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Биологические особенности кабанов, обитающих в Амурской области и в Приморском крае

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Aaaaeaiea

E ?iaeo eaaaiia ioiinyony 3 aeaea aeeeeo naeiae: iaueiiaaiiue eaaai
(susscrofa), ano?a/athony a Naaa?iie Ao?eea, Aa?iia e Acee, ai?iaeaoay
naeiuey (susbarbatus), aeeaouay ia ssaa, Noiao?a, *aeaaana, Iaeoineeo e
Oeeeiieineeo ino?iaao; ea?eeeiaay naeiuey (sussulvanius) ano?a/athueony
ia Aeiaeayo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aeae – iaueiiaaiiue
eaaai, eioi?ue canaeyao oaeaea e cia/eoaeueioth /anoue oa??eoi?ee iaoae
no?aiu. Ia iaoe?iie oa??eoi?ee ?innee iaeoaao iyoue iiaeaeaeia eaaaiia
ioee/athueony ii ie?anea, ?acia?ai oaea e iaeioi?ui e?aieieiae/aneei
i?eciaeai. (Eaaia I.A.1978a).

Iaeiei ec aeaeia iaeoathuei ia oa??eoi?ee Aio?neie iaeanoe yaeyaony
onno?eeneee eaaai, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiue aeieiae/aneee e
oicyenoaaiiue eioa?an. A nayce n yoei iinoaaeaia caaea/a, eco/eoue
iaeioi?ua aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaaaia iaeoathuaai a Aio?neie
iaeanoe e a I?eii?neii e?aa, a oaeaea i?iaiaeece?iaaoue a ?aciua aiaeu
ia oa??eoi?ee A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia.

E?iia oiai, ioeaieoue i?iaiaeeiua ia?ii?eyoey ii aini?iecaiaenoao eaaaia
a ?aeiia e i?aaiecaoeeth ioiou ia iaai.

1. Iaci? eeoa?aoo?u

1.1 Enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey aeaea e nenoaiaoe/aneia iieiaeaiea

O ciieiaia eco/athueo enoi?eth aeeaioiiai ie?a caiee ii einoiui
ioeiaeaieyi nio?aieaoeony a caiiuo ioeiaeaieyo. Ooaa?aeeeinue ioiioaiea
e aeeeie naeiuea, eaaaio eae e iaiyoieeo i/aiue ae?aaiae oaoiu
aeieaaeieeiaiai ia?eiaea (Eo/a?aiei I.E. 1973a).

A yoio aeaeaeee ia?eiae enoi?ee caiee, ieeioeai (1 – 6 iei. eao oiio
iacaae), oae i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai eeea caiee:
iainiaeyeenue io ie?iaiai ieaaia aioo?aiiaa – *a?iia, Eanieeneia e
ae?oaea ii?y, iiaeieiaeenue ai?u. Eeeiao naaa?iiai iieooa?ey aue ?iaiui,
oaieui e aeaaeiui n iyaeeie iaeiniaaeiuie ceiaie (Iaeoi TH.A. 1975a).

A yoeo aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo aeaeaei ia naaa? i?iieeaea noao?iie/aneay
?anoeoaeueiinoue.

Aiaao aue e aeeaioiue ie?. Caieth ianaeyee iiiai/eneaiiua oaieiethaeaua
aeeaioiua: aiaeiua e iacaiiua iieethnee, /a?ae, ianaeiiua, e?oiiua e
iaeeea aioeaee e ?aioeeee, o?aaiyaeiua e oeuiua ieaeiieoathuea e ioeoeu.
Ec ?anoeoaeueiiyaeiuo aeeaioiuo auei iiiai ae?aaieo, iicaeiaa auia?oeo
eiiuoiuo, a oii /enea aeiia?eii, i?aaeie nia?aiaiiie eioaaee e
ianoiaeiio i?aaeie neiia.

A noao?iie/aneeo aieioao, noaiyo e eanao iaeoaee naeiiia?aciua eiiuoiua,
eioi?ua noaey ii iecei aoai?/aoie iiaa?oiinoe coaia, auee nouanoaaie
anayaeiuie. N?aaee ieo auee e oaeea caa?e, neaeao eioi?uo i/aiue
iaiiieiaao neaeao nia?aiaiiuo eaaaiia.

Enoi?ey ianoiyueo aeeeeo eaaaiia oaeei ia?acii i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
iineaaeothuea eaaeieeiaua yiioe – neeueiua iioieiaeaiey naaa?iie /anoe
caiee e a?aiaiiua iioaieaiey. A ia?eiae iaoanoaey eaaeieeia
oaieiethaeaua oi?iu ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo aeaee ia aieueoeo i?ino?ainoaao
Aa?acee (Eiceia I. A. 1972a).

Oaoia oaieiai ieeioeaiiaiai a?aiaie ionooieea aeaeaei ia tha.
Aieueoeinoai aeeaioiuo, ieacaaoeony ianiiniaiuie aeeoue a oieiaeiii
eeeiaoa, ia?aiineoue niaaeiua ceiu, auia?ee.

Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua ec ieo noiaee i?eniiniaeoueny e iiaui oneiaeyi
nouanoaiaaiey, e iioiiee eo niiaa oe?iei ?annaeeeenue aneaae ca
ionoonoaothueie eaaeieeaie. N?aaee yoeo aeeaioiuo ieacaeny e eaaai,
aeaaiiieo/ii ia?aaeeaoee ana aaieiae/aneea eaoano?iou.

A ioee/ee io oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aeaeia aeeaioiuo, eioi?ua
i?eniiniaeaiu e ii?aaeaeaiiie ieua, ii/aa, eeeiaoo, i?eieoeaiua iaiaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ieacaeenue aieaa onoie/eauie e i?eniiniaeaiiuie e
oieiaeo e ae?oaei i?aa?aoiinoyi nouanoaiaaiey a no?iaii eeeiaoa.

Oaeei i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie e eaaai, niiniaiue ia oieueei aeeoue a
eeoaueo aeeciueth noao?iieeao. Ii e a oneiaeyo oia?aiiiai iiyna, aaea
aaeaaiaeiue i?e?ino ?anoeoaeueiie e aeeaioiie ieue a ianeieueei ?ac
iaiueoa. Yoa aai iniaaiiinoue oneeeaaaony aua oai, /oi ii iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?youe naie iio?aaiinoe a ieua oaie ?anoaieyie e aeeaioiuie,
eioi?uo aieueoeinoai ieaeiieoathueo ia aaeyo oaiue, iaii?ioiee i?eye,
aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae e o.ae. (Eiceia I.A. 1975a).

Ianiio?y ia aeieaoth e neiaeioth enoi?eth, eaaai nio?aiee naie aiaoiee
iaeee, a nayce n /ai I.A. Naa?ianeee iacaae yoiai caa?y «aeeaui
eneiiaaiui». Yoio caa?ue auaea?aeae na?ueaciia eniuoaiea ia aeeciue oaea
a naiia enoi?e/aneia iineaaeiaa a?aiy, iinea iiyaeaiey ia caiea
/aeiaaea. Auno?ia oaaee/aiea ieioiinoe ethaeneiai ianaeaiey, onaiaiea
noaiae e eania ia ianoaeuao, iiey, no?ieoaeuenoai ai?iaeia e aei?ia
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aunaeaieai aeeeeo aeeaioiuo ec eo eo/oeo iano
iaeoaiey, a ia?aaeei /anoe/iui eee iieiui eo eno?aaeaieai.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oaeay o/anoue iinoeaea e?oiiuo aeeaioiuo: coa?a,
oa?eaia, oo?a, /uea iyni e oeo?u i?aaenoaaeyee aieueooth oeaiiinoue.
AEeaioiua ia niiniaiua auaea?aeeaaoue i?aneaaeiaaiey /aeiaaea, aeaee.

Caa?e auaeeaoea a iiauo oneiaeyo, a oii /enea e eaaai. I?iyaeyee iniaoth
ieanoe/iinoue: i?eniiniaeeenue aeeoue ?yaeii n /aeiaaeii, a eiiaaea e ca
n/ao ieiaeia aai o?oaea. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a yoii nua?aea
niiniaiinoue yoeo caa?ae ecaaaaoue ano?a/ n /aeiaaeii, iaoiaeeoue
oeo?ioiii ?annoaaeaiiua eiaooee (Eiceia I.A., 1975).

Ec n?aaieoaeueii iiiai/eneaiiiai iiaeio?yaea (Nonruminantia)
(iaaeaa/iua), io?yae Artiodactula (ia?iieiiuoiua), oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia caiea a aeieaaeieeiaoth yiioo, aei iaoeo aeiae
nio?aieeinue eeoue iaeii naiaenoai oae iacuaaaiia ianoiyuea naeiuee
(Suidae). Yoi naiaenoai iauaaeeiyao iyoue ?iaeia aeeaioiuo yeieiae/anee
e ii?oieiae/anee noiaeiuo : aaae?onna aeeaoueo ia *aeaaana,
ai?aaeaa/eeia ano?a/athueony a Ao?eea, aeeeiiiaieinua naeiuee iaeoathuea
a o?iie/aneie Ao?eea e ia Iaaeaaanea?a, e iaeiiaoe. Eaaaiia, eaaaiia
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a Naaa?iie Ao?eea, Acee e Aa?iia.

A iaoae no?aia iaeoaao 5 iiaeaeaeia eaaaiia:

1) Oeaio?aeueii – aa?iiaeneee eaaai Sus scvofalinn iaeoaao caiaaeiie
/anoe no?aiu ia naaa? Eaieia?aaea(Naieo – Iaoa?ao?aa) e Oii?a. A
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ?innee, ia e?oiiuo ?acia?ia n oaiiie oeo?ie e
n?aaieoaeueii oceie neaciie einoueth, n /a?aiii 370 – 440 ii aeeeiie.

2) Eaaacneee eee ?oiuineee eaaai S.safila Thoms – iaeoaao a Caeaaeacuea,
ia Eaaeaca, naaa?iuo aa?aaao Eeoay e thai-caiaae Oe?aeiu. Yoio iiaeaeae
aieueoa i?aaeuaeouaai, aieueoaaieiaue, aeeeia aai /a?aia 410 – 470ii,
caae iiouai, a?oaeue oe?ieay, ie?an naaoeue.

3) N?aaeiaaceaoneee eaaai S.s nigripes Blanf, no?a/athony a ai?ao e
?aaieiiuo /anoyo N?aaeiae Acee e Eacaonoaia. Caa?ue e?oiiuo ?acia?ia,
ie?anea naaoeay, iiae /a?iua, ei?ioeee e aunieee /a?ai 392 – 394 ii

4) Caaaeeaeueneee eaaai S.s sibiricus Staffe. Iau/ai a Naaa?iie e Naaa?i
– Ainoi/iie Iiiaieee, I?eaaeeaeuey e Caaaeeaeuey aieioue aei aunio
caiaaeiiai neeiia Aieueoiai Oeiaaia, o yoiai iiaeaeaea iaaieueoea
?acia?u, oei?i/aiiue aunieee /a?ai (aeeeia 370 – 400ii), ii/oe
eaaae?aoiay neaciay einoue, oaiii – ao?ay ii/oe /a?iay ie?anea aiein.

5) Onno?eeneee eaaai S.s ussuricus Heude. Ano?a/aaony a I?eaio?uea,
I?eii?uea, naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe EI?. Ii ioee/aaony io i?i/eo
iiaeaeaeia e?oiiuie ?acia?aie oaea e /a?aia (aeeeia 490-510 ii) i?yiui
i?ioeeai aa?oa aieiau, oei?i/aiiuie neaciuie einoyie, aaeui onii e
ei?ioeeie ooiuie ?aeiaeiaie i?e iau/iie oaiii – ao?ie eee /a?iie ie?anea
aieinyiiai iie?iaa (Oeeio A.A. 1970a).

Ii n?aaiaieth n iiaeaeaaie ec n?aaeiaaceaoneeo e aa?iiaeneeo /anoae
?innee onno?eeneee eaaai caiaoii e?oiiaa, naeaou n aieia, auniei
iinoaaeaiu ia iiaao, aeneicaaeu e eiatho ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea.
Ieioii i?eaeaoua ooe.

?uei, iniaaiii o iieiaeuo iniaaiii o iieiaeuo iniaae. Eiioniia?acii
auoyiooi e ia?acoao ii/oe i?yioth eeieth aaeieue eaa.

1.2 Aeieiaey eaaaia

1.2.1 Iniaaiiinoe ii?oieiaee eaaaia

Onno?eeneee eaaai, iaeoathuee ia oa??eoi?ee A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia iaeaieaa
e?oiiay oi?ia aeeeie naeiuee iaeoathuee a ?O, ianeieueei iaoeethaeaai
oaeineiaeaiey n ianneaiui oaeii e ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeeie iiaaie, ii?aea
auoyiooay, eiioniia?aciay, ieai/eaaaony aieui, ieineei, o?yuaaui
iyoa/eii, ia eioi?ii aeaeiu iicae?e. Inaiueth, aaniie e ceiie oaei
aeeaioiiai iie?uoi uaoeiie, iniaaiii aeanoeie e aeeeiiie

(12 – 13 ni) ia o?aaoa, aaea iia ia?acoao a?eao. Iiae uaoeiie eiaaony
aonoay e iyaeay iiaeiooue. Aeaaiaea?y aonoie iiaeiooee iiae ia
nia/eaathony, iiyoiio eaaai ioioii eaeao a aiaeo eaoii e ceiie, io
ia?aioeaaeaeaiey a aiaea aai i?aaeio?aiyao iiaeeiaeiia ioeiaeaiea aee?a
(Eiceia I.A. 1975a).

Ia?aaeaeaaynue, eaaai iie?aaony ia oieueei ia 3-e 4-e iaeueoeu, ii e ia
8-e e 5-e. ia iyaeii a?oioa ana 4-a iaeueoeu ?acaeaeaathony, oaaee/eaay
iii?ioth ieiuaaeue.

Oaino ei?ioeee 25 ni, ia cae?o/ai. Eiaaea caa?ue niieiai e ?iaony a
ii/aa, oaino iaoiaeeony ana a?aiy a aeaeaeaiee, iiouai aiec, ai a?aiy
aaaa eaaai aea?aeeo oaino ai?eciioaeueii eee iiaeieiaao e aa?oo.

?acia?u e aan onno?eeneeo eaaaiia iaiyaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao, a
caaeneiinoe io iiea, aic?anoa e oieoaiiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a nayce n
eioaineaiie ioioie e?oiiua eaaaiu noaee aieueoie ?aaeeinoueth

N?aaeiee aan eaaaiia ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 65 – 75 ea, o iieiaeuo caa?ae
150 – 200 ea o ac?ineuo aeeaioiuo. Aeeeia oaea ninoaaeyao 125 – 175 ni,
aunioa a oieea aei 100ni.

Caiaoiia eciaiaiea onno?eeneiai iiaeaeaea caeeth/aaony a neaai
au?aaeaiiie ?acieoea yenoa?uea?a o iniaae ?aciiai iiea, iniaaiii a
aic?anoa aei aeaoo eao. ?acaeyaeuaay eaaaiia a noaaea, auaaao
iaaiciiaeii ioee/eoue iieiaeuo naea/ae io naeiie. Oieueei n o?aoeaoiaai
aic?anoa naioeu ii ?acia?ai, yenoa?uea?o e oi?ia eeueia ia/eiatho
caiaoii auaeaeyoueny n?aaee naioeia.

Ie?anea aieinyiiai iie?iaa onno?eeneeo eaaaiia ioee/aaony aieueoie
aic?anoiie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eciai/eainoueth. O iiai?iaeaeaiiuo
ii?inyo oi?ioi au?aaeaiu /a?aaeothueany ?uaeaaaoi – ao?ua e naaoeua
iieinu, auoyiooua aaeieue iea/, nieiu e ii aieai – 6 naaoeuo e 7-oaiiuo.
Eia e ii?aea ?uaeaaaoua n /a?iie inoueth. Iaeanoue aie?oa aeac, aieiaua
/anoe oaea, iaae eiiaoeaie, ia?aaeiyy noi?iia iia, a oaeaea iei?iea
ianeieueei naaoeaa.

Aieinyiie iie?ia ii?inyo a aic?anoa aei ianyoea ninoieo ec ei?ioeie inoe
e ?aaeeiai iooa. N aic?anoii 1 – 1,5 ianyoea ia/eiaao iaiyoue oeaao e
oa?aeoa? aieinyiiai iie?iaa. E eiioeo aaaonoa (ia 4- 5 ianyoea) o
ii?inyo caeai/eaaaony ?io iiaiai aieinyiiai iie?iaa, ninoiyuaai ec /a?ii
– ao?ie inoe e a?ycii na?iai iooa. Aeey ie?anee oeo?u ac?ineiai eaaaia a
inaiiai ia?yaea iaeaieaa oeie/ai /a?ii – ao?ue iauee oii. Ii?aea iie?uoa
/a?ii – ao?ie inoueth n oaiii – ao?ui iooii. Eia, caaeiyy /anoue oaea e
a?oaeue iie?uaatho ?aaeeea a?ycii – aaeua aieinu inoe n a?ycii –
io?enoie iiaeiooueth. Ii aieai oae, ia eiiaoeao, a ia?aaeieo /anoyo iia
inoue ii/oe /a?iay. Aiea oaea e ia?aaeiyy iiaa?oiinoue caaeiee iia
ianeieueei naaoeaa. Inoue ia/eiay io oieee e aeaeaa ii anaio o?aaoo
aieioue aei ei?iy oainoa neeueii na/aony ia eiaea e iiyoiio, eiaao aieaa
naaoeoth ie?aneo. Oaino oiai aea oeaaoa eae e nieia, ii eiaao ia eiioea
/a?ioth ieoue e aieaa naaoeua aieinu o ei?iy n ieaeiae noi?iiu. Oaeiaa
iaeaieaa oeie/iay ie?anea ac?ineie iniae.

A ?aaeeeo neo/ayo n?aaee onno?eeneeo eaaaiia ano?a/athony /anoe/ii
aeueaeiinu n aaeuie aieinaie. Ia ieaeieo /anoyo iia i?e ?iciai –
/ai?ic?a/iuo eiiuoao eee iniae n niaa?oaiii aaeie caaeiae /anoueth oaea.

Aieinu o eaaaia aeaoo eaoaai?ee: inoue (uaoeia) eee iai?aaeythuea ao?iai
eee io?enoi-ao?iai oeaaoa, iau/ii ?anna/ai i?e aa?oeia e na?ue
auethueeny ioo.

?ac a aiae (aaniie) eaaaiu i?aoa?iaaatho ei?ioeoth eeiueeo. Ia?aua
i?eciaee eeiueee o ieo ia/eiathony a ai?aea. A yoi a?aiy io/ee iooiauo e
/anoe/ii inoaauo aiein ia/eiatho i?eeeiaoue e niieenoui aea?aaueyi, i
eioi?uo eaaaiu /anoe/ii /aooony. A iineaaeiae aeaeaaea ethey eaaaiu
ii/oe iieiinoueth inaiaiaeaeathony io iooiauo aiein. Neeueii ?aaeaao a
oa/aiee ethey e noa?ay inoue. A yoi a?aiy ia ia?aaeieo /anoyo aieiau,
ieiei ooae e ia iiaao iiyaeyaony iieiaeie /a?iue iiae?ino inoe.

A ethea e aaaonoa eaaaiu a iiaie inoe, aeaeathony /a?ii – ao?uie n
naaeui iaeaoii. E eiioeo aaaonoa ia/eiaaony ?ino iooiauo aiein. Oieueei
e ia?aui ieoya?ueneei caii?iceai eaaaiu ieii/aoaeueii iaeaaathony a
ceiiee aieinyiie iie?ia, oi?ioi nia?aaathuee eo a aao?aiua ii?iciua
aeie. (Eiceia I.A.1975a).

Ii aiaoiaio aeaeo iiaeii ?acee/eoue o?e aic?anoiua a?oiiu: ii?inyoa
(naaieaoee), iiaenaeiee (aeaooeaoee), e ac?ineua iniae (Aa?auaaei A.A.
1979a). Ii?inyoa ioee/athony iaiueoeie ?acia?aie, ie?aoaiu naaoeaa
ac?ineuo (naaoeay ie?anea nio?aiyaony aei aiaea), e aieaa aeeeiiiiiaea.
Ii?inyoa eiatho ii aieai 13 iiein – 6 naaoeuo e 7 oaiiuo.

O iiaenaeieia ?acaeaaaony oieea, iiae?anoaao uaoeia aaeieue nieiu.
Ac?ineua aeeaioiua ianneaiaa iiaenaeieia, uaoeia ?ac?anoaaony, ia nieia
neeueiaa. Iniaaiii oi?ioaa ioee/ea i?iyaeyaony o naea/ae.

A iieaauo oneiaeyo, ?acee/eoue ac?ineiai naioea io naeiuee a ia/aea
iaaiciiaeii e ia oieueei iioiio, /oi o naea/ae aeeeiiua caaeaathueany
eeuee, a nei?aa ii neeoyoo. Naioeu ioee/athony aieaa e?oiiie aieiaie,
ianneaiie ia?aaeiae /anoueth ooeiaeua, o ieo neeueiaa ?acaeoa oieea e
aieaa oeie/iay a?eaa ii a?aaith nieiu. O naioeia ooeiaeua niethuaii, n
aieia, a o naiie iii ai/eiia?aciia.

Iaeaieaa aeinooiiia ii?aaeaeaiea aic?anoa – ii ?acaeoeth coaiie nenoaiu
e noaiaie noa?oinoe. Ieaea i?eaiaeeony iienaiea coaiie nenoaiu eaaaiia
?aciuo aic?anoiuo a?oii e inaiiaa – ceiiaio naciio, o.a. a ia?eiae
ioiou.

Ii?inyoa (7 – 11 ian) – anaai coaia 36, e yoiio aic?anoo iau/ii 3-e
iiei/iue ?acaoe caiaiyaony iinoiyiiui, a 1-e e 2-e ?acoeu caiaoii
noe?athony. Ia/eiaaony niaia iiei/iuo eeueia. Ia?aaeiea ei?aiiua aua
iiei/iua, ii ia/eiatho noa/eaaoueny. O 3-ai ia?aaeiaai coaa
aeaaaoaeueiay iiaa?oiinoue noaiiaeony eiioniia?aciie. O 1-ai aieueoiai
ei?aiiiai coaa e 10 – 11 ianyoeai aeaaaoaeueiua aoa?u naeaaeeaathony.

Iiaenaeiee (13 – 18 ian) – anaai coaia 40. e yoiio a?aiaie iau/ii
caeai/eaaaony niaia iiei/iuo coaia ia iinoiyiiua. Aoi?ie aieueoie
ei?aiiie coa iieiinoueth ?acaeo.

Aeaooaiaeiaaeua iniae – anaai coaia 40 – 42. ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny 3-e
ei?aiiie coa. Ia?aaeiea ei?aiiua iieiinoueth aeaoi?ie?iaaiu e eiatho
noa?oua aa?oeiu. Eeuee naioeia aeinoeaatho aeeeiu aei 40 ii, o naiie iie
caiaoii ei?i/a. O?aoaiaeiaaeua iniae – /enei coaia 44. ?acoeu neaai
noa?ou, noa?oinoue ia?aaeieo ei?aiiuo oaaee/eaaaony. Ia/eiaao noe?aoueny
1-e e 2-e caaeiaei?aiiua coau.

*aou?aoaiaeiaaeua iniae. Ana coau iinyo neaaeu noa?oinoe, aeaaiia
ia/eiaao naeaaeeaaoueny 3-e caaeiaei?aiiie coa, aaea iiyaeythony
/a?oi/ee aeaioeia.

Iyoeaiaeiaaeua iniae. O 1-ai e 2-ai ?acoeia noa/eaathony aa?oiea
aioo?aiiea noi?iiu. A ?acoeueoaoa noe?aiey ?acoeu oei?a/eaathony.
Neeueii noa/eaathony iiaa?oiinoe ia?aaeieo e caaeieo ei?aiiuo coaia,
i?e/ai o 1-ai e 2-ai noe?athony aoa?u e eeaaeee yiaee, aeaioei i?eieiaao
caacae/aoi-ia?acioth oi?io, iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey 3-ai aieueoiai
ei?aiiiai coaa, oioy o iaai nio?aiythony aua aoa?u. O naea/ae ia aa?oieo
eeueao iaia/athony iiia?a/iua, ai?icaeu, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho aic?anoo
caa?y.

Oanoe e naieaiaeiaaeua iniae. ?acoeu neeueii iona/aiu e oei?i/aiu.
Ei?aiiua coau neioaiu cia/eoaeueii neeueiaa, /ai o aeeaioiuo
i?aaeuaeoueo aic?anoia. O ia?aaeieo ei?aiiuo coaia aeaioei aunooiaao
oaiiuie iieinaie, o caaeiaei?aiiuo coaia ia/eiatho noe?aoueny yiaeaaua
neeaaeee e ioaeaeueiua caacaeu aeaioeia ia/eiatho niaaeeiyoueny iaaeaeo
niaie oaiiuie iyoiaie. O 1-ai aieueoiai ei?aiiiai coaa ia/eiaao
noa/eaaoueny ei?iia.

Ainueieaiaeiaaeua iniae e noa?oaai aic?anoa iniae. Coau ia/eiatho
?ac?ooaoueny e auiaaeaoue. Coau /anoi iaeaiuaathony, iniaaiii 3-e, 1-e e
2-e ia?aaeiea ei?aiiua coau.

Eeuee iinoaiaiii enoii/athony. Ei?iiu anao ei?aiiuo coaia noa?ou. O
noa?uo iniaae (10 eao e noa?oa), caaeiaei?aiiua coau auaatho noa?ou
ii/oe aei aeanai, neeaaeee yiaee en/acatho. Eeuee aeanyoeeaoieo naea/ae,
anee ia ieacuaathony neiiaiiuie i?e aeecie, eiatho 4 ni oieueiu, i?e/ai
aa?oiea neeueii caai?a/eaathony a noi?iio aa?oiae aoau e ia noa?oie
iiaa?oiinoe ia?acoaony uaeue ane?uoie iieicoaa. (Aa?auaaei A.A. 1973a).

1.2.2 Ieoaiea e ?aciiiaeaiea.

O/eouaay neeiiiinoue eaaaia e anayaeiinoe, aeiaieueii o?oaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue aeaeiaie ninoaa aai ei?iia, ii ianiiiaiii ii i/aiue
?aciiia?acai. Caianu ei?iia, caaenyo io oa?aeoa?a e ?aciiia?acey
aeioiiia. Ei?ia eaaaiia aeaeyony ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu:

I – ei?iaaeua, ei?ie, eeoaie e eoeiaeoeu ?anoaiee eioi?ua ioee/athony
aunieei niaea?aeaieai ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa e aeiauaathony aeeaioiuie a
oa/aiea e?oaeiai aiaea.

II – caeaiua /anoe o?aayienouo ?anoaiee, iiaaeaaiua a ia?eiae
aaaaoaoeee.

III – ieiaeu e yaiaeu, aeaeoaee e i?aoe, ii yoe ei?ia, eae i?aaeei,
eniieuecothony eaaaiaie eeoue a nacii nic?aaaiey e iicaea ec-iiae niaaa.
Aeaaiiieo/ey onno?eeneiai eaaaia ii?aaeaeythony o?iaeaai iiiaieueneiai
aeoaa, ei?aeneiai eaae?a e iaiue/aeo?neiai i?aoa. A o?iaeaeiua aiaeu
eiaiii yoa a?oiia ei?iia niinianoaoao ?aceiio oaaee/aieth /eneaiiinoe
caa?y. A yoo a?oiio oaeaea aeeth/atho ea?oioaeue e ae?oaea n/o ?anoaiey
iiaaeaaiua eaaaiaie.

IV – aeeaioiua ei?ia, yoi aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae, ianaeiiua e eo ee/eiee,
iaethnee, a oaeaea iicaiii/iua aeeaioiua (aeeth/ay iaaeaeue).
?aciiia?acea yoie a?oiiu ei?iia iiaeao eieaaaoueny io ianeieueeeo aei 57
aeaeia (Ei?uoei N.A. 1986a).

?aaeei ieoaiey eaaaia caaeneo io iaee/ey, iaeeey e aeinooiiinoe ei?iia.
Iinoiyiii e ?aaiiia?ii eniieuecoaiuo e?oaeue aiae ei?iia eaaai ia eiaao.

Aieiaa eaaaia caeai/eaaaony ?ueii, i?eniiniaeaiiui aeey ?uouey ii/au,
aai i?eooieaiiue iyoa/ie, o?oaeii ?aaeoueeny iiaeii, ieaeieai aeanoeei
eiaeaiui aunooiii, onaaeaiiui ei?ioeeie, neaai caiaoiuie inycaoaeueiuie
uaoeiaie. E iyoa/eo iiaeoiaeeo niaoeeaeueiay ioneoeaoo?a,
caeai/eaathuayny io/eii nooiaeeeee, aeaeaathuay aai a ?acee/iuo
ieineinoyo.

Aieueoay aeaeaaoaeueiinoue iyoa/ea aeinoeaaaony caeiaeaiiie a aai
iniiaaiee i?aaeiiniaie einoueth, a eioi?ith ii oie?aaony i?e aeaeaeaiee.

Neea oaeiie ioneoeaoo?u eaaaia i/aiue aaeeea. Ii naiaiaeii iiaeieiaao
?ueii e ?aceaiuaaao nia?coeany ieanou caiee a 7 – 9 ni oieueiie, eaaei
?aca?aaaao iaiaaeaiioth aaeueeo i?ea?aaeiuo ioiaeae ia aeoaeia 25 – 30
ni e a iieneao ei?ia eiiaaea auai?a/eaaao eaiie aanii aei 40 ea.

N eiioea ceiu e aei ?aiiae aaniu eaaaiu auae?atho ec – iiae niaaa a
iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa inieo, eioi?ay nio?aiyaony caeaiie. A ethea ana
iniee auno?i a?oaatho, eo ieoaoaeueiinoue nieaeaaony, e iie niaa?oaiii
ia oiio?aaeythony eaaaiaie.

Ceiie eaaaiu ieoathony a iniiaiii ceiiei oaiuai, aunanuaay ec aai
noaaeae caeaiue naoa?enoue nie. A ceiieo oaiuao ia ii?ica ia?acoaony
iiiai ?anoai?eiuo oaeaaiaeia, o.e. i?e ieceie oaiia?aoo?a a aai noaaeyo
i?ienoiaeeo eiaa?ney oaeaaiaeia a naoa?. Iiyoiio eaaaiu aai i/aiue
oi?ioi aaeyo eiaiii a oieiaeiua naciiu, ceiie e ?aiiae aaniie. Eaoii
ceiiee oaiu eie ia oiio?aaeyaony.

A ceiiee ia?eiae aeeeea eaaaiu auoiaeyo ia ei?iaaeeo a 10 – 11 /ania
oo?a e ei?iyony aei 5 – 6 /ania aa/a?a. Aeeeiioth ii?icioth ii/ue iie
i?iaiaeyo a naieo eiaiaao, /aeiao iiae ai?ioii nooeo ?anoaiee oanii
i?eaeaaoenue, ae?oa e ae?oao, a aeiai, eiaaea oaieaao, auoiaeyo ia
iienee ieue. Ia?aaeaeaaoueny noa?athony oai, aaea iiiaiueoa niaaeiiai
iie?iaa, iiae iieiaii aonouo ca?ineae, aaea ionoonoaoao iano, iau/ii ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia ceiu.

A eaoiaa a?aiy eaaaiu auoiaeyo ia ei?iaaeeo aeeaea e noia?eai e ooiaeyo
a oe?uoey e ianooieaieth aeiy. E iiea nieioea ia iiaeieiaaony iaae
ai?eciioii, oo?aiiyy caiey o?aieo neaaeu caa?y, oaea a oe?uaoeony eaniuo
oaiaeueyo.

Ia ei?iaaeeao noaaei eaaaiia aeaeaeoony ?innuiueth. A eano noaaei
aeeaioiuo ai?ioeo eanioth iiaenoeeeo, aueneeaay aeaeoaee, i?aoe,
ianaeiiuo, ei?aoee ?anoaiee. Ca iaeio ei?iaaeeo eaaai iiaaeaao 2 – 3 ea
?acee/iiai ei?ia. Ie iaeii iacaiiia aeeaioiia ia ieacuaaao oaeiai
aeeyiey ia ii/ao e ?anoeoaeueiue iie?ia eania e eoaia, eae aeeeea eaaaiu
ia?aai?a/eaatho ia?iiioth ianno iiaa?oiinoiuo ei?iia (Eaaia I.A. 1978a).

A aiaeu iieiiai ionoonoaey ei?iia n o?iaeay i?aoia eaae?a e aeaeoaeae,
eaaaiu, oie/oiaeea e eiioeo ieoya?y ana ei?ia a aeieeiao ?ae e eeth/ae,
ia/eiatho iaiineoue a?aae n/o ?anoaiee ia aeeaeaeoeo iieyo (eoeo?oca,
ea?oioaeue, e o.ae.). Iniaaiii ioioii ii?oyo eaaaiu iiey n eoeo?ocie e
niiniaiu ca iaeio ii/ue i?eaanoe a iieioth iaaiaeiinoue aei 0,15 aa
eoeo?ocu. Iie aueaiuaatho iaeaieaa ieceea ii/aoee e aaeytho noaaee,
caoaiouaay eo a caieth. Ii/aoee eaaaiu aaeyo ia ana iiae?yae, a
auae?atho iaeaieaa ni/iua, aeinoeaoea iiei/iie niaeinoe. Ia nuaaeaiiua
ii/aoee, a?ioaiiua ia caieth, aeaeathony aeinoiyieai iuoae, iieaaie e
ia/eiatho i?i?anoaoue iinea aeiaeaey.

Ia iinaau iana eaaaiu auoiaeyo a ia?eiae aai iieiaeaiey, ?iynue iiiooii
a caiea a iieneao /a?aae e ee/eiie ianaeiiuo. Ioaaouaay iaoaeeo e
aunanuaay ec iaa nie, iie oie/oiaeatho aieueoea ieiuaaee iinaaia.

Iaiueoa eaaaiu ii?oyo nith, eioi?ay nic?aaaao iaeiia?aiaiii n iiyaeaieai
anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia, – aeaeoaeae e eaae?iauo i?aoia. Caa?aaoenue ia
ea?oioaeueiia iiea iaaieueoia noaaei eaaaiia a 8 – 10 (aieia) ca 3 – 4
ii/e niiniaiu oie/oiaeeoue aei 0,02 aa aeaiiie eoeueoo?u.

A aiaeu iaaeinoaoea anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia, inoaaoeany ia ianoa eaaaiu
ceiie aieiaeatho. Iie ia/eiatho iiaaeaoue ana aiciiaeiua iaei/eneaiiua
ei?ia, eae a?eau o?ooiaeee, eeoaeieee, eaaeaaoea iiae niaaii eenouey
eeaiia e ae?oaea ei?ia. A yoii neo/aa aeey iienea ei?iia ei i?eoiaeeony
cao?a/eaaoue iiiai yia?aee niaa?oay, aieueoea ia?aoiaeu. A eoiaa
iaeaeaiiiai ca nooee ei?ia ia oaaoaao aeey eiiiainaoeee ?anoiaea
yia?aee. A aiaeu aanei?ieoeu eaaaiu auioaeaeaiu ianoieueei oii?ii
aueneeaaoue a caiea ei?i, /ai neeueii ?aiyo naie iyoa/ie ia ii?iaeaioth
caieth e ieacuaathony ia a ninoiyiee aueneeaaoue naaa ei?i.

Iiyoiio iie auno?i ooaeatho, a /anoue, ec ieo iiiaa a oneiaey
iiiainiaaeuey, aeaioo io enoiuaiey eee noaiiayony aea?oaaie aieeia.

O eaaaiia iaaethaeaaony nooi/iay aeoeaiinoue a nayce n ieoaieai. A
oaieia a?aiy aiaea a iieneao ieue eaaaiu aeoeaiu a noia?eao e ii/ueth.
Aaniie iinea noiaea niaaa eaaaiu ei?iyony i?eia?ii aei 6 /ania oo?a.
*anoi eaaaiu anoatho n eaaeae ca ianeieueei /ania aei caeaoa nieioea e
ia/eiatho ei?ieoueny. E eiioeo eaoa e inaiueth ia?eiae aeoeaiinoe
caiaoii ?anoyaeaaaony. Eaaaiu, anee eo ia aaniieieoue, iinea aee?iaee
iiaoo ono?aeaaoue n?aaee ii/e eee ia ?annaaoa, ia ioaeuo ooo aea, o iano
ei?ieaiey e /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?iaeieaeaoue aee?iaeo. Ia
iio?aaiaeaiiua caa?e ei?iyony aeiaieueii ooiii, a?iiei /aaeatho, aecaeao
e o?theatho. Ii a?aiaiaie i?ae?auatho ei?iaaeeo e aeieai
i?eneooeaathony. Oaeay iaia?a ei?ieoueny ioia/aaony oaea o iaeaiueeeo
ii?inyo a aic?anoa aeaoo iaaeaeue.

N onoaiiaeaieai niaaeiiai iie?iaa eaaaiu /aua, /ai a ae?oaia a?aiy aiaea
ei?iyony aeiai, a iaeaieaa oieiaeioth /anoue ii/e i?iaiaeyo ia eaaeeao.

Eaaaiu ia iinauatho nooea e eeneua nieiioeu aeey ooiieaiey ieia?aeueiiai
aieiaea. Eeneua nieiioeu eaaaiu iinauatho oieueei a aea?eea eaoiea aeie
?aaee eoiaiey a eeenouo aa?aaao (Eaaia I.A. 1978a).

Iaaethaeaaony caaeneiinoue n?ieia aiia io eiee/anoaa e eaei?eeiinoue
anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia e oa?aeoa?a ia?aciaaaoaainy niaaeiiai iie?iaa. Naiay
?aiiyy aeaoa ia/aei aiia 15 iiya?y, iaeaieaa iicaeiyy 15 aeaeaa?y. Aieaa
?aiiaa ia/aei aiia e niioaaonoaaiii iaoe naiie ia aeaaii?eyoiu aeey
iiioeyoeee eaaaiia: a yoii neo/aa ii?in i?ioiaeeo a iiiainiaaeuea e
oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea, io /aai /anoue i?eieiaea, iniaaiii o iieiaeuo
iaoie, aeaiao.

A iiiaio aiia naea/e aani?anoaiii a?iaeyo, niaa?oay ia?iiiua ia?aoiaeu a
iieneao ieue.

Eaaai – naea/ iouneeaaao oaaoi naeiae ii neaaeai, i?eaioe?oynue ii
caiaoo e caoeo. Iaia?oaeea aai ii caieiaao aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea a
oaaoia, ioaiiyy neaauo naioeia e ecaaaeaoenue io eiieo?aioia iinea
iiaaeeiea, naiee i?eieiatho o/anoea a aiia. Iioa?iaaoee iaoaea/e a
iiaaeeiea, /anoi ec?aiaiiue naea/, aea?aeeony a ioaeaeaiee io noaaea,
iaeeaeay caaeeaaiey ?ai, eee ooiaeeo eneaoue iiaia noaaei. Caa?ue ai
a?aiy aiia i/aiue ?acae?aaeeoaeueiue e a?inaaony neaicue ca?inee ia
ethaie iiaeic?eoaeueiue oi?io, i?aaeiieaaay ano?aoeoue niia?ieea.
Ano?a/a niia?ieeia iau/ii ia aeioiaeeo aei nia?oaeueiie ae?aee e
ei?ioeay i?iaa nee nei?i eii/aaony iaiaa neeueiiai. Iaeiaei i?e ano?a/a
?aaiineeueiuo naea/ae n?aaeaiea auaaao y?inoiui e ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeo e
aeaaee iaeiiai ec ieo (Eiceia I.A. 1975a).

A iiiaio aiia naea/e iaei aaeyo. Iie ana a?aiy ia?aiauathony, iiaeaiiyy
naiie e io/anoe iaoay eo ii?iaeueiiio ieoaieth. Ii yoie i?e/eia naiee
neeueii ooaeatho, aeaaea i?e eciaeeee anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia. A oaaoia,
io?aiyaiii naea/ii, /aua anaai auaaao

5 – 6 ac?ineuo naiie, iaeiaei oai, aaea ieioiinoue ianaeaiey aeaea
auniea. Eo iiaeao auoue cia/eoaeueii aieueoa. Naeiuee ?aciuo aic?anoia
i?eoiaeyo a oa/eo ia iaeiia?aiaiii: nia/aea e nia?eaaieth auaatho aioiau
ac?ineua, oi?ioi oieoaiiua naiee, caoai iieiaeua naiee. Iiyoiio ia?eiae
aiia e niioaaonoaaiii a?aiy ?iaeaeaiey ii?inyo neeueii ?anoyioou.
Aa?aiaiiinoue naeiae aeeeony 126 – 140 aeiae. Ia?aae iii?inii naeiuee
ooiaeyo ec noaaea a oeoia oe?uoea, aaea e aioiayo ?iaeeeueiia aiacaei.
Naeiuee i?aaeuaeouaai iiiaoa nii?iaiaeaeatho iaoue e ianoo aiacaea, ii e
iaio ia iiaeoiaeyo. Iieiaeua naiee a aic?anoa aei aeaoo eao i?e
iino?ieea /aeia aeey ia?aiai iii?ina ?an/euatho niaa e eenoiaoth
iiaenoeeeo, a iieo/eaoainy oaeoaeaiee iie ?uoeyo caieth e eanioth o?ooo
ia ieiuaaee, niioaaonoaothuae ?acia?ai eo oaea. I?eaioiaeaiiia oaeei
ia?acii ianoi iie?uaatho e?uoae, ninoiyuae ec 15 – 20 aaoi ieoou, aee,
eaae?a, eee eaueiu. Noa?ua naiee a aic?anoa aei 5 eao no?iyo /aeiu
eneonii: ooiaeaiaioaeueii i?ieeaaeuaatho aai naa?oo ai?ioii iaii?ioieea
eee nooie o?aau. Aeey yoiai i?eia?ii a ?aaeeona 3 – 4 iao?a aie?oa /aeia
iie iaeaiuaatho, ia aunioa 15 – 20 ni io caiee ana eonou eaueiu,
noaieeee iieiaeuo oaieiuo aea?aaueaa aeeaiao?ii 1 – 1,5 ni. E?oiiua e
neeueiua naiee aeaaea eiiatho oeaeeeii iaaieueoea eaae?u e ieoou a 2 – 3
ni oieueiie, noaneeaatho ana ia e?uoo /aeia. *aeii i?eia?ii ninoaaeyao
21,5i n iaaanii 90 – 100 ni.

*aeii n e?uoae i/aiue aaaeiia i?eniiniaeaiea a ia?eiae ?aciiiaeaiey
eaaaiia. Iii nianaao ii?inyo io aiciiaeiiai iaiaaeaiey /a?iuo ai?iiia
?aneeaauaaiea o ieo a ia?aua aeie iinea ?iaeia ioiiaeiu, oe?uaay
iieiaeuo io aiciiaeiuo inaaeeia aeiaeaey e niaaa, io /?acia?iiai
nieia/iiai naaoa, a oaeaea nia?aaaao eo a iiiaiou ioeo/ae naiee aeey
iienea ieue.

Iii?in naeiae i?ienoiaeeo n ia?oa ii iae. *enei ?iaeaeathueony o iaeiie
naeiuee ii?inyo ?acee/ii e ianiiiaiii caaeneo io aic?anoa naiee.
Iieiaeua iniae aei aeaoo eao /aua i?eiinyo 4 – 5 ii?inyo, ii iaaieueoeo
?acia?ia. Iauay ieiaeiaeoinoue noaaea caaeneo io aic?anoa iniaae
anooiathueo a ?aciiiaeaiea: /ai iieiaea aic?anoiie ninoaa iiaieiauey,
oai iaiueoa iauee i?eieiae. Yoi iieiaeaiea aaaeii ciaoue ioioieeai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi ioioie/ueeo oicyenoa, o.e. iono?aeeaay iieiaeuo iniaae e
inoaaeyy c?aeuo iiaeii niinianoaiaaoue ?inoo iiaieiauey eaaaiia.

Ii?inyoa ?iaeaeathony iiaeaeaeiuie e c?y/eie, oi?ioi iiooaiiuie,
iieinaouie ia ao?ii oiia oa?noe, ii aieai e nieia oyiooueny naaoeua
iieinee oe?eiie ieiei 2 ni.

Naeiuee – i/aiue caaioeeaua iaoa?e, iie niaei caueuatho aeaoaiuoae e a
ia?aue ianyoe i/aiue aa?anneaiu – niaei a?inathony ia ano?a/o ethaiio
caa?th eee /aeiaaeo, ?eneioaoaio i?eaeeceoueny e auaiaeeo aieaa /ai ia
30 – 40 i. a noaaea eaaeaeay, ec naeiae caueuaao ethaiai ii?inaiea eae
naiaai. E inaie einoeieo io?aiu aeaoaiuoae ineaaaaaao.

Ieii/aoaeueii ioaeaeeaoenue io iaoee, ii?inyoa i?iaeieaeatho oiaeeoue
a?oiiie aei oao ii?, iiea eo ia ?acaiiyo aieee, a?iaey/ea niaaee eee
/aeiaae (Ei?uoei N.A. 1976a).

1.2.3 Iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey, aieacie, eiieo?aiou e a?aae

Eaaaiu aanniaaeiia a?aiy aieueooth /anoue nooie i?iaiaeyo n?aaee
iiaeeanee e auniei o?aayienoiai iie?iaa a iieyo. Iiyoiio aieueoay eo
/anoue ieacuaaaony a ?aciie noaiaie ca?aaeaiiuie yeoiia?aceoaie. (Eiceia
I.A. 1975a).

Eeaue a aieinyiii iie?iaa eaaaiia ano?a/athony ia anaaaea a iaeeiaeiaii
eiee/anoaa. A eiioea ia?oa, eiaaea caa?e ei?iyony ia aanniaaeiuo neeiiao
a aeoaiauo eanao, a eo aieinyiie iie?ia iaiiecatho eeaue. Eeaue a
aieinao caa?ae aea?aeaony ana eaoi. Oieueei inaiueth iinea eeiueee e
iiiai/eneaiiuo eoiaiee eaaaiu a caiaoiie noaiaie inaiaiaeaeathony io
anao aeaeia eeauae, oa?ythueo e yoiio a?aiaie naith aeoeaiinoue.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ana aeaeu eeauae ia aucuaatho na?ueaciuo
aieaciaiiuo yaeaiee aeaaea o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo ii?inyo. Iauyniyaony yoi
oai, /oi ac?ineua e iieiaeua aeeaioiua niiniaiu au/anuaaoue
yeoiia?aceoia, ec aieinyiiai iie?iaa i niieenoua noaieu oaieiuo
aea?aaueaa. Iiyoiio iaei oaeaaony iaia?oaeeoue ia eaaaiao aiieia
ianinaaoeony eeauae.

Naeiua aoe ano?a/athony ia eaaaiao a iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao inaiueth,
ceiie e aaniie a oio iiiaio, eiaaea caa?e oanii nii?eeanathony ae?oa n
ae?oaii, ioaeuoay a iaueo naiaeiuo /aeiao eee eniieuecoy noa?ua eaaeee.
A aieiaeiua aiaeu iao?iaeay aeaeoaeae aeoaa iiiaieueneiai e i?aoia
eaae?a ei?aeneiai, aoe ano?a/athony o 80% eaaaiia, iaiiecay a aieinu ia
aieaa i?ia?aaaaiuo caa?ai /anoyo oaea (iao, a?oaeue, e o.ae.), aaea
iaiaa a?oaay uaoeia.

?aaea yoe yeoiia?aceou eieaeecothony a aa?oieo /anoyo oaea e a ei?ioeeo
aieinao ooiuo ?aeiaei. Ana iiai?iaeaeaiiua ii?inyoa ieacuaathony
?aaiiia?ii onuiaiiuie aoaie, i?eia?aoaiiuie io iaoie ai a?aiy ei?ieaiey.
Iiiai/eneaiiua iiyaeaiey ia oaea aoae ac?ineua eaaaiu ia?aiinyo eaaei, e
oieueei ii?inyoa aei iany/iiai aic?anoa auaatho auioaeaeaiu /anoi
/anaoueny a?oaeueth e a?thoii i noieau aea?aaueaa, o.e. a eo iaaeiii
aieinyiii iie?iaa i?e oiieie eiaea aoe iieo/atho iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ino?iai ?aciiiaeaiey.

Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia /eneaiiinoue eaaaiia ieacuaatho ?acee/iua
caaieaaaiey. Yia?ae/ii ?iynue a caiea e eniieuecoy a ieuo iiiai/eneaiiuo
ii/aaiiuo aaniicaiii/iuo – iaethneia, /a?aae, ee/eiie, eoeieie e o.ae.,
eaaaiu eaaei ca?aaeathony ?acee/iuie aaeueieioaie. Iaeaieaa /anoi
ano?a/athony ca?aaeaiey iaoano?ii, aeeeaeaie, eiaaea a eo ieoaiee
o/aanoaotho a aieueoii eiee/anoaa aeiaeaeaaua /a?ae, yaeythueany
i?iiaaeooi/iuie oicyaaaie aaeueieioa. Ee/eiee iaoinoiaaethna
?acaeaathony a a?iioao, iie ?ac?ooatho noaiee a?thoa, aucuaatho eaoaeue,
enoiuaiea aeeaioiuo.

Ca?aaeaiiua aeeaioiua noiiiayony iaeiiiaeaeaeiuie, uaoeia o ieo
acua?ioaia. Ii?inyoa eiatho aeae caii?uoae.

Anea?eaeic – aaeueieioiciia caaieaaaiea, aicaoaeeoaeai o eaaaia yaeyaony
naeiay anea?eaea. Iniaaiii iianiu aeey 2 – 6 iany/iuo ii?inyo, aieaciue
nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?ia?anneaiui enoiuaieai e iaaei?acaeoinoueth.

Oeenoeoea?eic – iaiineo cia/eoaeueiua oauoee ec– ca aieacie ia/aie e
na?iciuo iie?iaia, eaaaiu ieioi ?acaeaathony, neeueii ca?aaeaiiua
ii?inyoa oyaeaei caaieaaatho e aeaioo.

O?eoeieeac – i/aiue iianiia aaeueieioiciia caaieaaaiea. Ac?ineua
o?eoeiaeeu – iaeeea e?oaeua /a?ae ia?aceoe?otho a eeoa/ieea, ee/eiee a
iuooeao eaaaia. Ee/eiee i?iieeatho a eeioaoe/aneoth nenoaio, ioooaea a
e?iaue, ?aciinyony ii naio i?aaiecio, ?aciinyony ii anaio i?aaiecio,
aiaae?ythony a aieieia iiia?a/ii – iieinaoie ioneoeaoo?u. A iuooeao
ee/eiee naa?ouaathony a nie?aeue, aie?oa eioi?ie oi?ie?oaony eainoea.

Ec eioaeoeeiiiuo caaieaaaiee o eaaaia ioia/aia naeiay /oia. Caaieaaaiea
yuo?ii, neae?neie ycaie, ooaa?eoeacii, ooey?aieae e ae?oaeie aieaciyie
n?aaee eaaaiia ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaii. Cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea naeiie /oiu
ioee/athony inaiueth a 5 – 6 eao. A oaeea aiaeu /anoi a eanao iiaeii
iaeoe inoaiee eaaaiia, /anoe/ii nuaaeaiiuo aieeaie, eeneoeaie e oeuiuie
ioeoeaie, i?e/ai a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iaoiaeeee ia?oauie oeaeuo naeiae.

A aiaeu yieaeaiee aeaioo a iniiaiii iniae ieaaeoeo aic?anoia aei aeaoo
eao, iiyoiio ai a?aiy ioiou ia eaaaia /aua iiiaaeatho iniae oieueei o?ao
eao e noa?oa.

I?e/eiu auno?iai ?ani?ino?aiaiey naeiie /oiu:

1. I?e/eiie yaeyaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea naieie eaaaiaie, e?iia oiai,
eiiaaea iiaaeatho o?oiu naieo nia?aoueaa. Ii yoie i?e/eia naeiay /oia
?ani?ino?aiyaony a i?aaeaeao aeaea, aeaaiui ia?acii a inaiiee ia?eiae
i?e ianooieaiee aiia e i?e iaeii o?iaeaa anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia,
canoaaeythueo eaaaiia niaa?oaoue aieueoea ia?aoiaeu, i?iyaeaiey
eneeth/eoaeueiie iiaeaeaeiinoe.

2. Aieaciue ?aciineony oeuieeaie e niaaeaie, iiaeae?athueie inoaoee
iaaeaee, e /aeiaaeii, eiiaaea aeaeathuei ec nu?ie eiaee iaaoeo eaaaiia
oaaaeioth iaoaue, eioi?ie aanniciaoaeueii ?aciineony eioaeoeey ia
aieueoea ?annoiyiey ii eaniui o?iiai. Ii yoie i?e/eia eioaeoeeiiiua
i/aae auno?i ?anoe?ythony aaeieue aei?ia e o?ii (Eiceia I.A.1975a).

Iineaaeiea 13 eao caaieaaaiey naeiie /oiie a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia ia
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu.

E oeuieeai oie/oiaeathueo eaaaiia neaaeoao i?e/eneeoue ao?iai iaaeaaaey
e aieea.

Aieee oniaoii aeiauaatho eaaaiia, anee noaaei ninoieo ec iieiaeuo
aeeaioiuo, eee aea iii ineaaeaii iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie n?aaeu.

*aua anaai aieee iaiaaeatho ia eaaaiia a iiiaio ia?aciaaiey iaeaaeae,
o.a. a eiioea aeaeaa?y e caoai ?aiiae aaniie i?e iiyaeaiee i?i/iiai
ianoa. Aieee i?aneaaeotho naith aea?oao aiiii ii naiui ?acee/iui
o/anoeai neiaeiiai ?aeueaoa, noa?aynue ioaeaeeoue naeiueth eee ii?inaiea
io noaaea e caaiaoue a oaeiaiia aeey eiaa ianoi.

A naith i/a?aaeue, ioaeaaynue io noaaea iniaue noa?aaony aiiaue e iaio
i?eniaaeeieony. A ?acoeueoaoa ana iiaieiauea, iio?aaiaeaiiia iiaiiae a
iaieea aaaeeo i?i/ue. *anoi naieie ianoie/eauie i?aneaaeiaaieyie aieee
niaa?oaiii auaiiytho eaaaiia ec oi?ioeo ei?iiauo iano a iiiainiaaeiua
aieiaeiua oaiaeuey. Yoei iie iaiinyo a?aae eaaaiai, eeoay eo ioaeuoa e
aiciiaeiiai niieieiiai i?aauaaiey ia ei?iiuo ianoao.

Ioia/athony aeaaee ii?inyo e ac?ineuo eaaaiia io ao?uo iaaeaaaeae
oaooiia, ia noiaaoeo iieiaeeoue o?aaoaiiai caiana aee?a aeey
ii?iaeueiiai ceiiaai nia. Oaeea iaaeaaaee, iiyaeaoenue a eaeii – eeai
?aeiia i?aauaaiey naiuee naeiae, ii/oe iieiinoueth oie/oiaeatho nia/aea
ii?inyo, a caoai e ac?ineuo. Iiyoiio ao?ue iaaeaaaeue oaooi a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony aieaa iianiui a?aaii aeey eaaaiia. Ii
oaooiu iiyaeythony ia eaaeaeue aiae, a eeoue i?e iao?iaeayo eaae?iauo
i?aoia e aeaeoaeae.

Cia/aiea eeneoeu a oie/oiaeaiee ii?inyo iacia/eoaeueii, ?aiiae aaniie
ii?inyo niaei caueuaao naiea, a o?aoiany/iuo ii?inyo eeneoea oaea ia a
ninoiyiee acyoue. Iiyoiio iniiaiuie oeuieeaie, caiaoii nie?auathueie
iiaieiauea eaaaiia, neaaeoao n/eoaoue aieeia e iaaeaaaeae.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a ieoaiee eaaaiia ea?atho eaae?iaua i?aoe, iaeiaei, a
iio?aaeaiee eo o eaaaiia eiathony iinoiyiiua ei?iiaua eiieo?aiou.

Aenyuoth ia aea?aaa oeoeo aeieaeo eaae?iaea, aeyoeu, iiiiecie e
aeoaiiinu, iae?atho aa aaeee, ao?oiaeoee. Iiyoiio i?e ieceeo o?iaeayo
yoio ei?i aua aei ceiu ieacuaaaony ia 90% nuaaeaiiui ia aea?aaueyo. A
inaiiaa a?aiy iinea neeueiuo aao?ia cia/eoaeueiay /anoue oeoae iaaeaao
ia caieth. N yoiai a?aiaie eaae?iaua i?aoe noaiiayony aeinooiiuie e
eaaaiai. Iaeiia?aiaiii ia oieueei i?aaeiea eiieo?aiou ii e iiaua,
ia/eiatho iiaeae?aoue eo n caiee. E iineaaeiei neaaeoao i?e/eneeoue
eanioth iuoue, aa?noea, niaiey e ae?oaeo (Caa?ueei I.A.1953a).

Ae?oaei iniiaiui ei?iii aeeeeo eaaaiia yaeythony aeaeoaee. A iac?aeii
aeaea eo ia/eiatho niae?aoue n aea?aaueaa iaaeaaaee, ao?oiaeoee e aaeee.
N caiee eo ioioii aa?oo iaaeaaaee. AEaeoaee ooaea iiaaeatho iuoe e
iieaaee, iiyoiio iie aeieueoa eniieuecothony caa?yie a oa/aiee
?anoyiooiai a?aiaie (Caa?ueei I.A.1953a).

2 Nianoaaiiua enneaaeiaaiey. Oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea
A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia

Ieiuaaeue A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia ninoaaeyao: 2 478 330 oun. aa, ieiuaaeue
ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee ninoaaeyao: 1 161 198 oun. aa.

A?aieoeu ?aeiia:

A?oa?eineee ?aeii ?aniieiaeai ia e?aeiai thai-ainoiea Aio?neie iaeanoe
(132? naaa?iie oe?iou e 47? – 50? ainoi/iie aeieaiou).

N naaa?a a?aie/eo n Ao?aae, eioi?ay ?acaeaeyao ?. Ao?ay.

Ainoi/iay /anoue A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia a?aie/eo n Eeoaeneie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeeie, ?acaeaeyao a?aieoeo aieueoay ?. Aio?.

N caiaaeiie /anoe n Aa?aeneie Aaoiiiiiie Iaeanoueth.

N thaeiie /anoe n sseooeae.

Ii aaiii?oieiae/aneiio ?aeiie?iaaieth oa??eoi?ey ?aeiia ioianaia e
I?eaio?nei – I?eii?neie i?iaeioeee ?aaiei Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. Ii noaia
?aeiie?iaaiey A.A. Ieeieueneie (1969a) A?oa?eineay ieciaiiinoue aoiaeeo
a ninoaa iaeanoe Aio?nei – Caenei – Ao?aeineie iaaeai?iie ?aaieiu, a
io?iae Iaeiai Oeiaaia ioiiny e iaeanoe n?aaeiaaunioiuo e ieceeo
iacicieneeo ai?. N?aaeiyy aunioa aa?oei 350 – 450 iao?ia i.o.i. Ii
ii/aaiii – aaia?aoe/aneiio ?aeiie?iaaieth, oa??eoi?ey ?aeiia a ?aaieiiie
naiae /anoe, i?aaenoaaeythuae /anoue A?oa?eineie ieciaiiinoe, aoiaeeo a
ninoaa Caenei – Ao?aeineie i?iaeioeee ao?uo eaniuo eoaiai – aea?iiauo,
/a?iicaiiaeaeiuo ii/a, a ai?iie /anoe – io?iaia Iaeiai Oeiaaia – a
ai?ioth i?iaeioeeth ao?uo eaniuo e iiiaecieaiiuo ii/a. Aeae?inaoue
?aeiia i?aaenoaaeaia eaauie i?eoieaie ?aee Aio? a aai n?aaeiai oa/aiee:
?. O?eeii, Iooiie e A?yciie. Ii oa?aeoa?o oa/aiey aieueoeinoai ?ae
?aeiia ioiineony e ?aaieiiiio oeio. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao ?aea A?yciay
ia o/anoeao i?aaeai?ee Iaeiai Oeiaaia. Aiaeu ?ae i?aniua,
iaeiieia?aeeciaaiiua n i?aiaeaaeaieai aeae?iea?aiiaoiuo aieiiia.
Oa?aeoa? i?ioaeaiey aieueoeinoaa ?ae ii oa??eoi?ee ?aeiia aanueia
naiaia?acia. Ia/aei naia, eae i?aaeei ?aee aa?oo ia Oieienoii
i?aaeai?uea. Aueaey ia ?aaieio, ?aee iinoaiaiii oa?ytho naia au?aaeaiiia
?onei e ia?aoiaeyo a aaeaa caiaoioth n?aaee ie?oaeathuae ?aaieiu
ieineoth iaaeue oe?eiie io 200 aei 500 iao?ia, caiieiaiioth inieiaui
oi?oii. Oaeei ia?acii, iaaieueoea ?aee (Ai?cy, Aeaeaaoeue e ae?.) ia
eiatho neaiciiai i?ioiea a Aio?: aiaea noaeathuay ii iei n i?aaeai?ee,
caaea?aeeaaaony «a?iaeaie» ?aceeaaaony ii ?aaieia e caaiea/eaaao
ianoiinoue. Ec e?oiiuo ica? iiaeii auaeaeeoue Aeieaia, Eaaaaeeiia,
ssoeaieiai. Iiiaeanoai iaeeeo ica? ?aniieiaeaiu ia ia?aie oa??ana ?ae
Aio?a e Ao?ae. Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie inoaoee aiaeiaiia noa?eoe,
ca?inoeo oi?oii ae?aaiae aeieeiu. Eeeiao ?aeiia ?aniieiaeaiey
ii?aaeaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaeai aicaeooiuo iann a?iiaaeiiai iaoa?eea
Aa?acee e iaoe?iuo aiaeiuo i?ino?ainoa Oeoiai ieaaia e iiuaathueo
iaoa?ee ii?ae. Ceia oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaauie aao?aie, iaeiniaaeiinoueth e
neeueiuie ii?icaie i?e yniii iaaa. Ceiie auiaaeaao 11,7% aiaeiaiai
eiee/anoaa inaaeeia, aaniethoiiai ieieioia oaiia?aoo?a aeinoeaaao –
47,3? N. N?aaeiyy aunioa niaaeiiai iie?iaa20 – 25 ni. iaeay iiuiinoue
niaaiaiai iie?iaa e ieceea oaiia?aoo?u ceiieo ianyoeaa niinianoaotho
aeoaieiio i?iia?caieth ii/au e oi?ie?iaaieth iiuiie ia?ceiou.
Iaoeioa?aeoa?enoeea iiaiaeiuo oneiaee (ii aeaiiui AIN iin. A?oa?a).

Oaaeeoea ?1.

IVVVIVIIVIIIN?aaeiaiany/iua O? aicaeooa5,4 / 2,5/11,7 /11,1/17,9
/17,7/20,4 /21,1/19,3 /18,8/Aaniethoiue ieieioi O??

– 3,0 /-20,8/-2,0 /7,6/3,0 /1,9/10,0 /3,2/8,0 /2,9/Aaniethoiue iaeneioi
O?21,0 /27,3/29,0 /32,3/34,0 /35,4/31,0 /31,7/27,0 /34/Eiee/anoai
inaaeeia ii ianyoeai a ii.51,0 /30,4/25,0 /57,8/78,0 /93,9/47,0
/138,0/235,0 /135/I?eia/aiea: Aeaiiua ca 1996aiae; ca 30 eao. Eaoi
aea?eia e aeaaeiia. Eaoiea ionniiiua aeiaeaee ia/eiathony a eiioea ethey
e oaaee/eaathony a ia/aea aaaonoa. Iaeneioi inaaeeia auiaaeaao a ethea –
aaaonoa

2.1 Oeiieiaey ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee

Iauaa /enei ninoaeenouo ?anoaiee auyaeaiiuo A.Ae. Aeuieiie a 1967 – 1974
aiaeao ninoaaeyao 450 aeaeia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e 259 ?iaeai e 78
naiaenoaai. Naiie aiaaoie e ?aciiia?aciie yaeyaony iaiue/aeo?neay oei?a.
Ec aa i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeey oa??eoi?ee ?aeiia oa?aeoa?iu: eaae?
ei?aeneee, aa?oao aio?neee, aeoa iiiaieueneee. Eiathony oaeea aeaeu
?anoaiee eae ioiinyueany e ainoi/iineae?neie oei?a: eenoaaiieoea
aeao?neay, ?iaeiaeaiae?ii e ae?.

E iniiaiui eiiiiiaioai iiaeeanea ioiinyony 2 aeaea eaueiu:
iaiue/aeo?neay e ?aciieenoiay, eaniaaeaoea aeaoooeaaoiay. A i?aaeaeao
A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia i?iec?anoaao 7 aeaeia ?anoaiee, caianaiiuo a
E?anioth eieao ?O: aeaeoeey aeaaeeay, aiaeyiie i?ao Aio?neee, eioin
Eiia?iaa, aaoia/ie ianoiyuee e e?oiiioeaaoiue. Eaniay ?anoeoaeueiinoue
caieiaao 51% ieiuaaee ?aeiia e neiioeaio?e?iaaia a iniiaiii a ai?iie
/anoe ?aeiia.

2.2 Ninoaa oaiaeee

Iieaaua oaiaeuey: i?aaenoaaeaiu niaie iaoie, naiieinu e auianu. Ec
aicaeaeuaaaiuo eoeueoo? ia ia?aii ianoa niy, ia aoi?ii ioaieoea,
y/iaiue, iaan, eoeo?oca, iaiue (ea?oioaeue, eaionoa, naaeea, ii?eiaue).
Iaeaieueooth oeaiiinoue aeey ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo i?aaenoaaeytho niaaua
e eoeo?ociua iiey. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ia?aniaoaiiuo o/anoeia ?aeiia
iie?uoa ?aciio?aaii-ceaeiauie eoaaie, a a iiieaeaieyo eoaaie ec
?acee/iiai ni/aoaiey aaeieea e inie, /aua aeiieie?otho iniee.

Ia aaeieei – inieiauo eoaao ei/ee aeinoeaatho auniou 30 – 40 ni. Eoaa
aeatho aieueooth ianno naia, nooea o/anoee naiieinia iie?uou
?anoeoaeueiinoueth noaiiiai oeia (ceaee, aaeiee iacaiiue, iyoeee,
aieinaiaoe).

Eaniua oaiaeuey: n?aaee iieae, eiiaaea n?aaee aieio e ii aa?aaai ica?
?aca?inaiu eonoa?ieeiaua e eaniua oieieee. Ean caieiaao aieaa iieiaeiu
oa??eoi?ee ?aeiia. Ean niaoaiiue aeoaiai – niniiiaue n i?eianueth aaeie
e /a?iie aa?acu, ec?aaeea ineiu e eenoaaiieoeu. Aic?ano ae?aainoiy io 5
aei 60 eao. Iiaeeanie ia?aciaai i?aoieeii, oeiiaieeii, ?iaeiaeaiae?iiii
aeao?neei. Aeey o?aainoiy oa?aeoa?iu eaiaeuo, aieiaeooea, eiaueue
aaeeaeueneee. Ean nicaeaao oi?ioea ei?iiaua e caueoiua oneiaey aeey
eaaaia, einoee, caeoea aaeyea, eeneoeu, oaoa?aaa.

Aieioa: iniei-aaeieeiaua n aieioiui ?aciio?aaueai: aaooie, aiuai
aieioiui, e?iaioeaaeie, eeoaeneie eoiaeueieoeae. Ianoaie ano?a/athony
ca?inee oaeueieea e eau. Aieioa nicaeatho oi?ioea ei?iiaua e caueoiua
oneiaey aeey aiioiaeaeiie niaaee, eieiiea, aiaeiieaaathuae aee/e.

Ica?a: ana ica?a aiaaou eoaoeieie, eoauoeie a?acaieae, aiaeyiie i?ao,
?ynea, ?aeano, ii aa?aaai ca?inee o?inoieea, ?iaica, eaiuoa, aeeeiai
?ena. A ica?ao aiaeeony ?aciiia?aciay ?uaa: ea?anue, ?aoai, e?aniiia?ea,
auethi, a caeeaiuo ica?ao auaaao e ?a/iay ?uaa – uoea, nii, e o.ae. A
ca?ineyo n ethiy aiacaeyony ooee (iu?ie, /e?ie, e?yeaa, oeeioaino),
?aaeei aonue. Ai anao aiaeiaiao iaeoaao iiaeao?a.

?aea A?oa?a – iaeia ec naiuo e?oiiuo ?ae ?aeiia. A iae ano?a/athony
oaeea ?aciiaeaeiinoe ?ua: oaeiaiue, oa?eon, nacai, nii, ea?anue,
aaeueyi, oienoieiaee, uoea, ianea?ue e ae?.Ai a?aiy inaiieo ia?aeaoia
ano?a/aaony ooea. Ea/anoai oaiaeee A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia i?eaaaeaii a
oaaeeoea ?2.

Ea/anoai ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee. Oaaeeoea ?2.

Eaoaai?ey oaiaeeeS Caieiaaiie eaoaai?ee S Au?aaeaiiay a %Ca/aoiue
eiyooeoeeaio Noiia aaeiaEan132 oun581,15,6Iiey 75 oun330,49,3Aieioa 23,4
oun9,20,42,7Aiaeiaiu 7,6 oun3,9311,7

Oaeie iieacaoaeue niioaaonoaoao ioeaiea «oi?ioi».

2.3 Aeeiaieea /eneaiiinoe eaaaia, no?oeoo?a e aeayoaeueiinoue

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey o/aoiuo ?aaio auynieeenue oa??eoi?eaeueiua e
eiee/anoaaiiua aeaiiua /eneaiiinoe eaaaia.

*eneaiiinoue a ia?eiae n 2000 ii 2003 aa.

Oaaeeoea ?3.

AiaeIeioiinoue ia 1000
aa.*eneaiiinoue20002,640020012,847720023,3151920034,2676

Iineai?iiuneiaay /eneaiiinoue eaaaia a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia.

*eneaiiinoue eaaaia a ?aeiia ?anoao ia i/aiue. Yoi naycaii n iaee/eai
ei?iiaie aacu e ai?ueau n aieeaie.

Naienoaaiiay ieiuaaeue eaaaia a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia ?aaia 716 oun. aa,
ieioiinoue ia 1 aa (oun).

OIC AeAssOAEUeIINOUe ?II e ? caieiathony iiauoaieai /eneaiiinoe
ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia, i?iaiaeyo aaeaaiaeii
aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey.

1.1 I?aaiecoao e i?eieiaao o/anoea a ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii ii io?aia e
?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo e n?aaeu eo
iaeoaiey.

1.2 Inouanoaeytho ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea e ainoaea?noaaiiue
eiio?ieue ca io?aiie e eniieueciaaieai ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo, aeeth/ay
eiio?ieue a iaeanoe aaaeaiey ioioie/ueaai oicyenoaa iacaaeneii io
aaaeiinoaaiiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee.

1.3 Iaania/eaatho io?aio ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee aeeaioiuo /a?ac
ioioiaaaeia, ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioioie/ueeo einiaeoi?ia e aaa?ae n
i?eaea/aieai aeey yoeo oeaeae ?aaioieeia IAAe, eaniie io?aiu,
?uaiio?aiu.

1.4 Inouanoaeytho ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeci? ca niaethaeaieai i?aaee
ioiou. A onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea i?aaeuyaeytho ene ca oua?a, iaianaiiue
iacaeiiiie aeiau/ae ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo.

Oeiaine?iaaiea i?ienoiaeeo ec – ca i?iaeaaee iooaaie ia aiaeiieaaathuoth
e aieueooth aee/ue, a oaeaea ia eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo. Oaeaea
oeiaine?iaaiea eaeao ec – ca oiea/aiiuo aciinia, eioi?ua ieaoyo ioioieee
eaaeaeue aiae, oaeaea a?aiaea neeaaeia, e iiiauaiee.

Aaa?y ia naieo o/anoeao aeaeatho nieiioeu, eiayo a?aeiiuea?ia, i?iaiaeyo
aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey e o.ae. o eaaeaeiai eiaaony aeiaaiee, a
eioi?ii aaa?ue aaaeao i?e?iaeiua iaaethaeaiey, ioia/aao iiaiaeiua
oneiaey, ano?a/o caa?ae e ioeoe, neaaeu eaaeee, aiacaea ?aaeeeo ioeoe, a
oaeaea aeaeaao ioiaoee i aaeaaeiaaii i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa.

2.4 Iaoa?eaeueii oaoie/aneay aaca

Aaca iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee A?oa?eineiai i?iioica; o ia/aeueieea
Aeaaeie N.E. e aai caianoeoaey ?iiaiaiei A.A. eiaaony aaoiiiaeeue OAC –
469, ao?ai; a Oeiaaii – A?oa?eineii Caeacieea – 3 aaoiiiaeey (OAC – 458,
«Ieiae», 452 – ai?oiaie, OAC – 469).

Aeey ?aniaoee iieae, iiaeei?ii/iuo ieiuaaeie eiaaony o?aeoi? AeO – 75 n
iaaaniui iai?oaeiaaieai (aeenee, ieoa, eiiaoa), ao?ai. Ainaiue
ea?aeiiia, eioi?ua ?aniieiaeaiu ia a?aieoea caeacieea, oaeaea eiathony 2
iioi?iua eiaeee, 3 iioi?a. Aeo?ue -30 e iaeei aaoa?ie. Aeey io?aiu
a?aieoe n ?aee, iiaeaica a eaoiaa a?aiy ANI, naiyi, ei?iia, e o.ae.

Ana ?aaiou aaaeoony niaeanii ieaio ia aiae, ninoaaeaiiiai ia/aeueieeii
ioaeaea e ia/aeueieeii Oeiaaii – A?oa?eineiai Caeacieea, eioi?ua
ooaa?aeaeathony ia/aeueieeii Aio? Ioio Oi?aaeaieai e niaeaniauaaaony
aeaaie Aaeieieno?aoeee ?aeiia.

Ii?oiiao?e/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeeiai eaaaia a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia.

Ca a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey i?aaeaeeieiiiie i?aeoeee n 1 naioya?y ii 17
iiya?y 2004 aiaea, iiie auee cae?aieaiu ciaiey, iieo/aiiua a einoeoooa,
a oaeaea aeey aeeieiiiie ?aaiou iu i?iia?eee ?acia?u eaaaiia, ?acia?u
eioi?uo i?eaaaeaiu ieaea a oaaeeoea ?3.

Ianna e eeiaeiua ia?aiao?u eaaaia a aic?anoa io 2.5 aei 4 eao.

Oaaeeoea ?3.

Ia?aiao?u Aic?ano Naioeu ?Naiee ?2,533,542,533,541. Ianna
(ea)116139142150971051221302. Aeeeia oaea1401471491501321361341453.
Aeeeia aieiau40505454414249454. Aunioa a oieea8282878481828488

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, ?acia?u e naioeia e naiie ii/oe ia ioee/athony, ii
ana oaee naioeu eae e iieiaeaii eiatho i?aeiouanoai.

2.5 N?iee e niiniau ioiou

Eciaiaiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ioiou iaeei ec iiuiuo niiniaia
aicaeaenoaey ia eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo anao
iai?aaeaiee. N?iee ioiou onoaiaaeeaathony n o/aoii iaania/aiey
aini?iecaiaenoaa e iieo/aiey eo/oaai ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Aaaaeaiu
aaeeiua i?aaeaeueiua n?iee ioiou ia eaaaia n 1 ieoya?y ii 15 yiaa?y,
o.a. 3,5 ianyoea.

Eiie?aoiua n?iee ioiou onoaiaaeeaathony Aaeieieno?aoeaiui aiia?aoii
iaeanoe, e?ay, aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee a caaeneiinoe io ianoiuo oneiaee. A
iaoae iaeanoe n?iee ioiou ia eaaaia onoaiaaeeaathony Aeaia?oaiaioii ii
io?aia, eiio?ieth e ?aaoee?iaaieth eniieueciaaiey ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo
aio?neie iaeanoe. ?ac?aaioaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey e ii?iaoeau
ooaa?aeaeathony e ioaeeeothony ianniauie oe?aaeaie. Yoio aeieoiaio eiaao
th?eaee/aneoth neeo. Ii aeiaiaeeony aei ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ioioiauanoa,
?inioio?uaieianithca, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueony
yenieoaoaoeeae e aini?iecaiaenoaii ainioiooiiaea. Ia?ooeoaeyi
i?aaeuyaeyaony ene ca iaianaiea oua?aa ainioiooiiaeo a onoaiiaeaiiii
?acia?a, ca eaeiai eaaaia, oo?ao n eiioeneaoeeae a?aeiiuea?neie
i?iaeoeoeee e i?oaeee aeiauaaiey, anee ia?ooaiea ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
noaoueae Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena ?O.

Ii?iaoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue oieueei i?e oneiaee
ciaiey /eneaiiinoe ioioie/ueeo aeeaioiuo a oaiaeueyo ioio iieueciaaiey.
Iaiaoiaeeiua naaaeaiey i /eneaiiinoe iieo/atho a ?acoeueoaoa o/aoia, ia
iniiaaiee eioi?uo ioio oaiaeuey ioeaieaatho naie ?ano?nu,
?ac?aaaouaatho, ieaiu aeiau/e, a i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee
?ani?aaeaeytho eeieo aeiau/e eeoeaiceiiiuo aeaeia e aeaeatho caeeth/aiea
ia o?iaia eniieueciaaiey aeeaioiuo a oaiaeueyo, cae?aieaiiuo ca
oicyenoaaie. Ia iniiaaiee o/aoiuo aeaiiuo aei naaaeaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
oicyenoa aeiaiaeeony eeieo ia onoaiiaeaiea eiee/anoaa aeiau/e eaaaia.

I ?acoeueoaoao eniieueciaaiey eeoeaicee ioioiaaae io/eouaaaony ia?aae
oi?aaeaieai ii ieii/aiee i?iiunea.

Ioioa ia eaaaia iaeia ec eioa?aniaeoeo e caoaaouaathueo. Ioioiee
o/anoaothuee a ioioa ia eaaaia aeieaeai eiaoue iiuo no?aeueau ii
e?oiiiio caa?th, naiaiaeii aeaaeaoue i?oaeeai, niaethaeaoue i?aaeea
oaoieee aaciianiinoe. Iau/ii ioioyony n aeaaeeinoaieueiui i?oaeeai 12 –
16 eaeea?a, ca?yaeii yaeyaony ioey eee e?oiiay ea?oa/ue. Oaeaea
eniieuecoaony ia?aciia i?oaeea oaeeo iiaeaeae eae «Aai?ue», «NEN»,
«Naeaa» e o.ae. Ioioa ia eaaaia i?iaiaeeony /aou?ueiy niiniaaie:
caaiiii, ia caneaeeao, n niaaeaie e n auoae o iiaeei?ii/iuo ieiuaaeie.

Ioioa caaiiii eieeaeoeaiay, eae i?aaeei, o/anoaotho 6 – 10 /aeiaae,
?aaea 15 – 20 /aeiaae. A caaii iinueatho anao aeaaeaeueoeaa niaae,
iau/ii 3 – 4 /aeiaae. Inoaeueiua ioioieee noaiiayony ia iiia?a a ianoao
i?aaeiieaaaaiiai auoiaea caa?y. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iiia?aie caaeneo io
oneiaee ianoiinoe e eiee/anoaa no?aeeia. Iau/ii yoi ninoaaeyao 50 – 60
iao?ia. Anoaa ia iiia?, ioioiee auae?aao oaeiaiia ianoi aeey no?aeueau.
Oaeaeaa caa?y eo/oae ianee?iaeie inoaaaoueny iaiiaeaeaeiui. I?e iono?aea
1 – 2 eaaaiia ioioa n/eoaaony oniaoiie.

Ioioa ia caneaeea i?iaiaeeony ia iinoiyiiuo ianoao ei?iaaeee caa?y. *aua
anaai caneaeee ono?aeaathony ia ieiuaaeeao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?, a oaeaea a oaiaeueyo iaeeueiuo ei?iaie. Aeiau/eeainoue ioiou
caaeneo io i?aaeeueiiai auai?a ianoa canaaeu, eioi?ay iau/ii
?aniieaaaaony i?ioea auoiaea caa?y. Ia caneaeeo ioioiee i?eoiaeeo
caaeaaia?aiaiii, ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy eo?eoue, oae eae o eaaaia
/oouea ?acaeoi oaeaea oi?ioi, eae e neoo. Ioioa ia caneaeeao auaaao
oaea/iie a ia?aia a?aiy, iiea eaaai ia iaioaai, ii iinoaiaiii ii
noaiiaeony aieaa inoi?iaeiui.

Ioioa n auoae o iiaeei?ii/iuo ieiuaaeie i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue niinia
ioiou. Ioioieee, ciay, aaea aea?aeeony naiuey eaaaiia. Aeaeatho ia
iaaieueoie iieyia iiaeei?ii/iua eo/e (iaan, ioaieoea). A 25 iao?ao io
eo/e ia aea?aaa aeaeaaony neaeueaa. Eaaaiu eae i?aaeei iaoiaeyo yoo eo/o
/a?ac2 – 3 aeiy, a ioioiee ociaao ia yoii aaeaaeiaaii i?iaa?yy
iiaeei?ii/iua ieiuaaeee. Iinea 2 – 3 ioio eaaaiu ia?anoatho i?eoiaeeoue
ia eo/o, ii /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy aiiaue i?eoiaey.

Iaeiei ec eo/oeo niiniaia ioiou ia eaaaiia yaeyaony ioioa n niaaeaie.
Aeey yoie ioiou eniieuecothony eaeee, aii/ea, eiiaaea eaaaaua. I?eioeei
ioiou caeeth/aaony a caaaieaaiee eaaaia ia ?annoiyiee auno?aea, /oiau
niaaee aea?aeaee aai eae au a eieueoea.

2.6 Aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey

Iniiaiuie aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoeyie neaaeoao n/eoaoue i?aaiecaoeeth
io?aiu aeeeeo aeeaioiuo, nie?auaiea /eneaiiinoe a?aaeiuo oeuieeia.
Aaaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiie aeiau/e n o/aoii inoaaeaiey ia ceio iiaieiauea a
niioaaonoaee n anoanoaaiiie ei?iiaie aieinoueth oaiaeee, aeey aeeeeo
eiiuoiuo ieia?aeueiay iiaeei?iea. Ceiithth iiaeei?ieo neaaeoao
i?iaiaeeoue a no?iaua e iiiainiaaeiua ceiu.

Aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey, ?acee/iua ?aaiou a ioioie/ueeo oaiaeueyo
iai?aaeaiiuo ia nio?aiaiea, iiiieiaiea, oaaee/aiea e oeo/oaiea
ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee. Aeioaoie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey aeeooa?aioee?othony ii
iauaeoo eo i?eeiaeaiey ioioie/ueei oaiaeueyi e ioioie/ueei aeeaioiui. E
aeioaoie/aneei ia?ii?eyoeyi ioiinyony:

1) Nio?aiaiea oaiaeee i?e oicyenoaaiiuo ?aaioao.

2) Oaaee/aiea aieinoe (oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa) oaiaeee, nio?aiaiea ei?iiauo
iieae, iinaaeea ei?iiauo eoeueoo?.

3) I?aia?aciaaiea e nicaeaiea iiauo ioioie/ueeo oaiaeee – ono?ienoai
eneonnoaaiiuo cai?oae, eaniiinaaeee e o.ae.

Ana?inneeneee noaiaea?o iiaeei?iee eaaaia:

Nooi/iay ii?ia iiaeei?iee ia iaeii aeeaioiia a caaeneiinoe io
aeayoaeueiinoe ceiiaai ia?eiaea e ea/anoaa oaiaeee:

1) Ni/iua ei?ia 1,0 – 1,5 ea.

2) Eiioeaio?e?iaaiiua ei?ia 05 – 1 ea.

A oicyenoaao aaeaaiaeii aunaeaathony iiaeei?ii/iua iiey, ninoiyuea ec
nie, e eoeo?ocu. Niy yaeyaony oi?ioae ei?iiaie aacie, a eoeo?oca
auiieiyao ioee/iua caueoiua oneiaey. Eaaaiu eo iniaaiii oi?ioi iinauatho
a oa aiaea, eiaaea o?iaeae aeaeoaey ia aunie.

Oaeaea aaeaaiaeii aunuiathony iiaeei?ii/iua eo/e a ianoao eiioeaio?aoeee
/eneaiiinoe eaaaia. Iie aunuiathony iacaaeneii io o?iaeaeiinoe aeaeoaey,
o.e. iaaiciiaeii ociaoue eaeay aoaeao a yoii aiaeo aeoaeia niaaeiiai
iie?iaa. Anee aeoaeia niaaa iacia/eoaeueiay, oi eaaai iaioioii iinauaao
iiaeei?ii/iua eo/e, a anee niaaa auiaei iiiai e eaaaio o?oaeii aeiauoue
ec iiae niaaa ei?ia, oi ii ia/eiaao oiaeeoue ia iiaeei?ii/iua ieiuaaeee.

Nieiioeu eaaaiu iinauatho neaai, o.e. nieue aeey naeiae a cia/eoaeueiuo
eiee/anoaao yaeyaony yaeii, a nieiioeu a iniiaiii iinauatho aa?aiaiiua
naiee, a aeaeo oiai, /oi o iaa oaaee/eaaaony iio?aaiinoue a ieia?aeueiuo
aauanoaao. Eaaai ioioii iiaaeaao i?e?iaeioth aeeio, iiiieiyy caian
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee.

3.Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe

3.1 Aaciianiinoue ia i?iecaiaenoaa

Io?aia ooaea – yoi nicaeaiea aaciianiuo oneiaee aeey aunieiyooaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

Aeaaiui oneiaeai i?e ia?auaiee n i?oaeeai e eniieueciaaiee aai ia ioioa
yaeyaony ciaiea niiniaia e aeaeia ioiou n i?eiaiaieai ioioie/ueaai
i?oaeey.

Oaa?aeua ciaiey e auiieiaiea i?aaee ia?auaiey, no?iaay aeenoeeieeia i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa ioio.

I?oaeea e aiai?eianu o?aieoue a iaoaeee/aneii yueea iiae caieii.
No?aeueaa e iaoiaeaeaiea n ca?yaeaiiui i?oaeeai a ianaeaiiuo ioieoao, a
oaeaea aaeece io ieo cai?auaaony.

Cai?auaaony iai?aaeyoue i?oaeea ia /aeiaaea, ia?aaeaaaoue i?oaeea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia iniio?aa aai e ia ?ac?yaeea.

I?e ia?aaeaeaeaiee ia anao aeaeao o?ainii?oa i?oaeea aeieaeii auoue a
/aoeao eee ?ac?yaeaii e ?acia?aii.

I?e i?aiaeieaiee i?aiyonoaee aai iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?yaeeoue.

Iniaoth iniio?eoaeueiinoue ioioiee aeieaeai niaethaeaoue i?e no?aeueaa a
ca?ineyo, eonoao e cae?uoie ianoiinoe cai?auaaony no?aeueaa ii
aceaoathuae ioeoea ieaea 2,5 ni. cai?auaaony no?aeyoue ia ooi, oi?io, a
noia?eao e i?e oneiaeyo ieioie aeaeeiinoe.

No?aeyy, ioioiee aeieaeai oaaaeeony, /oi ?yaeii iao ethaeae, o.e. e ioey
e ea?oa/ue aeatho ?eeioao io aea?aaueaa e ia?ceiai a?oioa.

Aaaeiui oneiaeai i?e i?iaaaeaiee eieeaeoeaiuo ioio yaeyaony ciaiea
oaoieee aaciianiinoe, no?iaia niaethaeaiea i?aaee, aeenoeeieeiu e
aani?aeineiaiia auiieiaiea ?anii?yaeaiey ioioiaaaea (aaa?y),
?oeiaiaeeoaey ioiou eee noa?oaai eiiaiaeu.

3.2 Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe a /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeeyo

*?acau/aeiua neooaoeee – yoi ninoiyiea, a eioi?ii, i?e aicieeiiaaiea
enoi/ieea /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee ia iauaeoa, aicieeaao oa?ica aeecie e
caei?iaueth ethaeae, oua?a eiouanoao ianaeaiey, ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie /?acau/aeiuie neooaoeeyie yaeythony iiaea?u.

A iiaea?iiianiue ia?eiae (aania, eaoi, inaiue) ia aeiioneaaony
?acaaaeaiea eino?ia e aeuiieo?ia a oaiaeueyo. Iaaeiionoeii ?acaaaeaiea
eino?ia a ia?eiae neeueiuo aao?ia. I?e iaia?oaeaiee a eano iiaea?a
ioioieeo neaaeoao aeaeaaoueny oae /oiau ia auoue ianoeaiooui eee
ie?oaeaiiui ei. Iniaaiii iianai aa?oiaie iiaea?. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
naieie neeaie iiaea? iioooeoue iaaiciiaeii, ioaeii niiaueoue a eanoic
eee aeeaeaeoee ianaeaiiue ioieo.

4. Io?aia i?e?iaeu

Any aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaioieeia A?oa?eineie ?II e ? iai?aaeaia ia
oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe aeeeeo aeeaioiuo e io?aio aeeeie i?e?iaeu.
Io?aiyy aeeeeo aeeaioiuo, nio?aiyai aei?aciia?acea iaoae iaeanoe. A
?aeiia anoue oaeea aeeaioiua eae eaaai, einoey, einue, ectha?, ec oeuiuo
– aiee, ?unue. Ioeoeu – oacai, oaoa?aa, ?ya/ee.

A?oa?eineee ?aeii – yoi oa??eoi?ey, iaeaieaa inaiaiiay a aio?neie
iaeanoe. Caeanue eioaineaii ?acaeoi naeueneia oicyenoai, caieaaeaeea.
Inaiueth eiiaaea iiey ia iieiinoueth oae?athony (a neeo
aanoicyenoaaiiinoe), ii yoi yaeyaony aeey aeeaioiuo oi?ioae ei?iiaie
aacie e caueoiuie oneiaeyie. Naaa? ?aeiia iie?uo eanaie. A iniiaiii yoi
oe?ieieenoaaiiua eana e aa?aciyee.

Ianoiyuei aaaenoaeai yaeythony eaniua iiaea?u, io ieo no?aaeatho ia
oieueei eana, ii e a iiaea?ao aeaiao i/aiue iiiai iieiaeiyea.

Oaeaea aeaiao i/aiue iiiai ioeoe, o.e. a yoio ia?eiae iie ia iiaoo
eaoaoue. Iaeiei ec niiniaia i?aaeioa?auaiey eaniuo iiaea?ia yaeythony
i?ioeaiiiaea?iua iieinu (ieiiieinu). Iie aeaeyo oaiaeuey ia /anoe, oaeei
ia?acii, /oi i?e aicieeiiaaiee iiaea?a a iaeiii eaaae?aoa, /a?ac
ieiiieino ii ia iiaeao ia?aeeiooueny a ae?oaie. Iie ?ann/eoaiu ia
iaaieueoea iiaea?u e aacaao?aiioth iiaiaeo.

Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii yaeyaony ioaeei. Ioaeei ioaeii i?iaiaeeoue
a?aiioii e n iniaie inoi?iaeiinoueth, /oiau ia iaianoe o?ii naiaio
oicyenoao. I?e i?iaaaeaiee ioaeeiia ioaeii o/eouaaoue iai?aaeaiea e neeo
aao?a.

Eiie?aoii a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia i?iaiaeyony neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey ii
io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu:

1) Aaaeaony ai?ueaa n a?aeiiuea?noaii.

2) I?iaiaeeony ?yae aeioaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee (nieiioeu, iiaeei?ii/iua
iiey, caaioiaea naia, ai?ueaa n oeuieeaie e ae?.).

3) Niaianoii n A?oa?eineei eanoicii aeaeathony ieiiieinu aeey ai?ueau n
iiaea?aie.

A oeaeyo io?aiu i?e?iaeu iaiaoiaeeii:

1) Cai?aoeoue iinauaiea eania a iiaea?iiianiue ia?eiae aeeoaeyi i.
A?oa?a e ae?oaeo nae e aea?aaaiue.

2) Cai?aoeoue naaeiaiaeai i?iecaiaeeoue iaeu o?aau.

Iiaeii aua nicaeaoue iia?aoeaiua io?yaeu aeey ai?ueau n eaniuie
iiaea?aie, oai aaea ana nai?aei i?iecaiaeeoue eaniiinaaeee. Ii anoue
iaeia i?iaeaia, ana yoi oie?aaony a iaaeinoaoi/ioth oeiainiaoth iiiiuue,
anee au auei oi?ioaa oeiaine?iaaiea, auei au nianai ii-ae?oaiio.

5. Yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea

5.1 Ia?niaeoeaiia ?acaeoea ioio oaiaeee (A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia) a nenoaia
ieaie?iaaiey i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey

Ieaie?iaaiea io?aiu e aini?iecaiaenoaa aeeeeo aeeaioiuo aeieaeii
io?aaeaoue oeaeaniia?aciua yeieiae/aneea ii?iaoeau, aa?aioe?othuea
nio?aiiinoue i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e niinianoaothuea ?an/aoo yooaeoeaiinoe
i?e?iaeiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

I?aaeeueii inouanoaeyoue ieaie?iaaiea a i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiee – yoi
cia/eo i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ?acoiiia, yeiiiiiia ?anoiaeiaaiea i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia.

Ieaie?iaaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii io?aia e aini?iecaiaenoao
i?aaeoniao?eaathony a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ieaiao yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.
I?iaeou ieaiia ii io?aia e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth aeeaioiiai
ie?a, ?ac?aaaouaathony ieienoa?noaaie, aineiieoaoaie, e aaaeiinoaaie.
I?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeiu niaeaniauaaoue naie
aeaenoaey ni niaoeeaeueii oiieiiii/aiiuie ia oi ainoaea?noaaiiuie
i?aaiaie ii io?aia e ?aaoee?iaaieth eniieueciaaiey aeeaioiiai ie?a a
ii?yaeea onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O.

Ii ioioie/ueei oicyenoaai ninoaaeyaony io?aneaaie naiaiaeiue ieai.
Ioaeaeueii aeey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia, e?aaa, iaeanoae onoaiaaeeaathony
ieaiu a oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?ac?aca. Ioioie/uea oicyenoai – yoi
naiaia?aciay, caaeneiay io i?e?iaeiuo oneiaee, io?aneue oicyenoaa,
eioi?oth iaaiciiaeii nieaie?iaaoue i?aaeeueii aac o/aoa i?e?iaeiie
ianoaiiaee.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae ieaie?iaaiey a ioioie/ueae io?anee yaeyaony
aeinoeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa ia iniiaa ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ?aciauaiey
e niaoeeaeecaoeee ioioie/ueeo oicyenoa ii ?aeiiai e ciiai no?aiu. Yooaeo
ieaie?oaiie ioiou ii?aaeaeyaony iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
nieaeaieai naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e iaania/aieai ia? ii ?anoe?aiiiio
aini?iecaiaenoao aeeeeo caa?ae e ioeoe. Aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae aiciiaeii
i?e ciaiee ninoiyiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey aeeaioiuo (ei?iiauo e caueoiuo
oneiaee), nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaiaeeiuo o/aoao e i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
?aaeecaoeee ieaiia ii aaaeaieth ioioie/ueaai oicyenoaa.

Ia?niaeoeaiui ieaie?iaaieai ii?aaeaeyaony: iao/ii – iainiiaaiiia
iai?aaeaiea e niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, ni/aoaiea e ?acia?u
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe; ia?u ii io?aia, aini?iecaiaenoao e
?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia; eeieou /eneaiiinoe;
iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea e ae?oaea aaaeiaeoea iieacaoaee
?acaeoey oicyenoa. A caaeneiinoe io i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo,
yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee, ieaiu ?aciuo ioioie/uea i?iiuneiauo oicyenoa
eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe.

N o/aoii ?acaeaeia iauaai ieaia inouanoaeyaony ieaie?iaaiea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e caaioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee;
/eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia e oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, ioioioicyenoaaiiie,
io?aiiuo e aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee; naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee e
aa ?aaeecaoeee.

Ii iaeioi?ui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe aiaeiaie ieai eiaao
iieaa?oaeueioth ?acaeaeo. Oeiainiaue ieai i?aaenoaaeai naiaiaeiui ieaiii
e aaeainaie aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, oicyenoa, oeiaine?iaaiey anao
aeiieaie?iaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee o?aaothueo ?anoiaeia.

5.2 Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa eaaaia a A?oa?eineii
?aeiia ?II e ?

Aiai?y i yeiiiie/aneie ioeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii aini?iecaiaenoao
/eneaiiinoe eaaaia, ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi n?aaenoaa ia yoo
aeayoaeueiinoue auaeaeythony ec oiiaeia ?II e ? e iiiiue ioioieeia.

Aiaeece?oy cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeaeia e aeioiaeu iieo/aaiua io
acuneaiey oo?aoia ca ia?ooaiea ioiocaeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiaeii naeaeaoue
auaiae, /oi noiiu acuneeaaaiua n ia?ooeoaeae ninoaaeytho iaiaa 25 %
n?aaenoa cao?a/aiiuo ia i?iaaaeaiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aaio.

Oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?II e ? iie?uaaao /anoue nianoaaiiu
?anoiaeia. I?ia?aiiaii io?aia, aini?iecaiaenoao e onoie/eaiio
eniieueciaaieth ioioie/ueeo iauaeoiaaeeaioiiai ie?a e n?aaeu eo iaeoaiey
ia 2004 aiae.

?anoiaeu e aeioiaeu ?II e ? a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia ca 2004 aiae. Oaaeeoea
?4.

?

i/iIa?ii?eyoeyNoiia ieaie?oaiuo aeaiaaeiuo cao?ao

(oun. ?oa.)1.Aeioiaeu anaai:5726A oii /enea: ieaou ca iieueciaaiea aeea.
ie?ii, oo?aou, enee, eiioeneaou43402.?anoiaeu anaai: 5726Io?aia ioio.
aeeaioiuo, anaai:5251Ec ieo:

· Aaeeiia?aiaiiua auieaou, iiiu?aiey1000· Auieaoa i?aieaeueiuo
?aaioieeai, ane?uaoei ia?ooaiey i?aaee ioiou.500· Ia/eneaiea ia iieaoo
o?oaea358· No?aoiaaiea ?aaioieeia ioioiaaaenoaa io ian/anoiuo neo/aaa,
naycaiiuo n i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth165· Eiiaiaee?iai/iua
?anoiaeu iia?io?yaeia ii ai?ueaa n a?aeiiuea?noaii170· I?eia?aoaiea
caianiuo /anoae e o?ainii?oiui n?aaenoaai, iao?iiia, oicyenoaaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia aeey neoaeau ioio iaaeci?a.500· I?eia?aoaiea ANI aeey
aaoio?ainii?oa2282· I?eia?aoaiea neoaeaaiiai i?oaeey150· I?eia?aoaiea
iaioiaee?iaaiey150· Oeiia?aoe/aneea oneoae, oioioneoae e i?iaaaeaiea
niaauaiey20· ?anoiaeu ia ii/oiaua, oaeaoiiiua oneoae aeey ?aeiiiuo
neoaea IOI702.1Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey a caeacieeao,
anaai:210Ec ieo:

· ?aniaoea e iinaa iiaeei?ii/iuo iieae50· I?eia?aoaiea naiaiiiai
iaoa?eaea50· I?eia?aoaiea ca?iiiooiaeia60· I?eia?aoaiea ieia?aeueiie
niee, ieia?aeueiie aeiaaaee502.2?aaoee?iaaiea /eneaiiinoe aieea,
anaai:265Ec ieo:

· Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia i?aie?iaaiea ioioieeia aie/aoieeia n ia/eneaieyie

180· I?eia?aoaiea eaieaiia e o?iniaiai iaoa?eaea aeey ioeiaa aieea20·
I?aiee ii iauyaeaiiiio eiieo?no ioioie/ueei oicyenoaai e ioioieeai 50·
I?eia?aoaiea e ?anoaniaea yaea15

A 2004 aiaeo a ioio oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ?aeiia auaeaeaii 45
ouny/ ?oaeae ia i?iaaaeaiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aaio, a i?eaueue io
?aaeecaoeee iooaaie e eeoeaicee ia ioioo, ia eaaaia ninoaaeea 21,5 ouny/
?oaeae, ii iiieii eaaaia a ?aeiia anoue e ae?oaea aeeaioiua. Oae /oi a
oeaeii i?iaaaeaiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aaio aeaei auaiaeiia. Ii
aiai?eoue i oii, /oi /eneaiiinoue eaaaia oaaee/eaaaony aeaaiaea?y
oieueei aini?iecaiaenoaaiiui ?aaioai iaeuecy, oae eae ia oaaee/aiea
/eneaiiinoe iiioeyoeee aeeyao ?yae ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia (iiaiaeiua oneiaey,
o?iaeaeiinoue ?anoeoaeueiuo ei?iia). I?e iiaeei?iea aeeaioiuo a yoeo
oaiaeueyo ia/eiatho caoiaeeoue aeeaioiua ec ae?oaeo oaiaeee, aaea
ei?iiaay aaca ooaea. A eiia/iii eoiaa /eneaiiinoue eaaaia ?anoao.

A ?aeiia iao i?aaei?eyoey, caaioaaeeaathueo i?iaeoeoeeth ioiou, iiyoiio
aini?iecaiaenoai eaaaiia ia aeaao iieiie ioaea/e. I?e iaee/ee
caaioiaeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue yoeo ia?ii?eyoee
auea au ai?acaei auoa, oae eae i?iaeoeoeey ?aaeeciaaeanue /a?ac
oi?aiaoth naoue.

6. Caeeth/aiea

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec eeiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia e iannu eaaaia ii ieieaoth?iui
aeaiiui e nianoaaiiui enneaaeiaaieyi iieacae, /oi aeeaioiua I?eaio?neiai
e?ay ii eeiaeiui ia?aiao?ai iaei /ai ioee/athony io naieo nia?aoueaa a
Aio?neie iaeanoe.

A aio ianna eaaaia I?eii?neiai e?ay cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai o aeeaioiuo
iaeoathueo a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia.

Aeaiiua ?acia?ia i?eaaaeaiu ieaea a oaaeeoea.

Eeiaeiua ia?aiao?u e ianna eaaaia a I?eii?neii e?aa e Aio?neie iaeanoe.
Oaaeeoea ?6.

Ia?aiao?u EaaaiI?eii?neee e?aeAio?neay iaeanoue1. Ianna (ea).150 –
200?155 – 144?97 – 1312. Aeeeia oaea125 – 175140 – 150132 – 1453. Aeeeia
aieiau 49 – 5140 – 5041 – 454. Aunioa a oieea80 – 10082 – 8482 – 88

Ia iao acaeyae yoi naycaii n oai, /oi ei?iiaay aaca e oneiaey iaeoaiey a
I?eii?neii e?aa ianeieueei eo/oa, a oaeaea aieueoay ianna aeeaioiuo a
ninaaeiai ?aaeiia, ii aeaeeiiio naycaia n ae?oaeie aieaa iyaeeie
eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie.

*eneaiiinoue ca iineaaeiea aiaeu aic?inea, anee a 2000 aiaeo eiee/anoai
aeeaioiuo oaaee/eeinue aei 240 iniaae, aianoi 75. Iia aic?inea a 3,5
?aca. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo ec – ca oi?ioae ei?iiaie aacu e caueuaiiuo oneiaee
a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia. ?aaoey?ii a ?aeiia i?iaiaeyony aeioaoie/aneea
ia?ii?eyoey, aeey iiauoaiey /eneaiiinoe ia oieueei eaaaia, ii e ae?oaeo
aeeeeo aeeaioiuo. Aeey iiauoaiey /eneaiiinoe eaaaia aaeaaiaeii
aunaeaathony iiey ec nie e eoeo?ocu.

Niy yaeyaony oi?ioae ei?iiaie aacie, a eoeo?oca caueoiuie oneiaeyie.
Aaeaaiaeii a oaiaeueyo aeaeatho iiaeei?ii/iua ieiuaaeee aeey aeeeeo
eiiuoiuo. Oaeaea a oaiaeueyo anoue a?oiia ioioieeia eioi?ay aaaeao
ai?ueao iaiin?aaenoaaiii n aieeaie. Ii iiauoaiea /eneaiiinoe iiaeao
i?eaanoe e /oia naeiae e oiaaea /eneaiiinoue ?acei oiaaeao, /oi
i?eaaaeao e aieueoiio o?iio oicyenoaa.

7. Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey

Auaiaeu.

1) ii oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneei aeaiiui iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey
iaeoaiey aeey eaaaia yaeythony aeoaiyee ?aniieiaeaiiaa a
naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe A?oa?eineiai ?aeiia. A yoeo oaiaeueyo e
neiioeaio?e?iaaia iniiaiay /eneaiiinoue eaaaia, eioi?ay a iineaaeothuea
aiaeu ?anoao, yoi naycaii n oi?ioae ei?iiaie aacie (o?iaeae aeaeoaey) e
aeioaoie/aneeie ia?ii?eyoeyie.

2) I?aaiecaoeey aaaeaiey oicyenoa iaeiaeaia oi?ioi, ooao oeiiieaeoiaai
ii/oe iieiinoueth; iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneay aaca oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii;
oeiaine?iaaiea neaaia; a A?oa?eineii ?aeiia – yoi naycaii n oeiainiaui
ninoiyieai, eioi?ia a iineaaeiea aiaeu ia/eiaao oeo/oaoueny.

3) I?aaiecaoeey aini?iecaiaenoaa a oicyenoaao iaeaaeaia e aaaeaony
aaeaaiaeii, aunaeaathony iiaeei?ii/iua iiey, caeeaaeuaathony
iiaeei?ii/iua ieiuaaeee, aaaeaony ai?ueaa n a?aaeiuie oeuieeaie ( aiee,
?unue, a?iaey/ea niaaee), ai?ueaa n a?aeiiuea?aie. Oae /oi
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?aaiou a ?aeiiiuo oicyenoaao ia?ii?eyoey
yooaeoeaiu, yoiio iieacaoaeue aeeiaieea /eneaiiinoe eaaaia, ii ia
aeaiiue iiiaio aua ia iieo/atho iieiie yooaeoeaiie ioaea/e io
aeioaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee.

4) Ioioa ia eiiuoiuo e ia eaaaia a /anoiinoe ia?ii?eyoea ia
?aioaaaeueiia. o.e. cao?a/eaathony ia?iiiua aeaiueae, a ioaea/a i/aiue
neaaay, iioiio /oi i?iaeoeoeey ioiou ia ?aaeecoaony /a?ac oi?aiaoth
naoue.

Ii niiniaai ioiou iaeaieaa ?acoeueoaoeaiuie yaeythony – iaeaaa e ioioa n
niaaeie, ii iineaaeiaa ii iiaio iiaieth – iaioaeiay, o.e niaaee
caaiiytho e aeaayo aieueoia eiee/anoai iieiaeiyea.

I?aaeeiaeaiey.

1) Aeey nio?aiaiey e oeo/oaiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey eaaaia cai?aoeoue ?oaeo
aeoaa, a ceio inoaaeyoue aieueoa iaoa?aiiuo iieae.

2) Oeo/oaieai ei?iiaie aacu iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi iooai iinaaeee
ei?iiauo ?anoaiee, iiaeei?iee a ia?eiae iaaeinoaoea anoanoaaiiuo ei?iia,
oeo/oaiea aeinooiiinoe ei?ia.

3) N?aaee eaaaiia iaaethaeaaony yieaeaiee /oiu, i?ienoiaeeo iia i?e
niaa?oaiii ?acee/iii o?iaia ieioiinoe e ninoiyiey ei?iiaie aacu.
Aaeoeeiaoeey eaaaiia /a?ac iiaeei?ieo iieiinoueth ia nianaao, ii
nieaeaao aeoaeio aeai?annee iiioeyoeee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii aeiaaaeyoue
a ei?ia aaeoeeio.

4) Aanoe aieaa yooaeoeaioth ai?ueao n aieeii e a?aeiiuea?noaii.

5) Ioioo ia eaaaiia iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue ia naiinoiyoaeueii, a iiae
eiio?ieai aaa?y, o.e. ioioynue aac aaa?y, ia ana ioioieee n?aco iinea
iono?aea caa?y iiaaoatho eeoeaiceth, a eiiaaea eniieuecotho aa aeey
ae?oaie ioiou, anee ia iiiaeenue a ?oee ioioeiniaeoeee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ieaeiieoathuea Oeiaaineiai Caiiaaaeieea.

TH.A. Aea?iai Aeaaiaauaine 1990a.

2. Onno?eeneee eaaai (Sus skrofa ussuriensis).

A?iieae A.O. -I.: Iaoea 1964a. 108no?.

3. Eeeiao Ae/A Aeoaeoeeee A.I. – I.: AI NNN?. 1961a. 93 – 118 no?.

4. Iaoa?eaeu e oeceei – aaia?aoe/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeea e oicyenoaaiiie
ioeaiea ?acee/iuo oeiia ?aaiei thaa.AI Caenei- Ao?aeineay ?aaieia.
A?eai?ueaa Ae.I.

-I.: AI NNN?, 1958a. 12 – 48 no?.

5. ?aaoee?iaaoue /eneaiiinoue oeuieeia. Ioioa e ioioie/aneia oicyenoai.

Eo/a?aiei N.I. 1977a ?10 16 – 19 no?.

6. Iiaaaeaiea eiiuoiuo aeeaioiuo. Aaneei E.I. Ec. «Iaoea» Iineaa 1976a.

7. Eaaai. AEI.: Aaioa? A.A., Ianeiiae/ A.A., Aaiieeia A.A. Ieaeiieoaauea
Niaaoneiai Nithca, o I, I., «Aunoay oeiea». Aaiieeia A.A. 1961a.

8. Onno?eeneee eaaai (Sus skrofa ussuriensis, 1988a).

A?iieae A.O. -I.: Iaoea 1964a.

9. Eiiuoiua caa?e (Io?yaeu Ptnissodactyla u Anfijdctyla). Oaoia NNN?,
ieaeiieoathuea. Nieieia E.E. I., – E., Ec – ai AI NNN?, 1659a.

10. Eaaai (ii?oieiaey, yeieiaey, yieciioieiaey, oicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea e
i?iiunae). AI Eacaoneie NN?, Aeia-Aoa, 1956. Neoaeneee A.A.

11. Caienee ioioieea Ainoi/iie Neae?e 1856 – 1863 NIa., 1884a. *a?eania
A.

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