa?o aei thaeiiai
iiaa?aaeuey *a?iiai ii?y, Eaaeaca, Oi?anaineeo ai? e,
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, Caiaaeiiai Eiiaoaeaaa. E thao aei thaeiiai
iiaa?aaeuey Iaeie Acee, A?iyineiai Oaa?a, ai? Caa?in. Ino?iaa Neoeeeey e
Aioeaiae ( Noaiaiyi,1978). A Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia ca iineaaeiea iyoue
aeanyoeeaoee ioia/aii ?anoe?aiea aiacaeiaiai a?aaea ia naaa?
(Glowacin’ski, 1974). Inaaeaaao iiaua oa??eoi?ee nea/eiia?acii, iooai
ia?aciaaiey ino?iaiuo iiioeyoeee. A auaoai NNN?: thai-caiaae aa?iiaeneie
/anoe e Eaaeac ecaanoiu caeaou ioeoe yoiai aeaea a Eaoaeth e Ynoiieth. A
Oe?aeia aiacaeyony a Iieanuea, Eaninoaie e Ea?iaoao. I?e yoii a thaeiuo
/anoyo a?aaea aieaa iiiai/eneaiia (Ia?eniaa, Oaeiio, 1984). Ia anai
aiacaeiaii a?aaea iooieiaee – aaeioaeee yaeythony ia?aeaoiuie. Ceiotho
iie, aeaaiui ia?acii, a naaaiao o?iie/aneie Ao?eee.

Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea ianaeyao a iniiaiii ?acee/iua oeiu eenoaaiiuo,
?aaea niaoaiiuo oaieii-eenoaaiiuo e oaieiuo eania ia ?aaieiao, a
i?aaeai?ueyo e ii neeiiai ai?, iiaeieiaynue aaa?o aei 1700 i iaae
o?iaiai ii?y. Oyaioaao e iaeaieaa noa?ui; /anoi ?ac?aaeaiiui o/anoeai
eana n aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeoieenouo aea?aaueaa, ii iieiai ?ae, o
iiooae aaeieue i?inae e eaniuo aei?ia. Iinaeyony a noa?uo ?iuao, ia?eao,
naaeao ianaeaiiuo ioieoia e eo ie?anoiinoae. Eae eneeth/aiea aiacaeeony
ia ioaeaeueii noiyueo noa?uo, aeoieenouo aea?aaueyo, ?anooueo ia
cia/eoaeueiii oaeaeaiee io ianneaia eana, e iino?ieeao /aeiaaea
(I?eia,1948; Iaeei, 1987).

Iiaeao iinaeyoueny a ioaa?noeyo noaiea ia ianoa auiaaoaai no/ea, aaea –
ieaoaeue iiaeeaea e aa?oeia aea?aaa (Aieiaaiiaa,1985).

A Oe?aeia a ie?.a.AEeoiie? iaeaeaia ia aiacaeiaaiee a ?ac?aaeaiiii
o/anoea niaoaiiiai eana n i?aiaeaaeaieai aeoaa. A Eeaaneie iae.
i?aaeii/eoaao ?acee/iua oeiu noa?uo aeoaiauo eania n i?eianueth aa?acu,
a?ooe e ineiu, n iiaeeaneii ec aiy?uoieea e eaueiu, n aonoui o?aainoiai
e iaii?ioieeaie a ieaeiai y?ona, ii aiacaeeony oaeaea a aeoaiai
aa?aciauo eanao aac iiaeeanea, ia a?aieoeao iineaaeieo n aeueieeaie a
eeiiauo n iacia/eoaeueiie i?eianueth aa?acu (Iaeei,1987), a oaeaea a
a?aaiai – aeoaiauo eanao (I?eia,1948). Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea

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– aeae eiaeeeaoi? aeoa?aa (Ieuaiei, 1977). A a. Eeaa iau/ii a ia?eao,
neaa?ao e aioaie/aneii naaeo AI ONN?.

A Naaa?iii Iiaeieuea (Oa?iiiieueneay iae.) iooieiaea – aaeioaeea
yaeyaony iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo iiiai/eneaiiuo ioeoe niaoaiiuo eania e
ia?eiauo ianaaeaeaiee, a oii /enea e ai?iaeneeo (a.E?aiaiaoe). Iau/ii
oaeaea a a?aaiai-aeoaiauo e ia?aaeei niniiauo aunieinoaieueiuo eanao
(Ia?eniaa, Oieeia,1959). A Oa?ueeianeie iae. ianaeyao oaeaea eenoaaiiua
eana ?aciuo oeiia n iiaeeaneii. Ioia/aia a ai?ao (Niiia,1897;
Aeaaineeiiia, 1954). A Caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo Oe?aeiu iinaeyaony ii ?a/iui
aeieeiai naaa?iuo e a aoeiauo eanao thaeiuo e thai-caiaaeiuo neeiiia
Oe?aeineeo Ea?iao, iiaeieiaynue aaa?o aei 1000 i e auoa. Aiacaeeony
nii?aaee/anee a aeoa?aaao, eenoaaiiuo eanao n i?aiaeaaeaieai a?aaa a
niaoaiuo eanao ?aaiei, a ia?eao, naaeao e a iieiaiiuo ca?ineyo ec ieueoe
e eau (Eenoyeianeee, 1950; No?aooiai, 1954; 1963; Iaeei, 1987).

A aieueoeinoaa iano aiacaei a?aaea ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN? iau/ii, a
ecethaeaiiuo iioeiaeueiuo aeioiiao, aaea iiaeao ia?aciauaaoue ieioiua
iinaeaiey – iiiai/eneaiia.

A Eeoaa, Iiaeiineiauea, Aaoee?ee e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?aaeeaaeacuea –
?aaeea. Aaeaeo iicae/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia oa??eoi?ee a?aaea yoiai
aeaea oa?aeoa?iuo aiacaeiauo aeioiiia (noa?uo eania n aieueoei
eiee/anoaii aeoieenouo aea?aaueaa eee eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee)
/eneaiiinoue iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia?aaiiia?ia, a aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
iaeioi?uo ianoao /anoi iineo nii?aaee/aneee oa?aeoa? (Iaeei, 1987).

A Oe?aeia a oa/aiee 1967-1977 aa. ia oa??eoi?ee AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe
i?iaiaeeeenue enneaaeiaaiey ii ii?aaeaeaieth ioiineoaeueiie /eneaiiinoe
aiacaeyueony ioeoe. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iooieiaea – aaeioaeea yaeyaony
iaeiei ec iiiai/eneaiiuo (io 30 aei 100 iniaae ia 100 aa) aiacaeyueony
aeaeia yoie oa??eoi?ee (Eiiaei, C?thoeia,1977).

Ia Eoaaiueia oaeaea i?iaiaeeeenue iiaeiaiua enneaaeiaaiey. Anee aei
?acaaoeaaiey aeoieyiie a niniiauo ianaaeaeaieyo oaeea aeaeu ioeoe eae
iooieiaea – aaeioaeea, iooieiaea-iano?ooea, aa?oeoaeea ia aiacaeiauea
i?aeoe/anee ia ano?a/aeenue (ia niioaaonoaiaae aiacaeiaie aeioii), oi
iinea ?acaanee /eneaiiinoue eo ?acei aic?inea e a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu
iooieiaea – aaeioaeea e iooieiaea – iano?ooea caieiaee 10 – 15% anao
aeoieyiie.

?acei aic?inea e ieioiinoue ioeoe – aeoieiaiacaeieeia ia 10 aa niniiauo
ianaaeaeaiee i?e ?acaanea eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee, eieaaeynue io 26 aei
70 ia? (iooieiaea – aaeioaeea, iooieiaea – iano?ooea,

-17-

aieueoay neieoea). A aiaeu iaaethaeaiee ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
aiacaeaie ia i?aauoaei 10-20 i.

Caiyoinoue eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee caaeneo io oiai, eae iie ?acaaoaiu.
Iaaethaeaiey iieacaee, /oi /aua anaai caieiathony eneonnoaaiiua
aiacaeiauey, eaoie eioi?uo i?eaioe?iaai ia ainoie, thai-ainoie, tha e
thai-caiaae. I?aeoe/anee ia canaeyeenue ec aiaea a aiae aeoieyiee, eaoie
eioi?uo i?eaioe?iaai ia naaa?i-ainoie, naaa? eee naaa?i-caiaae.
Canaeyaiinoue aeoieyiie i?aeoe/anee ia caaeneo io ii?iaeu aea?aaa, ec
eioi?iai iie ecaioiaeaiu, auniou ?acaanee (Nai/oe, 1998).,

Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea a eaninoaiiuo ?aeiiao Noineie iaeanoe iaueiiaaiia,
a iieanneeo – ?aaeeay aiacaeyuayny e i?ieaoiay ioeoea anae oa??eoi?ee
iaeanoe.

*eneaiiinoue aaeioaeee a eaninoaiiie /anoe iaeanoe, eae e aacaea,
caaeneo io iaee/ey aeoieenouo aea?aaueaa. A iieiaeuo aeoaiauo e niniiauo
eanao, a oaeaea a aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iieinao, aaea ?aaoey?ii
i?iecaiaeyony naieoa?iua ?oaee, yoa ioeoea ionoonoaoao. A ianoao
?acaanee eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee /eneaiiinoue aa aic?anoaao aei 130
iniaae ia 1 ei (Iaoaeaiei, 1971).

A eaninoaiiuo aeoa?aaao Naaa?i – Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu ae?aainoie
aeaooy?oniue, niieiooinoue e?ii 0,3-0,4. A ia?aii y?ona aeiieie?oao aeoa
iaueiiaaiiue eee /a?ao/aoue (Quercus robus L). Ii i?aaenoaaeai aeaoiy
oi?iaie – ?aiiae (Q.r. var. Praecox Czern) e iicaeiae ( Q.r. var.
Tardiflora Czern), ioee/athueany n?ieaie ?acaeoey eenoau. Aeoau aunioie
20-22 i, n?aaeiee aeeaiao? noaieia – 30-35 ni. Aoi?ie y?on ieaea ia 6-8
i, ia?aciaai eeiie na?oeaeenoie (Tilia cordata L.) , eeaiii ino?ieenoui
( Acer platanoides L.). Ec?aaeea no?a/aaony aa?aca iiieeeay (Betula
pendula Roth.). Iiaeeanie (niieiooinoue 0,2-0,3 ) ia?acoao eaueia
iaueiiaaiiay (Norylus avellana L.), aa?aneeao aa?iiaeneee (Evonimus
europaca L.) e ai?iaeaa/aoue (E. Verrucisa Scip.), aoceia /a?iay
(Sambucus nigra L.). Oaeaea nthaea ioiinyony iieiaeua aeoaee, eeia,
eeai. Iiaenoeeea ninoieo ec iiaaoeo eenoueaa e nooeo aaoie, a ec
?anoeoaeueiinoe iinoiyiiuie eiiiiiaioaie yaeyaony eiiuoaiue aa?iiaeneee
(Asarum europacum L.),niuoue iaueiiaaiiay (Aegopodium podagraria L.),
iaaeoieoea oaiiay (Pulmanaria obscurata Dumort), eoiaia iiiaioeaaoeiaay
(Polugonatum multiflorum (L) All.), caacae/aoea eaioeaoiaeaeiay
(Stellaria holostea L.),ueoiaiee ioaeneie (Driopteris filix – max (L)
Schott) e ae?. (Iineeia, 1959, Ea?iaiei, Eiaooi,1966; Ea?iaiei, Aaeae,
1998).

*eneaiiinoue iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea eaninoaiiie
aeoa?aau i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?enoiea 4.1.

Enneaaeiaaiiay oa??eoi?ey yaeyaony iioeiaeueiie aeey aiacaeiaaiey
iooieiaee – aaeioaeee: caeanue iiiai noa?uo aeoieenouo aea?aaueaa, /anoi

-18-

ni niaoaiiie aa?oeiie, oaeoaeaiee, ia?aciaaaoeony a ianoao auiaaeaiey
no/eia, ionoaaoae ei?u.

*eneaiiinoue iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia yoie oa??eoi?ee ec aiaea a aiae
aic?anoaao (?en.4.1), a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aic?anoaao e ieioiinoue aa
aiacaeiaaiey.

?en.4.1. Aeeiaieea /eneaiiinoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia

eeth/aaii o/anoea

Ca aanue ia?eiae iaoeo enneaaeiaaiee /eneaiiinoue aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii
o/anoea eaninoaiiie aeoa?aau aic?inea ii/oe a o?e ?aca.

Iaaethaeaaony oaeaea oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey canaeyaiinoe eneonnoaaiiuo
aiacaeiaaiee iooieiaeie – aaeioaeeie e auoaniaiea aeeaeaeoaai eiieo?aioa
ii oa??eoi?ee aiacaeiaaiey – aieueoie neieoeu.

Aaeioaeea caieiaao neie/ieee, iiaaoaiiua niaa?oaiii ioe?uoi.
Eiino?oeoeee aiacaeiaee iiaoo auoue naiuie ?aciuie, ii eo/oa anaai
canaeytho neie/ieee e aeoieyiee. Aunioa ?acaanee – 5-10 i. , a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, ia neieueei ioe?uoi iiaaoaii aiacaeiauea,
aiacaeiaie o/anoie ia aaeee. Aiacaea ?aniieaaathony anaai ia ?annoiyiee
20 i. iaeii io ae?oaiai, a n?aaeiai ia 25-30 i.

N oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey ioeoe – aeoieiaiacaeieeia a niniiaua
ianaaeaeaiey, iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eanie/anoaai i?iaiaeeoue ?acaaneo
eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee ec ?an/aoa 20-30 aeoieyiie ia 1 aa eana aaeieue
eaniuo aei?ia, i?inae eee ii e?ath iiooae (Naee/oe, 1998).

Iioeiaeueiue aeioii e aeoeaiia i?eaea/aiea ioeoe niinianoaotho
oaaee/aieth /eneaiiinoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ?anoe?aiey aiacaeiaiai a?aaea e oaaee/aiea aai ieioiinoe
ianaeaiey.

-19-

Aeaaa 5. N?iee naciiiuo yaeaiee

Naciiiua ia?aaeaeaeaiey. Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea – ia?aeaoiay ioeoea. Iia
iicaeii i?eeaoaao ia ianoa aiacaeiaaiey e ?aii eo iieeaeaao.

I?eeao e aanaiiee i?ieao ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN? i?ioiaeeo n I
aeaeaaeu ai?aey ii III aeaeaaeo iay aeeth/eoaeueii. Ia thaa aa?iiaeneie
/anoe NNN? a ioaeaeueiua aiaeu ia?aua ioaioeu iiyaeythony oaea a III
aeaeaaea ia?oa.

A E?uio naiay ?aiiyy ioeoea ca?aaeno?e?iaaia A.E. Aeoeeoeeei 21.03.1974
a. a 12 ei io a.Aeoooa, a iniiaiie i?ieao i?ioiaeeo ia iieoino?iaa (
iiiaieaoiea iaaethaeaiey) 3.04 – 19.05 (Einoei, 1983). A 1981 a.
i?ieaoiua ioeoeu ioia/aiu a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe A?aaaoneie No?aeee 6.05,
a a Ea?aaeaaneii caiiaaaeieea – 9 e 11.05. naiay iicaeiyy ioeoea aeiauoa
a ieciaueyo ?. Naeae? 27.05.1866a. (Einoei, 1983; eiee CI IAO). Ia thaa
Iaeanneie iaeanoe ianeieueei i?ieaoiuo naioeia a 1948 a. aeiauou 25 e
27.04 (eiee. EAO).

A Eoaaineii caiiaaaeieea aaeioaeee eaoyo (9 eao) 18 – 28.04 (Noeee,
Aiaeeaa, 1978). A Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe i?eeao e i?ieao i?ioiaeeo ( 9
eao) ni II aeaeaaeu ai?aey ii eiiaoe I aeaeaaeu iay: 19.04 – 17.05
(Niiia, 1897). E?iia yoiai, 2 iooieiaee aeiauou caeanue 21.04.1950 a. e
27.04.1924 a. (eiee. OAO). A Iieoaaneie iae. ( 3 aiaea) ioeoeu
aeiauaaeenue 12 e 27.04 (eiee. OAO).

A Oe?aeineeo Ea?iaoao aaeioaeea ioia/aeanue : iiae iieiieiie Eaanianeee
Iai/oe – 26.04.1957 a.(No?aooiai, 1963); o *i?iiai?u – 27.04.1959a., o
n.Eoioa?u – 28 e 30.04.1948a. (eiee. ECAIO), a oaeaea 3.05.1950a. o a.
?aoia ( No?aooiai, 1954;1963). A ie?. a.Eueaia i?eeaoaao 18-20.04, ?aaea
a ia/aea I aeaeaaeu iay (Miczynski, 1962), a a Oa?iiiieueneie iaeanoe (
4 aiaea) iiyaeyaony 20-23 e 26.04 (Ia?eniaa, Oieeia, 1959). A
Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iae. o n.Iun Aeia?ie Iaaeaaeaeu naiaoe aeiauo
18.04.1952a. (eiee. ECAIO), a a Aeaenaiae?ianeii ?aeiia Ee?iaia?aaeneie
iae. – 30.04.1907a. (eiee. CEI).

A *a?eanneie iae. ianeieueei ioeoe ano?a/aiu 20, 22, 24 e 27.04.1922a.
(eiee. CEI). A Eeaaneie iae. a ie?.a.Oanoia (3 aiaea) ia?aua aaeioaeee
iiyaeythony 12,13 e 16.04, a a ie?.a.Eeaa (9 eao) – 17-26.04
(Aeaaineeiiia, 1954).

A Ieeieueneii (iuia Ian/aineii) eanie/anoaa Noineie iae. naiaoe aeiauo
29.04.1961 a. (eiee. ECAIO).

Aanaiiee i?eeao e i?ieao iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia enneaaeoaiie
oa??eoi?ee i?ioiaeeo iaaeaeo 9.04 (1992) e 3.05 (1987a.). N?aaeiyy aeaoa
aanaiiaai i?eeaoa – 19.04 (Eieo, 1998).

-20-

Ia ianoa aiacaeiaaiey ia?auie i?eeaoatho naioeu e oieueei /a?ac 4-5
aeiae naiee. N?aco iinea i?eeaoa naioeu /anoi aea?aeaony iaieioiuie
a?oiiaie aei 10-15 iniaae (Iaeei, 1987).

Ianniaue i?eeao e i?ieao i?ienoiaeeo a eiioea ai?aey – ia/aea iay.
?annayiiua noaeee a 10-12 iniaae aea?aeaony a yoi a?aiy ii iiooeai nu?uo
aeoa?aa, a ieueoiauo ca?ineyo ii aa?aaai aieio e iaeei?aoeaiuo eaiaeia
(Iaoaeaiei, 1971).

Ioeao e inaiiee i?ieao iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN?
i?ioiaeeo i/aiue ?anoyiooi: n eiioea III aeaeaaeu ethey ii III aeaeaaeo
naioya?y aeeth/eoaeueii. Ioaeaeueiua iniae caaea?aeeaathony aei
na?aaeeiu ieoya?y e ano?a/athony aeaaea ia thaa a I aeaeaaea iiya?y.

A Oe?aeia ia Iiaeieuea ioeao i?ioaeaao n na?aaeeiu II aeaeaaeu aaaonoa
aei na?aaeeiu aoi?ie iieiaeiu naioya?y, caoyaeaaynue eiiaaea aei ia/aea
ieoya?y (Ia?eniaa, Oieeia, 1959; No?aooiai, 1963), iaeiaei a ioaeaeueiua
aiaeu caeai/eaaaony e ia/aeo II aeaeaaeu naioya?y (a ie?. a.E?aiaiaoe a
1957 a. en/acea iinea 11.09) (Ia?eniaa,Oieeia,1959). A Oa?ueeianeie
iaeanoe ( 6 eao) ioeao e i?ieao aaeioaae ia/eiaaony ni n?aaeeiu aaaonoa
e iniaaiii eioaineaii i?ioiaeeo a eiioea III aeaeaaeu yoiai ianyoea e
ia?aie iieiaeia naioya?y: 24.08, 27.08, 27.08-15.09, 27.08
-23.09,1.09,4.09 (Niiia,1897). A 1889-1890 e iooieiaee en/acee oaea 14 e
17.08, a a 1886a. – iineaaeiyy ioeoea auea caia/aia 23.09. A Iieoaaneie
iae. 3 aaeioaeee aeiauou 25.08.1913a. (eiee. CEI), 21.08 e 26.09.1928 a.
(eiee. OAO), a a Ieeieaaaneie iaeanoe (ie?. a.I/aeia) 1 iooieiaea – a
ieoya?a (eiee. CEI). A E?uio ( 4 aiaea) i?ieaoiua ioeoeu
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu 13, 21 – 22, 24, 28.08 e 4.09 (Einoei, 1983).

Ioeao iooieiaie – aaeioaae ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee ia/eiaaony a
ia?aie iieiaeia aaaonoa. Inaiiee i?ieao iacia/eoaeai. Iaeeii/iua ioeoeu
ano?a/athony aei na?aaeeiu naioya?y (Iaoaeaiei, 1971).

Ioeeaaeea yeoe , aueoieaiea e aueao ioaioeia. N?iee ia/aea ioeeaaeee
yeoe o aaeioaeee ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 1.

-21-

Oaaeeoea 1.

N?iee ia/aea ioeeaaeee yeoe o iooieiaee – aaeioaeee.

Aiaeu

IaaethaeaieenM ± mlim1995912.05 ± 1,37.05 – 21.0519961613.05 ± 0,99.05 –
20.0519981814.05 ± 1,08.05 – 23.05N?aaeiea4313.05 ± 0,68.05 – 21.05

N?iee ia/aea ioeeaaeee yeoe o aaeioaeee neaaeothuea : 7.05, 10.05 –
12.05, 15.05 – 21.05 (1995); 9-10.05, 12-13.05, 15-16.05, 20.05 (1996);
8.05, 10.05 – 12.05, 14.05 – 15.05, 23.05 (1998) (oaae. 1). Ianniaay
yeoeaeeaaeea i?ienoiaeeea 14.05 – 15.05 (1995) ; 15.05 (1996); 15.05 –
16.05 (1998).

Eieoaaoeey yeoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee aeeeony 13 – 15 aeiae. Aueoieaiea
ioaioeia i?ioiaeeei 27.05, 29.05 – 31.05, 1.06 – 3.06, 8.06 (1995);
27.05 – 28.05, 30.05 – 31.05, 1.06 – 2.06, 5.06, 7.06 (1996); 26.05 –
321.05, 1.06, 11.06 (1998) (oaae.2). Ianniaia aueoieaiea i?ioiaeeei 3.06
(1995); 31.05 – 1.06 (1996); 2 – 3.06 (1998).

Oaaeeoea 2.

N?iee ia/aea aueoieaiey ioaioeia o iooieiaee – aaeioaeee.

Aiaeu

IaaethaeaieenM ± mlim199581.06 ± 1,327.05 – 8.0619961630.05 ± 0,827.05 –
7.061998181.06 ± 1,5 26.05 – 11.06N?aaeiea4231.05 ± 0,6 27.05 – 9.06

Ioaioeu ?anooo e ?acaeaathony auno?i. Ia 13 – 16 aeaiue (Iaeue/aaneee,
1959; Ia?eniaa, Oieeia, 1959) n iaaei?inoeie ?oeaauie e iaoiauie
ia?ueyie iieeaeatho aiacaea. Ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee aueao ioaioeia
i?ioiaeee 10.06 – 12.06, 14.06 – 17.06, 22.06 (1995); 10.06 – 15.06,
19.06 – 21.06 (1996); 10.06 – 15.06, 25.06 (1998) (oaae. 3). Ianniaue
aueao i?ioiaeee 16.06 – 18.06 (1995); 13.06 – 17.06 (1996); 13.06 –
18.06 (1998).

-22-

Oaaeeoea 3.

N?iee ia/aea aueaoa ioaioeia o iooieiaee – aaeioaeee.

Aiaeu

IaaethaeaieenM ± mlim1995815.06 ± 1,410.06 – 22.0619961614.06 ± 0,810.06
– 21.0619981815.06 ± 1,29.06 – 25.06N?aaeiea4215.06 ± 0,610.06 – 23.06

Iinea aueaoa ioaioeia, ac?ineua eo ei?iyo aua 5-7 aeiae iinoaiaiii
oaiaeyo eo io aiacaea.

N?iee ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai ia?eiaea o aaeioaeee ca ana aiaeu enneaaeiaaiee a
eaninoaiiie aeoa?aaa i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en.5.2.

?en.5.2. Oaiieiaey ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii
o/anoea

enneaaeiaaiee (ii iyoeaeiaaeai ca 1995-1998aa.( 1- ia/aei ioeaeaaeee
yeoe; 2- aueoieaiea ioaioeia; 3- aueao i?oaioeia).

Oaeay /aoei iiaoi?ythuayny ?eoie/iinoue n?ieia ?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai ia?eiaea
iiaeao auoue neaaenoaeai aieaa – iaiaa iaeeiaeiauo iiaiaee/iuo
eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee ianoiinoe, a oaeaea iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee
aiacaeiaaiey ( caueuaiiinoue aiacae).

Nacii ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee a Oe?aeia aeeeony n I aeaeaaeu
iay ii II aeaeaaeo ethey aeeth/eoaeueii a aiaeu n ?aiieie aaniaie

ioaeaeueiua ia?u i?enooiatho e ?aciiiaeaieth a III aeaeaaea ai?aey
(Iaeei, 1987).

-23-

Ai Eueaianeie iae. iieiua eeaaeee ano?a/athony (6 eao) 16.05 – 5.06
(No?aooiai, 1963). O Ii?oei – cae?iy iieiay ianeaeaiiay eeaaeea iaeaeaia
5.06.1966 aiae, a 7.06 caeanue iaia?oaeaii aoi?ia aiacaei n 3 yeoeaie
(i/aaeaeii iiaoi?iay eeaaeea acaiai oo?a/aiiie). A Caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo
Oe?aeiu, ii aeaiiui O.E. No?aooiaia (1963), eaoiua iieiaeua iiyaeythony
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia ethiy – ia/aea ethey. A Ioea/aanii ?-ia o iao
*eiaaeeaai eaoiay iieiaeay ioeoea n ac?ineie naieie ano?a/aiu
26.06.1983a. (Iaeei, 1987). A aeieeia ?.Oae auaiaeie eaoiuo iieiaeuo
ioia/ai 8.07.1947 a. (Ii?oiaiei, 1959). A ie?. iao Ia?a/ei ia
?.Aeeueoaaa iieiaeay aaeioaeea aeiauoa 25.07.1947 a. (eie. COI), a a
?aoianeii ?-ia Aioainoeeie iieiieiu-27.07.1956a.(eiee.OAO). A
Oa?iiiieueneie iae. (4 aiaea) naiia ?aiiaa no?ieoaeuenoai aiacaea
ioia/aii a ie?. n. Eeoiy 27.04.1955a. Naaaeea eeaaeee a ie?. a.
E?aiaiaoe ano?a/aaony 8-28.05, a ianeaeaiiua – ai aoi?ie iieiaeia iay e
I aeaeaaea ethiy (2,6.06) (Ia?eniaa,Oieeia,1959). A Ooineii ?-ia o
n.No?aae iieiaeay ioeoea aeiauoa 7.07.1989a.(eie.CEI). A Eeaaneie iae. a
ie?. a. Oanoia aiacaei n ia/aaoaeny eeaaeeie (ioeiaeaii 1 yeoei)
iaia?oaeaii 7.05.1966a., 9.05 a iai auei o?e yeoea. A 1969a. iieiua
eeaaeee ano?a/aiu caeanue 19-25.05., a a 1970a.-16.05. A ie?. a. Eeaa
aiacaei n 3-4-aeiaaiuie ioaioeaie iaeaeaii 30.05.1968a. A Oa?ueeianeie
iae.(3 aiaea) iieiua eeaaeee iiyaeythony ai aoi?ie iieiaeia iay e eae
eneeth/aiea a I-II aeaeaaeao ethiy: 17.05-aiacaei n 4 neaai ianeaeaiiuie
yeoeaie; 21.05-eeaaeea oaeie aea ianeaeaiiinoe; 1.06-iicaeiyy
ianeaeaiiay eeaaeea ec 6 yeoe; 19.06-neaai ianeaeaiiay (i/aaeaeii,
iiaoi?iay acaiai oo?a/aiiie) eeaaeea ec iyoe yeoe (Niiia,1897).

A iaeiii ec neie/ieeia iu iaaethaeaee ca ioeeaaeeie yeoe iooieiaeie –
aaeioaeeie:

29.05 – ioeiaeaii 1 yeoei

30.05 – a aiacaea 2 yeoea

31.05 – a aiacaea 3 yeoea

1.06 – a aiacaea 4 yeoea

2.06 – a aiacaea 5 yeoe (eeaaeea caaa?oaia)

4.06 – 5 yeoe

16.06 – a aiacaea 5 oieueei /oi aueoieaoeony ioaioeia

Ai II – III aeaeaaeao ethiy auaaao aoi?ay eeaaeea. Ei aoi?iio
aiacaeiaaieth i?enooiatho iaiiiaea ia?u, aa?iyoii oa, eioi?ua aaniie
aiacaeyony ?aiueoa ae?oaeo.

Iaee/ea ionoothueo neie/ieeia e aeoieyiie ia iicaieyao iauynieoue oaeoth
?anoyiooinoue n?ieia aiacaeiaaiey iaaeinoaoeii oaeiaiuo aeey
aiacaeiaaiey iano (Iaoaeaiei, 1971). Aiciiaeii, caeanue i?iyaeythony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aioo?eiiioeyoeeiiiua iniaaiiinoe.

-24-

Aeaaa 6. ?aciiiaeaiea iooieiaee- aaeioaeee

Oa??eoi?eaeueiia iiaaaeaiea.Iinea iiyaeaiey naiie naioeu ia/eiatho aanoe
naay i/aiue iaeeaeaiii e iiiai iitho. Iaiea noiaeii n iaieai iano?ooee
(iaeiaee/iay e a?iieay ianiy, ninoiyuay ec ei?ioeeo e io?uaenouo no?io e
neeueii iiaeaa?aeaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eciai/eainoe), ii a?ii/a.
I?eaeaeaaony naiea. ?eooae ninoaaeaiey ia?u aeiaieueii neiaeai.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 10 aeiae neie/iee a naaeo iinauaeny e iniao?eaaeny
iieaauie ai?iaueyie, naioeii iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e aaeuie
o?yniaoceaie.

23.05.1996 a. iiyaeeny naiaoe iooieiaee – aaeioaeee – neaeeo ia yaeiia e
a?iiei iiao. N 7.00 aei 9.00 i?eeaoae iieaaie ai?iaae, caeacae aioo?ue
neie/ieea. Naiaoe aaeioaeee aae naay aa?anneaii – iaiaaeae ia ai?iauey,
i?iaiiyy n aea?aaa. A eioa?aaeao iaaeaeo iaiaaeaieyie iiaeaaae e?ee
o?aaiae. Ai?iaae aeaaaeaeu ?aoe?iaaeny.

A 17.30 aicea yueea iiyaeeanue (aia?aua) naiea. Naiaoe, oeeeay, aeaoae
a eaoie e aueaoae, i?enaaeeaaeny ia aeiua/eo aicea eaoea, caaeyaeuaae a
eaoie, eae au i?eaeaoay naieo iniio?aoue neie/iee. Aianoa n oai, ii
“ecaiiye” naieo, iuoaaoothny i?eaeeceoueny e eaoeo, ecaeaaay i?ioyaeiia
“oeaeo – o” eee i?eaeooaiiia “eo? – ?”. 3 ?aca naiaoe caeacee aioo?ue
yueea, a naiea i?iaeaeuaaea oi aea neaaeii. Iinea /aai naiaoe “ecaiiye”
aa ec yueea. Naaeeeny ia yoo aea yaeiith a 2 i io eaoea e eioaineaii
iae. Oae i?iaeieaeaeinue i?eaeeceoaeueii 5 iei.

A 17.40 naiee ia aeaeii, naiaoe ia iiao , ii aea?aeeony iiaeecinoe.

19.00 – 20.00 naiaoe iiao, i?enaaeeaaynue ia ieaii/eo ia ia?aaeiae
noaiea neie/ieea e caaeyaeuaaao a eaoie. Naiea iniao?eaaao neie/iee. I?e
yoii neuoiu ?eoie/ii iiaoi?ythueany, i?eaeooaiiua caoee “eo?o … eo?o …
eo?o … “. E niiaa i?iaeieaeaao iaoue.

25.05. Naiaoe n oo?a iiao (eioaineaii), naiee ia aeaeii. A 9.00 e
neie/ieeo i?eeaoaea aieueoay neieoea, caaeaaeuaaea a eaoie. Naiaoe
aaeioaeee no?aieoaeueii iaeaoae ia neieoeo e ecaiae aa.

27.05. Aeoeaiinoue naioea ieiei neie/ieea ieieiaeueiay, naiee ia aeaeii.
Aiacaei ionoia.

29.05. A aiacaea naaiaeiy ioeiaeaii 1 yeoei.

A oa/aiee ianeieueeeo aeiae E.I. Aeaaineeiiia iaaethaeae ca eioaineaii
iithuei, yaii oieinoui naioeii iooieiaee a oi a?aiy, eiaaea a
ianeieueeeo aiacaeao yoiai aeaea oaea iiyaeeenue ioaioeu. A?aiy io
a?aiaie naiaoe iiaeeaoae e aeoieo a ?acaeeea aea?aaa, ii ieeiaaea ia
aeacae a iaai.

I?e ianeaaeiaaiee aeoiea ieacaeinue, /oi ii e ia iia yoiai naeaeaoue –
iii auei oaeei iaeaiueeei, /oi a iaai aaeaa iiiauaeny iaeaoe. Aa?iyoii

-25-

e naioeo iiaeeaoaee naiee, ii ie iaeia ec ieo ia iiaea ninoaaeoue aio
ia?o, oae eae aiacaeeoueny auei iaaaea. Oi anoue naiaoe aeieaeai
inoaoueny oieinoui, anee any i?ioeaaeo?a ia?aciaaiey ia?u ia iiaeao
auoue i?iaaaeaia, a aai ineoe/aneay iaiieiioeaiiinoue yeeieie?oaony a
i?ioeanna ioai?a iiaaaeai/aneeo i?eciaeia (Aeaaineeiiia, 1991).

Iaee/ea aiacaeiaie oa??eoi?ee naienoaaiii i?aiaeaaeathuaio aieueoeinoao
ioeoe, a oii /enea e iooieiaea – aaeioaeea.

Oa??eoi?ey – yoi i?ino?ainoai, a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai aeeaioiia aa?anneaii
ii ioiioaieth e i?eoaeueoeo e iau/ii, aeiieie?oao a ioiioaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?ee iacaaiiuo ainoae (Emlen,1957

A ia?eiae ianeaeeaaiey eeaaeee e auea?ieeaaiey ioaioeia neo/aeiua
iaaethaeaiey ca ioeoeaie a eano iieacuaatho, /oi a iaeioi?uo neooaoeeyo
i?inoiaeyo noieeiiaaiey iaaeaeo naioeaie iaeiiai aeaea, ii n iiiaioa
iiyaeaiey ioaioeia noieeiiaaiee ia i?ienoiaeeo. Ia?aaeei auaaao, /oi
noieeiiaaiea i?ienoiaeeo ioiineoaeueii aeaeaei io aiacaea, ii aai iao o
oao aea aeaoo naioeia ia ?annoiyiey, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo io aiacaea (
Aeaaineeiiia, 1994).

Aiacaeiaie eiina?aaoeci – yaeaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii a?iaeaeaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a – iicaieyao ioeoea ieacaoueny a ?aeiia aiciiaeiiai
aiacaeiaaiey, i?e/ai n iaeioi?ui ?annaeaaieai iniaae, iniaaiii naiie
(Berndt, Sternberg, 1971). Iaee/ea aiacaeiauo oa??eoi?ee iiiiaaao
iieiaeui ioeoeai aeeth/aoueny a iauoth no?oeoo?o ?ani?aaeaeaiey iniaae
iiioeyoeee, i?eaioe?oynue ia iania noa?uo naioeia, eioi?ua ?aiueoa /ai
iieiaeua aica?auathony n ceiiaie e oi/iaa ii?aaeaeythueo i?ioeiaiaeiaa
ianoi aiacaeiaaiey.

Eaieia?aaeneea i?ieoieiae i?iaa?yee niiniaiinoue naioeia iooieiaee –
iano?ooee e oiieiao a ia?eiae io iiiaioa eo i?eeaoa aaniie aei ia/aea
aiacaeiaaiey. Anaai auei ia?aaacaii 159 ioeoe. Aeinoiaa?ii eo/oa
aica?auaeenue ac?ineua ioeoeu (ianoiua e eiiea?aiou), eioi?ua ?aiaa
aiacaeeeenue a ?aeiia enneaaeiaaiee. Ec ianoiuo ia?aiaiaeeia aa?ioeinue
50 % iniaae. Ooaea anaai aica?auaeenue (15,7 %) eiiea?aiou ia?aiaiaeee.
Ioeoeu aica?auaeenue a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie, eae n ?aciuo ?annoiyiee, oae
e n ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee. Oi/iinoue aica?auaiey auea aeinoaoi/ii aunieie:
59% ioeoe auee iieiaiu a i?aaeaeao 200 i io io ianoa iieiee, 39% ioeoe
iieiaii a oie aea aeoieyiea (Aunioeeee, Nieieia, 1991).

Neaaeothuee yoai o naioea – iiainaea aua aieaa neiaeiue : ioaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue a?aieoeu naiaai aiacaeiaiai o/anoea.

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Anee i?aaeinoaaeoue aeoieiaiacaeieeai ecauoi/iia eiee/anoai iano
aiacaeiaaiey, o.a. ?acaaneoue enneonoaaiiua aiacaeiauey caaaaeiii
aieueoa iio?aaiinoe, n?aco aea ia?acoaony iinaeaiea iooieiaie n
i?aaeeueiui

?ani?aaeaeaieai aiacaeiauo oa??eoi?ee ii eano. Ioeoeu i?e yoii
ianeieueei “eni?aaeytho” iaaeinoaoee ?aniieiaeaiey aiacaeiaee. I?e
/?acia?ii naeeaeaiiuo aiacaeiaueyo ioeoeu aeaenoaotho oae, /oiau iaaeaeo
io?aiyaiuie o/anoeaie inoaaaeny ?ac?ua ei?iiaie oa??eoi?ee. A
?acoeueoaoa iniiaiay ieiuaaeue o/anoea /anoi ieacuaaaony iai?aaeaiiie a
noi?iio ninaaea e ai anyeii neo/aa oae, /oiau a?aieoea aai auea eae
iiaeii aeaeueoa. Eceeoiea aiacaeiauey, eioi?ua ia iiaoo aieoe a iauoth
neoaio ianaeaiey inoathony ionouie. I?e i?aaeeueiie, a niunea
niaethaeaiey ?annoiyiee, ?acaanea aeoieyiie aiacaeiaua oa??eoi?ee ii
oi?ia aieueoa i?eaeeaeathony e e?oao, a eioi?ii aiacaei caieiaao aieaa
eee iaiaa oeaio?aeueiia ianoi. Oaeei ia?acii, aiacaeiaay oa??eoi?ey
caeanue ii?aaeaeyaony ii ?aniieiaeaieth aeoiea (Aeaaineeiiia, 1991).

Oaeei ia?acii, ioeoea ii?aaeaeyao, iaoiaeeo ianoi aeey aiacaea iiyoaiii
:

1) aica?auaiea a ?aeii aiacaeiaaiey (aiacaeiaie eiina?aaoeci),

2) iiene e iaoiaeaeaiea iinaeaiey naiaai aeaea, iiaeniaaeeiaiea e

iaio,

3) ii?aaeaeaiea a?aieoe aiacaeiaiai o/anoea,

4) iiene e iaoiaeaeaiea ianoa ?aniieiaeaiey naiiai aiacaea ia

o/anoea.

Yoi neiaeiia iiaaaeaiea ioeoe ana a?aiy ei??aeoe?oaony anoanoaaiiui
ioai?ii. Ioeoeu, aeiioneathuea ioeaee, inoathony aac ia?oia?a eeai eo
iioiinoao a iaeaieueoae ia?a oa?iaeaao aeaaeue.

I?e oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aiacaeyueony ia? iaaeaeo aeaoiy
aeaeaie iiaoo aicieeaoue aanueia ?acee/iua oeiu acaeiiaeaenoaey. *aua
anaai yoi iaeo?aeeci, i?e eioi?ii annioeeaoeey aeaoo ia? ?aciuo aeaeia
ia neacuaaaony ie ia iaeiie ec ieo. Acaeiiia eiieo?aioiia iiaeaaeaiea
ioiineony iau/ii e aeeceei aeaeai.

Iu iaaethaeaee ecaiaiea naioea iooieiaee – iano?ooee ec aiacaeiaie
oa??eoi?ee iooieiaee – aaeioaeee. Eiaaea naiaoe e naiea oeaoaee ca
ei?iii aeey ioaioeia, e neie/ieeo iiaeeaoae naiaoe iooieiaee –
iano?ooee, nae ia eaoie e noae caaeyaeuaaoue aioo?ue. Ooo iiaeeaoaea
naiea iooieiaee – aaeioaeee e ia/aea o?aaiaeii e?e/aoue, au?iiea i?e
yoii i?eianaiiue ei?i. Iia e?oaeeeanue aie?oa neie/ieea. *a?ac
ianeieueei naeoiae i?eeaoae naiaoe aaeioaeee. Iano?ooea iu?ioea a
neie/iee, a aaeioaeea – ca iei. Auaiaa “/oaeaea” ec neie/ieea, ioeoeu
aaeaiai ecaiaee aai ec oa??eoi?ee aiacaeiaaiey. I?e yoii iie ana a?aiy
ecaeaaaee o?aaiaeiue e?ee.

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Aiacaeiaua o/anoee ia? iaaaeeee, ieiuaaeueth 150-200 i . A ianoao
ieioiuo iinaeaiee aiacaea a n?aaeiai ?aniieaaathony ae?oa io ae?oaa ia
?annoiyiee 37,5 i, ?aaeei – 96,5 (Ia?eniaa,Oieeia,1959).

Ia enneaaeoaiie iaie oa??eoi?ee aiacaea eiiaaea ?aniieaaaeenue ia
?annoiyiee 25-30 i.

Auai? ianoa aeey aiacaea e aiacaeino?iaiea.No?iyo aiacaea aaeioaeee a
aeoaieeo o?aueiao, ieoao e /aua anaai a anoanoaaiiuo eee auaeieaeaiuo
ae?oaeie ioeoeaie (iaeue e aieueoie iano?ua aeyoeu, iaueiiaaiiue
iiiiecaiue) aeoieao noaieia e aaoaae aea?aaueaa (aeoa, eeai, eaa, a?aa,
ynaiue, aa?aca, eeia, ineia, ayc, yaeiiy ia aunioa ( n=8 ) 1,24-12,0 i
io iiaa?oiinoe caiee, a n?aaeiai – 3,52, a oaeaea a aeoieao auaieaoeo
iiae ia aunioa (n=4) 0,0-0,5, a n?aaeiai 0,21 i (Eaieineee,1916;
Ia?eniaa, Oieeia, 1959; Iaeei, 1987). ?acia?u aiacaeiaiai aeoiea e eaoea
neeueii aa?uee?otho. Ioeoeu yoiai aeaea ioioii canaeytho e eneonnoaaiiua
aiacaeiauey (?acee/iua aeoieyiee, neie/ieee). Eioa?anai oaeo
aiacaeiaaiey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee a ie?. a. Aioaaeueaea o?e aiaea
iiae?yae a o?oaa oo?ieea (Oa?/aiei, 1984).

A nai?a no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia e no?ieoaeuenoaa aiacaea, eioi?ia
aeeeony 7-12 aeiae (Ia?eniaa, Oieeia,1959), o/anoaotho iaa ia?oia?a
ia?u, iaeiaei naiea aieaa /anoi caeaoaao a aeoiei e oeeaaeuaaao oai
iaoa?eae.

Aiacaea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i/aiue ?uoeua iino?ieee, oi?ia e ?acia?u
eioi?uo caaeneo io oaeiauo ieaeiae /anoe aeoiea eee neie/ieea. A
ea/anoaa no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia iooieiaee eniieuecotho nooea eenouey
aea?aaueaa e eonoa?ieeia, iieinee eoaa, eoni/ee ei?u, aaoi/ee, a oaeaea
ei?aoee, noaaee e eenouey o?aa (aeaaiui ia?acii aeeei?anooueo ceaeia).
Eioie aunoeeaaony oiieeie iieineaie eoaa, ei?aoeaie o?aa, /a?aoeaie,
aeeeeaie e eoni/eaie eenoueaa, e ?aaea eiineei aieinii.

Ioaeaeueiua iino?ieee ninoiyo eneeth/eoaeueii ec eoaa aea?aaueaa e
eonoa?ieeia .

I?ioeaioiia niaea?aeaiea eiiiiiaioia no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea aiacaea
iooieiaee – aaeioaeee neaaeothuaa: nooea noaaee, ei?aoee e eenouey o?aa
– 50%; nooea eenouey aea?aaueaa – 45%; iieinee eoaa – 5%.

?acia?u aiacae (n=6) (Niiia,1897; Iaeei, 1987), ii; aeeaiao? 90-120, a
n?aaeiai – ; aeeaiao? eioea 50-72, a n?aaeiai – 61; aunioa aiacaea
30-55, a n?aaeiai – 46; aeoaeia eioea – 23-35, a n?aaeiai – 31.

?acia?u aiacae a eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaueyo ia oa??eoi?ee iaoeo
enneaaeiaaiee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 4.

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Oaaeeoea 4.

Ii?oiiao?e/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aiacae iooieiaee –

aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea eaninoaiiie aeoa?aau.

Iieacaoaee

nlimM ± mCVAunioa

aiacaea1553-9964,13 ± 3,0918,72Aunioa

eioea1535-4036,8 ± 0,4494,72Aeeaiao?

eioea1554-6863,27 ± 1,197,279

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi aieueoa anaai aa?uee?oao aunioa aiacaea.
Aiciiaeii, yoi caaeneo io eiino?oeoeee aiacaeiauey (?annoiyiea io aeia e
eaoeo iiaeao aa?uee?iaaoue). Iaiueoa aa?uee?oao aeeaiao? eioea. Nei?aa
anaai ia aai aaee/eio iaiin?aaenoaaiii ieacuaaao aeeyiea aaee/eia
eeaaeee e auaiaeea. Iaeiaiueoay aa?eaoeey auniou eioea iiaeao auoue
iaueyniaia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie yenieoaoaoeee aiacaea a
i?ioeanna ianeaeeaaiey eeaaeee e auea?ieeaaiey ioaioeia.

Oae, iai?eia?, iano?ooea i?aaeii/eoaao canaeyoue ia oa neie/ieee, aaea
anoue noa?ua aiacaea, a oa o eioi?uo ?annoiyiea io aeia aei eaoea ia
i?aauoaao 10-12 ni, iacaaeneii io oiai, /oi neoaeeo yoei aeiii, aeinea
eee noa?ia aiacaei. Aieaa oiai, iaeeei ionoui aiacaeiaueyi iano?ooea
ioaeaao i?aeii/oaiea. Ieacuaaaony, /ai aeoaaea aiacaeiauea, oai oieua
no?ieony aiacaei, o.a. ioeoea no?aieony auaea?aeaoue iioeiaeueiia
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aa?oii aiacaea e eaoeii.Ii?iaeueiua aiacaea auaatho
i?e aeoaeia aiacaeiauey ia aieaa 15 ni. Iooieiaee – iano?ooee
i?aaeii/eoatho aeoaeio 11 -12 ni i?e ieiuaaee aeia ieiei 100 ni. Yoi aea
oa?aeoa?ii e aeey aaeioaeee.

Aunioa aiacaea o aeoieiaiacaeieeia neeueii iaiyaony a i?ioeanna
aiacaeiaaiey. Caeii/aiiia aiacaei e aeaaea aiacaei n iaeaiueeeie
ioaioeaie, aaeaia auoa o?iaiy ?aniieiaeaiey aiacaea iinea aueaoa
ioaioeia. E aeaei caeanue ia oieueei a ooaiouaaiee aiacaeiaiai iaoa?eaea
ioaioeaie, a a ?aaiiia?iii aai ?ani?aaeaeaiee ii aeio aiacaeiauey
(Aeaaineeiiia, 1991).

N oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey iooieiaie, ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo neie/ieeaie
aeieaeii auoue 25-30 i. A yoii neo/aa inaaeeua neieoeu caieiatho eo
/a?ac

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iaeei, a inoaaoeany naiaiaeiuie aiacaeiauey canaeytho, i?eeaoathuea
iicaea, iooieiaee.

Aeey iooieiaee – aaeioaeee oa?aeoa?ia naciiiay iiiiaaiey, iaeiaei,
ecaanoiu neo/ae e iieeaeiee (Eiaaeaa, I?enaaea, 1985), i?e eioi?ie
ioaeaeueiua naioeu ca nacii ?aciiiaeaiey nia?eaathony n?aco n aeaoiy
naieaie.

?acia?u eeaaeee.Eiee/anoai ii?iaeueiuo eeaaeie e auaiaeeia ca nacii
?aciiiaeaiey – i?eciae iiioeyoeeiiiue, a ia aeaeiaie. Nouanoaiaaiea
aoi?uo e o?aoueeo eeaaeie e eo eiee/anoaa o ioeoe-aeoieiaiacaeieeia
caaenyo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia, aicaeaenoaothueo ia ?aciiiaeaiea. Iniiaiua
ec yoeo oaeoi?ia-n?iee aiacaeiaaiey iiioeyoeee e aa aaia?aoe/aneia
ianoiiieiaeaiea, aeioii, ieioiinoue iiioeyoeee (Lohrl,1970).

O iicaeii i?eeaoathueo e ?aii ioeaoathueo aeaeia o aeaeueieo iea?aioia
iaei aiciiaeiinoae aeey auaaaeaiey aieaa /ai iaeiiai auaiaeea. A
i?aaeaeao oia?aiiie ciiu Aa?acee yoi ioiineony ei iiiaei iiioeyoeeyi
iooieiaie (Mason,1976).

A nacii ?aciiiaeaiey aaeioaeee eiatho iaeei ?ai?iaeoeoeaiue oeeee.
Iiaoi?iua eeaaeee aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaee ia?auo. Eiee/anoai
yeoe a ia?aie eeaaeea 5-8, eae eneeth/aiea-4 (Iaeei,1987); 4-10 (/aua
5-7) (Ia?eniaa,Oaeiio,1984). Iiaoi?iua eeaaeee iau/ii iaiueoa e iiaoo
ninoiyoue aeaaea ec 3 yeoe.

A oneiaeyo eaninoaiiuo aeoa?aa Noiueiu i?ineaaeeaaaony caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii eeaaeie e ?aciui /eneii yeoe (?en. 6.3.). Iiaiaee/ii
yoe iieacaoaee eciaiythony.

*aua anaai eiee/anoai yeoe a iieiie eeaaeea o iooieiaee-aaeioaeee – 5-6,
5-7, 6-7. ?aaea ano?a/athony eeaaeee, aaea eiee/anoai yeoe – 8 (1995);
3-4 (1996); 4-5, 8 (1998). Eioa?anai e oio oaeo, /oi a 1995a.
iaaethaeaeinue ionoonoaea iaaieueoeo eeaaeie, a a 1996 e 1998aa.
ioia/aeny eo iacia/eoaeueiue i?ioeaio.

Oaeaea iaaethaeaeanue oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa eeaaeie n
aieueoei eiee/anoaii yeoe. Eeoue a aeaoo neo/ayo auea caoeene?iaaia
i?aaeaeueii ieieiaeueiay eeaaeea – 3 yeoea (1996).

Ii – aeaeeiiio, o aaeioaeee aa?oiee i?aaeae eeaaeee ii?aaeaeyaony,
ia?yaeo ni anai i?i/ei, /eneii yeoe, eioi?ua naiea iiaeao iie?uoue oaeii
e yooaeoeaii iaia?aoue. Nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia oi?ie?iaaiea
eeaaeee, yaeyaony eiee/anoai aeinooiiie ieue ia oaca yeoeaeeaaeee.

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?en.6.3. Eiee/anoai eeaaeie n ?aciui /eneii yeoe o iooieiaee-aaeioaeee

a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiie /anoe Noiueiu (ca 1995-1998 aa.)

N?aaeiyy aaee/eia eeaaeee o aaeioaeee – 5,8 yeoe ia aiacaei. Ca ana
a?aiy enneaaeiaaiee /aua anaai oeene?iaaeenue eeaaeee n eiee/anoaii yeoe
a ieo – 6 (?en.6.3.). Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi yoi ioiineoaeueii
iioeiaeueiay eeaaeea aeey aaeioaeee a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiie /anoe Naaa?i
– Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iiieiaiee oa?ieia “iioeiaeueiay eeaaeea”. Iiae
iioeiaeueiie aaee/eiie eeaaeee iiieiaaony iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiay
eeaaeea, o.a. oi eiee/anoai yeoe, eioi?ia aeaao iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai
iieiaeuo ioeoe (Iaaaneee,1985). Iioeioi eeaaeee niioaaonoaoao
iaeneiaeueiie i?eniiniaeaiiinoe ?aciiiaeathueony iniaae e oneiaeyi
n?aaeu (Charnov, Krebs, 1974). Aua iaeii iiieiaiea oa?ieia “iioeiaeueiay
eeaaeea”: eeaaeea, ec eioi?ie iieiaeuo ioeoe auaeeaaao noieueei,
neieueei ioaeii aeey caiaiu ?iaeeoaeae (Wynne – Edwards, 1962).

Nouanoaotho e aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey aaee/eiu eeaaeee ioeoe
(Hesse,1937). O naaa?iuo iiioeyoeee iaeiiai e oiai aea aeaea eeaaeee
aieueoa, /ai o aieaa thaeiuo iiioeyoeee. Iiae?iaiue aiaeec
aaia?aoe/aneeo aa?eaoeee ?acia?a eeaaeee i?iaaee Eye (Lack,1954;1968),
Eioaee (Cody,1966) e Eeiii (Klomp,1970). Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia yoiai eco/aiey naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio. A i?aaeaeao Aa?iiu
e Naaa?iie Ao?eee oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth eeaaeee a iai?aaeaiee n thaa
ia naaa? onoaiiaeaia o 20 aeaeia ai?iaueeiuo ioeoe.

Iaeei ec iaeaieaa eco/aiiuo aeaeia ai?iaueeiuo a ioiioaiee iiiaeo
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, e a oii /enea ?acia?a eeaaeee yaeyaony
aeeceee aaeioaeee aeae – iooieiaea-iano?ooea. Oai ia iaiaa

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ii iiaiaeo aaia?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee a eciai/eainoe ?acia?a eeaaeee o
yoiai aeaea nouanoaotho cia/eoaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
enneaaeiaaoaeyie. A iaci?a Oaa?oiaia (Haartman von,1967), iai?eia?,
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii ionoonoaea eaeeo – eeai aaia?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee a
aa?eaoeeyo ?acia?a eeaaeee eae a oe?ioiii, oae e a aeieaioiii
iai?aaeaieyo. Iaeiaei, ii oai aea aeaiiui, auei iieacaii nouanoaiaaiea
/aoeeo ?acee/ee a ?acia?a eeaaeee: io 5, 70 yeoe ia thaa e 5, 63 ia
caiaaea Aa?iiu (e?iia A?eoaineeo ino?iaia) aei 6,48 yeoe ia naaa?a e
6,70 ia ainoiea (Berndt, Winkel, 1967). Aiaeec aeaiiuo a i?aaeaeao
Neaiaeeiaaee iieacae iaiau/ioth oaiaeaioeeth e oiaiueoaieth eeaaeee
yoiai aeaea io 6,49 yeoe ia oe?ioa 55° aei 5,2 yeoe ia oe?ioa 69°
(Pasanen,1977). Oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth eeaaeee o aieaa naaa?iuo
iiioeyoeee yoiai aeaea ianee?oaony eaeaiaea?iui yooaeoii, o.a. oai
ecaanoiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai, /oi /ai naaa?iaa aiacaeyony ioeoeu, oai
iicaea iie ia/eiatho ?aciiiaeaiea, a a oa/aiea naciia eeaaeea
oiaiueoaaony (Berndt,1981). Aeey oaeiai aiaeeca ana aeaiiua auee aua ?ac
ia?an/eoaiu n ei??aeoeeae ia aunioo ianoiinoe, iineieueeo aunioa oaeaea
iiaea ianee?iaaoue aaia?aoe/aneea ?acee/ey. A ?acoeueoaoa auei auyniaii,
/oi aac oeacaiiuo ei??aeoeee ?acia? eeaaeee iano?ooee oiaiueoaaony ia
0,038 yeoea ia eaaeaeua 100 ei a naaa?iii iai?aaeaiee, a iinea
niioaaonoaothueo ei??aeoeee ?acia? eeaaeee iaia?oaeeaaao aeinoiaa?iia
eeiaeiia oaaee/aiea e naaa?o ia 0,037 yeoea ia eaaeaeua 100 ei
(Iaaaneee,1985).

?aciiiaeaiea iooieiaee-iano?ooee eco/aee a 1975-1979 aa. a Ii?aaaee a
aeiai – /a?ie/ieeiaii eano ia aaca 447 neie/ieeia, ?acaaoaiiuo n ?aciie
ieioiinoueth. N?aaeiyy aiaeiaay aaea/eia eeaaeee (5,55 – 5,97 yeoea)
nouanoaaiii ia eciaiyeanue. Oniaoiinoue aiacaeiaaiey (/enei yeoe eee
neaaeeia) ia caaenaea io ieioiinoe aiacaeiaaiey e io i?aaeii/eoaaiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo neie/ieeia (eioi?ua caieiaee 3 eao) (Sorensen,
Haavar,1990).

Ii?oieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea yeoe.O iooieiaee-aaeioaeee yeoea
oei?i/aii – ino?iiaaeueiua, a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo – oaeeeiaiii –
ino?iiaaeueiua, iaeiioiiiua io aeaaeii- aei naaoei – aieoauo ni neaaui
caeaiiaaoui iooaieii. Eae eneeth/aiea auea ano?a/aia 1 eeaaeea, yeoea a
eioi?ie ii naaoei – aieoaiio oiio eiaee ?aaeeea (aonoioa ?enoiea iaiaa
10%) /aoeea e ?aciuoua e?aieiee (d aei 0,6ii) e oi/ee naaoei – ?uaeaaaoi
– io?enoiai oeaaoa. Iineaaeiea ?ani?aaeaeyeenue ii anae iiaa?oiinoe
aeanoyuae nei?eoiu, ii iaeaieueoaa eo eiee/anoai eieaeeciaaeinue aie?oa
ooiiai iiethna yeoea (Iaeei,1987).

-32-

I?eciaeaie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie iauoth aaee/eio yeoea, neoaeao aai iaueai
(V) e aan (W). Eniieueciaaiea iineaaeiaai naycaii n iaeioi?uie
o?oaeiinoyie, iaoneiaeaiiuie oiaiueoaieai aana a oiaea ianeaeeaaiey a
neeo enia?aiey aeeaeeinoe ( 15% io ia?aiia/aeueiiai aana) (Ar,
Rahn,1980).

Iauai yeoea inoaaony a oiaea ianeaeeaaiey eiinoaioiui, e iiyoiio ii
neoaeeo iaeeo/oei i?eciaeii aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iauae aaee/eiu yeoea.

I aeeyiee iiaiaeiuo oneiaee ia ii?oioei yeoea a iauai iaei ecaanoii. Ec
io?eoeaoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, oiaiueoathueo aaee/eio yeoea iacaaiu ieceay
oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa (Hove, 1978, Oa?ania, Aeueyeiiia, 1979); oieiaeiua
aao?u (Lloyd, 1979; Aieioieeia, Ia?en, 1980); aeiaeaee (Aieioieeia,
Ia?en, 1980, Becker et. al.,1985) e canooa (Wooller, Dunlop,1981).
?acoiaaony, eo eiie?aoiia aeeyiea caaeneo io aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey
iiioeyoeee.

Ii iiaieth ?yaea enneaaeiaaoaeae, iiaiaea aeeyao ia aaee/eio yeoea
einaaiii, iin?aaenoaii eciaiaiey oneiaee ieoaiey (Ojanen et. al.,1981;
Wooller, Punlop, 1981) eee caiacaeuaaiea aiacaeiaaiey ( Lloyd,1979;
Aaaeieeiia,1982).

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee I.Iyiaia (Ojanen,1983) iieacaee, /oi naiea
iooieiaee-iano?ooee iieo/aao aieueoeinoai iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ia?aciaaiey
yeoea aaeeia ec ieue, a ia ec caiania naiiai i?aaiecia. A oae eae
aeieiaey iooieiaee-iano?ooee e iooieiaee-aaeioaeee i/aiue noiaeia, oi
yoe ?acoeueoaou ?ani?ino?aiythony e ia iineaaeithth.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yeiiiiey yia?aee o ioeoe a neo/aa iaaeinoaoea ieue
?aaeecoaony i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao eiee/anoaa ioeeaaeuaaaiuo yeoe, a ia
ca n/ao eo aaee/eiu. Yoi aua ?ac iiae/a?eeaaao aaeaioeaiia cia/aiea
aaee/eiu yeoea (Iyiae,1988).

O iiiaeo aeaeia ioeoe yeoei n aic?anoii oaaee/eaaaony
(iooieiaea-iano?ooea (Ojanen et.al., 1979)).

Aeeaiao? e aeeeia yeoea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oaaee/eaathony n
aic?anoii eee i?eia?aoatho a eiioea aeecie iaeoth oaiaeaioeeth niaaea.
Aeeeiia eiaao aieaa neaaoth naycue n aic?anoii, /ai aeeaiao?
(Brooke,1978).

Ii iaaethaeaieyi a ieueoiaii eano aeec A?aoeneaau a 1985-1986 aa,
n?aaeiea ?acia?u yeoe o iooieiaee-aaeioaeee ii aiaeai ia ioee/aeenue, ii
ianiio?y ia /aoeoth ei??aeyoeeth aeeeiu e oe?eiu yeoe eo oi?ia ii aiaeai
auea ?acee/iie. Eciai/eainoue aeeeiu e oe?eiu yeoe o naiie aanii 17 a.
auea auoa, /ai o naiie aanii 17 a., oioy ii oi?ia iie ia ioee/aeenue. A
e?oiiuo aiacaeao(aunioie > 70ii) iauai yeoe aieueoa, /ai a iaeeeo (ii
aeeeia e oe?eia yeoea ia ioee/aeenue). A eeaaeeao ?acee/iie aaee/eiu

-33-

oa?aeoa?enoeee yeoe iaeeiaeiau. Aueoieaoeany ia?auie a auaiaeea ioaioeu
nia/aea ?inee auno?aa ieaaeoeo, ii n 6-7 aeiae nei?inoue ?inoa
o?aaieaaaony, a a iineaaeothuai ieaaeoea ?inee auno?aa noa?oeo. A aieaa
oieiaeioth aanio 1986a. iino?ieea aiacae ia/aeanue iicaeiaa
(Palieskova,1988).

Ii aeaiiui A.N.Oaeiioa e I.E.Iaeo?oea (ie?. a.Oa?iiiieue), eciai/eainoue
aeeeiu (Ae), oe?eiu (O), eiaeaena oi?iu (Oo100:Ae) e iaueaia
(V=0,5236*Ae*O), yeoe a oeaeii (n=294) iaaaeeea. Aeeeia yeoea eieaaeaony
a i?aaeaeao 14,0-19,7ii (CV=2,30-6,38%), oe?eia 12,0-14,5 (1,93-4,04),
eiaeaen oi?iu – 66,8 – 90,7% (2,58-7,04), iaueai-1,184-2,091ni
(4,59-11,81).

Iieacaoaee yeoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee eciai/eau a i?aaeaeao iaeiie
eeaaeee. ?acieoea ii aeeeia a oeaeii aieueoa, /ai ii oe?eia.
Eciai/eainoue eiyooeoeeaioa aa?eaoeee a i?aaeaeao eeaaeee oaeaea
yaeyaony aieueoae ii aeeeia yeoe, /ai ii oe?eia.

Iieacaoaee yeoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee caaenyo io eo eiee/anoaa a iieiie
eeaaeea. A /anoiinoe, n oaaee/aieai /enea yeoe a eeaaeea, oe?eia e
iaueai eo iinoaiaiii oiaiueoathony. ?acee/iuie auee e iieacaoaee yeoe
aaeioaeee, ioeiaeaiiua a ?aciua aiaeu.

Eciai/eainoue yeoe caaeneo io iiiaeo i?e/ei: aaoa?iaaiiinoe iiioeyoeee,
aa aic?anoiie no?oeoo?u, oneiaee aiacaeiaaiey, oeceieiae/aneiai
ninoiyiey ioeoeu, eioaineaiinoe e oi?iu anoanoaaiiiai ioai?a.

?acia?u yeoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee e eo eciai/eainoue a caaeneiinoe io
eiee/anoaa a iieiie eeaaeea a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiie /anoe Noiueiu
i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 5.

-34-

Oaaeeoea 5.

?acia?u yeoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee a caaeneiinoe io eo

eiee/anoaa a iieiie eeaaeea

Eiee/anoai yeoe a eeaaeean

IieacaoaeeLimM ± mN V612Aeeeia16,5-18,617,8 ±
0,152,8412Oe?eia12,7-13,713,07 ± 0,092,6212Eiaeaen oi?iu69,35-78,1873 ±
0,773,6312Iaueai1,399-1,7221,552 ± 0,036,34714Aeeeia15,5-18,717,89 ±
0,24,2814Oe?eia12,5-13,613,19 ± 0,103,0414Eiaeaen oi?iu70,55-86,573,74 ±
1,095,5414Iaueai1,394-1,7641,589 ± 0,038,0188Aeeeia15,8-17,717,19 ±
0,233,858Oe?eia12,3-12,612,43 ± 0,030,748Eiaeaen oi?iu69,49-75,072,49 ±
1,084,228Iaueai1,238-1,4021,356 ± 0,023,84Iauaa34Aeeeia15,5-18,717,7 ±
0,123,9634Oe?eia12,3-13,712,9 ± 0,083,4234Eiaeaen oi?iu69,35-86,573 ±
0,574,5134Iaueai1,238-1,7641,521 ± 0,239,09

Aeeeia yeoea aa?uee?oao aieueoa, /ai aeeaiao? (oaae.5). Aeeaiao? yeoea,
a aieueoae noaiaie iaoneiaeai eaeea?ii yeoeaaiaea, e iiyoiio eieaaaiey a
iaueaia yeoea i?iyaeythony aeaaiui ia?acii a eciaiaiee aai aeeeiu
(Asmundson,1931; Aeaiaioueaa,1940).

No?oeoo?a ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo aiaoieie i?eciaeaie yeoe iineo
oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa? e a iauai ia caaeneo io aeaea ioeoee. Aaee/eia e
ciae aioo?eeeaaeeiauo ei??aeyoeee i?eaeeceoaeueii niaiaaeatho n
iaaeeeaaeeiauie ei??aeyoeeyie. Neaaua aioo?eeeaaeeiaua ei??aeyoeee
iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie oi?iu, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, iaueyniythony
ioiineoaeueii ieceie oi/iinoueth eo ioeaiee. Ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo oi?iie
e aaee/eiie yeoea iao. N?aaieoaeueii neaaua ei??aeyoeee iaaethaeathony
iaaeaeo iaeioi?uie ia?aiao?aie oi?iu e eeiaeiuie ?acia?aie.

-35-

Iaueai yeoea neeueiaa anaai ei??aee?oao n aai aeeaiao?ii. Eciai/eainoue
iaueaia yeoea iaoneiaeaia a aieueoae noaiaie eciai/eainoueth eiee/anoaa
aaeea.

Iaueai e eeiaeiua ?acia?u, eae e oi?ia yeoea eiatho a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie ianeaaenoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

?ieue ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia yeeieiaoeee yeoe a nouanoaaiiie ia?a caaeneo io
yeieiaee aiacaeiaaiey aeaea, ianoiuo oneiaee n?aaeu, io aiaea e i?.

Oaaeeoea 6 oa?aeoa?ecoao ioiineoaeueiia cia/aiea ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia a
anoanoaaiiie yeeieiaoeee yeoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea
eaninoaiiie aeoa?aau ca ana a?aiy enneaaeiaaiee.

Oaaeeoea 6.

?ieue ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia a anoanoaaiiie yeeieiaoeee yeoe

iooieiaee-aaeioaeee.

Aiae iaaethaeaiey*enei yeoe a auai?ea

?aci?aii, %Iaiieiaei-oai?aiiua, %Aua?ioaii, %Iiaeaei a iiiaio
aueoieaiey12345619955264?219968736??1998127520,8?Anaai26614120,82

Iaoe enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi oaeaeueiue aan iaiieiaeioai?aiiuo
yeoe a ?aciua aiaeu i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaue e eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 2-6%.
Yoiio iieacaoaeth niioaaonoaotho e aeaiiua A.Iaaaneiai i iaeioi?uo
ai?iaueeiuo (1985). Iaaieueoie (2%) yaeyaony oaeaea aeiey iaoaea/iuo
aueoieaiee (oaae.6).

Ana yeaiaioa?iua oaeoi?u yeeieiaoeee iiaeii oneiaii ?ayaeaeeoue ia aeaa
a?oiiu:

a) aaoiaaiiua, o.a. oaeoi?u iaoneiaeaiiua aioo?aiieie naienoaaie naieo
i?aaieciia e oioy au /anoe/ii i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiua aaiaoe/aneeie
iaoaieciaie eee oeceieiaeae ?aciiiaeaiey ?iaeeoaeueneeo i?aaieciia
(iaiieiaeioai?aiiinoue yeoe, aeaaeue ca?iaeuoae, iaoaea/iia aueoieaiea,
aeaoaeou ?acaeoey o iieiaeuo ioeoe e ae?.);

a) yeciaaiiua, o.a. oaeoi?u aiaoiae n?aaeu (?aci?aiea, caoiieaiea e
na?anuaaiea aiacae e ae?.).

-36-

Ec auoaneacaiiiai yanoaoao, /oi ?ieue aaoiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia a anoanoaaiiie
yeeieiaoeee ioeoe n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay e iaeiaa?uee?othuay. A oi aea
a?aiy ?ieue yeciaaiiuo oaeoi?ia iineo ianoaaeeueiue oa?aeoa?, e aeaaeue
yeoe, iaoneiaeaiiay eie, ia?aaeei iiaeao noaoue ianniaui yaeaieai.
Anoanoaaiioth yeeieiaoeeth neaaeoao n/eoaoue eiiieaeniui
iee?iyaiethoeeiiiui oaeoi?ii, eioi?ue ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia
aeeiaieeo eciai/eainoe no?oeoo?iuo i?eciaeia yeoe a iiioeyoeee ioeoe
(Iaaaneee,1985).

Ianeaeeaaiea eeaaeee.Ianeaeeaaao eeaaeeo naiea. Naiaoe ei?ieo aa ia
aiacaea e ?aaeei (ia o anao ia?) ia iacia/eoaeueiia a?aiy naaeeony
ianeaeeaaoue eeaaeeo, iiaeiaiyy neaoaaooth ei?ieony naieo. Eieoaaoeey
aeeeony i?eaeeceoaeueii 14 aeiae. Ia/eiay n 7-8 aeiy ?iaeeoaee neaeyo ia
aiacaea i/aiue ieioii e iieeaeatho aai oieueei a neo/aa neeueiiai
aaniieienoaa.

A oiaea eieoaaoeee enoi/ieeii oaiea aeey yeoe neoaeao iau/ii naie
ioeoeu, a a aea?eea /anu aua e iiaeia?aoue aicaeoo. Oaeaaeiaiea aicaeooa
a aiacaeao eaeao io no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea aiacaea, io oaea
ianeaeeaathuae ioeoeu e io yeoe. Aneaae ca eciaiaieyie oaiia?aoo?iiai
?aaeeia iaiyaony eioaineaiinoue enia?eoaeueiie aeaaiioaea/e yeoe.
Ianiio?y ia oaeoth neiaeioth iiiainooiai/aooth caaeneiinoue oaiia?aoo?u
e aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa a aiacaeao e ?acee/ey aiacaeiaie aeieiaee, o
iniiaiie iannu aeaeia ioeoe aeaaiiioa?e yeoe ca a?aiy eieoaaoeee
ieacuaathony aeeceeie -15 ± 2,5% io enoiaeiiai aana yeoe
(Hoyt,1980). E?iia oiai yeoea iaeieo aeaeia ioeoe iiaoo oniaoii
eieoae?iaaoueny a aiacaeao ae?oaeo aeaeia, ia /ai iniiaai, a /anoiinoe,
aiacaeiaie ia?aceoeci eoeooae, aieiaueeo ioeoe e ae?.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, noiaenoai o?iaiae aeaaiioaea/e yeoe iiaeao
iaueyniyoueny ei??aeyoeeae iaaeaeo ieie, ii?oieiaeae nei?eoiu e
aeeeoaeueiinoueth eieoaaoeee (Hoyt,1978). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaeaiiea
oneiaee eieoaaoeee e eiathueiny aiaoiei oneiaeyi iiaeao iaania/eaaoueny
iiaaaeaieai ?iaeeoaeae (A?aaeaeaieei,1986).

Ieioiinoue ianeaeeaaiey caaeneo e io iiaiaeiuo oneiaee (iaoe aeaiiua).

Ia iiiaio enneaaeiaaiee (22.05.1996a.) auee neaaeothuea iiaiaeiua
oneiaey: ianio?ii, neeueiay iaea/iinoue, ieceea iaeaea, oieiaeii (t°
=10°C), naaa?i-ainoi/iue aaoa?. O?aoee aeaiue eaeao aeiaeaeue. Ec 3-o
i?iaa?aiiuo neie/ieeia – a 2-o naiee iaoiaeeeenue aioo?e – ia oeaoaee:
eiaaea nieiaee ia?aaeithth noaieo, iie aeaeenue e caaeiae noaiea eee a
oaie, ia oeaoay. Eiaaea iiaeoiaeeee e 4-io neie/ieeo, naiea auaeyioea ec
eaoea, iioii niiaa en/acea aioo?e.

-37-

Oaeia iiaaaeaiea naycaii n ieceie oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa. Naiea ia
inoaaeyao aiacaei, iaia?aaay yeoea.

Aueoieaiea ioaioeia iau/ii i?ioiaeeo a oa/aiee nooie, a aiacaeao n
aieueoeie eeaaeeaie – a oa/aiea iieooi?a – aeaoo (Iaeei,1987).

?acia?u auaiaeea.Ia anaaaea ?acia? eeaaeee niioaaonoaoao ?acia?o
auaiaeea. Ii iiaeao auoue iaiueoa eeaaeee a neo/aa oeuie/anoaa,
yia?eiiaeueiie nia?oiinoe eee iaee/ey iaiieiaeioai?aiiuo yeoe.

?acia?u auaiaeeia iooieiaee-aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea eaninoaiiie
aeoa?aau i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 7.

Oaaeeoea 7.

I?ioeaioiia niioiioaiea aiacae n ?acee/iui /eneii ioaioeia a

auaiaeea o iooieiaee-aaeioaeee a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiie /anoe

Noiueiu.

Aiaeu iaaethaeaieyIieacaoaee*enei ioaioeia a aiacaea

34567Anaai1995Eiee/anoai aiacae123-//-28I?ioeaio aiacae n ?acee/iui
/eneii ioaioeia

13

25

38

-//-

25

100%

Eiee/anoai aiacae13642161996I?ioeaio aiacae n ?acee/iui /eneii ioaioeia

6,3

19

38

25

13

100%

Eiee/anoai aiacae22392181998I?ioeaio aiacae n ?acee/iui /eneii ioaioeia

11,1

11,1

17

50

11,1

100%

Eiee/anoai aiacae4712131642IauaaI?ioeaio aiacae n ?acee/iui /eneii
ioaioeia

10

17

29

31

14,3

100%

*aua anaai ?acia? auaiaeea ninoaaeyao 5-6 ioaioeia. Iaeaieaa /aoei yoi
i?ineaaeeaaaony a 1996 e 1998 aa. Eioa?anai e oio oaeo /oi a

-38-

1995 a. ia auei caoeene?iaaii ie iaeiiai aiacaea n ?acia?ii auaiaeea a 6
ioaioeia (oaae.7). N?aaeiyy aaee/eia auaiaeea 5,2 ioaioea ia aiacaei.

Iooiaie ioaiaoe iooieiaee-aaeioaeee (Iaeue/aaneee, 1959) eiaao ei?ioeee,
?aaeeee, naaoei-na?ue ioo ia iaaeaeacie/iuo, caouei/iie, nieiiie,
iea/aauo e aeaciuo ioa?eeyo. Ia iineaaeieo ?oaeeiaioa?iue e auaaao ia
anaaaea. Eiaea ao?iaaoi ?iciaay. Eetha naaoeue n iacia/eoaeueiui
iioaiiaieai ia eiioea. sseoeaaie coa e eiaoe na?ua. ?ioiaay iieinoue
aeaeoay. Neeaaeee a oaieeao ?oa oi?ioi ?acaeou, aaeua.

Ioaioeu i/aiue iiaeaeaeiu.

A 1980-1987 aa. eco/aeenue i?e/eiu e ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua neaaenoaey
iinoaiaoaeueiie aeenia?nee (oaeaeaiiinoue ianoa ia?aiai ?aciiiaeaiey io
ianoa ?iaeaeaiey) o naioeia e naiie a iiioeyoeee iooieiaee-aaeioaeee ia
I. Aioeaiae o iiaa?aaeuey Oaaoeee. Naiee eiatho aieueooth aeenia?neth,
/ai naioeu. Ec ianeieueeeo oaeoi?ia, naycaiiuo n ?aciiiaeaieai, eeoue
?acia? auaiaeea aeeyao ia aeenoaioeeth aeenia?nee: naiee ec iaeaiueeeo
auaiaeeia ia?aaeaeaathony ia aieueoea ?annoiyiey, /ai naiee ec aieueoeo
auaiaeeia. Aeenia?ney ia caaeneo io ieioiinoe iiioeyoeee. Iia aic?anoaao
i?e ieceie auaeeaaaiinoe naioeia, iaeiaei yoe oaeoi?u eiatho cia/aiea
eeoue aeey iicaeieo auaiaeeia (iaeeiaeiai aeey naiie e naioeia).
I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ciaiey i ianoa i?aaenoiyuaai ?aciiiaeaiey, nei?aa
anaai, iiauoatho aa?iyoiinoue auai?a aieaa ea/anoaaiiiai aeioiia. Oaeei
ia?acii, aaaeiia i?aeiouanoai oeeiiao?ee ninoieo a oii, /oi iniae,
?aciiiaeathueany aeeaea e ianoo ?iaeaeaiey eiatho aieueoie
?ai?iaeoeoeaiue oniao (Part, 1990).

Ei?ieaiea.Eioa?aniua iaaethaeaiey ca ei?ieaieai ioaioeia iooieiaee-
aaeioaeee auee i?iaaaeaiu I.I.I?eiaui (1948). A na?aaeeia ethiy 1939 a.
ia iaeiii ec o/anoeia a?aaiai-aeoaiaiai eana aio i?eoeinue iaaethaeaoue,
eae naiaoe aaeioaeee nai ei?iee o?ao oaea iieoeaoiuo ioaioeia.
Iineaaeiea neaeaee ?yaeuoeii ia aaoea ia oaeii ?annoiyiee, /oi iaaeaeo
ieie iia naiaiaeii iiianoeoueny naiaoe. Ai a?aiy ei?ieaiey ioaioeu aaee
naay i/aiue niieieii, iaeeaeay eaaeaeue naiae i/a?aaeiie ii?oeee. Naiaoe
oeaoae e eneae ei?i iaeneiaeueii ca 3 iei., e aa?ioaoenue, iii/a?aaeii
aeaaae aai eaaeaeiio ioaioeo. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeue ec ioaioeia
iieo/ae ei?i iaeneioi /a?ac 9-10 iei.,ii a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
i/a?aaeioth ii?oeeth ei?ia eaaeaeue ioaiaoe iieo/ae /a?ac 6 iei.

Iniiao ieue iooieiaee- aaeioaeee ninoaaeytho ianaeiiua ?aciuo a?oii e
noaaeee ?acaeoey (aeieaiiineee, eenoiaaeu, uaeeoiu, eeiiu, ieeeeueueee,
niaee, iyaeaieoeu e ae?.), a oaeaea iaoeiia?aciua (Aeaaineeiiia, 1952).
Cia/eoaeueii ?aaea iiaaeatho iaeeeo iaeethneia e

-39-

eae eneeth/aiea – eeanyeia, iie?eoe e iaeiuaoeieiauo /a?aae (Iaeei,
1987).

I?e aeiauaaiee ei?ia aaeioaeea iieuecoaony ?aciiia?aciuie niiniaaie
ioiou. Naie ioeoeu i/aiue ieanoe/iu a eo i?eiaiaiee.

Ieoaaony iooieiaea a iniiaiii eaoathueie ianaeiiuie, noaaouaay eo a
aicaeooa. Aeaeaao iia yoi i/aiue naiaia?acii: neaeeo ia no/ea eee ia
aaoea ii/oe iaiiaeaeaeii e eeoue a?aiy io a?aiaie aciaoeaaao e?ueueyie e
oainoii. Iioii aae?oa aceaoaao, aeaeaao a aicaeooa ianeieueei aunouo
aeaeaeaiee – oaaoaao ianaeiiia e niiaa naaeeony ia oi aea ianoi,
iaeeaeay iiaoth aeiau/o, eee eaoeo e neie/ieeo. Ca aeaiue iooieiaea –
aaeioaeea oie/oiaeaao ouny/e eaoathueo iaeeeo ianaeiiuo. Aieaa 50 % eo a
ninoaaa ei?ia iooieiaee ioiinyony e a?aaeeoaeyi (Aiiinoaainueeee, 1960;
Pavelka, 1990).

Ioaioeia auea?ieeaatho iaa ia?oia?a ia?u, ii a ia?aua aeie iinea eo
aueoieaiey, eiaaea naiea aaeioaeee aieueooth /anoue a?aiaie i?iaiaeeo a
aiacaea, nia?aaay ioaioeia, ei?i /aua i?eiineo naiaoe.

?eoieeo ei?ieaiey ioaioeia iu iaaethaeaee ia i?eia?a iaeiie aiacaeyuaeny
ia?u.

A oo?aiiee ia?eiae aeoeaiinoue ei?ieaiey iinoaiaiii aic?anoaao (?en.
6.4). Eiee/anoai i?eeaoia naioea n ei?iii, ii iaoei aeaiiui, ninoaaeyao
61 %. Yoi iiaeao auoue naycaii n oai, /oi naiea oa?yao ii?aaeaeaiiia
a?aiy ia iaia?aa ioaioeia.

?en.6.4. ?eoieea ei?ieaiey ioaioeia iooieiaee-aaeioaeee a oo?aiiaa

a?aiy (1-ei?i, i?eianaiiue naioeii, 2-ei?i, i?eianaiiue

naieie).

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Aa/a?iyy aeoeaiinoue ei?ieaiey ia 4% ieaea oo?aiiae. Oaeaea
iaaethaeathony cia/eoaeueiua ia?aiaaeu a ?eoieea ei?ieaiey. A aa/a?iaa
a?aiy naiea aeoeaiaa naioea. Aeiey aa i?eeaoia n ei?iii ninoaaeyea 59%
(?en 6.5). iu i?aaeiieaaaai, /oi aic?anoaiea aeoeaiinoe naiee naycaii n
aieaa aunieie oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa a aiacaeiaie eaia?a e eiioeo aeiy.

?en.6.5. ?eoieea ei?ieaiey ioaioeia iooieiaee- aaeioaeee a aa/a?iaa

a?aiy (1-ei?i, i?eianaiiue naioeii; 2- ei?i, i?eianaiiue
naieie).

I?e iinoiyiiii aaniieienoaa ioeoe aicea aiacaeiauey, aeoeaiinoue
ei?ieaiey ?acei nieaeaaony e ninoaaeyao 37 % io eiee/anoaa i?eeaoia a
oneiaeyo niieieiiai aiacaeiaaiey (?en.6.6).

?en.6.6. ?eoieea ei?ieaiey ioaioeia iooieiaee- aaeioaeee i?e iinoiyiiii
aaniieienoaa (1-ei?i, i?eianaiiue
naioeii; 2- ei?i, i?eianaiiue naieie).

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Iooieiaea- aaeioaeea oie/oiaeaao iiiaeo ianaeiiuo – a?aaeeoaeae eana e
i?aiin/eeia aicaoaeeoaeae ?yaea caaieaaaiee /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo.
O/eouaay aiciiaeiinoue auno?iai oaaee/aiey aa /eneaiiinoe ai iiiaeo
oeiao eana, a oaeaea a ia?eiauo ciiao ianaeaiiuo ioieoia iooai
?acaaoeaaiey eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee, yoio aeae iiaeao auoue oe?iei
eniieueciaai a eaniii oicyenoaa aeey ai?ueau n auoaoeacaiiuie
a?aaeeoaeyie, a oii /enea e a i/aaao eo ianniaiai ?aciiiaeaiey.

Oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey.Ia oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey iooieiaee-
aaeioaeee ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaey naiua ?aciiia?aciua oaeoi?u aiaoiae
n?aaeu e aioo?eiiioeyoeeiiiua oaeoi?u. E ia?aui iiaeii ioianoe
oeuie/anoai, iiaiaeiua oneiaey, ?ano?nu ieue, n?iee ?aciiiaeaiey,
aiacaeiaie ia?aceoeci, ca?aaeaiiinoue aiacae ia?aceoaie, a ei aoi?ui –
yia?eiiaeueioth nia?oiinoue, aic?ano ?iaeeoaeae e iinoiyinoai ia?,
ieioiinoue iiioeyoeee e nioeeaeueii iaoneiaeaiioth nia?oiinoue ioaioeia,
noaiaiue ?acaeoey iieeaaiee a iiioeyoeee e ae?oaea iniaaiiinoe a?a/iuo
nenoai.

Iaeaieaa /anoi iiae oniaoiinoueth ?aciiiaeaiey iiieiatho noaiaiue
auaeeaaaiinoe yeoe e ioaioeia aei iiiaioa aueaoa ioaioeia ec aiacae.

Naciiiua ?acee/ey oniaoiinoe aiacaeiaaiey au?aaeathony iaeaieaa /anoi a
ooaeoae auaeeaaaiinoe ioaioeia, aueoieaoeony a eiioea naciia, ii
n?aaiaieth n iiyaeaoeieny ia naao a ia/aea naciia. Yoi ioiineony e e
iicaeiaa ia/aoui ia?aui eeaaeeai, e ei aoi?ui ii?iaeueiui eeaaeeai.

A i?aaeaeao iaeiiai auaiaeea, i?e /anoe/iie aai aeaaee, iineaaeiea ec
aueoieaoeony ioaioeia iiaeaatho iau/ii ia?auie. Yoi naienoaaiii ?yaeo
aeaeia ai?iaueeiuo (Iaeue/aaneee, 1959). Iaie auei ioia/aii 2 neo/ay
aeaaee 1-2-aeiaaiuo e 1 neo/ae aeaaee 10-11-aeiaaiuo ioaioeia.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue aiacaeiaaiey ioeoe
ieacuaatho aic?ano ?iaeeoaeae e ninoaa a?a/iuo ia?. Oniaoiinoue
?aciiiaeaiey, au?aaeaiiay aeieae neaoeia io /enea ioeiaeaiiuo yeoe, o
aieaa noa?oeo ioeoe auoa ii n?aaiaieth n aia?aua ?aciiiaeathueieny.
Auaeeaaaiinoue iioiinoaa e iauaa eiee/anoai aai a ioiioaiee aeaeueiaeoae
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iiioeyoeee ai?acaei auoa o ?iaeeoaeae n?aaeiaai aic?anoa
ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aie, ia?aciaaiiuie iieiaeuie eee i/aiue noa?uie
iniayie (Iiniaeia,1975; Aii?iaa, 1979).

Neaaeoao oiiiyiooue e i niioiioaiee iieeaaiee n oniaoiinoueth
?aciiiaeaiey. Oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey iieeaaiiiai naioea anaaaea auoa
iiiiaaiiiai. Ia iaeiiai iieeaaiiiai naioea iooieiaee- iano?ooee
i?eoiaeeony a n?aaeiai 1,35 oniaoii au?auaiiiai auaiaeea, a ia iaeiiai
iiiiaaiiiai – 0,76 (Haartman, 1969).

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Aeioiie/aneea ?acee/ey a oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iauyniyaony aeaoiy iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie: ?aciuie ieuaauie ?ano?naie e
?acee/eai a eioaineaiinoe i?anna oeuieeia. Iioeiaeueiuie aeey
?aciiiaeaiey yaeythony iaeaieaa ei?iiua aeioiiu, aia caaeneiinoe io
eiee/anoaa e ?aciiia?acey iioaioeeaeueiuo ?aci?eoaeae aiacae.

Iniiaiua i?e/eiu iooiaea yeoe e ioaioeia o iooieiaee- aaeioaeee oaeea
aea, eae e o iano?ooee. Aieueoie o?ii aiacaeai a niaianoiuo ianoao
iaeoaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu e Iieaeaaee (Aaicaeae, Neii/ei, 1977)
iiaoo iaiineoue niiy i?aoieeiaay ( Muscardinus avellanarius) e eaniay

( Dryomys nitedula) a a *a?iiii?neii caiiaaaeieea ia o/anoea Aieueaaeei
ean – /aou?aoiieinue iieic ( Elaphe quatuorlineata) (Iaeei, 1987).

A otheueea Iieaii (Ii?aaaey) a aeiai – /a?ie/ieeiaii eano neaaea
iiauoaiiay nia?oiinoue ioaioeia ioia/aia ec-ca aeiaeaeeeaie, oieiaeiie
iiaiaeu, a a 1978a. (aeai?anney iuoaaeaeiuo a?ucoiia) eoiuee oie/oiaeeee
ioaioeia a 22% aiacae (Sorensen, Haevar, 1990).

Ecaanoii, /oi niie yaeythony ianoiyuae aaaeie aeey iaeeeo ioeoe,
iniaaiii a ianoao, aaea oe?iei i?aeoeeoaony i?eaea/aiea ioeoe –
aeoieiaiacaeieeia iooai ?acaaoeaaiey eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee (Eeoa/aa,
1955; Neiaiia,1956; Aaicaeae, Neii/ei,1977; Ae?aiaoueyioe, 1983).
O?iaaiue aeaaee ioeoe ii aeia niie iiaeao auoue i/aiue aunieei. Oae a
Eoaaineie iae. aeecei 30% aiacae iooieiaee- aaeioaeee e iano?ooee
?aci?yaony niiyie (Nai/oe, 1991).

Ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeaeianeiai aeinoaoeeiia?a iiae eiio?ieai iaoiaeeeinue
268 aiacaeiaee (Eaaiaeue, Eieo, 1998). Aieueooth /anoue aiacaeiaee
ninoaaeyee neie/ieee iaiaoeeie iiaeaee n ia?aaeiae noaieie, eioi?ay
auaeaeaaaony (Aeaaineeiiia, 1991). Iie ?acaaoaiu ia aunioa io 1,7-1,8
(95%) aei 3 i eeiaeiui (ean) e a?oiiiaui niiniaaie.

Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe canaeaiey eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee ioeoeaie e
eaniie niiae iniiauaaeenue ia oaeii iieacaoaea eae aeiey canaeaiiuo
aeeaioiuie aiacaeiaee io iauaai eiee/anoaa. ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua iioa?e ioeoe
a ?acoeueoaoa oeuie/anoaa ?anoeaieaathony eae aeiey ?ac?ooaiiuo aiacae
(aeaaeue yeoe, ioaioeia, ac?ineuo iniaae) io iauaai eiee/anoaa caiyouo
ioeoeaie aiacaeiaee. E?eoa?eai canaeaiiinoe n/eoaeinue aiacaei, ii a
?ann/aou auioaeaeaiu auee aeeth/eoue e 2 neo/ay aeaaee naioeia
iooieiaee- aaeioaeee, eno?aaeaiiuo niiae a neie/ieeao aac aiacae.

Ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee a eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaueyo iinaeyeinue 10
aeaeia ioeoe (Eaaiaeue, Eieo, 1998). Aaniethoiui aeiieiaioii ieacaeanue
iooieiaea- aaeioaeea, eioi?ay caieiaea 86 (48,6%) neie/ieeia. A
n?aaiaiee n 1967a., o?iaaiue canaeaiiinoe eneonnoaaiiuo aiacaeiaee yoei

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aeaeii n ia/aea 90-o aiaeia aic?in ii/oe a 3 ?aca. Caiaoii onooiaao
iooieiaea- aaeioaeea aieueoay neieoea (28,2%), /oi naycaii oaeaea n
?aciie noaiaiueth ya?eaeiioiinoe yoeo aeaeia: aaeioaeea, a ioee/ea io
neieoeu, caiaoii ieanoe/iae a auai?a aiacaeiauo noaioeee. Aa iiaeii
iaeoe a ethaii eaniii niiauanoaa, e?iia /enouo niniyeia.

O?iaaiue oeuie/anoaa eaniie niie ia ?aciuo aeaeao ioeoe i?yii caaeneo io
/eneaiiinoe iineaaeieo. Aieaa anao no?aaeaao iooieiaea- aaeioaeea:
niiae auei oie/oiaeaii 20 aa aiacae, /oi ninoaaeyao 58,8 % io anao
?aci?aiiuo (Eaaiaeue, Eieo, 1998).

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aeoieiaiacaeieee ?aci?ythony a oeaeii iaiueoa, /ai
ioeoeu, eioi?ua aiacaeyony ioe?uoi (Iaaaneee, 1985), aeaaeue eo aiacae
io eaniie niie ninoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iaueo ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo
iioa?ue.

Aieueoeinoai neaoeia ioeoe – aeoieiaiacaeieeia aeiauaaaony e aeiiaoieie
eioeaie (Felis catus). Aa?iyoii, yoi i?ienoiaeeo oaea iinea oiai, eae
iie iieeioo naie aiacaea. Ii, anee eneonnoaaiiia aiacaeiauea ?aciauaaony
a oaeiaiii aeey eioae ianoa, yoi oaaee/eaaao aa?iyoiinoue aeaaee aai
aeeoaeae io eioee. Iu iaaethaeaee a naaeo noaoeeiia?a eae eioea auoaueea
eaiie ec neie/ieea iia?aiiiai ioaioea iooieiaee- aaeioaeee (Ia?ceieii,
1998).

Ca ana a?aiy iaoeo enneaaeiaaiee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea iiae eiio?ieai
iaoiaeeeinue 51 aiacaeiauea. Ia i?ioyaeaiee yoiai ia?eiaea iu
caoeene?iaaee 4 neo/ay oeuie/anoaa niie. A aeaoo neo/ayo eeaaeee auee
oie/oiaeaiu iieiinoueth. Aua a aeaoo ioia/aeinue iaee/ea iieiie eeaaeee
e ?anoa?caiiia oaei naiee ia aiacaea eee a oaeo neie/ieea. Neo/aaa
canaeaiey neie/ieeia niiae ia iaaethaeaeinue.

Aeaaeue aiacae aea/ao oaeeeiaiea ia?eiaea aiacaeiaaiey, ia?ooaao
neio?iiiinoue ?aciiiaeiey iiioeyoeee, caoyaeaaao n?iee ioeaoa.

Iiieii oeuie/anoaa ia oniaoiinoue aiacaeiaaiey iooieiaee- aaeioaeee
ieacuaaao aeeyiea eiieo?aioeey ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo aeoieiaiacaeieeia.
Iaeaieaa iuooeia eiieo?aioiay aeayoaeueiinoue aieueoie neieoeu, eioi?ay
canaeyao oaeea aea eneonnoaaiiua aiacaeiauey, /oi e aaeioaeea (oaae.8).
Ca aanue ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiee, ie ?aco eiee/anoai aiacaeiaee,
canaeaiiuo aieueoie neieoeae ia i?aauneei eiee/anoai aiacaeiaee,
canaeaiiuo iooieiaeie- aaeioaeeie.

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Oaaeeoea 8.

Niioiioaiea aiacaeiaee, caiyouo iooieiaeie –

aaeioaeeie e aieueoie neieoeae ia eeth/aaii o/anoea

eaninoaiiie aeoa?aau.

Aeae 1995

n % 1996

n % 1997

n % Anaai

n %Iooieiaea-

aaeioaeea 9 52.9 19 54.3 23
67.6

51
59.3Aieueoay

neieoea 8 47.1 16 45.7 11
32.4 35 40.7 Anaai

17 100 35 100 34
100 86 100

Iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e oiaiueoaieth canaeyaiinoe aiacaeiaee
aieueoie neieoeae e oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa aiacaeiaee, canaeaiiue
aaeioaeeie.

E?iia aeeyiey ae?oaeo aeoieiaiacaeieeia, niiue, eioi?ua eiieo?e?otho ca
aiacaeiaua ieoe, a aiacaeao iooieiaee- aaeioaeee iiaoo iinaeyony
ianaeiiua – ia?aceou e aicaoaeeoaee aieaciae. Iie ineaaeytho ioaioeia e
iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue e eo aeaaee. Oaeeo neo/aaa iu ia caoeene?iaaee, ii
auei ioia/aii 5 neie/ieeia, caiyouo inaie. A oaeii eneonnoaaiiii
aiacaeiauea ioeoea oaea ia iinaeeony.

Ae?oaie iinoiyiiue oaeoi?, aucuaathuee /anoe/iua iioa?e i?e
?aciiiaeaiee, – yia?eiiaeueiay nia?oiinoue. Iiae yoei oa?ieiii
iiieiaaony noiia?iay aeiey yeoe, n iiaeaoeie yia?eiiaie e
iaiieiaeioai?aiiuo yeoe, eee, ia i?ieoieiae/aneii aea?aiia –
“caaeioeeeia” e “aieooiia”. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?e/eiaie nianoaaiii
yia?eiiaeueiie nia?oiinoe iiaoo auoue ia oieueei iaii?iaeueiinoe,
naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai ca?iaeuoa, ii e iia?aaeaeaiea nei?eoiu eee aa
aeaoaeou, iau/ii iie oaeaea i?e/eneythony e iauaio /eneo yeoe n
yia?eiiaeueiie nia?oiinoueth.

Eco/aiea ?aciiiaeaiey ai?iaueeiuo ioeoe ia Eo?oneie eina aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aniaeou yia?eiiaeueiie nia?oiinoe o
aeeceiai aaeioaeea aeaea – iano?ooee (Iaaaneee, 1985).

Auei i?ieiio?iee?iaaii 47 eeaaeie. Aeiey ia?acaeaoeony yeoe a n?aaeiai
ia eaaeaeoth iieioth eeaaeeo o iano?ooee ninoaaeea 0,19 , a
ia?acaeaoeony yeoe io anao ioeiaeaiiuo, a eeaaeeao, nio?aieaoeony aei

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aueoieaiey – 3,3 1,1; ia?acaeaoeony yeoe io iaueo iioa?ue yeoe e
ioaioeia – 23,7 6,9.

Eioa?aniua aeaiiua i caaeneiinoe oniaoa ?aciiiaeaiey a aieueoeo
anoanoaaiiuo auaiaeeao iooieiaee- aaeioaeee io ieioiinoe a ieioea aiaeu
iieo/aiu aaiaa?neeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie. ?yae yenia?eiaioia ii
eneonnoaaiiiio eciaiaieth aaee/eiu eeaaeee iieacae iaee/ea ia?aoiie
nayce iaaeaeo ?acia?ii auaiaeea e oniaoii ?aciiiaeaiey, ioeaieaaaiui ii
/eneo neaoeia. Iaeiaei, a i?e?iaeiuo iiioeyoeeyo ioeoe –
aeoieiaiacaeieeia, enneaaeoaiuo a iineaaeiea aiaeu, yoa naycue
ioia/aeanue ?aaeei. Iaeii ec aiciiaeiuo iauyniaiee yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey –
ioai? i?ioea aunieie ieiaeiaeoinoe i?iyaeyaony a “ieioea” aiaeu e ia
o/anoeao n aunieie ieioiinoueth. A 1982 – 1990 aa. auee nia?aiu aeaiiua
ii ?aciiiaeaieth iooieiaee- aaeioaeee ia 4 – o ieiuaaeeao. Ia iaeiie
ieiuaaeea a ?acoeueoaoa oaeaiaiey /enea aeoieyiie iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue
onoie/eai aunieay (10-20 ia? /aa) ieioiinoue ianaeaiey aaeioaae. Aiaeu n
aunieeie n?aaeieie iieacaoaeyie oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey n/eoaeenue
“oi?ioeie” aiaeaie (1982, 1983, 1986), n ieceei e n?aaeiei oniaoii
?aciiiaeaiey – “ieioeie” (1984, 1985, 1989, 1990). ?anniio?aiu iiaeaee,
ioeaieaathuea acaeiiaeaenoaea 3-o oaeoi?ia: aieueoea eee iaeaiueeea
auaiaeee, aunieee eee ieceee oniao ?aciiiaeaiey, oi?ioea eee ieioea
aiaeu (eee aunieay eee ieceay ieioiinoue). A ieioea aiaeu auea auyaeaia
nouanoaaiiay naycue iaaeaeo 3 oaeoi?aie: ?acia?ii auaiaeea,
oniaoiinoueth ?aciiiaeaiey e ieioiinoueth. ?acee/ey ii oniaoiinoe
?aciiiaeaiey iaeaiueeeo auaiaeeia ieacaeenue ai?acaei iaiueoeie, /ai
aieueoeo ia ieiuaaeyo n aunieie e ieceie ieioiinoueth. A ieioea aiaea ia
ieiuaaeea n aunieie ieioiinoueth aieueoea auaiaeee iiaeaa?aaeenue
aieueoae ?aaeoeoeee oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey, /ai iaeaiueeea. Eciaiaiea
aaee/eiu oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey ec aiaea a aiae ei??aee?iaaee n
ieioiinoueth iinaeaiey iooieiaie- aaeioaae ia ieiuaaeea n aunieie
ieioiinoueth (Pasztor, Meszena, Torok,1991).

Iaoa?eaeu ii ?aciiiaeaieth iooieiaee- aaeioaeee a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiie
aeoa?aau Naaa?i- Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu ca 1995-1998 aa. aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue enneaaeiaaoue aii?in i ?acee/eyo iieacaoaeae aiacaeiaaiey
ia iaeiie e oie aea iiioeyoeee, ii a ?aciua aiaeu. A nayce n yoei
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an n?aaiaiea oniaoiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey aaeioaeee a
?aciua aiaeu i?e noiaeiuo aeioiie/aneeo oneiaeyo (oaae.9).

Oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey aaeioaeee ia eeth/aaii o/anoea enneaaeiaaiee
ieacaeanue aeinoaoi/ii aunieie – 90,4%. Ii aiaeai yoa aaee/eia
aa?uee?iaaea io 86,9% aei 93,9%. Oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey iiioeyoeee
i?yii eee einaaiii caaeneo io oaii – eeeiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae aiaea,
i?anna oeuieeia e aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia.

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Onoaiiaeaiiua aiaee/iua aa?eaoeee iieacaoaeae yeoe, aaee/eiu eeaaeee, a
oaeaea ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe ?aciiiaeaiey iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue
iioeiaeueiua e ianneiaeueiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey iiioeyoeee.
Iaeneiaeueiua cia/aiey iiiaeo yoeo iieacaoaeae iaaethaeathony a noaoeeyo
n aiaaouie yeieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie – ia ia?oaeiuo iiooeao, a oaeaea a
oaieua e nooea naciiu.

Iooieiaea – aaeioaeea – iaeia ec ianniauo aeaeia ioeoe a eaninoaiiuo
aeiaaioeaiicao, yaeythuayny eo aaaeiui caaiii e ea?athuay aaaeioth ?ieue
a ?aaoeyoeee /eneaiiinoe a?aaeeoaeae eana. Iiaua aeaiiua ii aa aeieiaee
aeatho aiciiaeiinoue niaa?oainoaiaaoue ia?ii?eyoey ii io?aia,
i?eaea/aieth e oi?aaeaieth /eneaiiinoueth aeaea.

-48-

Auaiaeu e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.

1. A eaninoaiiuo aeoa?aaao Naaa?i – Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu iooieiaea-
aaeioaeea yaeyaony oe?iei?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii. Ieioiinoue
aiacaeiaaiey aaeioaeee ia enneaaeoaiie oa??eoi?ee ec aiaea a aiae
aic?anoaao.

2. Aeoeaiia i?eaea/aiea ioeoe niinianoaotho oaaee/aieth /eneaiiinoe
iooieiaee- aaeioaeee e nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey oaaee/aiey
ieioiinoe ianaeaiey.

3.Aiaee/iua aa?eaoeee aaee/eiu eeaaeee e auaiaeea, a oaeaea oniaoiinoe
?aciiiaeaiey iicaieytho ii?aaeaeyoue iioeiaeueiua e ianneiaeueiua
oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey iiioeyoeee. Ia eeth/aaii o/anoea – a eaninoaiiie
aeoa?aaa n aiaaouie yeieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie iaaethaeathony
iaeneiaeueiua cia/aiey yoeo iieacaoaeae.

4. Oniaoiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey aaeioaeee a oneiaeyo eaninoaiiuo aeoa?aa
Naaa?i – Ainoi/iie Oe?aeiu – 90,4 %. Yoio iieacaoaeue caaeneo io
eeeiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae aiaea, i?anna oeuieeia e aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia.

5. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu aeaaee iioiinoaa: aeayoaeueiinoue oeuieeia (eaniay
niiy) – 58,8%, iaiieiaeioai?aiiua yeoea e iiaeaoea cia?eiiu – 12%,
iiaeaei a iiiaio aueoieaiey – 2%. Aeaaeue aiacae caeiiiia?ii aea/ao
oaeeeiaiea ia?eiaea aiacaeiaaiey, ia?ooaao neio?iiiinoue ?aciiiaeaiey
iiioeyoeee, caoyaeaaao n?iee ioeaoa.

I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiie iniiaie aeey
n?aaieoaeueiiai eco/aiey aeaea a ae?oaeo ioieoao aai iaoe?iiai a?aaea.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaoo iaeoe i?eiaiaiea a i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey
ciieiaee a aoca e oeiea.

-49-

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Aaa?ei A.A. E i?ieoieiaee Oa?ueeianeie aoaa?iee.- Oa?ueeia,
1910.-240 n.

2. Aeaaineeiiia E.I. Aiacaeiaaiea e i?eaea/aiea ioeoe a naaeu e
ia?ee.-I.: Ecae-ai Iine. oi-oa, 1991.-251n.

3. Aeaaineeiiia E.I. Io?aia e i?eaea/aiea ioeoe, iieaciuo a naeueneii
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O/iaaeaec, 1952.- 260n.

4. Aaeae A.I., Ea?iaiei E.E. ?ineeiiinoue o?i/eua “Aaeaeiaueia”
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5. Aiiinoaainueeee I.A. Ei?enii aeeei ioaoe Oe?aiie.-E.: Aea?ae.
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6. Aiiinoaainueeee I.A. Ioaoe.-E.: ?aae.oe., 1984.-304 n.

7. Aie/aiaoeeee E.A. Caiaoee ia i?ieoioaoia Noineie iaeanoe .-
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8. Aaa?eeaiei I.E. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiua naaaeaiey i ioeoeao Iieoaaneie
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9. Aieiaaiiaa Y.I. Ie? ioeoe.-E.: Aeae?iiaoaiecaeao, 1985.-175 n.

10. A?aaeaeaieei A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea eieoaaoeee yeoe o?ao aeaeia
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11. Aeia?i/aaaa Ae.I., Eioia I.E., I?ieoaeei TH.I. Ii?aaeaeeoaeue
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12. Eiicaioeaa A.A. ?ieue ianaeiiiyaeiuo ioeoe a eaniuo aeioeaiicao.-
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13. Ea?iaiei E.E., Eiaooi A.A. ?ineeiiinoue Noinueeii iaeanoi, ii
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14. Eieo I.I. Ioaoe ieieeoeue aiieiai/iiai noaoeiiia?o “Aaeaeiaueia” //
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15. Eiiaei E.E., Ca?thoeia I.E. Aeaeiaie ninoaa e ioiineoaeueiay
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16. Eaeei A.O. Aeiiao?ey: O/aa.iiniaea aeey aeieiae/. niaoe. aocia.-3-a
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17. Eaaiaeue A.I. Eieueeiniee iaeie iacaiieo o?aaaoieo oaa?ei.
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18. Eaaiaeue A.I., Eieo I.I. Oeaeaoeoai einiaiai aia/ea (Driomis
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20. Iaeue/aaneee A.N. Aiacaeiaay aeeciue iaa/eo ioeoe. – E.: Iaoea ,
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21. Ia?eniaa I.A., Oaeiio A.N. Ioaoe Oe?aIie. Iieueiaee aecia/iee.-
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22. Iaoaeaiei I.A. Ioeoeu Noineie iaeanoe. Iiaeaeiaua i/a?ee.
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24. Ieoaaa A.A. Ii?aaeaeeoaeue ioe/ueeo aiacae. O/aa. iiniaea aeey
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25. Ieoaaa A.A. Ia?aeaou ioeoe.- Eani. i?iiuoeaiiinoue, 1981.-232n.

26. Ieuaiei TH.A. Caaeneiinoue oa?aeoa?a i?ieoioaoiu niniiauo e
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27. Iyiae ?. Aioo?eiiioeyoeeiiiay eciai/eainoue ioe/ueeo yeoe.- Oaeeei:
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28. Iaeoaeueaeo E.A. E aeieiaee ai?iaueeiuo ioeoe, aiacaeyueony ia
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30. Iaaanueeee A.A. Aeaiia?aoey ioeoe.- E.: Iaoea, 1985.-285 n.

31. Iaeei A.I. Iooieiaee oaoiu NNN?.- E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1987.-180n.

32. Ieoa?nii ?. Ioeoeu.-I.: Ie?, 1973-188n.

33. Ieaoeaay A.A I?eaea/aiea ioeoe – aeoieiaiacaeieeia a eanao Noineie
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34. Ioeoeu Niaaoneiai Nithca./ Iiae iau. ?aae. A.I. Aeaiaioueaaa, I.A.
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50. Paszfor L., Meszena G., Norok J. Density – dependent success in
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I?eeiaeaiea

-54-

?en.1,2. Aiacaeiaie aeioii iooieiaee – aaeioaeee.

-55-

?en.3. Ia/aei ioeeaaeee yeoe iooieiaeie – aaeioaeeie.

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