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Io?iaineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

eaoaae?a aeieiaee

?aoa?ao

ii iieaeoey?iie aeieiaee

“Aeieiae/anee iaia?aiu”

Auiieieea: Aecaoi I.O., nooaeaioea 1 eo?na ACI, a?oiia A-151

I?iaa?eea: Iao?ooia E.O., caa. eaoaae?ie aeieiaee, e.a.i.

Io?iaine 2001 aiae

Ieai:

I. No?iaiea iaia?ai.

1.1. Oeiey iaia?ai.

1.2. Iaia?aiu y?eo?ioeeoia.

1.3. Ieaeeiiaua iaia?aiu.

1.4. Iaia?aiu oei?iieanoia.

1.5. Aioo?aiiyy (oeeoiieaciaoe/aneay) iaia?aia aaeoa?ee.

1.6. Iaia?aia ae?onia.

II. Ooieoeee iaia?ai.

III. O?ainii?o /a?ac iaia?aiu:

1.1. Ianneaiue o?ainii?o.

1.2. Iaeaa/aiiay aeeooocey.

1.3. Aeoeaiue o?ainii?o.

1.4. O?ainii?o aetheicu.

1.5. Ca2+ –ianin

I. No?iaiea iaia?ai.

Aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey eeaoee, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeecie –
ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeieiae/aneeo iaia?ai. Iaia?aiu –
iaiouaieaiue eiiiiiaio anao eeaoie.

Ana aeieiae/aneea iaia?aiu eiatho oieueio io 5 aei 10 ii, niaea?aeao
aaeee eeieaeu, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo eioi?uie aa?uee?oao a caaeneiinoe io
i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaia?aiu. E?iia oiai, a ieo i?enoonoaotho oaeaaiaeu,
iai?aaie/aneea niee, aiaea e ?yae ae?oaeo niaaeeiaiee; a iaeioi?uo
iaia?aiao iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu ?IE (aei 0,1%). O ieaeiieoathueo iaia?aiu
niaea?aeao iniaaiii iniaaiii aieueoia eiee/anoai oinoieeieaeia e
oieanoa?iea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauai?eiyoie iiaeaeueth no?iaiey iaia?ai
yaeyaony aeeaeeinoii-iicae/iay, i?aaeeiaeaiiay a 1972 aiaeo
N.Neiaeaea?ii e Aeae.Ieeieniiii.

No?oeoo?iie aaeeieoeae iaia?aiu yaeyaony oineieeieaeiue aeneie.
Oinoieeieaeu – aioeiaoe/aeea iieaeoeu, o.a. a iaeiie iieaeoea eiathony
eae aeae?ioeeueiua, oae e aeae?ioiaiua o/anoee. Oinoieeieaeiue aeneie
ia?acoaony ca n/ao aeae?ioiaiiai aicaeaenoaey iaaeaeo oeaiyie inoaoeia
aee?iuo eeneio, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa eeieaeia. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eenoie, ninoiyuee ec 2 neiaa oinoieeieaeia, i?e/?i eo iiey?iua aieiaee
ia?auaiau e aiaea, a oeaie inoaoeia aee?iuo eeneio oi?ie?otho
aioo?aiithth aeae?ioiaioth n?aaeo. I?e ano?yoeaaiee oinoieeieaeia n
aiaeie iie ia?acotho oa?iia?aciua ieoeaeeu, aaea oeaie inoaoeia aee?iuo
eeneio iai?aaeaiu a noi?iio, i?ioeaiiieiaeioth aeae?ioeeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe.

Eeieaeiue aeneie n iaaeo noi?ii iie?uo aaeeaie. A niioaaonaee n aeeaeeie
iicae/iie iiaeaeueth iaia?aiu naie eeieaeu e iaeioi?ua aaeee niiniaiu
ia?aaeaeaaoueny a ieineinoe aeneiy.

Iaia?aiiua aaeee auiieiytho ianeieueei ooieoeee:

1) iie iiaoo ia?aiineoue iieaeoeu /a?ac iaia?aio;

2) yaeythony ?aoeaioi?aie aeey oeie/aneeo aaaioia ( oaeeo, oae ai?iiiu);

3) /a?ac naie ?acaaoaeaiiua oaeaaiaeiua oeaie iaania/eaatho
iaaeeeaoi/iia acaeiiaeaenoaea, a oaeaea ?aniiciaaaiea aioeaaiia;

4) aeaenoaotho a ea/anoaa oa?iaioia;

Aaeee iiaoo auoue eioaa?aeueiuie, i?i/ii ano?iaiiuie a iaia?aio eee
annioeee?iaaiiuie. Iineaaeiea iai?i/ii eee ia?aoeii naycaiu n iaia?aiie
e niiniaiu iooeaieyony aeaaea i?e iyaeeo aicaeaenoaeyo. Eioaa?aeueiua
aaeee iiaoo aue eiaaeaioii naycaiu eiioeaaie ea?aieneeueiie a?oiiie
aaeea n oinoieeieaeaie iaia?aiu. Iiiaea eioaa?aeueiua aaeee ia?anoai?eiu
a aiaea. Iie iia?oaeaiu a iaia?aio e oaea?aeeaathony oai o?aiy iniiaiuie
neeaie:

1) eiiiuie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie n iiey?iuie aieiaeaie;

2) aeae?ioiaiuie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie n aioo?aiiae eeieaeiie /anoueth
iaia?aiu;

3) niaoeeoe/aneeie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie n oieanoa?ieii e ae?oaeie
iieaeoeaie iaia?aiu.

Aieueoeinoai eioaa?aeueiuo aaeeia i?iiecuaatho eeieaeiue aeneie e
eiatho iiey?iua o/anoee n aeaoo noi?ii.

Iiaaeoea aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua iaoiaeii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca,
iieacaee, /oi oeaie iaia?aiiuo aaeeia nai?a/eaathony, ii-aeaeeiiio oae,
/oi –nie?aeueiua e -no?oeoo?iua o/anoee ieacuaathony iia?oaeaiiuie a
aeae?ioiaioth iaeanoue iaia?aiu; iaoiaeyueany aia iaia?aiu /anoe
iieaeoeu ia?aciaaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii iaoii?yaei/aiiuie no?oeoo?aie.

O iaia?ai ?acee/atho ia?oaeioth e aioo?aiithth noi?iiu, eioi?ua a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eiatho iaiaeeiaeiaue ninoaa, oi anoue iaia?aiu
aneiiao?e/iu. Eeieaeu e aaeee, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia ia?oaeiie noi?iia
ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu, iau/ii eiatho eiaaeaioii naycaiiua n ieie
oaeaaiaeu. Aioo?aiiyy noi?iia iaia?aiu e aioo?eeeaoi/iua iaia?aiu, eae
i?aaeei, eeoaiu oaeaaiaeia. Oaeaaiaeiay /anoue i?aaenoaaeaia
iieenaoa?eaeaie, aeeth/athueie iau/ii ia aieaa 15 iiiinaoa?eaeiuo
inoaoeia, eioi?ua /anoi ia?acotho ?acaaoaeaiiua no?oeoo?u. A ieaciaeaiia
yoea?eioe/aneeo eeaoie /anoi iaia?oaeeaathony aaeaeoica, iaiiica,
ooeica, N-aoeaoeeaetheicaiei, N-aoeaoeeaaeaeoicaiei, a?aaeiica, eneeica,
iae?aieiiaay eeneioa. Aeeeieeieaeu i?aaenoaaeaiu
aeeeiceeaeeaoeeeaeeoea?eiaie (i?aeiouanoaaiii a aaeoa?eaeueiuo
iaia?aiao) e aeeeinoeiaieeieaeaie: oea?aa?iceaeu, aaiaeeiceaeu e ae?. (a
iniiaiii o yoea?eioe/aneeo eeaoie).

Iaia?aia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeiaie/aneoth no?oeoo?o. Iaeaieaa
iiaeaeaeiui eiiiiiaioii a iae yaeythony eeieaeu. Iie aeiaieueii
naiaiaeii aeaeaathony a ieineinoe eeieaeiiai neiy (eaoa?aeueiia
ia?aiauaiea), iaiyy naieo “ninaaeae” a n?aaeiai 106 ?ac /nae. Iieaeoeu
aaeeia oaeaea iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny eaoa?aeueii a ieineinoe iaia?aiu.
Aiciiaeii oaeaea, /oi aaeeiaua iieaeoeu a?auathony aie?oa
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo e ia?aeeaeueiuo ieineinoe aeneiy inae, /oi iiaeao
eiaoue aieueoia cia/aiea i?e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iae?iiieaeoe e iaia?ai a
oeaeii.

Iaeiaei aaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiu a iaia?aia ia noaoenoe/anee, ia?acoy o/anoee
n ?acee/iuie ooieoeeyie. Eia/a aiai?y, aaeeiaua iieaeoeu ia aaniethoii
naiaiaeii ia?aiauathony a ieineinoe iaia?aiu, iineieueeo iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aaeeiauie iieaeoeaie
e, e?iia oiai, iaaeaeo aaeeaie iaia?ai e oeeoineaeaoii eeaoee:
no?oeoo?iuie aaeeaie, iee?ioeeaiaioaie, iee?io?oai/eaie, i?eiueathueie e
iaia?aia ecioo?e. A naith i/a?aaeue ?aniieiaeaiea aaeeiauo iieaeoe a
iaia?aia ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e i?eaioaoeeth eeieaeiuo
iieaeoe a caaeneiinoe io n?iaenoaa eiie?aoiuo aaeeia e eeieaeia.

Iiaeaeaeiinoue iaia?aiiuo iieaeoe a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaeneo io
ninoaaa aee?iuo eeneio. Aieaa oii?yaei/aiiie e noaaeeueiie yaeyaony
no?oeoo?a iaia?ai, niaea?aeauay aieueoia /enei ianuuaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio
a oinoieeieaeao, iaiaa oii?yaei/aiiie – niaea?aeauay cia/eoaeueiua
eiee/anoaa iaianuuaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio. I?e iioeiaeueiuo aeey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aeeauo i?aaieciia oaiia?aoo?ao iaia?aia, eae
i?aaeei, eiaao aeeaeeie?enoaeee/aneia ninoiyiea (i?iiaaeooi/iia iaaeaeo
aeeaeeei e oaa?aeui). Yoi ninoiyiea iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaea anaai iaee/eai
a iaia?aiao nenoaiu eeieae – aaeie – aiaea, oi?ie?othuae ?acee/iiai oeia
oii?yaei/aiiua no?oeoo?u, iaeaaeathuea a oi aea a?aiy ii?aaeaeaiiie
iiaeaeaeiinoueth. Oaeia ninoiyiea iaia?ai ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia
aeeyieai ia eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e iauyniyao aieueooth
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ?acee/iui aiaoiei oaeoi?ai.

Ninaaeiea eeaoee iaeiie oeaie aeieaeiu niiauaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii aeey
oiai, /oiau eii?aeeie?iaaoue naith aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue e
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae oeaeia a niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeoeeie oeaie. Oaeia
niiauaiea aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo ei?ioeeo “o?oai/ae”,
eioi?ua nia?aiu a aeeneiia?aciua no?oeoo?u a ianoao oae iacuaaaiuo
uaeaauo eiioaeoia. Eaaeaeay o?oai/ea ninoieo ec aeaoo oeeeeiae?e/aneeo
aaeeiauo iieaeoe – eiiiaeniiia. Iieaeoea – eiiiaeniia /anoe/ii
iia?oaeaia a eeaoi/ioth iaia?aio, a aa aunooiathuay /anoue niiniaia
naycuaaoueny a iaaeeeaoi/iii i?ino?ainoaa n eiiiaeniiii ninaaeiae
eeaoee, oae /oi ia?acoaony iai?a?uaiue eaiae, niaaeeiythuee aioo?aiia
i?ino?ainoai aeaoo eeaoie.

1.1. Oeiey iaia?ai. Iaia?aiu ninoiyo ec aaeeia, eeieaeia e iaeioi?iai
eiee/anoaa aeeeieeieaeia e aeeeii?ioaeiia (“aeeei-” icia/aao i?enoonoaea
oaeaaiaeiiai inoaoea).

E iniiaiui eeieaeai iaia?ai yoea?eio ioiinyo oieanoa?ie, noeiaieeieaeu e
oinoiaeeoea?eaeu (aeeoea?ioinoieeieaeu). N?aaee oinoiaeeoea?eaeia,
eioi?uo a iaia?aia aieueoa anaai, i?aiaeaaeatho eaoeeoei
(oinoaoeaeeeoieei) e eaoaeei (oinoaoeaeeeyoaiieaiei). Aioeiaoe/aneea
iieaeoeu noeiaieeieaeia niaea?aeao aeeeiiua oeaie inoaoeia aee?iuo
eeneio e aieaeioth naycue, aoiaeyuoth a ninoaa iiey?iie aieiaee. Oaeia
niaaeeiaiea iacuaaaony oea?aieaeii. A ninoaaa aeeeinoeiaieeieaeia
i?enoonoaoao inoaoie naoa?a (aetheicu eee aaeaeoicu), naycaiiue n
oea?aieaeii.e aeeeinoeiaieeieaeai ioiinyony oea?aa?iceaeu.
I?aaenoaaeoaeue oea?aa?iceaeia, aaeaeoioea?aa?iceaeu, ano?a/athony
aeaaiui ia?acii a oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaia.

AEanoeea iieaeoeu oieanoa?iea iia?oaeaiu a iaia?aio iaaeaeo iieaeoe
oinoieeieaeia. Aeae?ioiaiia /aou?ao/eaiiia noa?ieaeiia eieueoei iieaeoeu
oieanoa?iea acaeiiaeaenoaoao n oeaiyie inoaoeia aee?iuo eeneio,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa oinoieeieaeia iaia?aiu. A yoea?eioe/aneeo eeaoeao
oieanoa?ie ia?aie/eaaao oaeo/anoue iaia?aiu i?e oaiia?aoo?a 370 N. i?e
aieaa ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao ii, iaiai?io, niinianoaoao iiaeaea?aeaieth
oaeo/anoe iaia?aiu, i?aiyonoaoy neeiaieth oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo oeaiae.
Oaeo/anoue iaia?aiu caaeneo ia oieueei io niaea?aeaiey oieanoa?iea, ii
oaeaea io oaiia?aoo?u e eeieaeiiai ninoaaa. Iaee/ea ei?ioeeo
iaianuuaiiuo aee?iuo eeneio iiauoaao oaeo/anoue. Ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui,
oaeo/anoue iaia?ai ?yaeu eeaoie caaeneo io aeeaou..

Iaia?aiu ?acuee/iuo eeaoie e aioo?eeeaoi/iuo i?aaiaee iaeaaeatho
ii?aaeaeaiiie niaoeeoe/iinoueth, iaoneiaeaiiie eo no?iaieai, oeie/aneei
ninoaaii e ooieoeeyie. Auaeaeytho neaaeothuea iniiaiua a?oiiu iaia?ai o
yoea?eioe/aneeo i?aaieciia:

ieaciaoe/aneay iaia?aia (ia?oaeiay eeaoi/iay iaia?aia, ieaciaeaiia),

yaea?iay iaia?aia,

yiaeiieaciaoe/aneee ?aoeeoeoi,

iaia?aiu aiia?aoa Aieueaeaee, ieoioiiae?ee, oei?ieanoia, ieaeeiiauo
iaiei/ae,

aicaoaeeiua iaia?aiu.

O i?iea?eioe/aneeo i?aaieciia iiieii ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu nouanoaotho
aioo?eoeeoiieaciaoe/aneea iaia?aiiua ia?aciaaiey, o aaoa?io?ioiuo
i?iea?eio iie iacuaathony iaciniiaie. Iineaaeiea ia?acothony
eiaaaeiaoeeae (aiy/eaaieai) aiooue ia?oaeiie eeaoi/iie iaia?aiu e a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo nio?aiytho n iae naycue.

1.2. Iaia?aia y?eo?ioeeoia. Oi?ioee iauaeo aeey eco/aiey no?iaiey e
naienoa ieaciaeaiiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaia?aiu y?eo?ioeeoia, eo
n?aaieoaeueii eaaei iieo/eoue a /enoii aeaea, iineieueeo y?eo?ioeeou ia
niaea?aeao aioo?eeeaoi/iuo iaia?ai. Y?eo?ioeeoa?iay iaia?aia ninoieo ec
aaeeia (50%), eeieaeia (40%) e oaeaaiaeia (10%). Iniiaiay /anoue
oaeaaiaeia (93%) naycaia n aaeeaie, inoaeueiay – n eeieaeaie.

A iaia?aia eeieaeu ?aniieiaeaiu aneiiao?e/ii a ioee/ea io neiiao?e/iiai
?aniieiaeaiey a ieoeaeeao. Iai?eia?, eaoaeei iaoiaeeony i?aeiouanoaaiii
ai aioo?aiiai neia eeieaeia. Oaeay aneiiao?ey iiaeaea?aeeaaaony,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ca n/ao iiia?a/iiai ia?aiauaiey oinoieeieaeia a iaia?aia,
inouanoaeyaiiai n iiiiuueth iaia?aiiuo aaeeia e ca n/ao yia?aee
iaoaaieecia. Niiioaiiue ia?aai?io (oeei-oeii) noeiaieeieaeia e
oinoiaeeoea?eaeia a iaia?ai – yoi i?ioeann iaaeeaiiue, cao?oaeiaiiue
ianiiniaiinoueth iiey?iuo aieiaie i?iieeaoue /a?ac aiae?ioiaiue aeneie.
Ii i?ioaeaao a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae eee iaaeaeue.

Ai aioo?aiiai neia y?eo?ioeeoa?iie iaia?aiu iaoiaeyony a iniiaiii
noeiaiieaeei, oinoaoeaeeeyoaiieaiei, oinoaoeaeeena?ei, a ia?oaeiie –
oinoaoeaeeeoieei.

Iaia?aia y?eo?ioeeoia niaea?aeeo eioaa?aeueiue aeeeii?ioaei aeeeioi?ei,
ninoiyuee ec 131 aieiieeneioiiai inoaoea e i?iiecuaathuee iaia?aio, e
oae iacuaaaiue aaeie iieinu 3 (iacaaiea i?iecioei io aai iiaeaeaeiinoe
i?e yeaeo?ioi?aca a iieeae?eeaieaeiii aaea). Ninoiyuee ec 900
aieiieeneioiuo inoaoeia aaeie iieinu 3, aa?iyoii, o/anoaoao a
iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee aieiiia aeae?iea?aiiaoa (INI3 -) e NL /a?ac
iaia?aio. Ii naycai a oeeoiciea n ia?eoa?e/aneei aaeeii aiee?eiii,
eioi?ue a naith i/a?aaeue naycai n aaeeii niaeo?eiii, auiieiythuei
no?oeoo?ioth ?ieue. Ii i?i/ii annioeee?iaai n aeoeiiiiaeiaiuie aaeeaie
y?eo?ioeeoa?iie iaia?aiu, ia?acoy noiaeioth n aeoiieiceiii
AOO-caaeneioth nenoaio. Niaeo?ei e aiee?ei aoiaeyo a ninoaa oeeoineaeaoa
y?eo?ioeeoia.

Oaeaaiaeiua eiiiiiaiou aeeeioi?eia auiieiytho ?aoeaioi?ioth ooieoeeth
aeey ae?onia a?eiia, oeoiaaiaaaethoeieiia, ?yaea ai?iiiia.

A y?eo?ioeeoa?iie iaia?aia iaia?oaeai e ae?oaie eioaa?aeueiue aaeie,
niaea?aeauee iaei oaeaaiaeia e i?iiecuaathuee iaia?aio. Aai iacuaatho
ooiiaeueiui aaeeii (eiiiiiaio a), oae eae i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi ii
ia?acoao eaiae aeey aieiiia. Ia?eoa?e/aneei aaeeii, naycaiiui n
aioo?aiiae noi?iiie y?eo?ioeeoa?iie iaia?aiu, yaeyaony niaeo?ei.

1.3. Ieaeeiiaua iaia?aiu, ie?oaeathuea aeniiu iae?iiia, iiiaineieiu, a
ieo i?enoonoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai eeieaeia (ieiei 80%, iieiaeia ec
ieo – oinoieeieaeia). Aaeee yoeo iaia?ai aaaeiu aeey oeenaoeee eaaeaueo
ae?oa iaae ae?oaii iaia?aiiuo nieaa.

1.4. Iaia?aiu oei?iieanoia. Oei?iieanou iie?uou aeaooneieiie iaia?aiie.
Ia?oaeiay eiaao iaeioi?ia noiaenoai n oaeiaie o ieoioiiae?ee. Iiieii
yoie iiaa?oiinoiie iaia?aiu a oei?iieanoao eiaaony aioo?aiiyy iaia?aiiay
nenoaia – eaiaeeu. Eaiaeeu ia?acotho eee oieiuaiiua iocu?ueee –
oeeaeieaeu, eioi?ua, ?aniieaaaynue ae?oa iaae ae?oaii, niae?athony a
ia/ee (a?aiu) eee oi?ie?othoiaia?aiioth nenoaio no?iiu (eaiaeeu no?iiu).
Eaiaeeu a?ai e no?iiu ia?oaeiie noi?iia iaia?aiu oeeaeieaeia
nin?aaeioi/aiu aeae?ioeeueiua a?oiie?iaee, aaeaeoi- e noeueoieeieaeia.
Oeoieueiay /anoue iieaeoeu oei?ioeeea iia?oaeaia a aeiaoeo e iaoiaeeony
a eiioaeoa a aeae?ioiaiuie a?oiiaie aaeeia e eeieaeia. Ii?oe?eiiaua
yae?a oei?ioeeea a iniiaiii eieaeeciaaiu iaaeaeo nii?eeanathueieny
iaia?aiaie oeeaeieaeia a?ai.

1.5. Aioo?aiiyy (oeeoiieaciaoe/aneay) iaia?aia aaeoa?ee ii no?oeoo?a
noiaeia n aioo?aiieie iaia?aiaie oei?iieanoia e ieoioiiae?ee. A iae
eieaeeciaaiu oa?iaiou aeuoaoaeueiie oeaie, ieeneeoaeueiiai
oinoi?eee?iaaiey, aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa; oa?iaiou, o/anoaothuea a
ia?aciaaiee eiiiiiaioia iaia?aiu, iai?eia?, aeeeiceeo?ainoa?aca,
eaoaeece?othuea neioac eeiiiieenaoa?eaeia ia?oaeiie iaia?aiu.
I?aiaeaaeathuei eiiiiiaioii aaeoa?eaeueiuo iaia?ai yaeythony aaeee:
niioiioaiea aaeie/eeieae (ii ianna) ?aaii 3:1. Ninoaa aaeeia iaia?aiu
?aaoee?oaony a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae eeaoee e aiaoiae n?aaeu.
Ia?oaeiay iaia?aia a?aiio?eoeaoaeueiuo aaeoa?ee ii n?aaiaieth n
oeeoiieaciaoe/aneie niaea?aeeo iaiueoii eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo
oinoieeieaeia e aaeeia. Iaa iaia?aiu ?acee/athony ii eeieaeiiio ninoaao.
Ai aiaoiae iaia?aia iaoiaeyony aaeee, ia?acothuea ii?u aeey
i?iieeiiaaiey iiiaeo ieceiiieaeoey?iuo aauanoa. Oa?aeoa?iui eiiiiiaioii
ia?oaeiie iaia?aiu yaeyaony oaeaea niaoeeoe/aneee eeiiiieenaoa?eae. ?yae
aaeeia ia?oaeiie iaia?aiu neoaeeo ?aoeaioi?aie aeey oaaia.

1.6. Iaia?aia ae?onia. N?aaee ae?onia iaia?aiiua no?oeoo?u oa?aeoa?iu
aeey niaea?aeaueo ioeeaieaineae, eioi?ue ninoieo ec aaeea e ioeeaeiiaie
eeneiou. Yoi “yae?i” ae?onia ie?oaeaii iaia?aiie (iaiei/ea). Iia oaeaea
ninoieo ec aeaieiiai neiy eeieaeia n aeeth/aiiuie a iaai
aeeeii?ioaeiaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie a iniiaiii ia iiaa?oiinoe iaia?aiu. O
?yaea ae?onia (oiai-, iee?iae?onu) a iaia?aiu aoiaeeo 70-80% anao
aaeeia, inoaeueiua aaeee niaea?aeaony a ioeeaieaineaea.

Aaeee ae?oniuo iaia?ai – yoi niaoeeoe/aneea aaeee,. Iai?eia?
aaiaaaethoeiei, iae?aieieaeaca. Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iannu ae?oniie
iaia?aiu ninoaaeytho oaeaaiaeu. Niaoeeoe/iinoue ieeainaoa?eaeia ia
iiaa?oiinoe ae?ona ii?aaeaeyaony a iaeioi?ie noaiaie eeaoeie-oicyeiii,
oae eae a i?eniaaeeiaiee oaeaaiaeia e aaeeai iaiei/ee o/anoaotho
o?ainoa?acu naoa?ia eeaoie-oicyaa. Eeieaeu ae?oniuo iaia?ai oaeaea
i?ienoiaeyo io iaia?ai eioeoee?iaaiiuo eeaoie.

2. Ooieoeee iaia?ai.

Iaia?aiu auiieiytho aieueoia /enei ?acee/iuo ooieoeee:

1. iaia?aiu ii?aaeaeytho oi?io i?aaiaeeu eee eeaoee;

2. aa?uea?iay: eiio?iee?otho iaiai ?anoai?eiuo aauanoa (iai?eia?, eiiia
Na+ , K+ , Cl- ) iaaeaeo aioo?aiiei e ia?oaeiui eiiia?oiaioii;

3. yia?aaoe/aneay: neioac AOO ia aioo?aiieo iaia?aiao ieoioiiae?ee e
oioineioac a iaia?aiao oei?iieanoia; oi?ie?otho iiaa?oiinoue aeey
i?ioaeaiey oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee (oinoi?eee?iaaiea ia ieoioiiae?eaeueiuo
iaia?aiao);

4. yaeythony no?oeoo?ie, iaania/eaathuae ?aniiciaaaiea oeie/aneeo
neaiaeia (ia iaia?aia ?aniieiaeaiu ?aoeaioi?u ai?iiiia e
iae?iiaaeeaoi?ia);

5. ea?atho ?ieue a iaaeeeaoi/iii acaeiiaeaenoaee e niinianoaotho
ia?aaeaeaeaieth eeaoie.

3. O?ainii?o /a?ac iaia?aio.

Iaia?aia iaeaaeaao ecae?aoaeueiie i?iieoeaaiinoueth aeey ?anoai?eiuo
aauanoa, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey:

1. ioaeaeaiey eeaoee io aiaeeaoi/iie n?aaeu;

2. iaania/aiey i?iieeiiaaiey a eeaoeo e oaea?aeaiey a iae iaiaoiaeeiuo
iieaeoe (oaeeo, eae eeieaeu, aetheica e aieiieeneiou), a oaeaea
oaeaeaiey ec eeaoee i?iaeoeoia iaoaaieecia (a oii /enea iaioaeiuo);

3. iiaeaea?aeaiey o?ainiaia?aiiiai a?aaeeaioa eiiia.

Aioo?eeeaoi/iua i?aaiaeeu oaeaea iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ecae?aoaeueii
i?iieoeaaiie iaia?aiie. Iai?eia?, a eeciniiao iaia?aia iiaeaea?aeeaaao
eiioeaio?aoeeth eiiia aiaei?iaea (I+) a 1000-10000 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a
oeeoiciea.

O?ainii?o /a?ac iaia?aio iiaeao auoue ianneaiui, iaeaa/aiiui eee
aeoeaiui.

1.1. Ianneaiue o?ainii?o – yoi aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe eee eiiia ii
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiiio eeai yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio a?aaeeaioo. Yoi iiaeao auoue
i?inoay aeeooocey, eae a neo/aa i?iieeiiaaiey /a?ac ieaciaoe/aneoth
iaia?aio aacia (iai?eia? I2 e NI2 ) eee i?inouo iieaeoe (yoaiiea). I?e
i?inoie aeeooocee ?anoai?aiiua ai aiaeeaoi/iie aeeaeeinoe iaaieueoea
iieaeoeu iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?anoai?ythony a iaia?aia e caoai ai
aioo?eeeaoi/iie aeeaeeinoe. Oeacaiiue i?ioeann ianiaoeeoe/ai, i?e yoii
nei?inoue i?iieeiiaaiey /a?ac iaia?aio ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth
aeae?ioiaiinoe iieaeoeu, oi anoue aa aee?i?anoai?eiinoueth. Nei?inoue
aeeooocee /a?ac eeieaeiue aeneie i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
aeae?ioiaiinoe, a oaeaea o?ainiaia?aiiiio a?aaeeaioo eiioeaio?aoeee eee
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiio a?aaeeaioo.

1.2. Iaeaa/aiiay aeeooocey – yoi auno?ia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe /a?ac
iaia?aio n iiiiuueth niaoeeoe/aneeo iaia?aiiuo aaeeia, iacuaaaiuo
ia?iaacaie. Yoio i?ioeann niaoeeoe/ai, ii i?ioaeaao auno?aa i?inoie
aeeooocee, ii eiaao ia?aie/aiea nei?inoe o?ainii?oa.

Iaeaa/aiiay aeeooocey iau/ii oa?aeoa?ia aeey aiaei?anoai?eiuo aauanoa.
Aieueoeinoai (anee ia ana) iaia?aiiuo ia?aiin/eeia yaeythony aaeeaie.
Eiie?aoiue iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia?aiin/eeia i?e iaeaa/aiiie
aeeooocee enneaaeiaai iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iie iiaoo, iai?eia?, iaania/eaaoue
ia?aiin iooai a?auaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a iaia?aia. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy
iiyaeeenue naaaeaiey, /oi aaeee-ia?aiin/eee i?e eiioaeoa n
o?ainii?oe?oaiui aauanoaii eciaiytho naith eiioi?iaoeeth, a ?acoeueoaoa
a iaia?aia ioe?uaathony naiaia?aciua “ai?ioa”, eee eaiaeu. Yoe
eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo ca n/ao yia?aee, aunaiaiaeaeathuaeny i?e
naycuaaiee o?ainii?oe?oaiiai aauanoaa n aaeeii. Aiciiaeai oaeaea ia?aiin
ynoaoaoiiai oeia. A yoii neo/aa nai ia?aiin/ee inoaaony iaiiaeaeaeiui, a
eiiu iea?e?otho aaeieue iaai io iaeiie aeae?ioeeueiie nayce e ae?oaie.

Iiaeaeueth ia?aiin/eea oaeiai oeia iiaeao neoaeeoue aioeaeioee
a?aieoeeaeei. A eeieaeiii neia iaia?aiu aai aeeeiiay eeiaeiay iieaeoea
i?eieiaao oi?io nie?aee e ia?acoao aeae?ioeeueiue eaiae, ii eioi?iio
iiaeao iea?e?iaaoue ii a?aaeeaioo eii E.

Iieo/aiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa nouanoaiaaiey i?e?iaeiuo
eaiaeia a aeieiae/aneeo iaia?aiao. O?ainii?oiua aaeee ioee/athony
aunieie niaoeeoe/iinoueth ii ioiioaieth e ia?aiineiiio /a?ac iaia?aio
aauanoao, ii iiiaei naienoaai iaiiieiay oa?iaiou. Iie iaia?oaeeaatho
aieueooth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ?I, eiieo?aioii eiaeae?othony
niaaeeiaieyie, aeeceeie ii no?oeoo?a e ia?aiineiiio aauanoao, e
iaeiieo?aioii – aaaioaie, eciaiythueie niaoeeoe/anee ooieoeeiiaeueiua
a?oiiu aaeeia.

Iaeaa/aiiay aeeooocey ioee/aaony io iau/iie ia oieueei nei?inoueth, ii e
niiniaiinoueth e ianuuaieth. Oaaee/aiea nei?inoe ia?aiina aauanoa
i?ienoiaeeo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?inoo a?aaeeaioa eiioeaio?aoeee oieueei
aei ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeia. Iineaaeiee ii?aaeaeyaony “iiuiinoueth”
ia?aiin/eea.

1.3. Aeoeaiue o?ainii?o – yoi aeaeaeaiea eiiia eee iieaeoe /a?ac
iaia?aio i?ioea a?aaeeaioa eiioeaio?aoeee ca n/ao yia?aee aeae?ieeca
AOO. Eiathony o?e iniiaiuo oeia aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa eiiia:

1. iao?ee-eaeeaaue ianin – Na+ /K+–aaeaiiceio?eoinoaoaca (AOOaca),
ia?aiinyuay Na+ ia?oaeo, a K+ aioo?ue;

2. eaeueoeeaaue (Na2+) ianin – Na2+-AOOaca, eioi?ay o?ainii?oe?oao Na2+
ec eeaoee eee oeeoiciey a na?eiieaciaoe/aneee ?aoeeoeoi;

3. i?ioiiiue ianin – I+-AOOaca. Nicaeaiiua aeoeaiui o?ainii?oii
a?aaeeaiou eiiia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa
ae?oaeo iieaeoe – oaeeo, eae iaeioi?ua aieiieeneiou e naoa?a (aoi?e/iue
aeoeaiue o?ainii?o).

Eio?ainii?o – yoi o?ainii?o eiia eee iieaeoeu, nii?yaeaiiue n ia?aiinii
ae?oaiai eiia. Neiii?o – iaeiia?aiaiiue ia?aiin iaaeo iieaeoe a iaeiii
iai?aaeaiee; aioeii?o – iaeiia?aiaiiue ia?aiin iaaeo iieaeoe a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo. Anee o?ainii?o ia nii?yaeai n ia?aiinii
ae?oaiai eiia, yoio i?ioeann iacuaaaony oieii?oii. Eio?ainii?o aiciiaeai
eae i?e iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee, oae e a i?ioeanna aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa.

Aetheica iiaeao o?ainii?oe?iaaoueny iooai iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee ii oeio
neiii?oa. Eiiu Cl- e HCO3- o?ainii?oe?othony /a?ac iaia?aio
y?eo?ioeeoia iooai iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee ia?aiin/eeii, iacuaaaiui
iieinie 3, ii oeio aioeii?oa. I?e yoii Cl- e HCO3- ia?aiinyony a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo, a iai?aaeaiea ia?aiina ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aiaeaaeathuei a?aaeeaioii eiioeaio?aoeee.

Aeoeaiue o?ainii?o eiiia i?ioea a?aaeeaioa eiioeaio?aoeee o?aaoao
yia?aee, auaeaeyaiie i?e aeae?ieeca AOO aei AAeO: AOO AAeO + O
(iai?aaie/aneee oinoao). Aeey aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa, eae e aeey
iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee, oa?aeoa?iu: niaoeeoe/iinoue, ia?aie/aiea
iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe (oi anoue eeiaoe/aneay e?eaay auoiaeeo ia ieaoi)
e iaee/ea eiaeaeoi?ia. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe ia?ae/iue
aeoeaiue o?ainii?o, inouanoaeyaiue Na+ /K+ – AOOacie. Aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoie o?iaioiie nenoaiu aioeii?oa iaiaoiaeeii iaee/ea
Na+ , K+ e eiiia iaaiey. Iia i?enoonoaoao i?aeoe/anee ai anao eeaoeao
aeeaioiuo, i?e/ai aa eiioeaio?aoeey iniaaiii auniea a aicaoaeeiuo oeaiyo
(iai?eia?, a ia?aao e iuooeao) e a eeaoeao, i?eieiathueo aeoeaiia
o/anoea a aeaeaeaiee inouanoaeyaiue Na+ /a?ac ieaciaoe/aneoth iaia?aio
(iai?eia?, a ei?eiaii neia ii/ae e nethiiuo aeaeacao).

Nai oa?iaio AOOaca i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ieeaiia?, ninoiyuee ec 2
-noauaaeaieoe ii 110 eAe e 2 aeeeii?ioaeiiauo -noauaeaieoe ii 55 eAe
eaaeaeay.. i?e aeae?ieeca AOO i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoeiia oinoi?eee?iaaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai inoaoea ania?oaoa ia -noauaaeaieoea n ia?aciaaieai
-ania?oaieeoinoaoa.. Aeey oinoi?eee?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeiu Na+ e Ig2+, ii
ia K+, oiaaea eae aeey aeaoinoi?eee?iaaiey iaiaoiaeei K+, ii ia Na+
eee Ig2+. Iienaiu aeaa eiioi?iaoeeiiiuo ninoiyiey aaeeiaiai eiiieaena n
?acee/iui yia?aaoe/aneei o?iaiai, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue A1 e A2 ,
iiyoiio AOOaco iacuaatho oaeaea ia?aiin/eeii oeia A1 – A2 . Na?aea/iua
aeeeiceaeu, iai?eia? aeeaienei e oaaaei, iiaeaaeytho aeoeaiinoue
AOOacu.. Oaaaei aneaaenoaea oi?iioie ?anoai?eiinoe a aiaea oe?iei
i?eiaiytho a yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaieyo aeey eco/aiey iao?eaaiai
ianina.

Iauai?eiyoia i?aaenoaaeaie i ?aaioa Na+ /K+ – AOOacie , naiaeeony e
neaaeothuaio. Eiiu Na e AOO i?eniaaeeiythony e iieaeoea AOOacu a
i?enoonoaee Ig2+. Naycuaaiea eiiia Na caioneaao ?aaeoeeth aeae?ieeca
AOO, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie ia?acothony AAeO e oinoi?eee?iaaiiay oi?ia
oa?iaioa. Oinoi?eee?iaaiea eiaeooee?oao ia?aoiae oa?iaioaoeaiiai aaeea a
iiaia eiioi?iaoeeiiiia ninoiyiea e o/anoie eee o/anoee, ianouea Na,
ieacuaathony ia?auaiiuie e aiaoiae n?aaea. Caeanue Na+ iaiaieaaaony ia
K+, oae eae aeey oinoi?eee?iaaiiie oi?iu oa?iaioaoa?aeoa?ii aunieia
n?iaenoai e eiiai E. ia?aoiue ia?aoiae oa?iaioa a enoiaeioth
eiioi?iaoeeth eieoeee?oaony aeae?ieeoe/aneei iouaieaieai oinoi?eeueiie
a?oiiu a aeaea iai?aaie/aneiai oinoaoa e nii?iaiaeaeaaony
inaiaiaeaeaieai K+ ai aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai eeaoee.
Aeaoinoi?eee?iaaiiue aeoeaiue oeaio? oa?iaioa niiniaai i?eniaaeeieoue
iiaoth iieaeoeo AOO, e oeeee iiaoi?yaony.

Eiee/anoaa iinooieaoeo a eeaoeo a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou ianina eiiia E e Na
ia ?aaiu iaaeaeo niaie. Ia o?e auaaaeaiiuo eiia Na i?eoiaeeony aeaa
aaaaeaiiuo eiia E i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii aeae?ieeca iaeiie iieaeoeu AOO.
Ioe?uaaiea e cae?uaaiea eaiaea ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?iiao iaia?aiu e
/a?aaeothuaany eciaiaiea yooaeoeaiinoe naycuaaiey Na e E iaania/eaathony
yia?aeae aeae?ieeca AOO. O?ainii?oe?oaiua eiiu – Na e E – eioaeoi?u
aeaiiie oa?iaioaoeaiie ?aaeoeee. Oai?aoe/anee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naiua
?acee/iua ianinu, aeaenoaothuea ii yoiio i?eioeeio, oioy a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ecaanoiu eeoue iaiiiaea ec ieo.

1.4. O?ainii?o aetheicu. O?ainii?o aetheicu iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii oeio
eae iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee, oae e aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa, i?e/ai a ia?aii
neo/aa ii i?ioaeaao eae oieii?o, ai aoi?ii – eae neiii?o. Aetheica
iiaeao o?ainii?oe?iaaoueny a y?eo?ioeeou iooai iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee.
Eiinoaioa Ieoayeena (Em) aeey o?ainii?oa aetheicu a y?eo?ioeeou
ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 1,5 iiieue/e (oi anoue i?e yoie
eiioeaio?aoeee aetheicu ieiei 50% eiathueony iieaeoe ia?iaacu aoaeao
naycaii n iieaeoeaie aetheicu). Iineieueeo eiioeaio?aoeey aetheicu a
e?iae /aeiaaea ninoaaeyao 4-6 iiieue/e, iiaeiuaiea aa y?eo?ioeeoaie
i?ienoiaeeo i?aeoe/anee n iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoueth. Niaoeeoe/iinoue
ia?iaacu i?iyaeyaony oaea a oii, /oi L-eciia? ii/oe ia o?ainii?oe?oaony
a y?eo?ioeeou a ioee/ea io D-aaeaeoicu e D-iaiiicu, ii aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iieoianuuaiey o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu o?aaothony aieaa aunieea eo
eiioeaio?aoeee. Ieacaaoenue aioo?e eeaoee, aetheica iiaeaa?aaaony
oinoi?eee?iaaieth e aieaa ia niiniaia iieeiooue eeaoeo. Ia?iaaco aeey
aetheicu iacuaatho oaeaea D-aaeniciie ia?iaacie. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eioaa?aeueiue iaia?aiiue aaeie n iieaeoey?iie iannie 45eAe.

Aetheica iiaeao oaeaea o?ainii?oe?iaaoueny Na+ -caaeneiie nenoaiie
neiii?oa, iaia?oaeaiiie a ieaciaoe/aneeo iaia?aiao ?yaea oeaiae, a oii
/enea a eaiaeueoeao ii/ae e yieoaeee eeoa/ieea. I?e yoii iaeia iieaeoea
aetheicu ia?aiineony iooai iaeaa/aiiie aeeooocee i?ioea a?aaeeaioa
eiioeaio?aoeee, a iaeei eii Na – ii a?aaeeaioo eiioeaio?aoeee. Any
nenoaia a eiia/iii n/aoa ooieoeeiie?oao ca n/ao ianiniie ooieoeee Na+
/K+ – AOOacu. Oaeei ia?acii, neiii?o yaeyaony aoi?e/iie nenoaiie
aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa. Aieiieeneiou o?ainii?oe?othony aiaeiae/iui
ia?acii.

1.5. Ca2+ –ianin i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio aeoeaiiai o?ainii?oa oeia
A1 – A2 , ninoiyuoth ec eioaa?aeueiiai iaia?aiiiai aaeea, eioi?ue a
i?ioeanna ia?aiina Ca2+ oinoi?eee?oaony ii inoaoeo ania?oaoa. I?e
aeae?ieeca eaaeaeie iieaeoeu AOO i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiin aeaoo eiiia Ca2+. A
yoea?eioe/aneeo eeaoeao Ca2+ iiaeao naycuaaoueny n eaeueoeeenaycuaathuei
aaeeii, iacuaaaiui eaeueiiaeoeeiii, e aanue eiiieaen naycuaaaony n
Ca2+-ianinii. E Ca2+-naycuaathuei aaeeai ioinyony oaeaea o?iiiiei N e
ia?aaeueaoiei.

Eiiu Na, iiaeiaii eiiai Na, aeoeaii auaiaeyony ec eeaoie Ca2+-AOOacie.
Iniaaiii aieueoia eiee/anoai aaeea eaeueoeeaaiai ianina niaea?aeao
iaia?aiu yiaeiieaciaoe/aneiai ?aoeeoeoia. Oeaiue oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee,
aaaeoueo e aeae?ieeco AOO e ia?aa?ino Ca2+ , iiaeao auoue caienaia a
aeaea neaaeothueo o?aaiaiee:

Mg2+

2Nai + AOO + A1 Na2 – A – ? + AAeO

Mg2+

Na2 – A – ? 2Naai + PO43- + A2

A2 A1

Aaea Nai – Ca2+ , iaoiaeyueeny nia?oaee;

Naai – Ca2+ , iaoiaeyueeny aioo?e;

A1 e A2 – ?acee/iua eiioi?iaoeee oa?iaioa ia?aiin/eea, ia?aoiae eioi?uo
ec iaeiie a ae?oaoth naycai n eniieueciaaieai yia?aee AOO.

Nenoaia aeoeaiiai auaiaea I+ ec oeeoiieaciu iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aeaoiy
oeiaie ?aaeoeee: aeayoaeueiinoueth yeaeo?ii-o?ainii?oiie oeaie
(?aaeien-oeaie) e aeae?ieecii AOO. Iaa – e ?aaeien- e aeae?ieeoe/aneee
I+-ianinu – iaoiaeyony a iaia?aiao, niiniaiuo i?aa?auaoue naaoiaoth eee
oeie/aneoth yia?aeth a yia?aeth I+ (oi anoue ieaciaoe/aneeo iaia?aiao
i?iea?eio, nii?yaathueo iaia?aiao oei?iieanoia e ieoioiiae?ee). A
?acoeueoaoa ?aaiou I+ AOOacu e/eee ?aaeien-oeaie o?aineioee?othony
i?ioiiu, e ia iaia?aia aicieeaao i?ioiiaeaeaeouay neea (I+).
Yeaeo?ioeie/aneee a?aaeeaio eiiia aiaei?iaea, eae iieacuaatho
enneaaeiaaiey, iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey nii?yaeaiiiai o?ainii?oa
(aoi?e/iue aeoeaiue o?ainii?o) aieueoiai /enea iaoaaieeoia – aieiiia,
aieiieeneio, naoa?ia e o.ae.

N aeoeaiinoueth ieaciaoe/aneie iaia?aiu naycaiu iaania/eaathuea
iiaeiuaiea eeaoeie oaa?aeuo e aeeaeeeo aauanoa n aieueoie iieaeoey?iie
iannie, – oaaioeeoic e ieiioeeoic (io aa?/. oaain – anoue, ieiin –
ieoue, oeeoin – eeaoea). Eeaoi/iay iaia?aia ia?acoao ea?iaiu, eee
aiy/eaaiey, eioi?ua aoyaeaatho aauanoaa ecaia. Caoai oaeea aiy/eaaiey
iooio?iauaathony e ie?oaeatho iaia?aiie eaiaeueeo aiaoiae n?aaeu
(ieiioeeoic) eee oaa?aeua /anoeoeu (oaaioeeoic). Ieiioeeoic
iaaethaeaaony a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo eeaoeao, iniaaiii a oao i?aaiao,
aaea i?ienoiaeyo i?ioeannu ananuaaiey.

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