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Антропный принцип и мега-история Вселенной

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?aoa?ao

«Aio?iiiue i?eioeei e iaaa-enoi?ey Anaeaiiie»

I iiiyoee iaaa-enoi?ee Anaeaiiie

Iainiiaaiea aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia — na?ueaciay i?iaa?ea anoanoaaiiuo e
aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe ia ianooaaioth c?aeinoue iiieiaiey iaieiniiaaiaca e
iaaa-enoi?ee Anaeaiiie (?iaeaeaiey anaai, /oi anoue, iaaethaeaaii e
aeinooiii eco/aieth). Eae ecaanoii, enoi?ey ia/eiaeanue n enoi?ee
ioaeaeueiuo «oeeaeeecaoeee». A XVIII-XIX aa. noi?ie?iaaeanue eiioeaioeey
anaie?iie enoi?ee — yoi enoi?ey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa, ae?aaiaeoay
enoi?ey, enoi?ey ae?aaiaai ie?a, enoi?ey n?aaeiaaaeiauey, iiaay e
iiaaeoay enoi?ey. Ioe?uoey a?oaieiaia, aio?iiieiaia e enoi?eeia
oaaaeeoaeueii iieacaee oieaa?naeueiinoue i?ioaaeoeo niauoee. Oaea a
ia?aie iieiaeia XX a. auei onoaiiaeaii aeoaieia acaeiiaeeyiea
aaieiae/aneeo, aeieiae/aneeo (aeioe/aneeo) e nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia; a
?acoeueoaoa ioi?ieeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo
enneaaeiaaiee yaiethoeee — aeiaaeueiui (io eao. globus — oa?)
yaiethoeeiieci. Yoi enoi?ey Caiee, ?anniao?eaaaiay eae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue — ia?aciaaiea, ?acaeoea e acaeiiaeaenoaea
ieaiaoa?iuo noa?, a i?ioeanna eioi?uo nia/aea aeioa, a caoai iauanoai
noaiiaeeenue aaaeoueie aaaioaie i?aia?aciaaiee.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeaie aeiaaeueiie (aeaaea ia anaie?iie, naycaiiie oieueei n
/aeiaaeii) enoi?ee noaee iao aaeeeee iuneeoaeue Aeaaeeie? Aa?iaaeneee, e
o?aioeocu — aio?iiieia e oaieia I. Oaey? aea Oa?aeai e oeeinio Y. Ea?oa,
iieacaaoea, /oi enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa yaeyaony oieueei oacie yaiethoeee
caiiie aeecie e ?acoia, eioi?ay caaa?oeony nicaeaieai iiinoa?u (noa?u
?acoia), anee, eiia/ii, /aeiaae e /aeiaa/anoai auaeeaoo a oneiaeyo
iaaeaeaathueony eaoano?io. Nai Aa?iaaeneee ia iaioae i?iaeaio
aeaeueiaeoaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey yaiethoeeiiiie ia?niaeoeau ca i?aaeaeu
Caiee e Nieia/iie nenoaiu, ii ioaaoee ia iaa io?eoeaoaeueii (oiaaea eae
iaiaoeeea — A. Oeooa. A. Aoiaieueo, e ?onneea iuneeoaee — I. Oaaei?ia e
iniaaiii E. Oeeieeianeee — iieaaaee, /oi ?acoi auaaaeao /aeiaaea ca
i?aaeaeu ieaiaou-eieuaaee). Aa?iaaeneee oae aeoiae iioiio, /oi ia
i?aaeaeaeae aeinoeaeaiee nia?aiaiiie iaoee a /anoe ii?iaa?aeaiey
noaoeeiia?iinoe ecio?iiiie Anaeaiiie, aaneiia/iie a i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie. Eaeay noaoeeiia?iinoe e aaneiia/iinoe ie?a (ionthaea auaiae,
/oi aaneiia/iia ia iiaeao eiaoue enoi?ee!), i?ioeai?a/eea eaeaa
oieaa?naeueiie yaiethoeee. Iiyoiio Aa?iaaeneiio i?eoeinue i?eciaoue, /oi
yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann ia Caiea anoue ia aieaa /ai eieaeueiay
oeoeooaoeey, ia?a/aiiay ia oi, /oiau ?anoai?eoueny, iiaeiaii ieaaineie
aieia, a aaneiia/iie Anaeaiiie, eioi?ay ia iaiyeanue e «ia aoaeao
iaiyoueny n oa/aieai a?aiaie».

Ianeieueei iicaeiaa, a 1980-90-o aiaeao, ioi?ieeanue aieaa a?aiaeeiciay,
/ai ieaiaoa?iay, eiioeaioeey Oieaa?naeueiie (io eao. Universum —
Anaeaiiay), Aieueoie (Big History) EEE Iaaa-enoi?ee, eae eiioeaioeey
oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu anaeaineeo yaiethoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Iaaa-enoi?ey
noaaeo naiae oeaeueth i?aiaeieaoue eia?oeeth iiiiaeenoeeieeia?iiai
iuoeaiey e io?aaioaoue iao/ii-iaoiaeieiae/aneee eino?oiaioa?ee aeey
eioaa?aoeee ?acii?iaeiuo iiaeaeae ino?i- e iee?ioeceee, oeiee, aaieiaee,
aaioeiee, aeieiaee, iaeaiioieiaee, aio?iiieiaee, ineoieiaee e
enoi?eia?aoee.

A aa iniiaa eaaeao aeaa eeth/aauo aeinoeaeaiey a iaoea i?ioeiai aaea,
eioi?ua iu ?anniio?aee e ioeaieee ?aiueoa. Ai-ia?auo, ?aeyoeaenoneea
(o?eaeiaiianeea) iiaeaee yaiethoeeiiiie einiieiaee (ia iniiaa oai?ee
oyaioaiey Yeiooaeia). Ai-aoi?uo, auyaeaiiua I?eaiaeeiui iaoaieciu
naiii?aaiecaoeee, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ioe?uoua oece/aneea, oeie/aneea
nenoaiu niiniaiu niiioaiii (io eao. spontaneus — naiii?iecaieueiue) io
?aaiiaaney n aiaoiae n?aaeie e, eniieuecoy aa ?ano?nu, noaaeeece?iaaoue
(aiianoace?iaaoue) ia?aaiiaaniia ninoiyiea.

A eoiaa, anei?a iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi nioeeaeueiay (e aeooiaiay),
aeieiae/aneay, aaieiae/aneay e einiioece/aneay enoi?ee i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie noaaeee aaeeiiai yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, aaeeiuo oieaa?naeueiuo
iaaaoaiaeaioeee, auoiaeyueo ca ?aiee eeanne/aneiai e iaeeanne/aneiai
anoanoaiciaiey.

I?aaeunoi?ey aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia

Aio?iiiue i?eioeei aiana ia ecia?aoaiea aoi?ie iieiaeiu ooaaeoaai XX
noieaoey, eae iiaeao iieacaoueny i?e ia?aii ?anniio?aiee, ii oae aea
noa?, eae any ecaanoiay iai caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey.
Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo ioae?aoeia n eo ec?a/aieyie:
«Iiciae naiiai naay, e ou iiciaaoue aiaia e Anaeaiioth» (Nieii),
«*aeiaae ia?a anao aauae: nouanoaothueo, /oi nouanoaotho,
ianouanoaothueo, /oi ia nouanoaotho» (I?ioaai?) eee ae?aaiaeeoaeneiai
iuneeoaey Eaioecu n iaeiie ec aai iiiai/eneaiiuo naioaioeee: «Oio, eoi
ciaao ae?oaeo — ioae?aoe. Eoi ciaao naay — iinayuaiiue» (iauai?eciaiiua
iinayuaiiua ?aia, E?eoia, Aa?ian, Iienae, I?oae, Ieoaai?, Ieaoii,
Eenon), a a Iiaia a?aiy aniiiieoue aeneiio o?aioeocneiai ienoeea Eeiaea
aea Ia?oaia: «Aeieaeii eco/aoue I?e?iaeo ii /aeiaaeo, a ia /aeiaaea ii
I?e?iaea». N niaeaeaieai i?eoiaeeony i?eciaoue, /oi, caiuneaiiay
(caiiaaaeaiiay) a aioe/iia a?aiy, aio?iiiay i?ia?aiia a caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?a a oa/aiea anaai enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie ia auiieiyeanue.
I?e/eiie oiio noae, ai-ia?auo, i?eiyoue e aeanoei eiio?iee?oaiue ni
n?aaeiaaaeiauey oea?eiaueth e?aaoeeiieci, iieo/eaoee e a iaoea
ioeoeeaeueiue noaoon. Niinianoaiaaei iaeniieiaieth aioe/iie aio?iiiie
caiiaaaee, ai-aoi?uo, ooaa?aeeaoaany a iaoea ea?oaceaineia iuoeaiea,
?anniao?eaathuaa /aeiaaea eae yeaiaioa?iue iaoaieci, ii i?inoioa (eee
neiaeiinoe) n?aaieiue, neaaeai, n /anaie. A ieeoeueoecia aea iaeiie ec
aaoaae ienoe/aneeo o/aiee, eiia/ii, ia caaeai?eao ioeoeeaeueiie iaoee e
eoeueoo?u, iai?ioea, eaeay i i?aainoiaenoaa /aeiaaea iaae inoaeueiui
ie?ii iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue. Enoaoe, eae ioia/aao O. Eai?a a «Aeai oeceee»,
ia?aui aa?iiaeneei ienoeeii iiaeii n/eoaoue Aa?aeeeoa, ii ienoe/aneea
aai acaeyaeu ia iieo/eee ?acaeoey, ieacaeenue iaaino?aaiaaiiuie e auee
caiaiaiu aiineaaenoaee ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie A?enoioaey,
iieo/eaoeie a n?aaeiea aaea aiaeanoaaiiue noaoon. A ?acaeoea aioe/iuo
aio?iiiuo caiiaaaeae ienoeeaie ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi /aeiaae niaea?aeeo a
naiai nouanoaa i?iyaeaiey o?ao ie?ia eee o?ao ia/ae: iaoa?eaeueiiai,
i?ienoiaeyuaai ec oece/aneiai ie?a; aeeciaiiiai, enoiaeyuaai ec
anaeaiiie (ano?aea); e aeooiaiiai ia/aea (aannia?oiiai aeooa,
iacuaaaiiai a oeeinioee aeooie), i?ienoaeathuaai ec ie?a aiaeanoaaiiiai.
Oai naiui, /aeiaae iiae/eiyaony anai caeiiai, aeaenoaothuei a yoeo o?ao
ie?ao, e iieiaiiaai iiyoiio iee?ieiniii, eee iaeaiueeei ie?ii, aoaeo/e
oi/iui io?aaeaieai iae?ieinia eee Anaeaiiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ieeoeueoenou, ienoeee ooaa?aeaeaee ?aiaa e ooaa?aeaeatho
nae/an, /oi eco/aieai /aeiaaea iiaeii aeinoeaiooue ii?aaeaeaiey anao
caeiiia, oi?aaeythueo oece/aneei, ano?aeueiui e aiaeanoaaiiui ie?aie.
Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi /aeiaae e Anaeaiiay ?anniao?eaathony eie a
aaeeinoaa ii?iaeaeaiey e ia?ac?uaiinoe eo nayce, /oi aeey ian yaeyaony
eeth/aaui a aio?iiiii i?eioeeia. Iaeuecy, eiia/ii, ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
nia?aiaiiay ioeoeeaeueiay iaoea i?eciaao eae nai oaeo, oae e
aannii?iinoue oaeiai caeeth/aiey, ii oi, /oi iaiaoeeenue iaeioi?ua
iiaeaeaeee a yoii iai?aaeaiee, iu caeanue iieaaeai. Ia/iai n
ia?a/eneaiey e e?aoeiai aiaeeca yoaiia e i?ioeannia iaieiniiaaiaca
(iiaeii auei au oiio?aaeoue oaeaea oa?iei iaieiniiaiiey), i?iecioaaeoeo
ai anaeaiiie, n oai /oiau yniaa i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa ianoi e a?aiy eae
naiiai aio?iiiaaiaca, oae e eioa?anothuaai ian aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia.

Yoaiu e i?ioeannu iaieiniiaaiaca

A naiai ?acaa?ouaaiee (oiio?aaeyai ?onneia neiai «?acaa?ouaaiea» aianoi
eaoeineiai «yaiethoeey», n oai /oiau ia iooaoue n aai cia/aieai,
i?eiyoui o yaiethoeeiienoia a aeieiaee, i?eaea?aeeaathueony e naaiaeiy
acaeyaeia Aea?aeia, Oieeana e Aaeeaey) Anaeaiiay i?ioea iooue io ia/aea
Aieueoiai ac?uaa (aoaeai enoiaeeoue ec iaeaieaa i?eciaaaaiie o/aiuie
aa?nee Aai?aey Aaiiaa aicieeiiaaiey ai?y/ae anaeaiiie) ianeieueei yoaiia
e i?ioeannia, i?eaaaeoeo e aaiaceno (?iaeaeaieth) e noaiiaeaieth
iineaaeiaaoaeueii oece/aneiai, oeie/aneiai e aeieiae/aneiai ie?ia. Yoaiu
e niioaaonoaothuea ei i?ioeannu iaieiniiaaiaca, i eioi?uo iieaeao ?a/ue,
yoi yoaiu oecei-, ano?i-, aaeaeoeea-, oeiei-, aaeei-, aai-, aaioeiei-,
aei- e aio?i-iiaaiacena. Ianiio?y ia i/aaeaeioth ?acieoeo eaaeaeiai ec
yoeo yoaiia, ei i?enoua (eee naienoaaiia) iaeia e oa aea /enoi
oece/aneay iniaaiiinoue, eioi?ie iiaeii iiiuoaoueny aeaoue oeeinioneia
iauyniaiea, aeaey a yoie iniaaiiinoe aaeeinoai i?eioeeiia ie?a e
i?ienoiaeyueo a iai i?ioeannia ia anao o?iaiyo aai ?iaeaeaiey e
noaiiaeaiey. Oae, eaaeaeue ec iacaaiiuo yoaiia e i?ioeannia,
oa?aeoa?ecoaony a ia/aeueiue iiiaio aunieiea/anoaaiiie yia?aeae
(yia?aeae i?e ieceie yio?iiee ec-ca aunieeo enoiaeiuo oaiia?aoo?,
iineieueeo yio?iiey, eae oa?aeoa?enoeea aanii?yaeea, yaeyaony aaee/eiie
ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie oaiia?aoo?a). Iiaeii oaeaea aiai?eoue i
aunieie iaayio?iieeiinoueth i?ioeanna. Iaayio?ieeeiinoue aicieeaao ec-ca
cia/eoaeueiiai ia?aiaaea enoiaeiie e eiia/iie oaiia?aoo?, e,
niioaaonoaaiii, aieueoie io?eoeaoaeueiie (iaicia/aaiie i?enoaaeie iaa e
aeiaaaeyaiie e neiao yio?iiey ii i?aaeeiaeaieth o?aioeocneiai oeceea
Eaiia A?eeethyia) aaee/eia yio?iiee ?anniao?eaaaiiai iaie
niceaeaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Iiyniei neacaiiia ia ?yaea i?eia?ia.

I?ioeann oeceiaaiaca (eee ia?aciaaiea oece/aneiai ie?a) oa?aeoa?eciaaeny
n iiiaioa ia/aea «aieueoiai ac?uaa», eaoano?ioe/aneei nieaeaieai, ia 20
ii?yaeeia, oaiia?aoo?u. A ?acoeueoaoa iiieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u ea/anoai
yia?aee ?acei nieceeinue, /oi e i?eaaei nia/aea e ia?aciaaieth ec
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai (iaii?aaeaeyaiiai) ieaieianeiai aoeueiia /anoeoe e
aioe/anoeoe iaiaa /ai ca iaeio naeoiaeo i?ioiiia, yeaeo?iiia e oioiiia,
a caoai, e eiioeo 10 naeoiaeu, e neioaco ia?auo eaaeeo yeaiaioia —
aiaei?iaea e aaeey. Neaaeoao oeacaoue ia iaeio aia/aoeythuoth
no?aiiinoue i?ioeanna aiieaeeyoeee ieaieianeeo /anoeoe e aioe/anoeoe,
caaa?oeaoaainy a inoaoea ?aaiui /eneii i?ioiiia e yeaeo?iiia. Aio oae, n
ia?auo iaiiaaiee nouanoaiaaiey oece/aneiai ie?a, ia/eiaaony oi, /oi
aiineaaenoaee a aio?iiiii i?eioeeia iieo/eo iacaaiea oiieeo
niaeaniaaiiinoae! Ionoue a ia?ae/iii ieaieianeii aoeueiia
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaiaaee ecaanoiua nae/an eaa?ee Aaee-Iaiia e
Oeaaeaa, ec eioi?uo ia?aciaaiu iuiaoiea aae?iiu e iaciiu (a oaeaea
iaaeaaii oai?aoe/anee i?aaeneacaiiua e yenia?eiaioaeueii ioe?uoua a
?innee a 2004 aiaeo iaioaeaa?ee). Oiaaea aeey iauyniaiey i?eaaaeaiiiai
auoa no?aiiiai oaeoa ?aaainoaa /enea i?ioiiia e yeaeo?iiia (iaaeaaeii
onoaiiaeaiiue yenia?eiaioaeueiue oaeo yeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiinoe ie?a)
inoaaony oieueei i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a yoii aoeueiia nouanoaiaaee e
yeaeo?iiiua eaa?ee, /enei eioi?uo auei ?aaii /eneo iau/iuo aae?iiiuo
eaa?eia, oae eae i?e?iaea a?yae ee iiaea ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea
eaeiio-oi iaeiiio ec aeaeia eaa?eia. Oaeei ia?acii, nianue anao aeaeia
eaa?eia auea yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeueiie e aianoa n oai, eaaeaeue aeae
eaa?eia aeieaeai aue oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny oaeie ca?yaeiaie aneiiao?eae,
/oiau ii?iaeeoue iaeeiaeiaoth aneiiao?eth eae a /enea i?ioiiia e
aioei?ioiiia, oae e a /enea yeaeo?iiia e iiceo?iiia (aioeyeaeo?iiia).
Yoio auaiae i?eaiaeeo ian e caeeth/aieth, /oi yeaeo?iiu, i?eciaaaaiua
nae/an aanno?oeoo?iuie, oae aea eae e aae?iiu, aeieaeiu ieacaoueny
no?oeoo?iuie ia?aciaaieyie, ninoiyueie ec yeaeo?iiiuo eaa?eia, eioi?ua
aua i?aaenoieo ioe?uoue.

Oaia?ue ia ano?i- e aaeaeoeeiaaiaca. Aicieeoee anaai ca 10 naeoiae
oece/aneee ie? inoaaaeny iai?ic?a/iui (ii i?e/eia oiai, /oi oioiiu
ia?aeceo/aeenue aicieeoeie aiaei?iaeii e aaeeai) i?eia?ii a oa/aiea
iaeiiai ieeeeiia eao (ii ia iaiaa 400-700 ouny/ eao). Oaiia?aoo?a
?iaeaeathuaainy ie?a ii i?ioanoaee yoiai a?aiaie nieceeanue aua ia 10
ii?yaeeia (o. a. a 10 ieeeea?aeia ?ac) e ninoaaeea anaai ieiei 3000 E
(oaiia?aoo?a oeacaia a aaeeieoeao aaniethoiie oeaeu oaiia?aoo? Eaeueaeia
E). Yoio iiiaio ieacaeny aeaaii?eyoiui aeey io?uaa eceo/aiey eee naaoa
(oioiiia) io aiaei?iaea e aaeey. N?aaea (oiaaea yoi any Anaeaiiay)
naeaeaeanue i?ic?a/iie (ianooieea yiioa ?aeiiaeiaoeee), a ia/aaoee naia
iooaoanoaea a ?ac?anoathuainy ie?a naao noae inouaaoue e aini?eieiaaony
iaie nae/an eae ?aeeeoiaia (ae?aaiaa) eceo/aiea, n oaiia?aoo?ie e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie anaai 2,73 E. Aua /a?ac iaeei ieeeea?ae eao
oaiia?aoo?a nieceeanue aei 30 E, ea/anoai yia?aee noaei ieceei,
yio?iieeiinoue /?acau/aeii aunieie, /oi niinianoaiaaei ia/aeo i?ioeanna
neeiaiey aoiiia a eaaeea /anoeoeu (oae iacuaaaiua i?ioicaiaee),
aucaaaoaai nia/aea ia?aciaaiea caacae e, a eoiaa, ia?aciaaiea aaeaeoee
(iaeiei neiaii — einiiaaiac). Aua ?ac iaiiiiei, /oi oece/aneee ie?
ia?aciaaeny a ie/oiaeiua iaiiaaiey. Yoe iaiiaaiey ie/oiaeiu ii iaoei
/anai, ii i/aiue e i/aiue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiu ii oece/aneei /anai
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?iu a?aiaia a ieeeea?aeiua
aeiee ieeeea?aeiuo aeieae naeoiaeu. Oece/aneee ie? noaaeeai n oao ii?
(onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?ioii aeeaao ia iaiaa /ai 1032 eao, e iii, yoi a?aiy,
ia 22 ii?yaeea i?aainoiaeeo a?aiy, i?ioaaeoaa io iiiaioa «aieueoiai
ac?uaa», ia iiaeaa?aaeny ieeaeei eciaiaieyi. Einie/aneee ie? (Anaeaiiay,
oi/iaa, Iaoaaaeaeoeea) ia?aciaaeny a oa/aiea ia?auo ieeeea?aeia eao e, n
oao ii?, oaeaea iaeciaiai, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a no?oeoo?iii ioiioaiee.

Oeieiaaiac, ia?aciaaiea oyaeaeuo oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia, eae ecaanoii,
niaa?oaaony a iaae?ao caacae. Ii yoi ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui, anee ia 7-9
ii?yaeeia iiauneony io ia?aiia/aeueiie (io 30 E) a eo iaae?ao
oaiia?aoo?a, ia noieueei aea ii?yaeeia aic?anoao ea/anoai yio?iiee
(iiiecyony aaniethoiua aa cia/aiey), oieueei oiaaea noaiiayony
aiciiaeiuie ?aaeoeee oa?iiyaea?iiai neioaca, nia/aea eaaeeo oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia (ia/eiay n eeoey), a caoai e neaaeothueo yeaiaioia, aieioue
aei yeaiaioia a?oiiu aeaeaca, eiathueo aoiiiua iiia?a 26, 27, 28.
Inoaeueiua aea yeaiaiou (aeey nouanoaiaaiey aeecie a oii aa?eaioa,
eioi?ue iai ecaanoai, ioaeai iieiue ia?a/aiue ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu
yeaiaioia Ae. E. Iaiaeaeaaaa) iiaoo ia?aciaaoueny eeai i?e ac?uaao
iiauo, eeai naa?oiiauo caacae. Yoi niaa?oaaony i?e i?ioeannao n aua
aieaa aunieiea/anoaaiiie yia?aaoeeie, /ai a ?yaeiauo caacaeao, a
i?ioeannao, ianooaaii aeeceeo ii ea/anoao e ea/anoao Aieueoiai ac?uaa
(naiaia?aciia aica?auaiea e ii?iaeaeathuaio Anaeaiioth ia/aeo). Oae
aicieeaao e noaiiaeony oeie/aneee ie? e aeaeaa ia eciaiyaony, oioy nai
ii naaa yoio i?ioeann ia i?ae?auaaony ieeiaaea (ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ioe?uoea, i?aaeneacaiiia niaaoneei ano?ioeceeii
Aeeoi?ii Aiaa?oeoiyiii a 50-o aiaeao i?ioeiai aaea, iieiaeuo ai?y/eo
aaeaeoee e ioaeaeueiuo ai?y/eo caacae a iaoae Aaeaeoeea — Iea/iii Iooe).
Iaeiaei oeie/aneee ie? inoaaony noaaeeueiui, iiaua oeie/aneea yeaiaiou
ia iiyaeythony, e, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao niaeo?aeueiue ninoaa aauanoaa
caacae e aaeaeoee, ai anae Anaeaiiie iie yeaeaaeaioiu (oiaeaeanoaaiiu)
ae?oa ae?oao.

A ?ane?uoee oaei e nouiinoe aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia aaaeiia ianoi caieiaao
?iaeaeaiea Nieia/iie nenoaiu e iaeiie ec aa ieaiao — Caiee, aac eioi?uo
iaaiciiaeii iiyaeaiea niaa?oaiii eiie?aoiiai aeaea aeecie, aaeeinoaaiii
ecaanoiiai iai. Eae inouanoaeyeny iao eiie?aoiue aaeeiaaiac, iiea oi/ii
neacaoue iaaiciiaeii (e a?yae ee iu eiaaea-ieaoaeue ia yoii ociaai).
Nei?aa anaai, ia ianoa iaoaai Nieioea eiaaea-oi auea iaeay aieueoay
caacaea, eioi?ay aci?aaeanue (a i?aaeaeao 10 ieeeea?aeia eao iacaae) eae
naa?oiiaay. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa, o?oaeii ?acoiii iauynieoue iaee/ea a
iaae?ao iaoae Caiee (e ia ae?oaeo ieaiaoao e eo niooieeao) naa?ooyaeaeuo
yeaiaioia, aeeth/ay ?aaeeiaeoeaiua o?ai, oi?ee e ae?.

Neaaeothuei ii a?aiaiiiio ?yaeo yaeyaony aaiaaiac, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?iai ia?aciaaeanue iaoa Caiey. A iae i?ienoaeee ana oa i?ioeannu, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaioeie/aneea, niaeanii o/aieth Aeaaeeie?a
Aa?iaaeneiai, eioi?ua, a eiia/iii eoiaa, i?aaeii?aaeaeeee iaee/ea a
caiiie ei?a ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, aeeciue aac eioi?uo
auea au, iaaa?iia, aanueia i?iaeaiaoe/ia. Ianoi?iaeaeaiey, aac niiiaiey,
iaycaiu naiei nouanoaiaaieai aeiaaiaco (aeecie i?aaieciia) e, iaeii aac
ae?oaiai, nouanoaiaaoue ia iiaoo.

A oiaea aaiaaiaca, oae aea, eae e i?e anao ae?oaeo auoa ioia/aiiuo
aaiacenao, ia?aiia/aeueii iiauoaaony ea/anoai yia?aee n?aaeu
(aaciai-iueaaiai iaeaea, iai?eia?, anee i?eiyoue iaaoey?ioth aeiioaco
i?ienoiaeaeaiey Caiee e ae?oaeo ieaiao), o. a. enoiaeii, oieiaeiay eee
aeaaea naa?o oieiaeiay n?aaea (ii ieeae ia n?aaea a ninoiyiee ieaciu),
ii noaiaea?oiiio noeaia?eth aeey anao ieaiaoiuo oae, a ?acoeueoaoa
i?ioeannia i?aaiecaoeee eee naiii?aaiecaoeee, a iaae?ao naieo ia/eiaao
?acia?aaaoueny aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ a?aaeonia. Aunieoth oaiia?aoo?o,
oaiia?aoo?o ianeieueei nio a?aaeonia, i?eieiatho oaeaea ia?oaeiua neie
(noa?u) ieaiaou e, iiea yoe neie ia inouioo aei ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia
a?aaeonia (ii Oeaeueneth), nieia/iay yia?aey ia aiineo nouanoaaiiiai, a
aeaaiia ii?aaeaeythuaai, iaayio?iieeiiai aeeaaea, a caiiie
yia?aaoe/aneee aaeain e, oai naiui, a aoaeouee, iaeaieaa aeey ian
aaaeiue, i?ioeann aeiaaiaca. Aeey eiie?aoiiai aeiaaiaca, a caoai e
aio?iiiaaiaca, ianooiaao, iiaeii neacaoue, eiio?ieueiia a?aiy a
?acaeoee. A naiii aeaea, iiea oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou
i?iaeieaeaao ninoaaeyoue nioie a?aaeonia (ii Oeaeueneth), iieo/aaiay io
iaa?aoiai aei ianeieueeeo ouny/ a?aaeonia Nieioea iaayio?iiey aanueia
iecea. Yoi ia niinianoaoao ia/aeo inouanoaeaiey aeiaaiaca, aeey
eioi?iai, iaaa?iia, nouanoaoao iaeioi?ay e?eoe/aneay aaee/eia yoie naiie
iaayio?iiee (ia/oi aiaeiae/iia ia/aeo oeaiiie ?aaeoeee aeaeaiey yaea?
i?e aeinoeaeaiee aauanoaii iaeioi?ie e?eoe/aneie iannu eee
niioaaonoaothuae e?eoe/iie ieioiinoe iioiea iaeo?iiia a iai, oaeo,
onoaiiaeaiiue yenia?eiaioaeueii e eniieuecoaiue a yaea?iuo oaoiieiaeyo).
Oaeea iae?eoe/iua oneiaey ia Caiea nouanoaiaaee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia?aua
500 ieeeeiiia eao, n iiiaioa aa ia?aciaaiey, iinea /aai, n ia/aeii
iiyaeaiey (oi?ie?iaaiey) aoi?e/iie (nouanoaothuae aei nae ii?u)
aoiinoa?u, n?aaeiyy ii ieaiaoa oaiia?aoo?a ia?oaeiuo neiaa, oaeoe/anee
iiaa?oiinoe Caiee e i?eiiaa?oiinoiie aoiinoa?u, iinoaiaiii, a iiaeao,
?acei, nieceeanue aei 300 E e aeeciue ia Caiea noaea aiciiaeiie, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, eeoue aeaaiaea?y aeinoeaoae naiae e?eoe/iinoe
iaayio?iiee nieia/iiai eceo/aiey.

A aeiaaiaca, neiaeiaeoai ec neiaeiaeoeo i?ioeannia, iu niciaoaeueii
ioia/aai iiea oieueei iaeio yia?ai-yio?iieeioth noi?iio, inoaaeyy aac
aieiaiey oeieei-aeieiae/aneea aniaeou, niaea?aeauea niaoeeoe/aneoth
eiie?aoeeo i?ioeanna, ?anniao?eaaaioth a niioaaonoaothueo iaoeao.

Noa?a aeecie ia Caiea — yoi auni/aeoa, iai?aacieaeaiii oii?yaei/aiiay
no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay «ieoaaony» iaayio?iieae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
i?aaeiieiaeea, /oi a n?aaeiai yia?aey ia Caiea ia iaeaieeaaaony, iu
aeieaeiu eiinoaoe?iaaoue aieueooth ?acieoeo iioieia yio?iiee io Nieioea
e Caiee a ie?oaeathuaa einie/aneia i?ino?ainoai, n iieiaeeoaeueiui
aaeainii a iieueco Caiee. Caiey aua?anuaaao yio?iiee aieueoa, /ai
iieo/aao io Nieioea, /oi, enoaoe, oieueei iaeii yoi aanueia
oaaaeeoaeueii iainiiauaaao Aaeyaeiioaco Aeaeaeina Eaaeiea e Eeii
Ia?aoeen i aeeaie Caiea. Iioiaeaa yaeaiea iauyniyao i?ienoiaeaeaiea oae
iacuaaaiuo y/aae Aaia?a, oii?yaei/aiiuo aaenaaiiaeueiuo no?oeoo?,
aicieeathueo a oiieii neia iiaeia?aaaaiiai ianea, i?e aeinoeaeaiee a
i?ioeanna iiaeia?aaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo e?eoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth e eiiaaeoeeae. Eoae, Caiey iieo/aao
aunieiea/anoaaiioth yia?aeth io Nieioea, ia?a?aaaouaaao aa, /oi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii yio?iiee ec-ca iiieaeathuaeny oaiia?aoo?u, e
aua?anuaaao anth i?eoaaeooth yia?aeth aianoa n ia?aaioaiiie yio?iieae,
iiauoay yio?iieth ie?oaeathuaai einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa. Eiaiii yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, yoio iaoaieci ?anii?yaeaiey yio?iieae iaania/eaaao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ia Caiea. Iinoiyinoai iaayio?iieeiiai aaeaina
Caiee a iaic?eiua eioa?aaeu a?aiaie, ii-aeaeeiiio, e eaaeeo a iniiaa
ioe?uoiai Aa?iaaeneei caeiia nio?aiaiey aeiiannu ia Caiea. Oi, /oi
i?aaeeiaeaii e iienaii, ieeae ia iauyniyao nai oaiiiai aeecie, a
oeacuaaao eeoue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo e?eoe/aneeo
oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo iia iiaeao iiyaeoueny. Enoaoe, eae iieacuaatho
enneaaeiaaiey iee?iaeieiaia e iaeaiioieiaia, aeeciue ia Caiea iiyaeeanue
n?aco, aiacaiii, aae?oa, eae oieueei iiyaeeenue, ii iaoaio iiaieth,
iiaeoiaeyuea e?eoe/iua iaayio?iieeiua oneiaey, /oi i?iecioei aieaa /ai 4
ieeeea?aea eao oiio iacaae. I?e/eia aiacaiiiai iiyaeaiey aeecie aoaeao
oeacaia ianeieueei ieaea. A i?iaeaia aea iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea, iineoaey
?acoia, iaaei, eae e ai anao i?aaeoanoaothueo aio i?ioeannao, eneaoue,
eae ieieioi, ioia/aiiua auoa e?eoe/iua oneiaey yia?aaoe/aneiai e
yio?iieeiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua eiatho e anaeaineee, e aaeaeoe/aneee, e
nieia/iue (caacaeiue) ianooaau, eioi?ua a iaoai neo/aa ieacaeenue oiiei
niaeaniaaiiuie.

Oaia?ue iu aioiau ?anniio?aoue e nai aio?iiiue i?eioeei, eioi?ue i?ecaai
iauynieoue i?e/eio iiyaeaiey ?acoia e aai aaeeinoaaiii ecaanoiiai iai
iineoaey — /aeiaaea.

I aaciauo ia?aiao?ao Anaeaiiie e Aaeaeoeee (Iea/iiai Iooe)

Ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee iacaae, oi/iaa, aia?aua a 1961 aiaeo, ecaanoiue
aia?eeaineee oecee ?iaa?o Aeeeea, a caoai auaeathueeny aiaeeeneee
nia?aiaiiue oecee e ano?ioecee Noeaai Oieeia e aai o/aiee A?yiaeii
Ea?oa?, ia?aoeee iaoa aieiaiea ia oi, /oi no?oeoo?a Anaeaiiie
/?acau/aeii /oanoaeoaeueia e /eneaiiui cia/aieyi eiinoaio
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee (a?aaeoaoeeiiiiai, yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai,
neaaiai e yaea?iiai). Auynieeinue, /oi nouanoaiaaieth Anaeaiiie a
ecaanoiie iai aa oi?ia oa?iaeatho aeaaea iaaieueoea ioeeiiaiey a oo eee
eioth noi?iio cia/aiee ca?yaea yeaeo?iia, iannu i?ioiia, iinoiyiiie
Ieaiea, nei?inoe naaoa e ae?oaeo oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia. Oaeie aea
oece/aneie (einie/aneie) oa?ica iiaeaa?aaaony nouanoaiaaiea naiie
aeecie. AEeciue ieacuaaaony ai?acaei aieaa oanii naycaiiie n
iauaeinie/aneeie (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yia?ai-yio?iieeiuie, eae
ioia/aeinue auoa) oneiaeyie, /ai yoi aei neo ii? i?aaeiieaaaeinue, e ana
iaiaa i/aaeaeiui noaiiaeony acaeyae ia aeeciue eae ia iacia/eoaeueiue
i?iaeoeo neo/ay (iaeie anaeaineie oeoeooaoeee). Iiiaea i?ioeannu a
einiina (caeanue yoi neiiiei Anaeaiiie) i?aaenoaaeythony iai?aaeaiiuie
ia aicieeiiaaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea aeecie. Eiaiii yoa iuneue, yoio auaiae
i?eaiaeyo e oae iacuaaaiiio aio?iiiiio i?eioeeio, iineieueeo auyaeythony
aae?oa oaeeaeoaeueiua acaeiinayce iaaeaeo aeeauie iauaeoaie,
iaaethaeaoaeyie ie?a, iaaeaeaiiuie eioaeeaeoii, o. a. iaie, ethaeueie, e
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie oieaa?naeueiuie naienoaaie Anaeaiiie (eiiaaea iiyoiio
aiai?yo ia aio?iiiii einiieiae/aneii i?eioeeia).

Iai?aeiaeiie enoeiie yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi ia iaoae ieaiaoa nouanoaoao
oi?ia aeecie n niciaieai, iaaethaeathuee eioaeeaeo, eioi?ue iiaeao
caaeaaaoue naaa aii?inu ia ie?oaeathuae anaeaiiie e i naaa naiie, ioaaou
ia eioi?ua iiaeii iieo/eoue a neaaeothuae eo eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe (a oi?ioee?iaea Ieoa?a Oaaaea):

niciaiea i?aaeiieaaaao eee oaa?aii, /oi nouanoaoao aeeciue;

aeey naiaai aicieeiiaaiey aeeciue ioaeaeaaony a oeie/aneeo yeaiaioao e,
i?aaeaea anaai, a oaeeo, eioi?ua oyaeaeaa aiaei?iaea e aaeey (e?iia
naiiai einiina, ninoiyuaai ii/oe ia 100% ec ieo, o. a. caacaeu,
aaeaeoeee, ie/aai aieaa ec aiaei?iaea e aaeey iaaiciiaeii iino?ieoue);

oyaeaeua yeaiaiou aicieeatho oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa oa?iiyaea?iiai
neioaca (nai?aiey) eaaeeo yeaiaioia, a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey eo yaea?;

neeyiea yaea? aoiiia i?ienoiaeeo oieueei a aeoaeiao caacae e o?aaoao, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, oaiia?aoo?o a ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia eee nioai ieeeeiiia
a?aaeonia e a?aiaiiie eioa?aae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth a ianeieueei
ieeeea?aeia eao aeey oiai, /oiau aicieeei cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai
oyaeaeuo yeaiaioia;

a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu ii?yaeea ianeieueeeo ieeeea?aeia eao aiciiaeiu eeoue
ai Anaeaiiie, eioi?ay naia nouanoaoao, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ianeieueei
aeanyoeia ieeeea?aeia eao e eiaao, oaeei ia?acii, i?ioyaeaiiinoue a
ianeieueei ieeeea?aeia eee aeanyoeia ieeeea?aeia naaoiauo eao.

Yoio ieieioi o?aaiaaiee anaeaineiai ianooaaa (ii ia nieia/iiai e
ieaiaoa?iiai, eioi?ua ia iaiaa, anee ia aieaa, aaaeiu, e ia eioi?uo
inoaiiaeiny ieaea) aeey aicieeiiaaiey aeecie iicaieyao iieo/eoue ioaao
ia aii?in, ii/aio iaaethaeaaiay iaie naaiaeiy Anaeaiiay oae noa?a e oae
aaeeea: iioiio /oi, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa, /aeiaa/anoaa aiiaua ia auei au.
Oneiaey, a eioi?uo iiaea ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeiooue aeeciue eae
anaeaineia yaeaiea, a aiana ia a iaoae iaoaaaeaeoeea, a eioi?ie iia
i?iyaeeanue a /anoiinoe e a ecaanoiie iai eiie?aoiinoe, oi?ie?iaaeenue
aacoiii aeieai, iio?aaiaaee eioa?aaea a?aiaie aieueoaai, /ai nouanoaoao
ecaanoiay iai iaoaaaeaeoeea.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, niaeanii noaiaea?oiie iiaeaee einiiaiiee
Eaiyo?a-Aaiiaa, iao einiin «noa?oiaae» i?eia?ii 13-17 ieeeea?aeia eao
iacaae «aieueoei ac?uaii» /?acau/aeii ieioiie e ai?y/ae iaoa?ee
(ia/aeueiay neiaoey?iinoue, iaii?aaeaeaiiia oece/aneia ninoiyiea) e
i?ioae n oao ii? aeeeiioth enoi?eth ?acaeoey. Nai iiiaio «ia/aea
ac?uaa», aai i?e/eia, oece/anee iaei iiiyoai, anee ia neacaoue, /oi
nianai ia iiiyoai, e nia?aiaiiie oeceeie iiea ia iiiyo aei eiioea, ii
n/eoaaony, /oi ii i?ioanoaee iaeiie ieeeeiiiie aeiee naeoiaeu
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iiaeao auoue iienaii n iiiiuueth ecaanoiuo a
oeceea caeiiia iee?iie?a e i?e?iaeu a oeaeii.

*a?ac 100 naeoiae oaiia?aoo?a ana aua ninoaaeyea ieeeea?ae a?aaeonia;
25% yaea? aiaei?iaea i?aa?aoeeinue a yae?a aaeey. *a?ac 400 000-700 000
eao aicieeee iaeo?aeueiua aoiiu aiaei?iaea, i?eia?ii /a?ac iaeei
ieeeea?ae eao ia?acothony ia?aua caacaeu, aaeaeoeee e oyaeaeua
oeie/aneea yeaiaiou a iaae?ao ianneaiuo caacae. I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey
aaeaeoee — a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaieth caacae e neioaco
yeaiaioia — iiiyo iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi. Ec ia?aiia/aeueiiai
eiee/anoaa aiaei?iaea a caacaeao ieiei 2% ooei ia neioac oaeeo aaaeiuo
aeey aeecie yeaiaioia, eae oaea?iae, acio e eenei?iae (iaeioi?ua
iiae?iaiinoe ia?aciaaiey yoeo yeaiaioia aoaeoo ianoaeaeaiu ieaea).

?onneee oeeinio e ae?aiaoo?a Aeaenaiae? Nooiai-Eiaueei, nicaeaoaeue
«oeeinioee Anaie?a», eioi?iai iiaeii, ii yoie i?e/eia n/eoaoue iaeiei ec
i?aaeoa/ aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia, a eiioea XIX aaea iainiiauaae eaeath, /oi
aeeciue a naiai ?acaeoee aeieaeia auea i?ieoe o?e noaaeee:
aaeaeoe/aneoth, neaea?e/aneoth (caacaeioth) e oaeeo?e/aneoth
(ieaiaoioth). Oi/iaa, ii ienae i noaaeeyo ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee,
iineieueeo ii oiaaea ia ciae ia enoeiiuo ianooaaao Anaeaiiie, ii
iicaieei naaa ianeieueei ia?aeia/eoue aai iniiaioth iuneue.
I?aaeaeaeaiea Nooiai-Eiaueeia ieacaeinue i?i?i/aneei. Eae iu oaia?ue
ciaai, a iaoae Aaeaeoeea aeaaii?eyoiua aeey ?acaeoey aeecie noaaeee
nicaeaeenue e auee i?ieaeaiu a Nieia/iie nenoaia ia ieaiaoa Caiey.

Aaeaeoe/aneee iiyn aeecie. Iaoa Aaeaeoeea, eae e iiiaea ae?oaea, eiaao
a?auathuothny aie?oa nianoaaiiiai oeaio?a nie?aeueioth no?oeoo?o. Ethaie
a?auathueeny iauaeo eiaao aeaa nei?inoe: oaeiaoth (eee a?auaoaeueioth) e
eeiaeioth. Anee iauaeoii yaeyaony iaeioi?ia oaa?aeia oaei, oi i?e
iinoiyinoaa aai oaeiaie nei?inoe, eeiaeiua ?anooo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
oaeaeaieth io oeaio?a a?auaiey.

N iaoae Aaeaeoeeie ana ianoieo ia oae, e yoi aa ia?aay oiieay e
/?acau/aeii nouanoaaiiay aeey iaoaai ?anniio?aiey iniaaiiinoue (eee
oiieay niaeaniaaiiinoue aa /anoae). Eiaiii eeiaeiay nei?inoue
a?auathueony /anoae a iae nio?aiyaony i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiaie aei
aeaaioneeo ?annoiyiee 18 eie (eeeiia?nae) io oeaio?a e ?aaiyaony
i?eia?ii 220-230 ei/n. Yoio oaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ii ia?a
oaeaeaiey io oeaio?a oaeiaay nei?inoue oiaiueoaaony. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
«caiacaeuaaieth» a?auaiey aiaoieo /anoae ii ioiioaieth e aioo?aiiei e, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, eae eoia, aaaeao e nie?aeueiinoe anae aaeaeoe/aneie
nenoaiu. Eae ?acoeueoao oaeiai caiaaeeaiey a?auaiey, ii ia?a oaeaeaiey
io oeaio?a, ia ia?eoa?ee aaeaeoeee aicieeatho niaoeeoe/aneea aieiu
ieioiinoe, i?iyaeythueany a aeaea nie?aeueiuo aaoaae eee ?oeaaia. O
iaoae Aaeaeoeee oaeeo ?oeaaia anaai aeaa — ?oeaa No?aeueoea e ?oeaa
Ia?nay. I?eioeeieaeueiui iiiaioii a aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony oi, /oi
nei?inoue a?auaiey yoeo ?oeaaia iinoiyiia e, aieaa oiai, eiaiii ia yoii
oaeaeaiee, iacuaaaiii ei?ioaoeeiiiui e?oaii, e naia Aaeaeoeea e aa
?oeaaa a?auathony neio?iiii. Niaa?oaaony yoi, eiia/ii, a iaeioi?ii
aanueia oceii (ii aaeaeoe/aneei ianooaaai) eieueoea — oi?a ?aaeeonii
anaai 250 ia?nae, niaea?aeauai ei?ioaoeeiiiue e?oa. Eiaiii a ciia
ei?ioaoeee (io aiae. corotation — niaianoiia a?auaiea), aaeeinoaaiiie,
iniai auaeaeaiiie, niaoeeoe/aneie ciia a eaaeaeie nie?aeueiie aaeaeoeea,
a iae, ii iiaieth ano?iiiiia e ano?ioeceeia, iaoiaeeony iaoa Nieioea.
Niaoeeoe/iinoue ciiu ei?ioaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai, ii?aaeaeyaony iniauie
oneiaeyie ia?aciaaiey caacae. Aia i?aaeaeia ciiu ei?ioaoeee caacaeu
iiaeaa?aathony ?eneo auoue ?ac?ooaiiuie iiuiaeoeie oaea?iuie aieiaie.
«Niieieiay aeeciue» iaoaai naaoeea e aai ieaiao ia/aeanue oieueei
oiaaea, eiaaea iie iieeioee ianoi ?iaeaeaiey iaoae caacaeu,
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ?oeaa No?aeueoea, e auoee a i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo
nie?aeueiuie ?oeaaaie, aaea i?aauaatho a aeaaiiieo/ee aei neo ii?, e
aoaeoo oae i?aauaaoue aua ia iaiaa 10 ieeeea?aeia eao.

Aaciaua ia?aiao?u Nieioea e Caiee. I?iaeieaeay iiene oieeaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae, ii?aaeaeythueo nouiinoue aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia e
ii?iaeeaoeo, a eiioea eiioeia, aeeciue, aeieaeii oaia?ue neacaoue
ianeieueei neia i Nieioea. Iaoa naaoeei, eae aoaeoi au ?yaeiaay caacaea,
e oiaaea ana aa i?iaeaiu — yoi i?iaeaiu iauea ano?ioece/aneea. Oae ee
yoi ia naiii aeaea? Anee yoi oae, oi ano?ioeceeai aeieaeiu auoue
ecaanoiu ie?eaaeu «aeaieieeia» iaoaai Nieioea. Aeaoaeueiue aiaeec
niaeo?ia caacae eeanna iaoaai naaoeea, oae iacuaaaiuo aeaeouo ea?eeeia,
iieacae, /oi Nieioea — ia oaeay oae ?yaeiaay caacaea. Iiea ia
iaia?oaeaii ie iaeiie caacaeu, eioi?oth iiaeii auei au iacaaoue
«aeaieieeii» Nieioea! Ie iaeia ec iiiaeanoaa enneaaeiaaiiuo caacae ia
iaeaaeaao iaeiia?aiaiii oaeeie aea oece/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, eae
oaiia?aoo?a, ianna, ?aaeeon, ii?aaeaeythuea onei?aiea neeu oyaeanoe,
naaoeiinoue, niaea?aeaiea iaoaeeia e iee?ioo?aoeaioiinoue, eaeea anoue o
iaoaai Nieioea. O?aioeocneea ano?iiiiu, a oa/aiea 10 eao eneaaoea oioy
au aua iaeii iioiaeaa ia Nieioea naaoeei, niiaee iaia?oaeeoue a
nicaacaeee Ei?iu aeiaieueii neaaoth caacaei/eo, ia ioee/athuothny io
Nieioea ii aic?anoo, ianna, oaiia?aoo?a e iaeioi?ui ae?oaei iieacaoaeyi.
Ii ana-oaee nianai oae iioiaeae ia Nieioea aa n/eoaoue iaeuecy, oae eae
a iae ieacaeinue a ianeieueei ?ac aieueoa oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia, /ai a iaoae
caacaea.

Auoaneacaiiia i Nieioea iicaieyao ioianoe aai e oieeaeueiui, iaiau/iui
caacaeiui iauaeoai. Anee aea niaeaoaoueny aeaeaa n iaeioi?uie o/aiuie,
/oi iaoa ieaiaoa Caiey — aaeeinoaaiiay iaeoaaiay ieaiaoa a aeinooiiie
aeey enneaaeiaaiey /anoe Anaeaiiie, oi aicieeaao caeiiiue aii?in: ia
naycaia ee oieeaeueiinoue aeecie ia Caiea n oieeaeueiinoueth oece/aneeo
oneiaee ia Nieioea? Ii-aeaeeiiio, eneeth/eoue yoiai iaeuecy.

Oieeaeueia oaeaea naia Caiey, iiiaeanoai aa ia?aiao?ia. Iu oioaee au
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea oieueei ia iaeioi?ua. I?aaeaea anaai, iieiaeaiea
iaoae ieaiaou a nieia/iie nenoaia. ?annoiyiea io Nieioea ninoaaeyao
ieiei 150 iei. ei. Anee au iii auei anaai ia 8 iei. ei iaiueoa, oi ia
iiaea au aicieeiooue eiiaeainaoeey aiaeyiiai ia?a e ia ia?aciaaeenue au
ieaaiu, ia ieaiaoa aeaaainoaiaae au oaeaeeneue aac; anee au iaoa ieaiaoa
auea oaeaeaia io Nieioea anaai ia 2 iei. ei aeaeueoa (!), oi
ia?aciaaeenue au eaaeieee (eae ia Ia?na), oae /oi e a ia?aii e ai aoi?ii
neo/ayo aicieeiiaaiea aeecie noaei au aanueia i?iaeaiaoe/iui. E?eoe/iie
oaeaea ieacuaaaony nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey Caiee ii ieieinieia/iie i?aeoa.
Anee au iia ninoaaeyea anaai 3 ei/n, oi Caiey aeiaieueii nei?i aeaoaea
au a Nieioea, anee au iia auea aieueoa 41 ei/n, oi oiaaea Caiey iaaa/ii
iieeioea au Nieia/ioth nenoaio; nei?inoue aea Caiee ninoaaeyao cieiooth
na?aaeeio — 30 ei/n.

Ecaanoii, /oi aeiey eenei?iaea a aoiinoa?a ninoaaeyao nae/an 21%, /oi
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao niieieiia nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea, iiyaeaoaainy ia
ieaiaoa anaai-oi ianeieueei ieeeeiiia eao iacaae (ii iiaieth
aieueoeinoaa enneaaeiaaoaeae). Anee a aoiinoa?a aeiey eenei?iaea
ninoaaeyao anaai 15-18%, oi iaaiciiaeiui ieacuaaaony ai?aiea. Anee aea
yoa aeiey i?aacieaeao i?aaeae 30% (ii aeiioaca ?onneiai aaioeceea Ieaaa
Ni?iooeia, eenei?iae eaeao ec iaae? caiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa eiiaaeoeaiiai
aeaeaeaiey iaioee io ?anieaaeaiiiai yae?a Caiee e caiiie ei?a e ia?aoii,
aunaiaiaeaeay eenei?iae i?e ia?aieaaea ieeneia a yae?a), /oi, eae
aeaeii, aiieia aiciiaeii, oi oiaaea aoaeao ai?aoue ana e iiaea? yoio ia
caoooeoue! Iiyoue aea, nia?aiaiiay aeiey eenei?iaea e?eoe/ia! Nienie
ae?oaeo oieeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia Caiee iiaeii i?iaeieaeaoue aeieai.

Oiieay niaeaniaaiiinoue oece/aneeo caeiiia e ie?iauo eiinoaio

Oaia?ue aa?iainy e neaea?e/aneiio e, aua ?ac, e aaeaeoe/aneiio yoaiai
?acaeoey Anaeaiiie. Iniai aia/aoeythuee i?eia? oiieie niaeaniaaiiinoe
ano?a/aaony a iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey yaea? oaea?iaea — yaea? oiai
oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa, iaee/ea eioi?iai yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaiaoiaeeiuo
oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey aeecie.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea «aieueoiai ac?uaa» aicieeee oieueei eaaeea
yeaiaiou, oi/iaa, eo yae?a, — yae?a aiaei?iaea, aaeey e eeoey.
Iineaaeothuea, aieaa oyaeaeua yae?a, aeieaeiu auee ?iaeaeaoueny a
iaae?ao caacae eee i?e eo ac?uaao, eae onoaiiaeaii a ano?ioeceea. Auei
onoaiiaeaii, iinea iiiaeo eao ae?aiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, /oi yae?i
oaea?iaea iiaeao ia?aciaaoueny, anee i?aaeaea neeeenue aeaa yae?a
aaeey-4 e ia?aciaaee aicaoaeaeaiiia yae?i aa?eeeey — 8 (4 e 8 — yoi
/enea ioeeiiia a yae?ao), n eioi?ui ?aciiainii, o. a. i?e iaee/ee
«?ac?aoaiiiai» yia?aaoe/aneiai o?iaiy a yae?a oaea?iaea, neeaaaony aua
iaeii yae?i aaeey-4. Eiaaea ecaanoiue oecee e einiieia aiaee/aiei O?aae
Oiee a 1954 aiaeo oai?aoe/anee i?aaeeiaeee oaeie aa?eaio ?aaeoeee,
yenia?eiaioaoi?ai ia aue ecaanoai oaeie «?ac?aoaiiue o?iaaiue», ii
ii?aceoaeueii, /oi iicaeiaa yoio o?iaaiue ana aea iaia?oaeeeny e
ninoaaee yia?aeth anaai-oi ia 4% auoa ianniauo yia?aee (ii Yeiooaeio)
nioaea?ythueony ia?oia?ia. Yoi oaeeaeoaeueiia (iiyoue oaeeaeoaeueiia!)
niaiaaeaiea iaoneiaeaii i/aiue neiaeiie ea?oeiie neeueiiai (yaea?iiai)
acaeiiaeaenoaey a yae?a oaea?iaea. Iaaeinoathuay aeiey yia?aee eaaei
aeiaaaeyaony ca n/ao eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee nioaea?ythueony yaea?.

Aua aieaa oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi oaea?iae, ii oieueei /oi oeacaiiie noaia,
ia i?aia?acoaony oio/an aea a eenei?iae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oaea?iaea
aiiaua ia auei au. Eenei?iae-16 (oi/iaa, aai yae?i) eiaao a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaeei ?aciiainii iiaeic?eoaeueiue (iineieueeo caeanue
eaeao ioioa ca /oaeanaie) yia?aaoe/aneee o?iaaiue, ii aeey yooaeoeaiiai
i?ioaeaiey ?aaeoeee ii eaaeeo anaai eeoue ia 1% ieaea, /ai yoi auei au
iaiaoiaeeii. Aeenaaeain yia?aee, eioi?ie ia?aecauoie, ia iiaeao auoue a
yoii neo/aa neiiiaine?iaai ca n/ao eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee, oae eae
eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey anaaaea iieiaeeoaeueia. O?aae Oiee iicaea niciaeny:
«Ie/oi ia iieieaaaei iie aoaeci neeueiaa, /ai yoi ioe?uoea». Aio aoi?eo
e ecaanoiaeoee iiioey?ecaoi? iaoee, oecee Iieue Aeaaen, cayaeaoee, /oi
caeanue iu ano?a/aainy n yeaiaioaie einie/aneiai ieaia (eee, anee
oaiaeii, Aiaeueaai i?iiunea — yoi oaea cayaeaiea io ian). Naaiaeiy
ecaanoii aieueoia /enei oiieeo niaeaniaaiee:

a noaiaea?oiie einiieiae/aneie iiaeaee nei?inoue ?anoe?aiey Anaeaiiie e
neeu oyaeanoe niaeaniaaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii n oi/iinoueth aei niioiioaiey
10-55, o. a. /oaeiaeuii oi/ii. Anee au ?anoe?aiea Anaeaiiie i?ienoiaeeei
auno?aa, oi aaeaeoeee e caacaeu ia ia?aciaaeenue au; ia nicaeaeenue au e
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aeecie. Anee au yoio i?ioeann i?ioaeae
iaaeeaiiaa, oi Anaeaiiay ia?aaeeea au eieeain (noei-iuaaiea) aua aei
ia?aciaaiey oioy au iaeiie caacaeu;

anee au oece/aneea eiinoaiou neeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey auee anaai eeoue
ia 0,3% aieueoa eee ia 2% iaiueoa, oi ia auei au ieeaeie aeecie, oae eae
iie eeai ia niiaee au ia?aciaaoueny, eeai ia?aciaaeenue au oieueei iie,
e ia niiaee au ia?aciaaoueny aoiiu;

oi aea ioiineony e iinoiyiiie oiieie no?oeoo?u, aaaaeaiiie a ia/aea
eaaioiaie y?u iaiaoeeei oeceeii A?iieueaeii Ciiia?oaeueaeii e ?aaiie
1/137. A yoie ie?iaie iinoiyiiie aiaaeeii naycaiu ca?yae yeaeo?iia,
nei?inoue naaoa e iinoiyiiay Ieaiea, o. a. ana o?e ie?iaua eiinoaiou.
Ana yoi aiai?eo i aa eneeth/eoaeueiie aaaeiinoe a i?e?iaea. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii, aa ioeeiiaiea a oo eee eioth noi?iio ia ianeieueei
i?ioeaioia io nouanoaothuae ia iicaieeei au aicieeiooue aieueoeinoao
caacae n e?eoe/aneeie ia?aiao?aie aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yeaiaioia. Auea au
iia ianeieueei iaiueoa — ia auei au caacae n iannie iaiueoae, /ai 0,7
iannu Nieioea, auea au yoa iinoiyiiay ianeieueei aieueoa — ia auei au
caacae n iannie iaiueoae, /ai 1,8 iannu Nieioea. Ioeeiiaiea
ia?a/eneaiiuo ia?aiao?ia e aaee/ei ia ianeieueei i?ioeaioia
aini?aiyonoaiaaei au aicieeiiaaieth e naiie aeecie. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue,
/oi ianoaeaeaaiua oiieea niaeaniaaiiinoe caeiiia Anaeaiiie ia yaeythony
i?iaeoeoii i?eniiniaeyaiinoe, eae iie o?aeoothony a yaiethoeeiiiie
aeieiaee. Yoi ia oeaeaniia?aciue ?acoeueoao «einie/aneie yaiethoeee», a
auyaeaiiua e aeoaaea iiea ia iainiiaaiiua i?aaeiinueee aeecie.

Iaaey (ienoeea) aieueoeo /enae

A i?iaeaia iainiiaaiey e enoieeiaaiey aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia iaeioi?uo
enneaaeiaaoaeae caai?aaeeaaao iaaey eee ienoeea /enae. Enoi?e/anee aa?a
a /enea iioea io Ieoaai?a, a iniiaa iaoo?oeeinioneiai o/aiey i Anaeaiiie
o eioi?iai eaaeaei iaoo?aeueiia /enei («naiia ioae?ia a ie?a — /enei»,
«/eneo aea ana iiaeiaii» e «ana aaue nooue /enea» eee ae?oaie aa?eaio:
«ana nouaa — anoue /enei». — ooaa?aeaeae Ieoaai? (onoaie A?enoioaey),
ioaeaaay aeaiue iaoaiaoe/aneie nouiinoe i?e?iaeu). Nai aea A?enoioaeue
e?eoeeiaae ieoaai?aeoeaa ca i?eiyoea a ea/anoaa ia/ae (ia?aiyeaiaioia)
/enouo iaoaiaoe/aneeo nouiinoae, ia i?eciaaay iniiaiiieaaathuei
ieoaai?aeneee eiino?oeoeaiue e oiic?eoaeueiue ie? /enae e aaiiao?e/aneeo
oeao?. Ii iineaaeiaaoaeai Ieoaai?a aue iai?aacieaeaiiue Ieaoii, oeaiyuee
iaoaiaoeeo ianoieueei, /oi ia ai?ioao aai Aeaaeaiee auee ia/a?oaii
ec?a/aiea: «Ionoue ia aoiaeeo ieeoi, ia ciathuee aaiiao?ee» (yoi
ec?a/aiea auei acyoi a ea/anoaa aoi?ecia Ieeieaai Eiia?ieeii e aai
aaeeeie eieaa «I a?auaieyo iaaaniuo noa?» e, eiia/ii, iani?inoa). Nai
aea Ieaoii iniaaiii ii/eoae iyoue i?aaeeueiuo auioeeuo iiiaia?aiieea,
eioi?ua naycuaae n yeaiaioaie i?e?iaeu e naiei einiinii (Anaeaiiie),
iieo/eaoeo a iaoea iacaaiea Ieaoiiiauo oae: oao?ayae? naycuaae n iaiai,
aaenayae? — n caieae, ieoayae? — n aiaeie, eeinayae? — n aicaeooii e
aeiaeaeay? — n einiinii.

Ii naiiai iooea iaaee /enae aeaeaei aeanoi/aeoaa ?aci/a?iaaiea, eiaaea
ei auea ioe?uoa iani?acia?iinoue io?aceia, /oi eneeth/aei aiciiaeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey oieueei oeaeuo (iaoo?aeueiuo) /enae. (Enoaoe, a XIX aaea
iaiaoeeee iaoaiaoee, niaoeeaeece?iaaaoeeny a iaeanoe oai?ee /enae,
Eaiiieueae E?iiaea?, neacae: «Ainiiaeue Aia nicaeae oeaeua /enea, ana
inoaeueiia — aeaei ?oe /aeiaa/aneeo».) Eaaaiaea aeaneo, /oi yoi ioe?uoea
Ieoaai?a niaea?aeaeinue a no?iaeaeoae oaeia, a ieoaai?aaoe Aeiian,
eioi?ue iuoaeny ?ane?uoue yoo oaeio, o?aae/anee iiieaoeeny ca yoi
aeeciueth. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a iniiao eaaaiaeu (e yoi aeaeaei iaaacuioa?anii
a iaoai enneaaeiaaiee) iieiaeai oaeo ?aneiea ieoaai?aeoeaa ia aeaa
acaeiii eneeth/athuea ae?oa ae?oaa aaoae: iao/ioth e
?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneoth. Yoi ?acaeaeaiea n?aaee o/aiuo (e i?inouo
ethaeae) inoaeinue iaanaaaea.

Iaoaiaoe/aneie nouiinoe i?e?iaeu i?eaea?aeeaaeenue e aaeeeee
ioe?uaaoaeue caeiiia einiina Eiaaii Eaiea? e iniiaaoaeue
yenia?eiaioaeueiie aa?iiaeneie iaoee eoaeueyineee aaiee Aaeeeai Aaeeeae,
eiaaea ii ienae, eae caaauaiea, a 600-no?aie/iie eieaa «Aanaaeu e
iaoaiaoe/aneea aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eanathueany aeaoo iiauo io?aneae iaoee,
ioiinyueony e iaoaieea e ianoiiio aeaeaeaieth»: «Oeeinioey iaienaia a
aaee/aeoae eieaa, eioi?ay iinoiyiii ioe?uoa iaoei aeacai (y aiai?th i
Anaeaiiie); ii iaeuecy aa iiiyoue, ia iao/eaoenue i?aaeaea iiieiaoue aa
ycue e ?acee/aoue ciaee, eioi?uie iia iaienaia. Iaienaia aea iia ycueii
iaoaiaoe/aneei».

N aeaaieo a?aiai ethaee ii/eoaee e ii neth ii?o, ii/eoatho oae
iacuaaaiia «cieioia na/aiea», iii aea «cieioay i?iii?oeey», «cieioia
aeaeaiea» (aai eceiaeaiea anoue a «Ia/aeao» Aaeeeaea), eioi?ia
i?eaeeaeaiii (n aic?anoathuae oi/iinoueth) au?aaeaaony /a?ac ioiioaiey
?yaea /enae Oeaiia//e 5/3, 8/5, 13/8, 21/13 e o. ae., o. a. ?yaea /enae,
ioe?uoiai eoaeueyineei iaoaiaoeeii Oeaiia//e (aai eiy Eaiia?aei
Iecaineee) a 1202 aiaeo (!), ?yaea, a eioi?ii eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee
/eai ?aaai noiia aeaoo i?aaeuaeoueo — 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, …. A
i?aaeaea /enei cieioie i?iii?oeee e??aoeeiiaeueii – 1,6280338…. Nae/an
noaei ynii, /oi ainoeuaeenue yoei /eneii ia aaciniiaaoaeueii. A 1957
aiaeo aia?eeaineee iaoaiaoee Aa?aiai iieacae, /oi yoi /enei 1,6280338…
iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiui iniiaaieai eiiiuethoa?iuo au/eneaiee,
i?aainoiaeyuei ii yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiyooth a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaie/ioth
nenoaio n/eneaiey. Aiciiaeii, /oi eiaaea-ieaoaeue yoi iaeaeao
i?eiaiaiea. Oa?iei cieioia na/aiea aaae Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, iaeioi?ua
aaoi?u iacuaaee yoo i?iii?oeeth aiaeanoaaiiie.

A Iiaaeoaa a?aiy eiiaeiaoi?eeie /enae caieiaeny ioe?uaaoaeue eaaioia
iaiaoeeee oecee Iaen Ieaie, a, a nayce n i?iaeaiaie einiieiaee, aaeeeee
aiaeeeneee oecee Iieue Aee?ae. Yoi aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ioe?uoea iiauo
aac?acia?iuo iinoiyiiuo, /eneaiii i?eaeeceoaeueii au?aaeathueony
aaeeieoeae, eeai n o?eaeoeaoe aeaayoueth, eeai n ni?iea ioeyie — 1039 —
1040 Aee?ae ienae a iaeiie ec noaoae: «Eae e ae?oaea aac?acia?iua
oece/aneea iinoiyiiua, yoi /enei (ninoaaeaiiia ec eaaae?aoa
yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, iann yeaeo?iia e i?ioiia e a?aaeoaoeeiiiie
iinoiyiiie. — Aao.) aeieaeii auoue iauyniaii. Iiaeii ee oioy au
iaaeayoueny i?eaeoiaoue oai?eth, eioi?ay iauynieo oaeia ia?iiiia /enei?
Aai iaeuecy ?acoiii iino?ieoue, iai?eia?, ec 4x e ae?oaeo i?inouo /enae,
eioi?uie iia?e?oao iaoaiaoeea! Aaeeinoaaiiay aiciiaeiinoue iauynieoue
yoi /enei — naycaoue aai n aic?anoii Anaeaiiie». Aio oae caeeaaeuaaaony
nia?aiaiiay iaaey, iaaey aieueoeo /enae. *a?ac yoo iaaeth e I. Aee?ae,
?. Aeeeea e ae?. iuoathony aeaoue iao/iia iainiiaaiea aio?iiiiai
i?eioeeia, ii ia eae oece/aneiai i?eioeeia, a eaeiai-oi aieaa iauaai,
aua aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai, /ai ethaie oece/aneee i?eioeei. Eeann
i?eioeeia, e eioi?iio aeieaeai auoue ioianai aio?iiiue i?eioeei, oaeei
ia?acii, ia ynai. Ii yoi aiana ia cia/eo, /oi yoa i?iaeaia ia aeieaeia
enneaaeiaaoueny ie anoanoaaiiuie iaoeaie, ie oeeinioeae. Yoi aucia e
oeeinioee e anoanoaiciaieth, aucia anae iaoea, anae oeeaeeecaoeee.
Aiciiaeii, /oi ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu auaaaeao /aeiaa/anoai ia iiaue
aeoie iiciaiey, nicaeano i?eioeeieaeueii iiaoth iaoeo.

Neaaay oi?ioee?iaea aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia

?anniio?aiiua auoa caeiiiia?iinoe Anaeaiiie e i?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey
a iae aeecie iiaeii naanoe e aaeeiiio i?eioeeio, iacuaaaiiio aio?iiiui
i?eioeeiii.

Nae/an ?acee/atho o?e aa?eaioa oi?ioee?iaie i?eioeeia: neaaoth,
neeueioth e naa?oneeueioth. E?aoei a neaaie oi?ioee?iaea ii aeaneo:
oece/aneay Anaeaiiay, eioi?oth iu iaaethaeaai, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
no?oeoo?o, aeiioneathuoth iaaea i?enoonoaea eae iaaethaeaoaeae.
?anoe?aiii e iiae?iaii yoo oi?ioee?iaeo ?ane?uee aia?eeaineea oeceee
Aa??io e Oeiea? (iineaaeiaio, enoaoe, i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeii ec iiauo
iao?eaeaeueiuo ii?aaeaeaiee aeecie «eae eioi?iaoeee»). Eo oi?ioee?iaea
neaaiai aa?eaioa aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia oaeiaa: «Iaaethaeaaiua cia/aiey
anao oece/aneeo e einie/aneeo aaee/ei ia i?iecaieueiu. Iie a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?eieiatho cia/aiey, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu o?aaiaaieai
iaee/ey ?aaeiia, a eioi?ii iiaea aicieeiooue aeeciue ia aaca oaea?iaea,
e o?aaiaaieai e aic?anoo Anaeaiiie, aeinoaoi/iui aeey oiai, /oiau yoi
oaea i?iecioei». A eaeie-oi noaiaie i?eaaaeaiiua oi?ioee?iaee
i?aaenoaaeyaony oaaoieiaeae, a?iaea yoie: iaaethaeaoaeue iaaethaeaao
Anaeaiioth, aeiioneathuoth iaaethaeaiea. Anoue ee a yoii eaeie-oi niune?
A?iaea au e anoue, e aeaaea ia nianai i?inoie.

Ai-ia?auo, neaaue aa?eaio i?eioeeia iaiiieiaao i oii, /oi a oai?eyo
iaaei o/eouaaoue iaaethaeaoaey. A eeanne/aneie iaoea, aeaaiaea?y
ea?oaceainei-iuioiiianeie oi?ioee?iaea, iaaethaeaoaeth ianoa iao, a aio
a iaeeanne/aneie (/a?ac iin?aaenoai i?eioeeia ioiineoaeueiinoe e
n?aaenoaai iaaethaeaiey) e a iinoiaeeanne/aneie iaoea (neia?aaoeea
Aa?iaia Oaeaia, oai?ee aeenneiaoeaiuo no?oeoo? Eeuee I?eaiaeeia, oai?ee
aaoiiiyca Iaoo?aiu — Aa?aeu e ae?.) iaaethaeaoaeue oaea o/eouaaaony. A
oaeii neo/aa i?eioeei ea?aao ?ieue «oeeueo?a» aeey ioai?a oai?ee, i?e/ai
oeeueo?a /?acau/aeiie ieioiinoe, ec-ca ioia/aaoaeny auoa oiieie
niaeaniaaiiinoe caeiiia e eiinoaio.

Ai-aoi?uo, neaaue aa?eaio i?eioeeia ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
aiciiaeiinoe aeey aeecie oanii naycaiu n caeiiaie i?e?iaeu e n
iauaeinie/aneei (anaeaineei) ?acaeoeai (einiiaaiacii), e eo ia neaaeoao
aini?eieiaoue e ?anniao?eaaoue iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Anee, eae
ieacaeinue, aeeciue ana aea aicieeea, oi, iiaeao auoue, iia auea
ecia/aeueii i?aaeiaia?aiia, ca?aiaa caieaie?iaaia? Ii oiaaea iu ai?aaa
caaeaoue aii?in: Eoi eee *oi ca anai yoei noieo? Iiea iu ia aoaeai
iuoaoueny aeaoue ioaao ia yoio anoanoaaiiue aii?in.

A-o?aoueeo, neaaue aa?eaio i?eioeeia oeacuaaao ia neo/aeiia iiyaeaiea
iaaethaeathuaai ?acoia, io?eoeaao aeanoeee eeanne/aneee aeaoa?ieieci
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a i?iecioaaeoai, a neo/eaoainy a yoii ie?a. Yoi
i?aaenoaaeyaony eae aoaeoi iaeaieaa anoanoaaiiui, ii a?yae ee iao/iui,
oae eae iu ciaai nae/an ii/oe aaca?aie/iua aiciiaeiinoe iaoee, e aue au
a?ao ana nienaoue ia n/anoeeaue neo/ae.

Aiaeece?oy yoio aa?eaio aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia, aeaaeaiee Ieeeoa Iienaaa
noi?ioee?iaae ?yae iinooeaoia. Yoe iinooeaou oaeiau (auaeaeaiu
eo?neaii):

Anaeaiiay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeioth naii?acaeaathuothny nenoaio. Ii
iaoaio oaaaeaeaieth, Anaeaiiay noieue noa?a, /oi «caauea» i naiai
ia/aea, a iiyoiio ieeae ia iiaeao auoue aaeeiie, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie,
nei?aa, ianaycaiiia, ian/aoiia iiiaeanoai iaoaaaeaeoee, a iaeiie ec
eioi?uo iai i?eaaeinue aeeoue.

Ai anao i?ioeannao, eiathueo ianoi ai Anaeaiiie, iaecaaaeii
i?enoonoaotho neo/aeiua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia eo ?acaeoea. A iaci?iie
noaouea Aeieo?ey *a?iaaneiai i i?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey aeecie,
iieacuaaaony aaciaaeaaeiinoue neo/aeiuo oaeoi?ia aeey aicieeiiaaiey ia
oi /oi naiie aeecie, a aeaaea yeaiaioia aeecie (AeIE, ?IE e o. ae.) ca
eaeia-eeai ?acoiiia a?aiy, i?aainoiaeyuaa a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey iaoae
iaoaaaeaeoeee ia 100, 1000 e aieaa ii?yaeeia.

Ai Anaeaiiie aeanoaoao ianeaaenoaaiiinoue.

A ie?a aeanoaotho caeiiu, yaeythueany i?eioeeiaie ioai?a. Aanueia
niiieoaeueiia ooaa?aeaeaiea, i?aeoe/anee ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oae
iacuaaaiie yaiethoeeae aeecie ii Aea?aeio.

A i?ioeaiaan yoiio iiaeii iaeoe ii?aaeaeaiea, ioiinyuaany e iiiyoeth
eioi?iaoeey a iaoeao i aeeaie i?e?iaea, aeaiiia A. Eanoea?ii:
«Eioi?iaoeey anoue caiiiiaiiue auai? iaeiiai aa?eaioa ec ianeieueeeo
aiciiaeiuo e ?aaiii?aaiuo». A i?iaeaiao aeecie e aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia
?a/ue aeieaeia eaeoe ia ia ioai?a, a i auai?a. 5. I?eioeeiu ioai?a
aeiioneatho nouanoaiaaiea aeoo?eaoeeiiiuo ninoiyiee, a eioi?uo
aeaeueiaeoay yaiethoeey ieacuaaaony i?eioeeieaeueii iai?aaeneacoaiie. I
?iee ioai?a neacaii oieueei /oi auoa, a aio i aeoo?eaoeeiiiuo ninoiyieyo
e iineaaeothuae iai?aaeneacoaiinoe iiaeii neacaoue neaaeothuaa. Eaaeaeay
iiaay a?aiaeeiciay i?iaeaia a iaoea aucuaaea e aeecie iiaoth iaoaiaoeeo.
Oae auei n en/eneaieai aaneiia/ii iaeuo Iuethoiia e Eaeaieoea a
iaoaieea, n aaeoi?iui aiaeecii e oai?eae iiey a yeaeo?iaeeiaieea
Iaenaaeea, n ?eiaiiaie aaiiao?eae aeey oai?ee oyaioaiey Yeiooaeia, n
oai?eae aaneiia/iiia?iuo i?ino?ainoa Aeeueaa?oa aeey eaaioiaie iaoaieee,
oai?eae a?oii Yaa?enoa Aaeoa e Nioona Ee aeey oieoa?iuo oai?ee oeceee
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe; i?eia?u iiaeii iiiaeeoue. I?iaeaia aio?iiiiai
i?eioeeia iai?aiaiii iio?aaoao, oaea o?aaoao iiaie iaoaiaoeee, a eioi?ie
aeieaeia aoaeao io?aceoueny aacia?iay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue auai?a
(iieeoo?eaoeeiiiinoue) a eaaeaeii ninoiyiee, a eaeii ieacuaaaony aanue
niaieoiiue ie?. Ii anoue e ae?oaay oi/ea c?aiey — aiiaua ioeacaoueny io
iaoaiaoeee, /oi ii?iaeeo iiaoth oeeinioeth iaoee. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey,
nei?aa, ia/oa, auea auneacaia eae-oi auaeathueiny aia?eeaineei
oeceeii-oai?aoeeii ?e/a?aeii Oaeiiaiii a iaeiie ec anie?aioneeo
aoaeeoi?ee: «Iaiy anaaaea aaniieieei, /oi, niaeanii oece/aneei caeiiai,
eae iu iiieiaai eo naaiaeiy, o?aaoaony aaneiia/iia /enei eiae/aneeo
iia?aoeee a au/eneeoaeueiie iaoeia, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea i?ioeannu
i?ienoiaeyo a neieue oaiaeii iaeie iaeanoe i?ino?ainoaa ca neieue
oaiaeii iaeue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Eae iiaeao ana yoi oeiaeeoueny a
e?ioioiii i?ino?ainoaa?

Ii/aio iaiaoiaeeia aaneiia/iay ?aaioa eiaeee aeey iiieiaiey oiai, /oi
i?iecieaeao ia e?ioioiii o/anoea i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie? Iiyoiio y /anoi
auneacuaae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi a eiioea eiioeia oeceea ia aoaeao
o?aaiaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?ioee?iaee. Aa iaoaieci ?ane?iaony ia?aae
iaie, e caeiiu noaioo i?inouie, eae oaoiaoiay aeinea, i?e anae aa
aeaeeiie neiaeiinoe». Iineaaeiee aa?eaio, aa?eaio ioeaca io
eniieueciaaiey iaoaiaoeee a iiciaiee ie?a, aue au aeey iiiaeo aanueia
i?aaeii/oeoaeai. Ii ii o?aaoao aeoaeiiiai iiieiaiey i?ienoiaeyueo
yaeaiee a yoii ie?a, iiieiaiey ia o?iaia ia ?ane?uoiai iiea aio?iiiiai
i?eioeeia.

Neeueiay e naa?oneeueiay oi?ioee?iaee aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia

A neaaie oi?ioee?iaea iao ioaaoa ia aii?in: ii/aio ii?iaeaeaaony
iaaethaeaoaeue? Yoi aeaeea?e?oaony eae iaiaoiaeeiia naienoai Anaeaiiie a
neeueiie oi?ioee?iaea i?eioeeia, iai?eia?, oae; caeiiu iino?iaiey
Anaeaiiie aeieaeiu auoue oaeiau, /oi iia iai?aiaiii eiaaea-ieaoaeue
aeieaeia ii?iaeeoue iaaethaeaoaey.

AEeciue, a oaeii aa?eaioa neeueiiai i?eioeeia, yaeyaony oeaeueth
Anaeaiiie; caeanue iu eiaai aeaei n oaeaieiae/aneei auneacuaaieai
(aa?ouei naia ia/aei io A?enoioaey). Oaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea eiae/anee
aiciiaeii, ii iii ia ane?uaaao i?e/eio (eaocaeueiinoue) iaaethaeaaiie
aeecie. Iaaethaeaaiay auyaue, o. a. aeeciue, anaai eeoue iinooee?oaony.
Aieaa oiai, oaeaieiae/aneay iiaeaeue iauyniaiey ie?a i?eioeeieaeueii
iaii?iaa?aeeia, /oi, a niioaaonoaee n e?eoa?eai oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoe
ciaiey ii Ea?eo Iiiia?o, aeaeaao aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea iaiao/iui. Eee,
anee nai neeueiue aa?eaio i?eioeeia ni?aaaaeeea, oi ia iaai ia neaaeoao
?ani?ino?aiyoue oeacaiiue e?eoa?ee iao/iinoe, iieaaay, /oi ia iiaeiaiiai
ni?oa i?iaeaiu (i?iaeaiu Aiaa e aai oai?aiee) iu e iinyaaoue ia ai?aaa.

?aoaiea i?aaeeaaaaony a naa?oneeueiie oi?ioee?iaea aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia.
Iia iinooee?oao ecaanoiia ?aaainoai iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e Aiaii, ii ia
i?aainoiaenoai Aiaa iaae yoei ie?ii e /aeiaaeii. Ie iaeia ec oiiiyioouo
noi?ii ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac ae?oaie. Ii anee iieiaeaiea i
caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea io I?e?iaeu aaiaeueii, oi ia?aoiay aeiioaca i
caaeneiinoe I?e?iaeu io /aeiaaea iiea aua aeinoaoi/ii iao?eaeaeueia.

Eae iao?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny, neeueiue i?eioeei i?yii e aac anyeeo
iaeiyeia i?ecuaaao ian i?eciaoue aeaeaeneee ieo i nioai?aiee ie?a
aea-th?a e aea-oaeoi. Neaaue aa?eaio i?eioeeia oaeaea ii nouanoao
«nieiaao oeyio» ia?aae e?aaoeeiieciii, oioy e iuoaaony yoi ne?uoue.
Ia?aaeien ninoieo a oii, /oi eoi-oi — eeai iaaei?e?iaeiue Aia, eeai
I?e?iaeiue /aeiaae, ii nei?aa iie aianoa, — iaycaiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
auoea ie?a.

Aeaa i?aae?annoaeea oianeaaeiaaiu o/aiui ie?ii (a /a?ac iaai e anaie
inoaeueiuie i?inaauaiiuie ethaeueie) io yiioe eeanne/aneiai
anoanoaiciaiey e oi?iaeueiie eiaeee. Ai-ia?auo, iu ana i?eo/aiu
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue neo/aeiia caeiiiia?iiio, aoaeoi ia?aia, a ioee/ea io
aoi?iai, iaeiio?iee?oaii, iai?aaeneacoaii, aeano?oeoeaii. Ai-aoi?uo, iu
i?eaueee i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue i?e?iaeiui yaeaieyi oaiiiaiu eneonnoaaiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ioiineoue ?acoeueoaou eoeueoo?iiai (a oe?ieii niunea)
oai?/anoaa e eaoaai?ee, oaeoe/anee, i?ioeaianoanoaaiiiai. Auaeathueeny
iaiaoeeee oecee e oeeinio Aa?ia? Aaecaiaa?a ii yoiio iiaiaeo au?aceeny
oae: «Anoanoaaiiiiao/iiio aeooo aiieia ioaa/aao …oaiaeaioeey
?anniao?eaaoue i?e?iaeo iacaaeneii ia oieueei io Aiaa, ii e io
/aeiaaea». Aio yoi a /aeiaa/aneii aeooa iaaei no?aieoueny i?aiaeieaaaoue
e i?aiaeieaoue-oaee, aiaae?yy iiaia niaea?aeaiea ia?aciaaiey, a oii
/enea /a?ac i?aiiaeaaaiea iniia nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey, enoi?ee e
oeeinioee iaoee. ?aiaa iu oaea oiiieiaee i aieueoii a?aaea eia?oiinoe
iuoeaiey, e ia yoii iaaei iaonoaiii iaiiieiaoue.

Iaaei iiiieoue, iu ia ai?aaa caauaaoue ieeiaaea, /oi Anaeaiiay
aea?aeeony ia iea/ao /aeiaaea. Aio yoi, iiaeaeoe, iiea naiue aeaaiue
eoia iiiuoie iainiiaaiey, iiieiaiey e oieeiaaiey aio?iiiiai i?eioeeia,
eoia nei?aa oeeinioneee, /ai anoanoaaiiiiao/iue.

I e?ecena ieaiaoa?iiai oeeeea iaaa-enoi?ee Anaeaiiie

Nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey iaoiaeeony ia ii?iaa oyaeaeaeoaai e?ecena.
I?eaeeaeathuaany yaeaiea iiaeii iacaaoue eiiieaeniui eee nenoaiiui
e?ecenii. N?aaee iiiaeo aiciiaeiuo aai i?e/ei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
/?acau/aeiia oneeaiea aio?iiiaaiiiai aeaaeaiey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.
Niaeanii neia?aaoe/aneie iiaeaee iaaa-enoi?ee, ?acaeoea caiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai ouny/ eao aeaeaaeinue io e?ecena e
e?eceno. Ea/anoaaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe ai a?aiaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
yoeo e?ecenia (?aaiethoeee) auee ane?uou a ?aaioao ioa/anoaaiiuo o/aiuo
E. I. Aeueyeiiiaa e N. I. Eaieoeu. Nouanoaaiiay ea/anoaaiiay
iniaaiiinoue iaaeaeaathuaainy e?ecena noaiiaeony yaiie, anee
?anniio?aoue anth niaieoiiinoue ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ua ia naiai iooe
i?aiaeieaei /aeiaa/anoai. Oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi ai anae i?aaeoanoaothuae
enoi?ee aeeeoaeueiinoe enoi?e/aneeo yiio iinoiyiii nie?auaeenue. Yoi
yaeaiea ecaanoii eae yooaeo onei?aiey enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie. Aieaa oiai,
i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie iaaeaeo ?aaiethoeeyie nie?auaeenue caeiiiia?iui
ia?acii, e yoa caeiiiia?iinoue auea ?ane?uoa.

A 2003 aiaeo ?onneiio oeceeo ec Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa A. Ae. Iaiiao
oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue eiee/anoaaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ea/anoaaiiuo nea/eia (?aaiethoeee, aeoo?eaoeee,
oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo ia?aoiaeia) yaiethoeee i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo ieeeea?aeia eao! Iaiia onoaiiaee aaoiiiaeaeuiinoue
(naiiiiaeiaea, ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eciae o?aeoaeueiinoe)
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oi/ae ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay icia/aao, /oi
i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie iaaeaeo oi/eaie nie?auathony (enoi?e/aneia a?aiy
onei?yaony) a iinoiyiiie i?iii?oeee (iiaeiaii aaeeeaaao iinoiyiiiio
onei?aieth iaaeathueo oae), e /oi yoa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ono?iaia
aacaea iaeeiaeiai, oieueei aaniethoiue ianooaa a?aiaie ?aciue,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aea naia naay iiaoi?yao. Enoeiiay enoi?e/aneay
e?eaay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iiiaioia, io?aaeathuay
oeacaiioth aaoiiiaeaeueiinoue, eiaao ia?aaiee/aneee (noaiaiiie)
oa?aeoa?. Yoi /?acau/aeii aaaeii n iiceoeee o?aeoaeueiinoe, o. a. n
iiceoeee iinoiaeeanne/aneie iaoee, e aio ii/aio. Anyeay aaiiao?ey,
o?aeoaeueiay a oii /enea, niaeanii «Y?eaiaaineie i?ia?aiia»
auaeathuaainy iaiaoeeiai iaoaiaoeea Oaeeena Eeaeia, caieiaaony eco/aieai
oaeeo naienoa iauaeoia, eioi?ua eiaa?eaioiu ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee: aaeeeaeiaa aaiiao?ey — ioiineoaeueiinoe a?oiiu
aeaeaeaiey (o?aineyoeee eee naeaeaia e a?auaiee), aaiiao?ey Ieieianeiai
— ioiineoaeueii a?oiiu Ei?aioea, a aio o?aeoaeueiay aaiiao?ey caieiaaony
eco/aieai eiaa?eaioia a?oiiu naiiaooeiiuo (naiiiiaeiaiuo)
i?aia?aciaaiee, o. a. naienoa, au?aaeaaiuo noaiaiiuie caeiiaie! Aio
oiaaea-oi e iieo/aaony, /oi enoi?e/aneea niauoey oiaea eiatho noaiaiiie
caeii e o?aeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Iaeiaei yoiio caeiio onei?aiey enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie iiaeao auoue
i?eaeai eeiaeiue oa?aeoa? a eiaa?eoie/aneii ianooaaa, anee o?aaiaiea
aaoiiiaeaeueiinoe Iaiiaa caienaoue a aeaea:

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1617160e0c11198f687d6b8149497483530611024d6d733d0a0d042d586d5265834b444e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aaea t* — iaeioi?ue iiiaio a?aiaie, eioi?ue iacaai iiiaioii
neiaoey?iinoe (iniaaiiinoe), tn — aaoiiiaeaeueiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
i oi/ae ?aaiethoeee, O caaeaao aeeeoaeueiinoue anaai iienuaaaiiai
i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie, i — iiia? ?aaiethoeee, s > 1 — eiyooeoeeaio
onei?aiey enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie, iieacuaathuee, ai neieueei ?ac eaaeaeay
iineaaeothuay yiioa ei?i/a i?aaeuaeouae. Oeacaiiay oi?ioea iieacuaaao,
/oi aaoiiiaeaeueiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue anoue ia /oi eiia, eae
noiaeyuayny aaiiao?e/aneay i?ia?anney. I?e iaia?aie/aiiii ?inoa i
i?iiaaeooee iaaeaeo e?ecenaie eee ?aaiethoeeyie aaeece neiaoey?iinoe
(iaeioi?ie iniaaiiinoe) no?aiyony e ioeth, a ieioiinoue eo aaneiia/ia.

Eaeay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiethoeee eiaaony a aeaeo? Anee acyoue
ia?eiae O n ia/aea /aoaa?oe/iiai ia?eiaea, o. a. ?anniao?eaaoue niauoey,
ia/aaoeany 4,4 iei. eao iacaae, oi yoe ?aaiethoeee — iiyaeaiea ia?auo
aiieieae, caoai Homo habilis (Ieaeoaae), canaeaiea aiieieaeaie Aa?iiu e
Acee, Homo sapiens, Ionouea, ia?aay aa?oiaiaeaieeoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey,
iaieeoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, ai?iaeneay ?aaiethoeey, inaaia a?aiy
(Ieoaai?, Eiioooeee, Aoaeaea), ia/aei n?aaeiaaaeiauey, i?iiuoeaiiay
?aaiethoeey a Aa?iia, iiyaeaiea ia?a, yeaeo?e/anoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiiay
?aaiethoeey (ia/aei 1950-o aiaeia). Caeii/eony yoa iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
a t* = 2027 aiaeo! Anee aea acyoue i?iiaaeooie O cia/eoaeueii aieueoee,
io ia/aea aicieeiiaaiey aeecie, io iiiaioa 3,8 ie?ae. eao iacaae, oi yoi
ianeieueei eiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaiethoeee (ii aeeth/athuay e
oeacaiioth auoa eae ninoaaioth /anoue), i?eaiaeeo e t* = 2004 aiaeo!
I?yiua eeiee a iaieo neo/ayo yoa e anoue, a ia?aii neo/aa, oae
iacuaaaiue aeiaaeueiue enoi?e/aneee aoo?aeoi?, a ai aoi?ii — aoo?aeoi?
ieaiaoa?iie enoi?ee. E eaaeaeiio ec ieo oyaioatho, i?eoyaeaathony
eiaaoea a i?ioeii ianoi enoi?e/aneea niauoey (?aaiethoeee). Ii anoue ai
anae oeacaiiie caeiiiia?iinoe iaeei i?ioeai?a/eaue iiiaio, aiiiaeey, a
oi/ea ia/aea i?aaeaeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee, auaeaathuayny ec anaai
enoi?e/aneiai oiaea — iiaeic?eoaeueii auno?ia aicieeiiaaiea aeecie, ca
eaeea-oi 200-300 iei. eao. Yoa aiiiaeey ia?ooaao anth aaoiiiaeaeueioth
oeaeo a?aiaie. Ii yoiai iiaeii ecaaaeaoue, anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
i?aaeaeieiae/aneay yaiethoeey niaa?oaeanue ia ia Caiea, a a iaae?ao
iaoae Aaeaeoeee, e ia/aeanue n?aco n aicieeiiaaieai naiie Aaeaeoeee
aieaa 10 ie?ae. eao iacaae!

Eoae, naaiaeiy ecaanoiu iiiai/eneaiiua niaoeeoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
yaiethoeee eiie?aoiuo nouiinoae, oae /oi iu ?aniieaaaai iaeioi?uie
aaciauie i?aaenoaaeaieyie ia yaiethoeee eae i ooiaeaiaioaeueiii e
oieaa?naeueiii i?ioeanna. Eo iaee/ea nicaeaao oneiaey aeey aaaeaiey
eioa?anothuaai ian a aeaiiii eo?na iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai aeeneo?na.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ai?ioia A. A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. — I., 2003. —
412 n.

2. Noaiei A. N., Ai?ioia A. A., ?icia I. A. Oeeinioey iaoee e oaoieee. —
I., 1995. — 384 n.

3. E?theia ?. A. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey (eiiniaeo
eaeoeee). — I., 2005. — 176 n.

4. Aaeeiia Y. I. Oaiiiai aeecie: iaaeaeo ?aaiiaaneai e iaeeiaeiinoueth.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea e i?eioeeiu yaiethoeee. — I., 2001. — 256 n.

5. Eiycaaa A. I., Eo?aethiia N. I. Caeiiu yaiethoeee e naiii?aaiecaoeee
neiaeiuo nenoai. — I., 1994.

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