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Банковское кредитование предприятий

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37

IAEAAEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
..…………………..….……..no? 3

Aeaaa 1

Aaieianeia e?aaeeoiaaiea i?aaei?eyoee1.1.Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua nenoaiu
e?aaeeoiaaiey……………..………no? 31.2. Noauaeou e?aaeeoiaaiey e
aeaeu e?aaeeoia……………….….…no? 41.3. Iauaeou e?aaeeoiaaiey
……………………………………..….…no? 9

1.4. Iniaaiiinoe nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey….……no? 10

1.5. Oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey …………………………………….….…no? 11

1.6. Yoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey ……………………………………….……no? 14

1.7. Iauea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea iniiau e?aaeeoiaaiey
…………………………………………………………………….…no? 15

1.7.1. Iaoiaeu e?aaeeoiaaiey e oi?iu nnoaeiuo
n/aoia……………….…………………………………………….…no? 16

1.7.2. E?aaeeoiay aeieoiaioaoeey………………………………..no? 18

1.7.3. I?ioeaaeo?a auaea/e e?aaeeoa……………………………..no? 19

1.7.4. Ii?yaeie iiaaoaiey nnoaeu………………………………no? 22

1.8. Nia?aiaiiua niiniau e?aaeeoiaaiey………………………….no? 26

Aeaaa 2Nenoaia ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa aaiea2.1.Iiiyoea e
e?eoa?ee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa…………………………………..………………………………..no?
272.2.E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo
i?aaei?eyoee…………………………………………………………..
…….no? 29

2.2.1. Eiyooeoeeaiou ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe………….no? 29

2.2.2. Aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea……………………………….no? 32

2.2.3. Aiaeec aeaeiaiai ?enea………………………………….no? 35

2.2.4. Ii?aaeaeaiea eeanna e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa……no?
362.3.Ioeaiea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee………..no? 37

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
……….……………………no? 38

Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………..………….
……………no? 39

AAAAeAIEA

Ia?aiaiu, i?ienoiaeyuea a yeiiiieea ?innee, i?aaeiieaaatho
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey ai acaeiiioiioaieyo aaieia n noauaeoaie
oicyenoaiaaiey – i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie, ae?oaeie aaieaie. Aaiee
eae eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, iniiaiuie iia?aoeeyie eioi?uo yaeythony
e?aaeeoiaaiea, ?an/aoiua, aeaiiceoiua, eanniaua e ae?oaea iia?aoeee,
ianoo i?e eo i?iaaaeaiee naiua ?aciiia?aciua ?enee: iaaica?ao auaeaiiiai
e?aaeeoa, iaoieaoo i?ioeaioia ii nnoaea, ?enee ?an/aoiua, aaethoiua,
i?ioeaioiuo noaaie e o.i. Aunieay ?eneiaaiiinoue aaieianeeo iia?aoeee
aeaaiui ia?acii naycaia n oneiaeyie e ?acoeueoaoaie aeayoaeueiinoe aai
eeeaioia.

Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue aaiea aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui auai?ii ia?oia?ia ia aioo?aiiai e aiaoiai ?uieao.
Aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii oaeiai auai?a yaeyaony yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec
aeayoaeueiinoe eeeaioa. Aiaeec i?aaeinoaaeyao ?oeiaiaenoao aaiea
eioi?iaoeeth, iicaieythuoth ioeaieaaoue aa?iyoiinoue auiieiaiey eeeaioii
naieo iaycaoaeuenoa e i?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea oi?aaeai/aneea
?aoaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe eeeaioa aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny
aaieii iinoiyiii, ia/eiay n ia?aiai yoaia – iiaeaioiaee e caeeth/aieth
aeiaiai?a ia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioa. Iniaaiii aeoaieei aeieaeai auoue
yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec (aiaeec e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe) i?e caeeth/aiee
e?aaeeoiuo aeiaiai?ia. Yoi iicaieeo i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaii?aaaeaiiua n
oi/ee c?aiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e?aaeeoiua
aeiaeaiey, eo no?oeoo?iua naeaeae, iaania/eoue naiaa?aiaiiue e iieiue
aica?ao nnoae, /oi eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia.

1. AAIEIANEIA E?AAeEOIAAIEA I?AAeI?EssOEE

1.1. OOIAeAIAIOAEUeIUA YEAIAIOU NENOAIU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

Nenoaia e?aaeeoiaaiey aace?oaony ia o?ao “eeoao”: 1) noauaeoao e?aaeeoa;
2) iaania/aiee e?aaeeoa e 3) iauaeoao e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iiaeii neieueei
oaiaeii iaiaa?e?iaaoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie iniiaaie, oaoiieiaeae
e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee, iaeiaei ai anyeie nenoaia yoe o?e aaciauo yeaiaioa
nio?aiytho naia iniiaiiieaaathuaa cia/aiea, i?aeoe/anee ii?aaeaeytho
“eeoei” e?aaeeoiie iia?aoeee, aa yooaeoeaiinoue.

Aaciaua yeaiaiou nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey iaioaeaeeiu ae?oa io ae?oaa.
Oniao a aeayoaeueiinoe aaiea ii e?aaeeoiaaieth i?eoiaeeo oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee eaaeaeue ec ieo aeiiieiyao ae?oa ae?oaa, oneeeaaao
iaaeaaeiinoue e?aaeeoiie naeaeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiuoea ?aci?aaoue
eo aaeeinoai iaecaaaeii ia?ooaao anth nenoaio, iiae?uaaao aa, iiaeao
i?eaanoe e ia?ooaieth aica?aoiinoe aaieianeeo nnoae.

Ecaanoii, e i?eia?o, /oi i?aaeiyy nenoaia, iniiaaiiay ia i?eioeeiao
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie, i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaaea
iauaeoo e?aaeeoiaaiey. N/eoaeinue, /oi anee anoue iauaeo e?aaeeoiaaiey,
oi yoi aeaao i?aai ia iieo/aiea i?aaei?eyoeai eee i?aaiecaoeeae
aaieianeie nnoaeu. Oaeie iauaeo anaaaea iaoiaeeeny: i?aaei?eyoey, ia
caeioa?aniaaiiua a yeiiiiee nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo ?ano?nia, iaeaieeaaee
naa?oii?iaoeaiua caianu oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, inouanoaeyee
eceeoiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou, a oeaeii ioaeaeaeenue a i?eaea/aiee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa. *aua anaai yoi auee ea/anoaaiiua
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe, iauaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee a aeiiieieoaeueiuo anneaiiaaieyo; aeey aaiea, aeaeathuaai
aeoeaiou ia iaee/ea iauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey, anaai yoiai auei aeinoaoi/ii,
ii yaii ia oaaoaei aeey iiaee?aieaiey iiaeeeiiie iaaeaaeiinoe e?aaeeoiie
iia?aoeee. Iniaaiii caiaoii oaeay neooaoeey i?iyaeyea naay ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo aaiea n naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
inouanoaeyaoeie aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a cao?aou ?anoaieaaiaenoaa e
aeeaioiiaiaenoaa e i?aaenoaaeyaoea a aaie naaaeaiey i ana aic?anoathueo
iauaiao iauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey. Eiaiii caeanue aaoiiaoeci auaea/e
e?aaeeoa iiae iauaeo e?aaeeoiaaiey aac o/aoa noauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey, aai
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe i?eaiaeee e caaea?aeea aica?aoa e?aaeeoa e a
eiia/iii eoiaa e aiienoee aeieaia, nienaieth nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo eieoicia e niaoicia ca n/ao n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa.

Niaieoiiinoue o?ao ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo yeaiaioia (noauaeoa, iauaeoa e
iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa) aeaenoaoao oieueei eae nenoaia. Iiaeao
iieacaoueny, iaeiaei, /oi iaeiiai ec ieo aoaeao aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey
?aoaiey aii?ina i aiciiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Ia oiia iinoaaeaiiuo aii?inia iaecaaaeii iiyaeyaony aua iaeei yeaiaio
nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey — aeiaa?ea. Ii aicieeaao ec naiiai iiiyoey
e?aaeeo, /oi n eao. “credo” icia/aao “aa?th”. A e?aaeeoa, eae ecaanoii,
aeaa noi?iiu — e?aaeeoi? e caaiuee. Iaaeaeo ieie ia ia/aeao aica?aoiinoe
niaa?oaao aeaeaeaiea nnoaeaaiay noieiinoue. Yoi aeaeaeaiea iaecaaaeii
ii?iaeaeaao ioiioaiea aeiaa?ey iaaeaeo nnoaeiiieo/aoaeai, eioi?ue aa?eo,
/oi aaie aia?aiy i?aaeinoaaeo e?aaeeo a iaiaoiaeeiii ?acia?a, e
nnoaeiaeaoaeai, eioi?ue aa?eo, /oi caaiuee i?aaeeueii eniieuecoao
e?aaeeo, a n?ie e n oieaoie nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa aica?aoeo aio ?aiaa
i?aaeinoaaeaiioth nnoaeo. Eoi-oi ii yoiio iiaiaeo iioooee, ooaa?aeaeay,
/oi a e?aaeeoiie naeaeea anaaaea aeaa aeoioea — iaeei iaeeaeaao, /oi
aaie iaycaoaeueii iiaeaea?aeeo aai e i?aaeinoaaeo iaiaoiaeeioth noiio
e?aaeeoa, aoi?ie — aa?eo, /oi yoio e?aaeeo aica?aoeony e iaio aiiaua,
aea aua n auieaoie i?ioeaioa. E?aaeeo eae yeiiiie/aneia ioiioaiea — yoi
anaaaea ?ene, e aac aeiaa?ey caeanue ia iaieoenue. Aeiaa?ea oioy e ianao
a naaa ii?aaeaeaiiue ineoieiae/aneee iooaiie, iaeiaei, aannii?ii,
iniiaaii ia ciaiee eeai noauaeoa, eeai iauaeoa, eeai iaania/aiey
e?aaeeoa. A eiia/iii n/aoa, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aeiaa?ea, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, aicieeaao eae iaiaoiaeeiue yeaiaio e?aaeeoiiai ioiioaiey, n
ae?oaie – eae iniciaiiay iiceoeey aeaoo noi?ii, eiathuay aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiia yeiiiie/aneia iniiaaiea.

1.2. NOAUAEOU E?AAeEOIAAIEss E AEAeU E?AAeEOIA

Eoi yaeyaony noauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey? I?aaeaea /ai ioaaoeoue ia yoio
aii?in, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoueny, i eaeii e?aaeeoiaaiee eaeao ?a/ue.
Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue oi?io e?aaeeoa. A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eoi
yaeyaony caaiueeii, e oi?iai e?aaeeoa iau/ii ioiinyo:

1) ainoaea?noaaiiay oi?ia e?aaeeoa, eiaaea ainoaea?noai aa?ao e?aaeeo ia
eiie?aoiue n?ie e ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo;

2) oicyenoaaiiay (eiiia?/aneay) oi?ia e?aaeeoa, eiaaea a e?aaeeoiua
ioiioaiey anooiatho iinoaauee, ?ac?aoathuee ion?i/eo ieaoaaeae, e
iieoiaoaeue, auienuaathuee aaenaeue eae iaycaoaeuenoai caieaoeoue ca
iieo/aiiue oiaa? /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae; a nia?aiaiiii oicyenoaa
i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeinoaaeytho ae?oa ae?oao ia oieueei oiaa?iue, ii e,
aeaaiui ia?acii, aeaiaaeiue e?aaeeo:

3) a?aaeaeaineay (ee/iay) oi?ia e?aaeeoa, eiaaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie
o/anoieeaie e?aaeeoiie naeaeee yaeythony oece/aneea eeoea;

4) iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?ia e?aaeeoa, eiaaea iaeiei ec o/anoieeia
e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee aunooiaao ca?oaaaeiue noauaeo.

Iiieii aeaiiuo oi?i e?aaeeoa, aiinyueo a i?aaiecaoeeth e?aaeeoiuo
ioiioaiee naie caiaoiua iniaaiiinoe, a eo eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeyaony
aaieianeee e?aaeeo — eae iniiaiay oi?ia nia?aiaiiiai e?aaeeoa. Eiaiii i
iai iu e aoaeai aanoe ?a/ue.

Eoae, eoi aea iiaeao auoue noauaeoii (iieo/aoaeai) aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa?
Noauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey n iiceoeee eeanne/aneiai aaieianeiai aeaea
yaeythony th?eaee/aneea eeai oece/aneea eeoea, aeaaniiniaiua e eiathuea
iaoa?eaeueiua eee eiua aa?aioee niaa?oaoue yeiiiie/aneea, a oii /enea
e?aaeeoiua naeaeee.

Caaiueeii i?e yoii iiaeao aunooieoue ethaie noauaeo nianoaaiiinoe,
aiooathuee aaieo aeiaa?ea, iaeaaeathuee ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie e
i?aaiauie aa?aioeyie, aeaeathuee ieaoeoue i?ioeaio ca e?aaeeo e
aica?auaoue aai e?aaeeoiiio o/?aaeaeaieth.

Noauaeo iieo/aiey nnoaeu iiaeao auoue naiiai ?aciiai o?iaiy, ia/eiay io
ioaeaeueiiai /anoiiai eeoea, i?aaei?eyoey, oe?iu aieioue aei
aocyaea?noaa. Aei ia?aoiaea iaoaai oicyenoaa e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee i?e yoii aeaeeeenue aeaaiui ia?acii a
io?aneaaii ?ac?aca: i?iiuoeaiiua, naeueneioicyenoaaiiua, no?ieoaeueiua
i?aaei?eyoey, oi?aiaua, caaioiaeoaeueiua, niaaaeai/anei-nauoiaua
i?aaiecaoeee. Iinoaiaiii, iaeiaei, io aeaiiiai e?eoa?ey ioeacaeenue, e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iniiaiii ioaeeeoaony noaoenoeea ii neaaeothuei
noauaeoai e?aaeeoiaaiey:

• i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee;

• oece/aneea eeoea;

• ae?oaea aaiee.

Ia 1 yiaa?y 1999 a. e?aaeeou, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua oicyenoaaiiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi e ianaeaieth, ninoaaeyee 76,4% ei anai e?aaeeoiui
iia?aoeeyi ?inneeneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, e?aaeeou ae?oaei aaieai —
niioaaonoaaiii 13,2% (aac o/aoa ?acia?a i?in?i/aiiuo nnoae).

?acaeaeaiea e?aaeeoia ii noauaeoai eo iieo/aiey ii?iaeaeaao aua iaeii
iiiyoea eeanneoeeaoeee a nenoaia e?aaeeoiaaiey — aeae e?aaeeoia. Aeae
e?aaeeoia ioia?aaeaao niaieoiiinoue naienoa, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?iu aeey oie
eee eiie eiie?aoiie e?aaeeoiie naeaeee a yeiiiie/aneii e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee. Yeiiiie/aneea naienoaa e?aaeeoiie naeaeee —
yoi naienoaa naiiai e?aaeeoa, iie aaeeiu (aica?aoiinoue, ieaoiinoue).
I?aaiecaoeeiiiua naienoaa a eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa iiaoo
?acee/aoueny— ii?yaeie auaea/e e iiaaoaiey nnoae iiaeao auoue eiui. A
niioaaonoaee n oiiiyiooie io?aneaaie iai?aaeaiiinoueth iniai iiaoo
auaeaeyoueny i?iiuoeaiiua, oi?aiaua, iaaeaaieianeea e?aaeeou. A NOA a
nenoaia eeanneoeeaoeee nnoae iniai auaeaeythony naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
e?aaeeou.

A eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa aeaeu e?aaeeoia iiaoo eiaoue naith
eino?oeoeeth, ?aaeaiaioe?othuoth ii?yaeie eo auaea/e e iiaaoaiey. A
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nithciie aaieianeie nenoaia ecaanoiuie auee
eino?oeoeee ioaeaeueii i ii?yaeea e?aaeeoiaaiey ii oiaa?iiai?ioo,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eino?oeoeey ? 1, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaaoay
e?aaeeoiaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee n naciiiui oa?aeoa?ii
i?iecaiaenoaa, caaioiaeoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee e ae?. Iniaui
oaoiieiae/aneei ii?yaeeii ioee/athony e iaaeaaieianeea nnoaeu.

Aeaeu e?aaeeoia ?acee/athony ia oieueei ii noauaeoai eo iieo/aiey, ii e
ii ae?oaei e?eoa?eyi. E iei ioiinyony:

• naycue e?aaeeoa n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaea;

• noa?a i?eiaiaiey e?aaeeoa;

• n?ie e?aaeeoa;

• ieaoiinoue e?aaeeoa;

• iaania/aiiinoue e?aaeeoa.

Ii nayce e?aaeeoa n aeaeaeaieai eaieoaeia aai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa
oeia: nnoaeo aeaiaa e nnoaeo eaieoaea. Nnoaea aeaiaa naycaia, eae
i?aaeei, n iio?aaeoaeueneeie eee eiuie oeaeyie, eiaaea e?aaeeo ia
i?eiineo i?e?auaiey iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, a cao?a/eaaaony e
iiaaoaaony ca n/ao oaea nicaeaiiuo iaeiieaiee. Nnoaea eaieoaea,
iai?ioea, i?aaeiieaaaao ia i?iaaeaiea i?iaeoeoa, a aai oaaee/aiea;
caaiuee a yoii neo/aa oae iaycai eniieueciaaoue e?aaeeo, /oiau n aai
iiiiuueth iieo/eoue iiaoth noieiinoue, ia oieueei aica?aoeoue e?aaeeo,
ii e caieaoeoue nnoaeiue i?ioeaio eae /anoue i?eauee, aeiiieieoaeueii
iieo/aiiie a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey aaieianeeo n?aaenoa. Nnoaea
eaieoaea yaeyaony iaeaieaa oeie/iui aeaeii aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa.

Ii noa?a i?eiaiaiey e?aaeeou iiae?acaeaeythony ia e?aaeeou a noa?o
i?iecaiaenoaa e a noa?o ia?auaiey. Aeey nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee aieaa
oa?aeoa?iuie yaeythony aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa ia a noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa, eae
yoi iau/ii i?eiyoi n iiceoeee caei?iaie yeiiiieee, a a noa?o ia?auaiey,
aaea iai?a/eaaaiinoue e i?eaueueiinoue iia?aoeee ieacuaaaony auoa, /ai a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a. Iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee ninoieo e a
oii, /oi naie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaee ca/anooth eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe
ia?auaoueny a aaie ca nnoaeie, eai ieaoa ca aa eniieueciaaiea aeey ieo
ieacuaaaony iaiineeueiie iioae.

Nnoaeiue i?ioeaio, auiea/eaaaiue ca iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoii, ieacuaaaony
neeoeii aieueoei, ia iiaeaeaaony ie aeeth/aieth a naaanoieiinoue, ie
auieaoa ec i?eauee a neeo ia noieue cia/eoaeueiie ?aioaaaeueiinoe
iia?aoeee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a. Niiniaiuie oiea/eaaoue aunieee
nnoaeiue i?ioeaio ieacuaathony aeaaiui ia?acii oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneea
oe?iu. Ionthaea e ia?aein e?aaeeoiuo aeiaeaiee ia a noi?iio ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (/oi iaeaieaa aaaeii n iiceoeee noaaeeecaoeee
?uiea e nieaeaiey oaiiia eioeyoeee), a a noi?iio noa?u oi?aiaee.

A caaeneiinoe io n?iea aaieianeea e?aaeeou aeaeyony ia e?aoein?i/iua,
aeieain?i/iua e n?aaeian?i/iua.

O?aaeeoeeiiii nia?aiaiiia e?aaeeoiia aeaei ioee/aaony i?aeiouanoaaiii
e?aoein?i/iui oa?aeoa?ii. N iiceoeee iiiaeo no?ai ?uii/iie yeiiiieee
e?aoein?i/iua nnoaeu — yoi nnoaeu, n?ie iieueciaaiey eioi?uie ia
i?aauoaao iaeiiai aiaea. A iniiaiii yoi nnoaeu, ianeoaeeaathuea
e?oaiiai?io iai?ioiiai eaieoaea, oaeouea iio?aaiinoe eeeaioia.

E aeieain?i/iui nnoaeai ioiinyony e?aaeeou, n?iee eioi?uo i?aauoatho 6
eao (a iaeioi?uo no?aiao, iai?eia?, NOA, aeieain?i/iuie yaeythony nnoaeu
n?ieii aieaa 8 eao). Aeaiiua nnoaeu ianeoaeeaatho iio?aaiinoe a
n?aaenoaao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea,
oeiainiauo aeoeaia, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ?aciiaeaeiinoae iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa.

N?aaeian?i/iuie e?aaeeoaie yaeythony e?aaeeou, n?ie iieueciaaiey
eioi?uie iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao io 1 aei 6 eao. Noa?a eo i?eiaiaiey
niaiaaeaao n ianeoaeeaaieai iio?aaiinoae iin?aaenoaii aeieain?i/iiai
e?aaeeoa.

N iiceoeee ie?iaie i?aeoeee e?eoa?ee aeeeoaeueiinoe n?ieia e?aaeeoiaaiey
eeeaioia ia eiaao aaeeiiai aeey anao yoaeiia. A niaaoneie i?aeoeea,
iai?eia?, e?aoein?i/iuie nnoaeaie iauyaeyeenue iaeioi?ua e?aaeeou,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia n?ie io 1 aei 3 eao.

?aaeueiinoe aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa nia?aiaiiie ?innee (neeueiay eioeyoeey,
auno?ia iaanoeaiaiea aaieianeiai eaieoaea) nouanoaaiii aeaeieciaiytho
onoiyaoeany a ie?iaie aaieianeie i?aeoeea noaiaea?ou e?aoein?i/iiai,
n?aaeian?i/iiai e aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoa. E?aoein?i/iuie yaeythony
nnoaeu, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua ia n?ie aei 12 ianyoeaa, n?aaeian?i/iuie — ia
n?ie io 1 aiaea aei 2 eao, aeieain?i/iuie — ia n?ie nauoa 3 eao.

A ioee/ea, e i?eia?o, io aia?eeaineie i?aeoeee, aaea e?aoein?i/iua
nnoaeu ca/anooth ioi?ieythony aac no?iai oeene?iaaiiiai n?iea (aei
aino?aaiaaiey), ?inneeneea aaiee, eae i?aaeei, a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea
onoaiaaeeaatho n?ie iieueciaaiey e iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa.

A nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie aaieianeie noaoenoeea ec-ca iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e
iacia/eoaeueiie aeiee iiiyoea “n?aaeian?i/iua e?aaeeou” en/acaao aiana,
inoathony aeaiiua oieueei ii e?aoein?i/iui e aeieain?i/iui nnoaeai. Ia
eo aeieth ia ia/aei 1998 a. i?eoiaeeeinue niioaaonoaaiii 97,4 e 2,6% ai
anai iauaia e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aaieaie Iineau.

A ?ac?yaea e?eoa?eaa eeanneoeeaoeee aaieianeeo nnoae ia iineaaeiaa ianoi
caieiaao ieaoiinoue e?aaeeoa. Enoiaey ec aeaiiiai e?eoa?ey, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aaieianeea nnoaeu n ?uii/iie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie, iiauoaiiie
e eueaioiie. ?uii/iay oeaia e?aaeeoa — yoi oa aai oeaia, eioi?ay
neeaaeuaaaony ia ?uiea a aeaiiue iiiaio, enoiaey ec ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii ?acee/iui aeaeai aaieianeeo nnoae. A oneiaeyo neeueiie
eioeyoeee yoi aeiaieueii iiaeaeaeiay oeaia, eiathuay oaiaeaioeeth e
iiauoaieth. Nnoaeu n iiauoaiiie i?ioeaioiie noaaeie, eae i?aaeei,
aicieeatho a nayce n aieueoei ?eneii e?aaeeoiaaiey eeeaioa, ia?ooaieai
ei oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey, i?iaiicii oaaee/aiey noieiinoe e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia e ae?.

Nnoaeu, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia oneiaeyo eueaioiiai i?ioeaioa, yaeythony
yeaiaioii aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e e?aaeeoiaaieth, aicieeatho
ai acaeiiioiioaieyo n aeoeeiia?aie, i?e ?aoeiaine?iaaiee
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e?aaeeoia yienneiiiiai aaiea (i?e oneiaee iiieaeaiiie
ii n?aaiaieth n eo ?uii/iie oeaiie), e?aaeeoiaaiee nio?oaeieeia aaiea (a
iniauo neo/ayo aaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho ei e aani?ioeaioiua nnoaeu).

Iaania/aiea e?aaeeoa. Aaaeiui yeaiaioii e?aaeeoiaaiey e e?eoa?eai
eeanneoeeaoeee aaieianeeo nnoae aunooiaao eo iaania/aiiinoue. A yoie
nayce nnoaeu iiaoo eiaoue i?yiia iaania/aiea, einaaiiia iaania/aiea e ia
eiaoue aai. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea e?aaeeou ca/anooth
iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaania/aiiua, iaiaania/aiiua e eiathuea /anoe/iia
iaania/aiea.

A ie?iaie aaieianeie i?aeoeea e iaania/aieth nnoae anaaaea ioiineeenue
iaiaeiicia/ii. A oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aaieianeie nenoaia iaeaieaa
iaaeaaeiuie n/eoaeenue nnoaeu, eiathuea iaania/aiea a aeaea
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae. A caiaaeiie i?aeoeea oaeie
eaoaai?e/iinoe ia auei. Iai?ioea, iiuo caiaaeiuo no?ai iieacuaae, /oi
iaee/ea iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey aua ia aeaao oaa?aiiinoe a
naiaa?aiaiiii aica?aoa aaieianeeo nnoae. Iaeii aeaei — iaoa?eaeueiua
caianu, iaaeeaiii iai?a/eaathueany, ia eiathuea oaa?aeiai nauoa, ae?oaia
aeaei — eaaei ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau, eiouanoai caaiueea a oeaeii. Ia
neo/aeii iaoaa?aiiinoue a iaoa?eaeueiuo caianao eae iaania/aiee e?aaeeoa
iicaieeea ?yaeo caiaaeiuo yeiiiienoia naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi
e?aaeeou n iiaeiaiui ea/anoaii iaania/aiey — naiua iaiaaeaaeiua, a oi
a?aiy eae e?aaeeo, ia iaania/aiiue oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie
(eo iao a caianao, ana iie iaoiaeyony a iai?ioa), iai?ioea, yaeyaony
naiui iaaeaaeiui.

Anee, e i?eia?o, e?aaeeo auaeai iiae caianu aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
eioi?ay, eae ieacaeinue, ia iaoiaeeo nauoa, oi oaeie e?aaeeo, oioy e
iaania/aiiue oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie, a?yae ee iiaeii
iacaaoue iaaeaaeiui. Iai?ioea, aica?ao nnoaeu a aeaiiii neo/aa aanueia
cao?oaeiai, a nayce n /ai aa nei?aa neaaeoao ioianoe e ?ac?yaeo
iaiaaeaaeiuo nnoae.

Ana aeaei, aeaeeii, a ea/anoaa iaania/aiey. Anee iii anoue, anee iii
eeeaeaeii e aeinoaoi/ii, oi yoi ia oae ieioi aeey e?aaeeoa, e a?yae ee
oaeia iaania/aiea neaaeoao eaii?e?iaaoue. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, auei au
iaaa?ii ia i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa
iaiaania/aiiuo (aeaieiauo) nnoae, iniaaiii oiaaea, eiaaea iie
i?aaeinoaaeythony ia?aieeanniui caaiueeai e aa?aioii (e a yoii niunea
iaania/aieai aica?aoiinoe e?aaeeoa yaeyaony ana eiouanoai
nnoaeiiieo/aoaey).

A caiaaeiie i?aeoeea iaiaania/aiiua nnoaeu i?aaeinoaaeythony eae
th?eaee/aneei eeoeai, oae e oece/aneei, /anoiui eeoeai. I?e auaea/a
iaiaania/aiiiai (aeaieiaiai) e?aaeeoa i?aaei?eyoeyi o/eouaaaony
?aiooaoeey caaiueea, aai oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea, aoaeouee aeioiae, a
oaeaea i?aaeiaa niaethaeaiea i?aaee e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iaiaania/aiiua nnoaeu
iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoueny a e?oiiuo noiiao aieueoei i?aaei?eyoeyi, e?oiiui
oi?aiaui eiiiaieyi, yaeythueiny ia?aieeanniuie caaiueeaie, eiathueie
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai e i?ae?anioth enoi?eth ?acaeoey.

Ai iiiaii yoi ioiineony e e /anoiui eeoeai. Aaiee, i?aaeinoaaeyy naie
aeaieiaua e?aaeeou ioaeaeueiui eeoeai, ioeaieaatho i?e yoii eo
eiouanoai, o/eouaatho iaee/ea nianoaaiiiai aeiia, iinoiyiioth ?aaioo ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao, naiaa?aiaiiinoue iiaaoaiey a i?ioeii.

E aua iaeii caia/aiea. Iaania/aiea, eae iu oaea aiai?eee, inoaaony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui yeaiaioii nenoaiu aaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, aai
i?eiyoi n/eoaoue “iineaaeiae eeieae iai?iiu” i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i
aiciiaeiinoyo oeiaine?iaaiey oiai eee eiiai i?iaeoa.

A ie?iaie aaieianeie i?aeoeea iiaeii oaeaeaoue e ae?oaea e?eoa?ee
eeanneoeeaoeee. Oae, a aieueoeinoaa no?ai nnoaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia
aeaa aeiea: e?aaeeou th?eaee/aneei e nnoaeu oece/aneei eeoeai. Anee
e?aaeeou ia?aiai aeiea i?aaeinoaaeythony ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oeaee (e
i?eia?o, ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoa), oi
e?aaeeou aoi?iai aeiea ianeoaeeaatho ee/iua iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey.
Iiaeiaiay eeanneoeeaoeey ieacuaaaony aaaeiie eae aeey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee
?enea e?aaeeoiuo aeiaeaiee, oae e aeey i?aaiecaoeee e?aaeeoiaaiey
(ii?yaeea auaea/e, ioi?ieaiey, iiaaoaiey, iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa e ae?.).

Aaieianeea e?aaeeou aeaoaeece?otho e ii ae?oaei, aieaa “iaeeei”
i?eciaeai. Eo iiae?acaeaeytho a caaeneiinoe io oie aaethou, eioi?ay
eniieuecoaony a i?ioeanna e?aaeeoiaaiey (?oaee, aeieea?u, iaiaoeeea
ia?ee, o?aioeocneea o?aiee e o.i.), a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eeieoe?oaony
eee ia eeieoe?oaony nnoaeiay caaeieaeaiiinoue, iinoiyiii aiciaiiaeyaiua
(?aaieueaa?iua) e i?a?uaaaiua e?aaeeou e o.i.

Na?ueaciui iniiaaieai aeey auaeaeaiey niaoeeaeueiie a?oiiu e?aaeeoia
yaeyaony eo ?acia?. A ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie aaieianeie i?aeoeea
?aaeaiaioe?othony oae iacuaaaiua “e?oiiua” e?aaeeou. E ?ac?yaeo E?oiiuo
e?aaeeoia a ?innee ioiinyo nnoaeu, ?acia? eioi?uo iaeiiio caaiueeo (eee
a?oiia caaiueeia) i?aauoaao 5% eaieoaea aaiea.

1.3. IAUAEOU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

Aaieianeea e?aaeeou iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue e a caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa
e?aaeeoiaaiey’. A oceii niunea iauaeo (eao. objectum — i?aaeiao)— yoi
aauue, iiae eioi?oth auaeaaony nnoaea e ?aaee eioi?ie caeeth/aaony
e?aaeeoiay naeaeea. A ?inneeneie i?aeoeea e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou
auaeathony iiae ?acee/iua yeaiaiou iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania. A
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, e i?eia?o, aaiee e?aaeeootho nu?uea, iniiaiua e
aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, oa?o, iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai,
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, n?aaenoaa a ?an/aoao. A oi?aiaea oeie/iui
iauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey aunooiatho oiaa?u, iaoiaeyueany a oiaa?iiai?ioa.
O naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee aaiee e?aaeeootho cao?aou
?anoaieaaiaenoaa e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey, ai?th/aa e
ae?.

Aeieain?i/iua nnoaeu iai?aaeythony ia e?aaeeoiaaiea oaeeo iauaeoia eae:

· no?ieoaeuenoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iauaeoia;

· ?aeiino?oeoeey, oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea, ?anoe?aiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iauaeoia;

· i?eia?aoaiea oaoieee, iai?oaeiaaiey e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa;

· i?aaiecaoeey auionea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee;

· no?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey e o.ae.

Iauaeo aaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey iiaeao auoue /anoiui eee
niaieoiiui. *anoiui ii noaiiaeony a oii neo/aa, anee oi, “iiaei /oi”
auaeaaony e?aaeeo, iainiaeyaony, ioaeaeyaony io ae?oaeo nnoae. Iai?eia?,
aaie iiaeao e?aaeeoiaaoue o naiaai eeeaioa ioaeaeueii iio?aaiinoe,
naycaiiua oieueei n iaeiieaieai oa?u, nu?uey eee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.
Auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea a iauai ninoaaa e?aaeeoia auaeaeythony nnoaeu,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia aiiaua iiae caianu nu?uey, a a nayce n iaeiieaieai
eaeie-oi ii?aaeaeaiiie aai ?aciiaeaeiinoe.

I?yiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue /anoiiio iauaeoo — niaieoiiue iauaeo, eiaaea
e?aaeeo auaeaaony iiae iiiaeanoai iauaeoia, ia iainiaeaiiuo ae?oa io
ae?oaa, a iauaaeeiaiiuo a iaeei (iauee, niaieoiiue) iauaeo.

Nnoaea, iaeiaei, iiaeao auaeaaaoueny iaiaycaoaeueii ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa, o caaiueea aiiaua iiaeao ia auoue oiai, iiaei
/oi a iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiii aeaea iiaeii iieo/eoue nnoaeo. A yoii
neo/aa iauaeoii aunooiaao iio?aaiinoue caaiueea a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
?ano?nao. A oe?ieii niunea iauaeo iiyoiio au?aaeaao ia oieueei i?aae-
iao a aai iaoa?eaeueiii, inycaaiii ninoiyiee, ii e iaoa?eaeueiue
i?ioeann a oeaeii, eioi?ue aucuaaao iio?aaiinoue a nnoaea e ?aaee
iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiinoe e onei?aiey eioi?iai caeeth/aaony e?aaeeoiay
naeaeea. A aeaiiii neo/aa iauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey, e i?eia?o, iiaeao
auoue a?aiaiiue ?ac?ua a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa, eiaaea nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
e iinooiathuae au?o/ee (aeioiaeia) i?aaei?eyoey ieacuaaaony
iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey inouanoaeaiey oaeoueo eee i?aaenoiyueo ieaoaaeae. Eae
i?aaeei, i?e/eiu oaeiai ?ac?uaa iinyo iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?, naycaiu n
naciiiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa, niaaaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, oaeoueie
a?aiaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie a ieaoaaeao. A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iauay
iio?aaiinoue a nnoaea iiaeao auoue naycaia e n noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie,
au?aaeathueie iaaeinoaoee a aeayoaeueiinoe caaiueeia. A oneiaeyo niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa iaee/ea iiaeiaiuo nnoae ieacuaaaony aieaa caiaoiui
yaeaieai. Aeey aaiea-e?aaeeoi?a iiaeiaiua nnoaeu, anoanoaaiii, aucuaatho
aieueoee ?ene, ca/anooth iie ia?aoiaeyo a ?ac?yae o?oaeiuo (i?iaeaiiuo)
e?aaeeoia, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaaica?auaaiuo a aaie, na?ueacii
oooaeoathueo aai e?aaeeoiue ii?ooaeue, aucuaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oneeaiey aiaeeca e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caaiueea.

1.4. INIAAIIINOE NIA?AIAIIIE NENOAIU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

?anniio?aiiay iaie eeanneoeeaoeey aaieianeeo nnoae, aa e?eoa?ee
iaecaaaeii acaeiinaycaiu n i?eioeeiaie e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iai?aiaiiui
o?aaiaaieai nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeyaony o?aaiaaiea
oeaeaaiai oa?aeoa?a e?aaeeoa, iieiiou e n?i/iinoe aica?aoa nnoae, eo
iaania/aiiinoe. E iauayeiiiie/aneei i?eioeeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey ioiineony
i?eioeei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoe, eioi?ue au?aaeaao iaiaeeiaeiaue
iiaeoiae aaiea e e?aaeeoiaaieth eae noauaeoa, iauaeoa, oae e e
iaania/aieth nnoae.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho i?eioeeiu
?aoeeiiaeueiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, o?aaothuea iaaeaaeiie ioeaiee ia oieueei
iauaeoa, noauaeoa e ea/anoaa iaania/aiey, ii e o?iaiy ia?aee,
aeioiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee, nieaeaiey ?enea. Aaaeiui noaiiaeony e
niaethaeaiea oaoiieiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey, i?aaee auaea/e e iiaaoaiey nnoae,
oaeouaai iaaethaeaiey e aiaeeca e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee.

Aaiee, yaeyynue ii nooe eiiia?/aneeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, iaeeaaeuaatho
eiiia?/aneee oa?aeoa? e ia anth nenoaio eo aeayoaeueiinoe ii
e?aaeeoiaaieth. I?aaeaea anaai, enoiaey ec i?eioeeia i?eaueueiinoe
aaieianeiai oicyenoaa, aaieianeea nnoaeu yaeythony ieaoiuie. Ii aeaei ia
oieueei a yoii. Aaiee eae oi?aiaua i?aaei?eyoey oi?aotho i?aaeaea anaai
naieie ?ano?naie, ?aciauay eo a e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee. Eiaiii iiyoiio a
ii?iaeueiii (aane?eceniii, aaceioeyoeeiiiii) oicyenoaa aeey aaieia,
aunooiathueo i?aaeaea anaai eae e?oiiua e?aaeeoiua einoeooou, aeioiae io
e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iniiaiiieaaathuei. A i?eauee
aia?eeaineeo aaieia ia aeioiaeu io e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee i?eoiaeeony
iiaeaaeythuay /anoue — aieaa 60%.

?acia? e?aaeeoiiai i?iaeoeoa aaiea caaeneo ia oieueei io iauaia aai
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, ii e io i?eaea/aiiuo ?ano?nia. A nia?aiaiiie
?uii/iie nenoaia oi?aiaaoue aieueoei iauaiii n?aaenoa iiaeii eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea aaie aeiiieieoaeueii i?eaeae n?aaenoaa naieo eeeaioia.
Iineieueeo aaie i?eaeaeaao ?ano?nu ia aeey naay, a aeey ae?oaeo, oi
ieacuaaaony, /oi iauai e?aaeeoiiai i?iaeoeoa noaiiaeony oai auoa, /ai
aieueoa ianna aeeoioee?oaiuo ei ia ia/aeao aica?aoiinoe aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa.

Iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey ninoieo a aa caaeneiinoe
ia oieueei io nianoaaiiuo e i?eaea/aiiuo ?ano?nia, ii e io ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ii?i, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaaao Oeaio?aeueiue aaie aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia,
inouanoaeythueo e?aaeeoiaaiea eeeaioia. Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?O, e
i?eia?o, ?aaeaiaioe?oao ii?io iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee a
oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ?aca?au. Anoue e ae?oaea ii?iaoeau, a oii /enea a
aeaea ieieiaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo ?aca?aia, nicaeaaaaiuo a eiiia?/aneii
aaiea, a oi?ia ?aaeaiaioaoeee iauaiia iniai e?oiiuo e?aaeeoia,
ia?aiao?ia eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina aaiea, eiaaea iaycaoaeuenoaa aaiea
niecia?ythony n ?acia?ii eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeii nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeyaony aa
aeiaiai?iay iniiaa. A n?aaiaiee n i?aaeiae nenoaiie aeaeea?aoeey ia yoii
ia eaaeaony noieue i?eieoeaiui e yeaiaioa?iui iiiaioii. Ia iaeiii ec
ecaanoiuo aeoeia enoi?ee ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa
aeiaiai?a aaieia n eeeaioaie aeaenoaeoaeueii iiyaeeenue. E niaeaeaieth,
iaeiaei, iie iineee oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?, eo yeiiiie/aneay cia/eiinoue
i?iyaeyeanue neaai. Oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aicieeee eiiia?/aneea
noeioeu, eiaaea e aaie, e aai eeeaiou iuooeee iineaaenoaey ia?ooaiey
niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo ieie, e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai? noaiiaeony oie neeie,
eioi?ay oe?aieyao ioaaonoaaiiinoue eae e?aaeeoi?a, oae e caaiueea.

I?e anae naiae aeioiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiay iia?aoeey a oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee
yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?eneiaaiiie. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo caaea?aeea
aica?aoa nnoae eeeaioaie aaiea noaiiaeony aeiaieueii /anoui yaeaieai. E
ia/aeo 1999 a. i?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue ii aaieianeei e?aaeeoai
ninoaaeyea 11,1% ii anai e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui oicyenoao,
ianaeaieth e ae?oaei e?aaeeoiui einoeoooai. N?iee e?aaeeoiaaiey, eae iu
aeaeei, nouanoaaiii nie?aoeeenue.

A oeaeii ca iineaaeiea aiaeu nia?aiaiiay nenoaia e?aaeeoiaaiey oai ia
iaiaa i?iaeaeaea cia/eoaeueiue iooue ?acaeoey. Ii nouanoao, eciaieeanue
ia oieueei oeeinioey aaieianeiai aeaea, ii e oaoiieiaey e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee.

Niaoeeoeea nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee e?aaeeoiaaiey ninoieo, iaeiaei, a oii,
/oi ?inneeneea aaiee a ?yaea neo/aaa ia iaeaaeatho aaeeiie iaoiaee/aneie
e ii?iaoeaiie aacie i?aaiecaoeee e?aaeeoiiai i?ioeanna. Noa?ua
aaieianeea eino?oeoeee, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee e
ni?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth nenoaio, ieacaeenue
iai?eaieaiuie aeey oneiaee ?uiea. Neooaoeey oaeiaa, /oi eaaeaeue
eiiia?/aneee aaie iiyoiio, enoiaey ec naiaai iiuoa, au?aaaouaaao naie
iiaeoiaeu, naith nenoaio e?aaeeoiaaiey, oioy niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi
anoue iai?aeiaeiua iauea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iniiau, io?aaeathuea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e ioa/anoaaiiue iiuo e iicaieythuea aaieai nouanoaaiii
oii?yaei/eoue naie e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey n eeeaioii, oeo/oeoue
aica?aoiinoue nnoae.

1.5. ONEIAEss E?AAeEOIAAIEss

Iiae oneiaeyie e?aaeeoiaaiey iiieiathony naiaai ?iaea o?aaiaaiey,
eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeythony e aaciaui yeaiaioai e?aaeeoiaaiey — noauaeoai,
iauaeoai e iaania/aieth e?aaeeoa.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi aaie ia iiaeao e?aaeeoiaaoue ethaiai eeeaioa.
AEaeathueo iieo/eoue e?aaeeo anaaaea iiiai, ii n?aaee ieo iaiaoiaeeii
aua?aoue oao, eiio iiaeii aai i?aaeinoaaeoue, aeiaa?eoue e auoue
oaa?aiiui„ /oi nnoaea aoaeao naiaa?aiaiii aica?auaia e ca aa
eniieueciaaiea aoaeao auiea/ai nnoaeiue i?ioeaio. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii
iiyoiio, ‘/oi aaie anooiaao a e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey n caaiueeii ia aaca
ioeaiee’, aai e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe, eeeaeaeiinoe aai aaeaina, eco/aiey
?uiea i?iaeoeoa oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey, o?iaiy iaiaaeaeiaioa e oi?aaeaiey
n/aoii, i?ioeiai iiuoa ?aaiou n iei.

Oae aea ianoieo aeaei e n iauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iauaeoii e?aaeeoiaaiey
ia iiaeao auoue anyeay iio?aaiinoue caaiueea, a oieueei oa, eioi?ay
naycaia n aai a?aiaiiuie ieaoaaeiuie cao?oaeiaieyie, aucaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey i?iaeoeoa.

Iaania/aiea eae o?aoee aaciaue yeaiaio nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey aeieaeii
auoue ea/anoaaiiui e iieiui. E aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea aaie i?aaenoaaeyao
e?aaeeo ia aeiaa?ee, i?inoi aeaieiaue e?aaeeo, o iaai aeieaeia auoue
aaconeiaiay oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi nnoaea aoaeao naiaa?aiaiii
aica?auaia.

E?aaeeoiaaiea aeieaeii au?aaeaoue eioa?anu iaaeo noi?ii e?aaeeoiie
naeaeee. Aaiee, aicieeoea ec eioa?ania iio?aaiinoae oicyenoaa,
i?eaioe?othony ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae eeeaioa. Oeaeueth
e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeyaony nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie aeey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee
caaiueea, aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe e i?eaueueiinoe, iai?a?uaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Aianoa n oai oieueei eioa?anu eeeaioa ia
iiaoo noaoue ?aoathuei, aeiieie?othuei oaeoi?ii niaa?oaiey e?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee. Oneiaeyie e?aaeeoiaaiey aeieaeii auoue e niaethaeaiea
eioa?ana ae?oaie noi?iiu — aaiea-e?aaeeoi?a. Aai eioa?anu iiaoo ia
niaiaaeaoue n eioa?anaie eeeaioia. O aaiea anaaaea anoue auai?, eoaea
eo/oa aeiaeeoue nianoaaiiua e aeeoioee?iaaiiua eaieoaeu. Aai
aiciiaeiinoe /anoi ia?aie/aiu. Aaiee, eae ecaanoii, ?aaioatho a
eiie?aoiuo a?aieoeao, ii?aaeaeyaiuo niaieoiiinoueth eiathueony a aeaiiue
iiiaio ?ano?nia, ii?iaoeaaie yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey oeaio?aeueiiai
caeea. Iauai e?aaeeoia, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeai eeeaioai,
anaaaea caaeneo io iauaia nianoaaiiuo e i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa,
?aaeaiaioe?oaiie i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ieie, oaeoueo ii?iaoeaia
eeeaeaeiinoe, o?aaiaaiee naaeaine?iaaiiinoe aeoeaia e ianneaia ii
n?ieai, ?acia?a aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia, ia?a/eneyaiuo a oeaio?aeeciaaiiua
?aca?au oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea e ae?.

Aiciiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey caaiueea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythony noaiaiueth
?enea. Eae au ie oioaeinue caaiueeo iieo/eoue nnoaeo, ii anee ?ene aeey
aaiea /?acau/aeii aaeee e iao iieiuo aa?aioee, aa?iyoiaa aceao, oaeay
nnoaea ia aoaeao aio i?aaeinoaaeaia. Eeeaio aeieaeai
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue e aeaeaiea ieaoeoue ii
naiei aeieaai, aeeth/ay nnoaeiue i?ioeaio.

Oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey naycaiu oaeaea n i?eioeeiaie e?aaeeoiaaiey-
oeaeaaui oa?aeoa?ii, n?i/iinoueth e iaania/aiiinoueth e?aaeeoa. Anee
eeeaio iioaioeeaeueii iiaeao ia?ooeoue iaeei ec ieo, e?aaeeoiay naeaeea
ia ninoieony. I?e ia?ooaiee yoeo i?eioeeiia a i?ioeanna e?aaeeoiaaiey
aaie, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue naieie eioa?anaie, eioa?anaie naieo aeeaae/eeia,
?ac?uaaao e?aaeeoiua nayce, iocuaaao e?aaeeo, o?aaoao aai iaiaaeeaiiiai
aica?aoa.

Nia?aiaiiay nenoaia e?aaeeoiaaiey aace?oaony ia aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee
caeiaiaiai i?aaa, iaee/ee ?acee/iuo oeiia aa?aioee e ii?o/eoaeuenoa
o?aoueeo noi?ii. Yoe e ae?oaea oi?iu iaania/eaatho iaaeaaeiinoue
e?aaeeoiie naeaeee, aiciiaeiinoue aica?aoa e?aaeeoa a neo/aa ia?ooaiey
i?eioeeiia e?aaeeoiaaiey. Eae iu oaeaeei yoi a aeaeueiaeoai, ?aaeecaoeey
caeiaiaiai i?aaa o?aaoao io aaiea ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca aeaaniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa, ioeaiee aai eiouanoaa, iicaieythuaai aaieo i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iaania/eoue naith ii e?aeiae ia?a aacoauoi/ioth aeayoaeueiinoue.
I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi nnoaea iiaeao ia eiaoue eiie?aoiiai
iaania/aiey, ii iaee/ea caeiaa aeieaeii auoue iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai
niaa?oaiey e?aaeeoiie naeaeee.

E?aaeeoiaaiea inouanoaeyaony i?e oneiaee, /oi aoaeoo niaethaeaiu e
eiiia?/aneea eioa?anu aaiea. E?aaeeoiaaiea i?iecaiaeeony ia ieaoiie
iniiaa. Ieaoiinoue ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony e?aaeeoiui ?eneii, o?iaiai
o/aoiie noaaee oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea, iauei ninoiyieai ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey e?aaeeoa ia ?uiea.

Oneiaeai e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeyaony caeeth/aiea e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey
iaaeaeo aaieii e caaiueeii. E?aaeeoiaaiea aace?oaony ia aeiaiai?iie
iniiaa, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e i?aaa
eaaeaeie noi?iiu e?aaeeoiie naeaeee, yeiiiie/aneoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue
noi?ii.

Iiaeii, iaeiiaoe, caiaoeoue, /oi oneiaeai e?aaeeoiaaiey yaeyaony
ieaie?iaaiea acaeiiioiioaiee noi?ii. Iauaeoii ieaie?iaaiey a aaiea
yaeyaony noiia i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai e?aaeeoa, ?acia? aai iiaaoaiey,
aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ii e?aaeeoiui iia?aoeeyi. E?aaeeoiue i?ioeann
iaycuaaao e caaiueea oae ?aaoee?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e oeiainiaua
aiciiaeiinoe, /oiau a iieiie ia?a i?aaeoniio?aoue naiaa?aiaiiia e iieiia
iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa e oieaoo nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa.

Oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey:

· Niaethaeaiea o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e aaciaui yeaiaioai
e?aaeeoiaaiey

· Niaiaaeaiea eioa?ania iaaeo noi?ii e?aaeeoiie naeaeee

· Iaee/ea aiciiaeiinoae eae o aaiea-e?aaeeoi?a, oae e o caaiueea
auiieiyoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa

· Niaethaeaiea i?eioeeiia e?aaeeoiaaiey

· Aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee caeiaa e iaee/ea aa?aioee

· Iaania/aiea eiiia?/aneeo eioa?ania aaiea

· Ieaie?iaaiea acaeiiioiioaiee noi?ii e?aaeeoiie naeaeee

1.6. YOAIU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii e?aaeeoiue i?ioeann ia/eiaaony ni aeiy ia?aie auaea/e
nnoaeu. Iaeiaei aei yoiai iiiaioa e aneaae ca iei i?ioiaeeo oeaeay
iieina cia/eoaeueiie ?aaiou, auiieiyaiie eae aaieii-e?aaeeoi?ii, oae e
eeeaioii-caaiueeii.

Ia?aaiai?u i e?aaeeoa ia/eiathony caaeieai aei i?eiyoey eiie?aoiiai
?aoaiey. Caeanue, iaeiaei, ana iiaeao auoue ii-?aciiio. I?aaeeiaeaiea i
auaea/a e?aaeeoa iiaeao enoiaeeoue eae io aaiea, oae e io eeeaioa. Aeey
?acaeouo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee aieaa oeie/iie yaeyaony neooaoeey, eiaaea
aaie euao eeeaioa, i?aaeeaaaao aio naie i?iaeoeo, a oii /enea e?aaeeou
iiae oa eee eiua oeaee e oneiaey. Eco/aiea ?uiea aaieianeeo oneoa,
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia, ia?auaiea e iei n i?aaeeiaeaieyie i
nio?oaeie/anoaa, aeceou, iaiaoiaeeiua ciaee aieiaiey — ana yoi
i?ienoiaeeo i?aaeaea, /ai ?anniao?eaaaony eiie?aoiia i?aaeeiaeaiea i
e?aaeeoa.

Eiia aeaei — nia?aiaiiay ioa/anoaaiiay i?aeoeea, eiaaea e?aaeeou ioaeiu
anai, ia/eiay io i?aaei?eieiaoaey e caeai/eaay i?aaeoaeuenoaii, ia
aiai?y oaea i i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaiecaoeeyo, eniuouaathueo ino?ue e?ecen
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e ioaeaeathueony a e?aaeeoiie iiaeaea?aeea. Eneaoue
eeeaioa, eioi?iio iaaei aeaoue e?aaeeo, ?inneeneiio eiiia?/aneiio aaieo
ia i?eoiaeeony, eeeaio euao aaie, a eioi?ii iiaeii auei au iieo/eoue
nianeoaeueioth nnoaeo.

Oaeiau ?aaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee ?innee, eniuouaathuae ino?ue
e?ecen i?iecaiaenoaa e oeiainia. Eiiia?/aneea aaiee ia inaiaiaeaeathony,
iaeiaei, a aeaeueiaeoai io ae?oaiai aieaa neiaeiiai yoaia — yoaia
?anniio?aiey eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoa. Iaonoie/eainoue yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeee, eioeyoeey o?aaotho io ?inneeneeo aaieia iniaie inoi?iaeiinoe
e iiuoa ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa, iauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey e
iaaeaaeiinoe iaania/aiey, ea/anoaa caeiaa e aa?aioee. Aiaeeoe/aneay
/anoue yoiai yoaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /?acau/aeii ioaaonoaaiioth
caaea/o.

A ?inneeneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieao ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e, eae i?aaeei,
aiceaaaaony ia e?aaeeoiue ioaeae (oi?aaeaiea). A ioaeaeueiuo aaieao
auaeaeythony niaoeeaeueiua aiaeeoe/aneea iiae?acaeaeaiey, ooieoeeae
eioi?uo yaeyaony ananoi?iiiyy ioeaiea e?aaeeooaiiai ia?ii?eyoey.
Caeeth/aiea i aiciiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey aeaaony ?aaioieeo, eo?e?othuaio
ianeoaeeaaiea aeaiiiai eeeaioa. A yoii neo/aa any iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay
?aaioa aiceaaaaony ia yeiiiienoa aaiea — ii aaaeao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua
ia?aaiai?u, ?anniao?eaaao i?aaenoaaeaiioth a aaie aeieoiaioaoeeth,
aioiaeo ienueiaiiia caeeth/aiea i aiciiaeiinoe e oneiaeyo e?aaeeoiaaiey
aeaiiiai i?iaeoa, auienuaaao niaoeeaeueiia ?anii?yaeaiea i auaea/a
e?aaeeoa, niae?aao iaiaoiaeeiua ?ac?aoeoaeueiua iiaeiene ia e?aaeeoiuo
aeieoiaioao e o.ae., a iauai, auiieiyao anth aiaeeoe/aneoth,
oaoie/aneoth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth ?aaioo ii niioaaonoaothuaio e?aaeeoiiio
i?iaeoo. A iaaieueoeo aaieao any yoa ?aaioa, eae i?aaeei,
eiioeaio?e?oaony a iaeiii e?aaeeoiii ioaeaea.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iiuo ca/anooth eiie. Anee yoi iaeaiueeee aaie, oi
aiaeeoe/aneay e oaoie/aneay ?aaioa a iai ii auaea/a e?aaeeoa ?acaeaeaia
iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie: iaeei aiaeece?oao, aioiaeo ?aoaiea, ae?oaie
?aaioiee yoiai eee niaoeeaeueiiai ae?oaiai iiae?acaeaeaiey auiieiyao
oaoie/aneoth ?aaioo ii oaoie/aneiio ioi?ieaieth nnoaeu. Niaoeeaeecaoeey
iiaeao auoue e eiie: eoi-oi ec aaieianeiai ia?niiaea oieueei i?eaiaeeo
eeeaioa a aaie, inoaeueiia aeaeatho ae?oaea. Auaaao e oae: ?aaioieee
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo ioaeaeia ii i?iaeaaea aaieianeeo oneoa ia
oieueei i?eaiaeyo eeeaioia a aaie (aeiauaatho aecian), ii e
inouanoaeytho i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec e?aaeeoiiai i?iaeoa,
niaeaniauaatho th?eaee/aneoth noi?iio, aeaeatho i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth
i?anaeaeoeeth ?enea, ninoaaeytho naia ienueiaiiia caeeth/aiea. Ae?oaia
caeeth/aiea (aiciiaeii ia niaiaaeathuaa n iiae?acaeaeaieai ii i?iaeaaea
oneoa) ninoaaeyaony a yeiiiie/aneii oi?aaeaiee aaiea (a niaoeeaeueiuo
ioaeaeao aiaeeca e?aaeeoiiai ?enea). A yoii neo/aa ?aaeecoaony oae
iacuaaaiia i?aaeei “/aou?ao aeac”, eiaaea e?aaeeoiue i?iaeo i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac oeeueo? aeaoo ethaeae, ia iaoiaeyueony ai acaeiiii iiae/eiaiee.

Aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie ?aaiou ia aeaiiie i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
noaaeee yaeyaony i?eiyoea ?aoaiee i e?aaeeoiaaiee eeeaioia a i?aaeaeao
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiiiaoaioeee ?aaioieeia aaiea. A yoii neo/aa e?aaeeoiue
i?iaeo ia niioaaonoaothuoth noiio ?anniao?eaaao, a oaeaea iaoaao aii?in
i aiciiaeiinoe aai e?aaeeoiaaiey oieueei oio ?aaioiee, eioi?iio
i?aaeinoaaeaii oaeia i?aai niioaaonoaothueie ?anii?yaeaieyie
?oeiaiaenoaa aaiea. Aeaiiue iiuo ?aaiou ia/eiatho eniieueciaaoue e
?inneeneea eiiia?/aneea aaiee.

E?oiiua e?aaeeou, eae i?aaeei, ?anniao?eaathony ia e?aaeeoiii eiieoaoa.
E aai canaaeaieth i?i?aaaouaathony ana yeiiiie/aneea e th?eaee/aneea
aii?inu, i?eieiaaony ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea ii ?anniao?eaaaiiio aii?ino,
ii?aaeaeythony eiie?aoiua oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Oaeiaa i?ioeaaeo?a aeaiiiai iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai yoaia. Aneaae ca iei
ianooiaao yoai ioi?ieaiey e?aaeeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee. ?aaioieee aaiea
ioi?ieytho e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai?, auienuaatho ?anii?yaeaiey ii aaieo i
auaea/a e?aaeeoa, caaiaeyo niaoeeaeueiia aeinuea ia eeeaioa-caaiueea
(e?aaeeoiia aeaei).

Ia o?aoueai yoaia — yoaia eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoa — inouanoaeyaony
eiio?ieue ca e?aaeeoiuie iia?aoeeyie: niaethaeaieai eeieoa e?aaeeoiaaiey
(e?aaeeoiie eeiee), oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai e?aaeeoa, oieaoie nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa, iieiioie e naiaa?aiaiiinoueth aica?aoa nnoae. Ia aeaiiii
yoaia ia i?ae?auaaony ?aaioa ii iia?aoeaiiio e o?aaeeoeeiiiiio aiaeeco
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe e oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou eeeaioa, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaiaeyony ano?a/e, ia?aaiai?u n eeeaioii, ooi/iythony
oneiaey e n?iee e?aaeeoiaaiey.

1.7. IAUEA I?AAIECAOeEIIII-YEIIIIE*ANEEA INIIAU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

I?e anai iiiaiia?acee iauaeoia e noauaeoia e?aaeeoiaaiey, ?acee/iuo
aeaeia nnoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei eeoeai,
nenoaia e?aaeeoiaaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeoth aaeeioth noaio,
aeeth/athuoth:

1. Iaoiaeu e?aaeeoiaaiey e oi?iu nnoaeiuo n/aoia.

2. E?aaeeoioth aeieoiaioaoeeth, i?aaenoaaeyaioth aaieo.

3. I?ioeaaeo?o ii auaea/a e?aaeeoa.

4. Ii?yaeie iiaaoaiey nnoaeu.

5. Eiio?ieue a i?ioeanna e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Anee yoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey iieacuaatho iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaycaoaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo?, oi i?aaenoaaeaiiua yeaiaiou
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneie noaiu ii nouanoao au?aaeatho oaoiieiaeth
e?aaeeoiiai i?ioeanna. ?anniio?ei yoio oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann aieaa
iiae?iaii.

1.7.1. Iaoiaeu e?aaeeoiaaiey e oi?iu nnoaeiuo n/aoia

Iaoiae e?aaeeoiaaiey iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo aaiee inouanoaeytho auaea/o e iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia.
Oaeeo iaoiaeia o?e: 1) iaoiae e?aaeeoiaaiey ii iai?ioo; 2) iaoiae
e?aaeeoiaaiey ii inoaoeo; 3) iai?ioii-naeueaeiaue iaoiae.

I?e e?aaeeoiaaiee ii iai?ioo e?aaeeo neaaeoao ca aeaeaeaieai, iai?ioii
iauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey. E?aaeeo aaaine?oao cao?aou caaiueea aei iiiaioa
aunaiaiaeaeaiey aai ?ano?nia. ?acia? nnoaeu aic?anoaao ii ia?a
oaaee/aiey iauaeoeaiie iio?aaiinoe a nnoaea e iiaaoaaony ii ia?a
nieaeaiey yoie iio?aaiinoe. Aeaiiue iaoiae iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiia, ii
ia?a nieaeaiey eee oaaee/aiey iio?aaiinoe neio?iiiia aeaeaeaiea
e?aaeeoa, yaeyaony iai?a?uaii aiciaiiaeythueiny i?ioeannii.

I?e e?aaeeoiaaiee ii inoaoeo e?aaeeo acaeiinaycai n inoaoeii
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e cao?ao, aucaaaoeo iio?aaiinoue a
nnoaea. E i?eia?o, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao oaea caeoieoue iaiaoiaeeiua aio
oeaiiinoe ca n/ao naieo oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia e eeoue caoai ia?aoeoueny
a aaie ca nnoaeie iiae eo iaania/aiea, oai naiui eiiiaine?oy
i?iecaaaeaiiua cao?aou. E?aaeeo a yoii neo/aa auaeaaony iiae inoaoie
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae a ii?yaeea eiiiainaoeee, a ia
aaaine?iaaiey cao?ao (oaea i?iecaaaeaiiuo a aeaiiii neo/aa) ia
i?eia?aoaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeia. *aua anaai e?aaeeoiaaiea ii
inoaoeo, eae i?aaeei, oaea, ioaaouaaao iaiueoee e?oa iauaeoia
e?aaeeoiaaiey, iiin?aaeoao iaeei ec iauaeoia, a oi a?aiy eae
e?aaeeoiaaiea ii iai?ioo naycaii n aeaeaeaieai ia ioaeaeueiiai,
/anoiiai, a niaieoiiiai iauaeoa e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Ia i?aeoeea e?aaeeoiaaiea ii iai?ioo e ii inoaoeo iiaoo ni/aoaoueny,
ia?acoaony iai?ioii-naeueaeiaue iaoiae, eiaaea e?aaeeo ia ia?aie noaaeee
auaeaaony ii ia?a aicieeiiaaiey a iai iio?aaiinoe, a ia aoi?ie noaaeee
iiaaoaaony a no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiua n?iee, eioi?ua iiaoo ia niaiaaeaoue n
iauaiii aunaiaiaeaeathueony ?ano?nia. Ia ia?aie noaaeee e?aaeeo
auaeaaony ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee iai?ioa oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae
e cao?ao; ia aoi?ie noaaeee iiaaoaaony ia aaca inoaoeia n?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa eeeaioa ia?aae aaieii.

I?aaiecaoeeiiii aeaeaeaiea e?aaeeoa (aai auaea/a e iiaaoaiea)
io?aaeaaony ia nnoaeiuo n/aoao eeeaioa, eioi?ua ioe?uaaao aio aaie.
Nnoaeiue n/ao — yoi oaeie n/ao, ia eioi?ii io?aaeaaony aeiea
(caaeieaeaiiinoue) eeeaioa aaieo ii iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoai, auaea/a e
iiaaoaiea nnoae. Aeey anao nnoaeiuo n/aoia oa?aeoa?ia eo iauay
eiino?oeoeey: auaea/a e?aaeeoa i?ioiaeeo ii eo aeaaaoo, iiaaoaiea – ii
e?aaeeoo, caaeieaeaiiinoue eeeaioa aaieo anaaaea ii eaaie, aeaaaoiaie
noi?iia nnoaeiiai n/aoa.

I?e iauai aaeeinoaa noaiu io?aaeaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe, auaea/e e
iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa nnoaeiua n/aoa iiaoo ?acee/aoueny iaaeaeo niaie: 1)
ii oeaee ioe?uoey; 2) ii acaeiinayce n iai?ioii.

Ii oeaee ioe?uoey nnoaeiua n/aoa iiaoo auoue aeaiiceoii-nnoaeiuie,
eiaaea eeeaio iieo/aao i?aai i?e en/a?iaiee nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa,
iieiaeaiiuo a aaiea ia aeaiiceo, ia iieo/aiea e?aaeeoa a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
?acia?ao. Iaeaieaa /anoi oaeeie nnoaeiuie n/aoaie iiaeao iieueciaaoueny
ianaeaiea, iaeaieeaathuaa naie naa?aaeaiey ia n/aoao e iieo/athuaa
aiciiaeiinoue a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainiieueciaaoueny e?aaeeoii aaiea.
Ec aeaiiceoiiai a nnoaeiue n/ao ii i?aa?auaaony a oii neo/aa, anee
naeueaei ia iai noaiiaeony aeaaaoiaui.

Nnoaeiua n/aoa iiaoo ioe?uaaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii aeey oeaeae
?anoiaeiaaiey aaethou e?aaeeoa. Yoi naiaai ?iaea n/aoa n e?aaeeoiaui
iai?ioii, ni nieaeathueiny aeaaaoiaui naeueaei, a ?aciaii ii?yaeea
iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoii ia oeaee aai iineaaeothuaai eniieueciaaiey e n
iinoaiaiiui iiaaoaieai nnoaeu.

A yoii aea eeanna auaeaeythony iaeiieoaeueii-?anoiaeiua nnoaeiua n/aoa,
ni/aoathuea eae aeaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ii e?aaeeoo, oae e ii aeaaaoo n/aoa.
E i?eia?o, aeaiiceo eeeaioa iiaeao nenoaiaoe/anee iiiieiyoueny ca n/ao
iiauo iaeiieaiee, ii eo ?anoiaeiaaiea anaaaea aoaeao i?aauoaoue
iinooieaiey, a nayce n /ai naeueaei ia n/aoa i?iaeieaeaao auoue
aeaaaoiaui.

Ii acaeiinayce n iai?ioii nnoaeiua n/aoa iiaoo auoue o?ao oeiia: 1)
iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiuie; 2) naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiuie e 3)
iai?ioii-naeueaeiauie. O?e aeaiiuo oeia nnoaeiuo n/aoia ii nouanoao
niioaaonoaotho o?ai iaoiaeai e?aaeeoiaaiey: ii iai?ioo; ii inoaoeo;
iai?ioii-naeueaeiaiio iaoiaeo.

I?e ioe?uoee iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiiai nnoaeiiai n/aoa eeeaio iieo/aao
aiciiaeiinoue iiea/eaaoue ieaoaaeiua aeieoiaiou ii naiui ?aciiia?aciui
iio?aaiinoyi: n/aoa ca oiaa?u e oneoae, /aee ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo,
ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey ia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
ia?a/eneaiea iaeiaia e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae. Aeey anao yoeo ieaoaaeae
aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue iaeei iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiue eee iai?ioii-naeueaeiaue
n/ao, ia eioi?ue aoaeoo iinooiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ieaoaaee a iiaaoaiea
ia?acothuaeny nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa anao ieaoaaeae eeeaio iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny e
naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiui n/aoii, ii oiaaea aio iaiaoiaeeii ioe?uaaoue
eo noieueei, neieueei aicieeaao o iaai oaeeo iio?aaiinoae. O eeeaioa
iiaeao auoue noieueei naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiuo n/aoia, neieueei ii
eiaao /anoiuo iauaeoia e?aaeeoiaaiey. Aeaiiue nnoaeiue n/ao ii
n?aaiaieth n aeaoiy i?aaeoanoaothueie n/aoaie iaiaa aeaie, o?aaoao
aieueoaai oaoie/aneiai ioi?ieaiey, aianoa n oai ia iai aieaa /aoei
i?ineaaeeaaaony oeaeaaia iacia/aiea e?aaeeoa.

Ia i?aeoeea iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiua e iai?ioii-naeueaeiaua n/aoa
i?eiaiythony i?e eioaineaiii ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa, a naciiiuo io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea, naeueneii oicyenoaa, caaioiaeoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo, iai?a?uaiuo, i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeiaeiaaiuo iinoaaeao
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e cao?aoao. Noa?a i?eiaiaiey
naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiuo n/aoia ianeieueei oaea, iie i?eiaiythony i?e
?aciauo, yieciaee/aneeo iio?aaiinoyo eeeaioia a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nao.

Iniaoth ?aciiaeaeiinoue iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiuo nnoaeiuo n/aoia ninoaaeyao
eiioiei??aio, ia eioi?ii io?aaeathony ana ieaoaaee i?aaei?eyoee; ia iai
i?ioiaeyo cao?aou eae ii iniiaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae
e ii ?anoe?aieth e iiaea?iecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Aeaiiay oi?ia
nnoaeiiai n/aoa yaeyaony iaeaieaa aieie, iia ioe?uaaaony aunoae
eaoaai?ee caaiueeia, eiathueo ia?aieeannioth e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue.

Iniaaiiinoue nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeee e?aaeeoiaaiey a i?aaiecaoeeiiiii
ioiioaiee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia no?ieony ia ii aaeeiiio oaaeiio, a ia
iiiaiaa?eaioiie iniiaa. Eeeaio aaiea nai auae?aao, eaeay ec oi?i
e?aaeeoiaaiey aio aieueoa iiaeoiaeeo, eaeie nnoaeiue n/ao aio
oeaeaniia?aciaa ioe?uoue, eaeie ?aaeei auaea/e e iiaaoaiey nnoae i?e
yoii iieaciaa onoaiiaeoue.

1.7.2. E?aaeeoiay aeieoiaioaoeey, i?aaenoaaeyaiay aaieo ia ia/aeueiii e
iineaaeothueo yoaiao e?aaeeoiaaiey

Anyeay yeiiiie/aneay, a oii /enea e?aaeeoiay, naeaeea o?aaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey. Onoiua ia?aaiai?u, eioi?ua
aaaeao eeeaio n aaieii, ia ia/aeueiii, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii yoaia, oae eee
eia/a caeai/eaathony i?aaenoaaeaieai a e?aaeeoiia o/?aaeaeaiea aai
ienueiaiiiai oiaeaoaenoaa (iainiiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe e?aaeeoa ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee. “Iiae ?oeie” o aaiea aeieaeiu auoue oaeaea
iaoa?eaeu, iicaieythuea aio ii?aaeaeeoue oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea eeeaioa,
aai e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue. Aaieo iaiaoiaeeii iiyoiio eiaoue, a eeeaioo
i?aaenoaaeyoue aaeain ia ia/aei aiaea. Ioa/anoaaiiua e ca?oaaaeiua aaiee
i?aeoeeotho o?aaiaaiey iieo/aiey aaeaina ca iineaaeiea 2-3 aiaea, i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe cai?aoeaatho aaeain ia aeeaeaeooth iany/ioth aeaoo.
Aianoa n aaeainii i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeytho a aaie io/aoiinoue ii
i?eaueyi e oauoeai.

Iainiiaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e?aaeeoa (aai oaeaea iacuaatho
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei iainiiaaieai) niaea?aeeo i?inueao eeeaioa ia
iieo/aiea e?aaeeoa ia eiie?aoiua oeaee, a iaiaoiaeeiii ?acia?a, iiae
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio e ia eiie?aoiue n?ie.

A oeaeii eiiieaeo aeieoiaioia, i?aaenoaaeyaiuo eeeaioaie a aaie,
?aaeaiaioe?oaony Iieiaeaieai “I ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey (?aciauaiey)
e?aaeeoiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eo aica?aoa (iiaaoaiey)
” OeA ?O io 31.08.1998 a. Niaeanii aeaiiiio iieiaeaieth any
aeieoiaioaoeey ?ani?aaeaeyaony ia o?e a?oiiu.

Ia?yaeo n ienueiaiiui ia?auaieai a aaie ca nnoaeie a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao
nouanoaoao niaoeeaeueiay aeieoiaioaeueiay oi?ia – iauaa
cayaeaiea-iaycaoaeuenoai caaiueea auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey, auoaeathuea ec
oneiaee e?aaeeoiie naeaeee. Oaeay niaoeeaeueiay oi?ia ionoonoaoao a
aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai, iia caiaiaia nianoaaiii e?aaeeoiui
niaeaoaieai, eiathuei o?aoa?aoioth iaycaoaeueioth oi?io, a oii /enea
aeaeea?e?othuoth iaycaoaeuenoai eeeaioa niaethaeaoue o?aaiaaiey e
i?aaeea e?aaeeoiiai o/?aaeaeaiey. Ioeacaeenue io i?aeoeee i?aaenoaaeaiey
aeaiiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa e ?inneeneea eiiia?/aneea aaiee.

Ia?yaeo n aeaiiui cayaeaieai-iaycaoaeuenoaii eniieuecothony n?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa. N?i/iia iaycaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyaony ii ii?aaeaeaiiie
oi?ia, iii oeene?oao iaycaoaeuenoai caaiueea iiaaneoue aeaiiue e?aaeeo,
acyoue iiae ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee, a oeene?iaaiiie noiia e a eiie?aoiue
n?ie.

Yoeo iaycaoaeuenoa iiaeao auoue ianeieueei: ana caaeneo io oiai, ia
eaeie n?ie i?aaeinoaaeaia nnoaea — oneiaiue eee eiie?aoiue. A i?aaeiae
?inneeneie i?aeoeea aaiee eniieueciaaee eae n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa n
oneiaiui, oae e eiie?aoiui n?ieii iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa. Eiie?aoiue n?ie
oeene?iaae aeaoo, i?e ianooieaiee eioi?ie nnoaea aeieaeia auoue eeeaioii
iiaaoaia. Oneiaiue n?ie ii?aaeaeye aeaoo, eiaaea n?ie iiaaoaiey nnoaeu
ia?aniao?eaaeny (a yoii neo/aa aeaiiia n?i/iia iaycaoaeuenoai
caiaiyeinue ia ae?oaia, iiaia iaycaoaeuenoai). Iiiaea ?inneeneea aaiee
ia?anoaee o?aaiaaoue io eeeaioia n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa, eiay i?e yoii a
aeaeo, /oi n?ie iiaaoaiey nnoaeu caoeene?iaai a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a,
/oi n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey i?e i?aaeeueiii aai ninoaaeaiee
ieacuaaaony aeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aeey nienaiey n?aaenoa ni n/aoia
caaiueea a iiaaoaiea nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

E?aaeeoiue aeiaiai? yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei aeieoiaioii, ii?aaeaeythuei
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia e?aaeeoiie naeaeee. A iai niaea?aeaony
yeiiiie/aneay e th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue noi?ii. No?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a, ?aeiiaiaeoaiie eiiia?/aneei
aaieai Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ?O, ia nouanoaoao. A oaeeo no?aiao, eae
Aa?iaiey, Aano?ey, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu oeiiaua oi?iu e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a
eae n th?eaee/aneeie, oae e oece/aneeie eeoeaie. Ai O?aioeee oaeay
oeiiaay oi?ia ?ac?aaioaia eneeth/eoaeueii aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
caaiueeia, iieaaay, /oi aaieianeay i?aeoeea ianoieueei iiiaiia?acia, /oi
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eaeoth-oi aaeeioth iiaeaeue e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui.

E oai ia iaiaa e?aaeeoiue aeiaiai? eiaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiue inoia,
aie?oa eioi?iai no?ieony any noaia niaeaoaiey. ?acoiaaony, ii oeene?oao
iieiia iaeiaiiaaiea o/anoieeia, eo th?eaee/aneea aae?ana; i?aaeiao
aeiaiai?a, noiio, n?ie, ii?yaeie iiaaoaiey, i?ioeaioioth noaaeo, ?acia?
eiienneiiiuo, iaania/aiea e aa?aioee. A oeaeii aeinoaoi/ii oi/ii
ii?aaeaeythony oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey. Iniaia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony
e?aaeeoiui iaiai?eai, aeathuei i?aai aaieo a neo/aa caaea?aeee ieaoaaea,
ianiaethaeaiey aeiaiai?iuo oneiaee ?aaeeciaaoue naia i?aai ia
aica?auaiea e?aaeeoa e oieaou i?ioeaioa ca n/ao ?ano?nia e eiouanoaa eae
naiiai eeeaioa, oae e aai aa?aioia.

Niaoeeaeueiua ?acaeaeu iinayuaiu iaycaiiinoyi eae eeeaioa, oae e aaiea.

Iiieii e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeao caeeth/aoueny
oaeaea aeiaiai? i caeiaa. I?aeoe/anee i?ienoiaeeo oae: anee caeia
i?enoonoaoao a e?aaeeoiie naeaeea, oi aeiaiai? i caeiaa caeeth/aaony
iaycaoaeueii, i?e/ai ca/anooth aeey i?i/iinoe iiaeiene eeeaioa e aaiea
aeiiieieoaeueii caaa?ythony iioa?eonii.

“Iieiaeaiea i ii?yaeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey (?aciauaiey) e?aaeeoiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e eo aica?aoa (iiaaoaiey)” iaycuaaao
aaie eiaoue oaeaea ?yae aioo?aiieo aeieoiaioia, a oii /enea
io?aaeathueo:

• iieeoeeo aaiea ii ?aciauaieth (i?aaeinoaaeaieth) e?aaeeoia;

• o/aoioth iieeoeeo e iiaeoiaeu e aa ?aaeecaoeee;

• i?ioeaaeo?o i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ii e?aaeeoiaaieth;

• ?ani?aaeaeaiea iieiiii/ee iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e aeieaeiinoiuie
eeoeaie;

• ii?yaeie e?aaeeoiaaiey eeeaioia e?aaeeoiie i?aaiecaoeee.

1.7.3. I?ioeaaeo?a auaea/e e?aaeeoa

Iiceoeaiay ioeaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoa, ea/anoaa iaania/aiey e?aaeeoa,
caeeth/aiea e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a, ii?aaeaeeaoaai yeiiiie/aneea e
th?eaee/aneea ia?aiao?u, aeatho iniiao aeey auaea/e e?aaeeoa. E?aaeeo
auaeaaony n iiiiuueth niioaaonoaothuaai ienueiaiiiai ?anii?yaeaiey
?aaioieea aaiea. Enoiaey ec i?eiyoiai a aaiea o?iaiy eiiiaoaioeee ei
iiaeao auoue i?aceaeaio, aai caianoeoaeue, ia/aeueiee e?aaeeoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ia/aeueiee e?aaeeoiiai ioaeaea e aeaaea iaeei ec e?aaeeoiuo
einiaeoi?ia aaiea. ?anii?yaeaiea i auaea/a e?aaeeoa iinooiaao a ioaeae,
eioi?ue aaaeao ?an/aoiua e e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee ii n/aoai eeeaioia, a
iai (anee ?a/ue eaeao i oece/aneeo eeoeao) oeacuaathony o.e.i. eeeaioa,
noiia, n/ao, ii eioi?iio neaaeoao auaeaoue e?aaeeo.

?anii?yaeaiea onoaiaaeeaaao iai?aaeaiea e?aaeeoa. Iii caaeneo io
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee e iiaeaeaiey eeeaioa. Auaea/a e?aaeeoa ii
iai?aaeaieth iiaeao auoue o?ao aeaeia:

1) nnoaea ca/eneyaony ia ?an/aoiue n/ao eeeaioa;

2) nnoaea, ieioy ?an/aoiue n/ao, i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia iieaoo ?acee/iuo
ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia ii oiaa?iui e iaoiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi;

3) nnoaea iinooiaao a iiaaoaiea ae?oaeo, ?aiaa auaeaiiuo e?aaeeoia.

Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo aeaaaooaony nnoaeiue n/ao e e?aaeeooaony eeai
?an/aoiue n/ao aeaiiiai eeeaioa (ia?aue neo/ae), eeai n/aoa ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee, athaeaeaoiuo e i?i/eo o/?aaeaeaiee (aoi?ie
neo/ae), eeai ae?oaie nnoaeiue n/ao, caaeieaeaiiinoue ii eioi?iio
iiaeeaaeeo iiaaoaieth a onoaiiaeaiiua n?iee (o?aoee neo/ae).

IIo iauaio auaea/a e?aaeeoa oaeaea iiaeao ?acee/aoueny. Caeanue
aiciiaeiu oaeaea o?e aa?eaioa:

1) nnoaea a iieiie noiia iinooiaao ia ?an/aoiue n/ao, ioeoaea
i?ienoiaeeo aa iinoaiaiiia ?anoiaeiaaiea;

2) naia i?aai ia iieo/aiea anaai iauaia e?aaeeoa eeeaio ?aaeecoao
iinoaiaiii, ii ia?a aicieeiiaaiey iio?aaiinoe a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nao;

3) eeeaio iiaeao ioeacaoueny io iieo/aiey iauaia e?aaeeoa, ?aiaa
caoeene?iaaiiiai a e?aaeeoiii niaeaoaiee.

Yeiiiie/anee ia?aue aa?eaio iai?aaeaiey e?aaeeoa iiaeao ieacaoueny aeey
eeeaioa iaiaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiui ii n?aaiaieth ni aoi?ui, iineieueeo
iieo/aiea iieiie noiiu aaethou e?aaeeoa e eeoue iineaaeothuaa aa
iinoaiaiiia ?anoiaeiaaiea oaei?iaeaao e?aaeeoioth iiaeaea?aeeo aaiea.
Iaiiiiei, /oi ca eaaeaeue aeaiue iieo/aiiiai e?aaeeoa ioaeii ieaoeoue
nnoaeiue i?ioeaio; ion/ao ieaou ca e?aaeeo i?ienoiaeeo ia n iiiaioa
?ac?aoaiey e?aaeeoa, a n ia?aiai aeiy io?aaeaiey iieo/aiiie nnoaeu ia
nnoaeiii n/aoa. Aeeeoaeueiia inaaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo n
iiiiuueth e?aaeeoa ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa, i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ieaou ca
e?aaeeo, iiyoiio aeaiiiai yaeaiey neaaeoao ecaaaaoue.

Ioeac eeeaioa io iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo iiaeao
iaa?iooueny oaea aeey aaiea iioaioeeaeueiuie oauoeaie. Aaie ia iiaeao
aeiioneaoue ii aeia eeeaioa i?inoiy naieo ?ano?nia, aaaeue cia/eoaeueiay
eo /anoue a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaea/aia ia ieaoiie iniiaa. A yoii neo/aa
aaie ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue eiiiainaoeeth yoeo oauoeia, oiouaiiie auaiaeu io
?aciauaiey e?aaeeoa ae?oaei caaiueeai. Iieo/aiea aeaiiie eiiiainaoeee
iiaeii caoeene?iaaoue a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a a ea/anoaa niaoeeaeueiie
e?aaeeoiie iaiai?ee.

A oeaeii ?acia? e?aaeeoa, iinooiathuaai a ?anii?yaeaiea eeeaioa, caaeneo
io iiiaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa. Iaiiiiei: ?acia? e?aaeeoa onoaiiaeai
e?aaeeoiui niaeaoaieai. Noiia, caoeene?iaaiiay a yoii niaeaoaiee,
yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiie noiiie, ia eioi?oth a iau/iii ii?yaeea iiaeao
?ann/eouaaoue eeeaio. Aeaiiay noiia ii nouanoao yaeyaony eeieoii
e?aaeeoiaaiey. Aa iacuaatho e ii-ae?oaiio: e?aaeeoiay eeiey eiio?ieueiay
oeeo?a. A oeaeii eeieou e?aaeeoiaaiey (e?aaeeoiua eeiee), enoiaey ec
ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie aaieianeie i?aeoeee, iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.

A caaeneiinoe io iacia/aiey auaeaeytho eeieo caaeieaeaiiinoe e eeieo
auaea/e. Ia?aue eeieoe?oao nnoaeioth caaeieaeaiiinoue ia ii?aaeaeaiioth
aeaoo, aoi?ie oeene?oao ia inoaoie, a iauai auaeaaaaiuo nnoae (ii
aeaaaoo nnoaeiiai n/aoa).

Ii n?ieai aeaenoaey auaeaeythony auoiaeiua e aioo?eaiaeiaua
(aioo?eeaa?oaeueiua, aioo?eiany/iua) eeieou. Auoiaeiua eeieou — yoi
oaeea eeieou, n eioi?uie eeeaiou eiatho i?aai aueoe ca i?aaeaeu
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea (iai?eia?, ia ia/aei aiaea eee eaa?oaea). Aoi?ay
?aciiaeaeiinoue eeieoia oeene?oao i?aai caaiueea iieueciaaoueny nnoaeie
a i?aaeaeao niioaaonoaothuaai ia?eiaea (i?aai iieueciaaiey nnoaeie
aioo?e aiaea iiaeao auoue auoa, /ai i?aaeaeueiay noiia, n eioi?ie eeeaio
auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu ieaie?oaiiai ia?eiaea).

Ii noaiaie eciaiaiey iauaia e?aaeeoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai caaiueeo,
auaeaeythony nieaeathueany (neieuecyuea) e aic?anoathuea eeieou. Aeaiiua
eeieou ii?aaeaeythony ii ia?a nieaeaiey eee oaaee/aiey iio?aaiinoe a
nnoaea, iicaieytho onoaiaaeeaaoue eiie?aoiua a?aoeee iiaaoaiey
(oaaee/aiey) aeieaa.

Ii aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoa ?acee/atho oaa?aeue eeieo,
aeiiieieoaeueiue eeieo, eeieo n i?aaii aai i?aauoaiey e naiaiaeiue
eeieo’. Oaa?aeue eeieo oeene?oao iaeneiaeueiia i?aai ia iieo/aiea
nnoaeu, aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui aai i?aauoaiea aac iniauo ?anii?yaeaiee
aaiea. Aeiiieieoaeueiia iieo/aiea nnoaeu naa?o onoaiiaeaiiiai oaa?aeiai
eeieoa oeene?oaony aeiiieieoaeueiui eeieoii. A oeaeii ?yaea neo/aaa
eeieo e?aaeeoiaaiey ia yaeyaony aeanoeei e i?aaeinoaaeyao eeeaioo
aiciiaeiinoue aai i?aauoaiey. Oaeea aiciiaeiinoe ia aaca?aie/iu
(i?eoeaeii caeanue iiaoo neoaeeoue ii?iaoeau, onoaiiaeaiiua
Oeaio?aeueiui Aaieii aeey e?oiiuo e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo iaeiiio
caaiueeo). A eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa oi eee eiia i?aai iieueciaaiey
nnoaeie ?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?aaeeaie eiiia?/aneiai aaiea e oeene?oaony a
e?aaeeoiii niaeaoaiee.

Naiaiaeiui eeieoii n/eoaaony oa noiia e?aaeeoia, eioi?oth eeeaio eiaao
i?aai iieo/eoue a i?aaeaeao onoaiiaeaiiie aio a?aieoeu. Anee, e i?eia?o,
eeieo ii?aaeaeai a noiia 100 iei aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe, a caaeieaeaiiinoue
aaieo aeinoeaea 80 iei, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi eeeaio aua ia en/a?iae
naiaai i?aaa ia iieo/aiea nnoaeu e iiaeao aeiiieieoaeueii acyoue a aaiea
inoaaoeany (naiaiaeiua) aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a noiia 20 iei aeaiaaeiuo
aaeeieoe.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth eeieoa e?aaeeoiaaiey eae i?aaa eeeaioa ia iieo/aiea
nnoaeu a aaiea yaeyaony e?aaeeoiay eeiey, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao
iaeneiaeueioth noio e?aaeeoa, eniieuecoaioth caaiueeii a oa/aiea
onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea e?aaeeoiaaiey. A nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee e?aaeeoiay
eeiey iiaeao oaeaea icia/aoue caeeth/aiea e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a i
iiiai?aciaii iieo/aiee nnoaeu a aaiea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a e?aaeeoa, iiaeeaaeauaai auaea/a, enoiaey ec
e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a, — yoi, eae aiai?eony, oi?iaeueiay noi?iia
aii?ina. Aaee/eia e?aaeeoa, auaeaaaaiay eeeaioo, caaeneo, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, io i?inueau naiiai eeeaioa. Iaeiaei aeaiiay i?inueaa eeeaioa
i?aaeinoaaeoue nnoaeo a ii?aaeaeaiiii ?acia?a iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue n
?aaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aica?aoa e?aaeeoa, n ?aaeueiuie iiaen/aoaie
aaiea. ?acia? e?aaeeoa caaeneo io yeiiiie/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, a oii
/enea:

1) aaee/eiu ?ac?uaa a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa caaiueea;

2) ?aaeueiiai iaeiieaiey oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, iinooiathueo
a iaania/aiea e?aaeeoa, e noaiaie eo eeeaeaeiinoe;

3) o?iaiy ia?aee;

4) noaiaie ?enea e aeiaa?ey aaiea e eeeaioo;

5) iaee/ey ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaia ?ano?nia o aaiea e ae?.

No?iai onoaiiaeaiiiai (oeiiaiai) ?an/aoa (ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia)
?acia?a e?aaeeoa, eioi?ue neaaeoao i?aaeinoaaeoue eeeaioo, aaie ia
aeaeaao. A eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa yoi ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoueth
iaania/aiey e noaiaiueth aeiaa?ey aaiea e caaiueeo.

1.7.4. Ii?yaeie iiaaoaiey nnoaeu

Aaeeiie iiaeaee iiaaoaiey, oae aea eae e auaea/e e?aaeeoa, ia
nouanoaoao. I?aeoeea ii?iaeaeaao iiiaiia?aciua aa?eaiou iiaaoaiey
nnoaeu, a oii /enea:

yieciaee/aneia iiaaoaiea ia iniiaa e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a (n?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa);

2) iiaaoaiea ii ia?a oaeoe/aneiai iaeiieaiey nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e
nieaeaiey iio?aaiinoe a e?aaeeoa n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa caaiueea;

3) nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaaoaiea ia iniiaa ca?aiaa oeene?oaiuo noii
‘ieaiiauo ieaoaaeae);

4) ca/eneaiea au?o/ee, ieioy ?an/aoiue n/ao, a oiaiueoaiea nnoaeiie
caaeieaeaiiinoe;

5) ion?i/ea iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa;

6) ia?aiin i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia iniaue n/ao “I?in?i/aiiua
e?aaeeou”;

7) nienaiea i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ca n/ao ?aca?aia aaiea e ae?.
Yieciaee/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa ia iniiaa e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a
n?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa) /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony i?e eniieueciaaiee
naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiuo n/aoia, eiaaea aica?ao ca?aiaa i?eo?i/ai e
eaeie-oi ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaoa (eee ?yaeo aeao). I?e ianooieaiee n?iea
iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa, iaicia/aiiiai a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a e/eee n?i/iii
iaycaoaeuenoaa, aaie nienuaaao niioaaonoaothuea noiiu a iiaaoaiea
nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

I?eia?ii iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa ii ia?a oaeoe/aneiai iaeiieaiey nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa e nieaeaiey iio?aaiinoe a caaiiuo n?aaenoaao iiaoo auoue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eniuouaathuea iio?aaiinoue a
e?aaeeoa a nayce n naciiiui oa?aeoa?ii ?aaio. Eae ecaanoii, yoe
i?aaei?eyoey, niaoeeaeece?othueany, iai?eia?, ia au?aueaaiee i?iaeoeoeee
?anoaieaaiaenoaa, aeoeaii eniieuecotho e?aaeeou n ia/aea aiaea a ceiiee
e aanaiiee ia?eiaeu; eae i?aaeei, ia yoii yoaia ia i?ienoiaeeo iiaaoaiea
e?aaeeoa, iii ianooiaao a i?ioeanna nai?a o?iaeay e ?aaeecaoeee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii ia?a iaeiieaiey nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa, iinooieaiey au?o/ee io i?iaeaaee aeaiiay a?oiia caaiueeia
iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue ?ann/eoaoueny n aaieii ii ?aiaa iieo/aiiui
nnoaeai (eiie?aoiua n?iee aica?aoa e?aaeeoa a aeaiiii neo/aa
oeene?othony eee a n?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoaao, iieo/aiiuo io eeeaioa, eee a
e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a).

Iiaeiaiia iiaaoaiea nnoaeu iiaeao ianooieoue e o i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, inouanoaeythuaai naciiiua cao?aou. Ia iiaeaioiaeo e naciio
?aaio ioaeaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey (iai?eia?, naoa?i-iani/iua caaiaeu),
inoaiaaeeaathueany ia ieaiiaue eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio, auioaeaeaiu
ia?auaoueny a aaie ca nnoaeie. A iineaaeothuai, a ia?eiae auoiaea
i?iaeoeoeee aeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue eiiiaine?iaaoue
yoe cao?aou, aeeth/ay eo a naaanoieiinoue ?aaeecoaiiai i?iaeoeoa, e ii
ia?a iaeiieaiey n?aaenoa, iinooieaiey au?o/ee ?ann/eouaaoueny n Aaieii
ii ?aiaa iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoai. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a ca?aiaa
iaoneiaeaiiua n?iee nienuaathony n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa niioaaonoaothuaai
caaiueea.

Nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa ia iniiaa ca?aiaa oeene?oaiuo noii
eiaao ianoi i?e eniieueciaaiee iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiuo nnoaeiuo n/aoia, i?e
aeinoaoi/ii eioaineaiii ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa (i?e nenoaiaoe/aneeo
ieaoaaeao eae ii aeaaaoo nnoaeiiai n/aoa, oae e e?aaeeoo ?an/aoiiai
n/aoa). A yoeo neo/ayo aeey aica?aoa nenoaiaoe/anee iieo/aaiiai e?aaeeoa
i?iecaiaeeony nienaiea n?aaenoa n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa a iiaaoaiea
ia?acothuaeny nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe oaeaea nenoaiaoe/anee a oi?ia oae
iacuaaaiuo ieaiiauo (ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeyaiuo ia eaa?oae eee ianyoe)
ieaoaaeae. Nienaiea yoeo noii n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa iiaeii inouanoaeyoue
(ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe n eeeaioii) aaeaaeiaaii, iaeei ?ac a 3-5 ?aai/eo
aeiae. ?acia? ieaiiaiai ieaoaaea aoaeao caaenaoue io iauaeoa
e?aaeeoiaaiey (e?aaeeooaony, e i?eia?o, oieueei oi?ie?iaaiea caiania
naeueoicnu?uey, eee iaeiia?aiaiii oaeaea iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e
aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey). *ai aieueoa aaie e?aaeeooao iauaeoia
e?aaeeoiaaiey, oai a aieueoae noiia aeieaeii i?iecaiaeeoueny e
nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa a oi?ia ieaiiauo ieaoaaeae. ?acia?
ieaiiaiai ieaoaaea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a.

Ca/eneaiea au?o/ee, ieioy ?an/aoiue n/ao, a oiaiueoaiea nnoaeiie
caaeieaeaiiinoe a ecaanoiie noaiaie yaeyaony aeueoa?iaoeaiui ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaeoanoaothuaio niiniao aica?aoa e?aaeeoa. A ia?aii
neo/aa any au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iinooiaao ia ?an/aoiue
n/ao, e n iaai, eae iu aeaeaee, nenoaiaoe/anee nienuaaeenue noiiu a
iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa. Caeanue any au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee eaeao a iiaaoaiea
nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Iineieueeo i?e aeaiiii iaoiaea e?aaeeoiaaiey
(eniieuecoaony e?aaeeoiaaiea ii iai?ioo e iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiue nnoaeiue
n/ao) aaie ia ana e?aaeeooao, e a ninoaaa au?o/ee niaea?aeaony aeioiaeu,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea eeeaioo, ii ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe n caaiueeii auioaeaeai
aica?auaoue aio /anoue n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiue n/ao (oaeia ia?a/eneaiea ii
aeiaiai?aiiinoe oaeaea iiaeao auoue aaeaaeiaaiui eeai ?ac a 3-5 aeiae).

Ca/eneaiea au?o/ee ia nnoaeiue n/ao eiaao ianoi e i?e eniieueciaaiee
eiioiei??aioa.

A i?aeoeea e?aaeeoiaaiey aeiaieueii /anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue neo/ae,
eiaaea eeeaio ii ?aciiia?aciui i?e/eiai ia iiaeao naiaa?aiaiii iiaaneoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiioth aio nnoaeo. A yoii neo/aa aiciiaeia ion?i/ea aica?aoa
e?aaeeoa. Ion?i/ea aaieii iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaia ia anth noiio
e?aaeeoa, eeai ia aai /anoue, ia 1-3-5 aeiae e aieaa. A iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
i?aeoeea /anoie yaeyaony ion?i/ea ia n?ie io 15 aei 30 aeiae. A
ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea e?aaeeoiaaiey ano?a/aeenue i?eia?u ion?i/ee
aica?aoa e?aaeeoa ia n?ie aei 6 ianyoeaa e aieaa. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a
oneiaeyo neeueiie eioeyoeee noieue aeeeoaeueiua n?iee ion?i/ee
iai?eaieaiu aac eciaiaiey oneiaee e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey.

Ia?aiin i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia iniaue n/ao “I?in?i/aiiua
e?aaeeou” aicieeaao a neo/aa, anee a?aiy ion?i/ee en/a?iaii eee iia
iaaiciiaeia a neeo aania?niaeoeaiinoe a aeeaeaeoea n?iee aica?aoeoue
nnoaeo. Ia?aiin i?in?i/aiiiai aeieaa ia aeaiiue n/ao icia/aao, /oi n
yoiai iiiaioa eeeaio aoaeao ieaoeoue aaieo cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieee
nnoaeiue i?ioeaio.

Nienaiea i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ca n/ao ?aca?aia aaiea
i?iecaiaeeony a neo/aa, eiaaea aeieae eeeaioa ieacaeenue aaciaaeaaeiuie,
eiaaea aaie aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ia iieo/aao ieaoo ca ?aiaa
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua nnoaeu, aea e nai aica?ao ia i?iniao?eaaaony aiana. A
yoii neo/aa nienaiea aeieaia eeeaioa i?iecaiaeeony ca n/ao n?aaenoa
aaiea, aeeoioee?oaiuo a aeaea aai ?aca?aia. Anoanoaaiii, oaeia nienaiea
au?aaeaao i?yiua oauoee aaiea io aai e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

?anniio?aiiua iaie aa?eaiou iiaaoaiey nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe
iicaieytho eeanneoeoee?iaaoue yoio i?ioeann a caaeneiinoe io ?yaea
e?eoa?eaa.

Ii iieiioa aica?aoa

1) Iieiia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

2) *anoe/iia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

Ii /anoioa iiaaoaiey

1) ?aciaia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

2) Iiiai?aciaia iiaaoaiea

Ii a?aiaie inouanoaeaiey iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa

1) Nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

2) Yieciaee/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

Ii n?ieai iiaaoaiey

1) N?i/iia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

2) Ion?i/aiiia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

3) I?in?i/aiiia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

4) Aein?i/iia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa

Ii enoi/ieeai iiaaoaiey

1) Nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa eeeaioa

2) Eniieueciaaiea iiaiai e?aaeeoa

3) Nienaiea n?aaenoa ni n/aoa aa?aioa

4) Iinooieaiea n?aaenoa ni n/aoa ae?oaiai i?aaei?eyoey

5) Athaeaeaoiua iinooieaiey

6) ?aca?au aaiea ia aiciauaiiua iioa?e ii nnoaeai

7) I?iaeaaea caeia e ae?.

Iieiia e ?aciaia noaaoeiue e?aaeeoa i?eiaiyaony aeaaiui ia?acii i?e
iacia/eoaeueiuo noiiao aeieaa, eiaaea nienaiea aeaiaa ni n/aoa eeeaioa
ia aucuaaao ieeaeeo cao?oaeiaiee aeey aai ieaoaaeiiai iai?ioa. Iai?ioea,
/anoe/iia e iiiai?aciaia iiaaoaiea eniieuecoaony a neo/ayo, eiaaea
aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?ano?nia, aeinoaoi/iuo aeey iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa,
i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiii e o?aaoaony a?aiy aeey iieiuo ?an/aoia n aaieii.

Nenoaiaoe/aneia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa aicieeaao a oneiaeyo eioaineaiiai
ieaoaaeiiai iai?ioa eeeaioa, eiaaea eniieuecoaony iai?ioii-ieaoaaeiue
nnoaeiue n/ao. Iii aeinoeaaaony eeai iin?aaenoaii ia?a/eneaiey ia
nnoaeiue n/ao oiiiyioouo ieaiiauo ieaoaaeae, eeai iooai ca/eneaiey anae
au?o/ee a iiaaoaiea nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe (a nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeea
yoio iineaaeiee iaoiae eniieuecoaony ?aaeei). Yieciaee/aneia iiaaoaiea
naienoaaiii e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeaiiui ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaeaaua
ioaeaeu n naeueaeiai-eiiiainaoeeiiiuo n/aoia.

N?i/iia iiaaoaiea, eee iiaaoaiea, ca?aiaa iaoneiaeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiiuie
n?ieaie, i?aeoe/anee iiaeii ano?aoeoue ai anyeeo e?aaeeoao. E yoi ia
neo/aeii, eai nnoaea aicieeaao oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iaoneiaeee n?ie aa
aica?aoa (aeiaaaei: e nnoaeiue i?ioeaio). Eiia/ii, n?ie, ia eioi?ue
i?aaeinoaaeyaony e?aaeeo, iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui (ia ianeieueei aeiae,
aei aiaea e nauoa aiaea), ii a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a oeene?oaony
ii?aaeaeaiiue ii?yaeie ?aaeecaoeee n?i/iinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey.

I?aeoeea ii?iaeaeaao e ae?oaea aa?eaiou iiaaoaiey, eie iiaoo auoue
ion?i/aiiia, i?in?i/aiiia e aein?i/iia iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa. Eeeaio,
aeaeathuee aein?i/ii iiaaneoue nnoaeo, aeieaeai caaeaaia?aiaiii
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aaie i naieo iaia?aieyo n oai, /oiau e?aaeeoiia
o/?aaeaeaiea iiaei “ia?aa?ineoue” e?aaeeo ae?oaiio caaiueeo aac oua?aa
aeey naiae i?eauee. Eae i?aaeei, oaeiai ?iaea iaiai?ea — iaycaiiinoue
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey aaiea ca ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeiae — oeene?oaony a
e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui (e eiia/iui) enoi/ieeii iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa
yaeythony nianoaaiiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa caaiueea, iaeiaei a oeaeii
?yaea neo/aaa eo ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/ii. A oaeeo neo/ayo enoi/ieeii
aica?aoa ?aiaa auaeaiiie nnoaeu iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiea iiaiai
e?aaeeoa, ia i?ieiiaaoeey noa?ie nnoaeu, a auaea/a e?aaeeoa iiae iiaue
iauaeo, ae?oaia iaania/aiea, ae?oaie caeia. Aeiioneaaony ninoaaeaiea
iiaiai e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a n aieueoei iaania/aieai.

Anee caaiuee ia iiaeao iiaaneoue nnoaeo ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa eee
iiaiai e?aaeeoa, oi aaie iiaeao eniieueciaaoue niioaaonoaothuea
iieiaeaiey e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaai aiciiaeiinoue
aica?aoa e?aaeeoa ni n/aoa aa?aioa (aa?aioeeiia iaycaoaeuenoai io
aaiea-aa?aioa iieo/aao a iiiaio iiaeaioiaee e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey).

Caaea?aeea aica?aoa e?aaeeoa iiaeao ianooieoue e a neeo ia caaenyueo io
eeeaioa ianoiyoaeuenoa, a /anoiinoe, ec-ca iaieaoaaeae iieoiaoaeae. Ii
?aoaieth noaea (a?aeo?aaea) niioaaonoaothuea aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo
a iineaaeothuai iinooieoue io i?in?i/aiiuo aeaaeoi?ia — ni n/aoia
ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeiiaoe, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a neo/aa iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ea/anoaa iiaeaea?aeee ei iiaoo
iineoaeeoue niioaaonoaothuea anneaiiaaiey ec athaeaeaoa, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony aeey aica?aoa iieo/aiiuo a aaiea nnoae.

Ioi?ieaiea iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue ia iniiaa
niaoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia e aac ieo. A ea/anoaa aeieoiaioia, aeathueo
iniiaaiea aeey iiaaoaiey aeieaa, iiaoo aunooiaoue ienueiaiiua
?anii?yaeaiey eeeaioa eee ?aiaa ia?aaeaiiua aaieo n?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa, ?anii?yaeaiey naiiai aaiea, auienuaaaiua ia iniiaa
e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey, i?eeacu a?aeo?aaea, noaea. ?anii?yaeaiea eeeaioa
nienaoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa n aai ?an/aoiiai n/aoa a iiaaoaiea
nnoaeiie caaeieaeaiiinoe iiaeao auoue aeaii ia oieueei a ienueiaiiie, ii
e onoiie oi?ia (a yoii neo/aa a ?anii?yaeaiee ioaeaeo, aaaeouaio n/aoa
eeeaioa, aeaeaaony ioiaoea — nnueea ia iieo/aiiia ?anii?yaeaiea
?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoeai). Iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny e
ia aaca aacaoiaaeiie oaoiieiaee — ii eaiaeai nayce.

1.8. NIA?AIAIIUA NIINIAU E?AAeEOIAAIEss

A nia?aiaiiie ?inneeneie i?aeoeea e?aaeeoiaaiey ia auaeaeythony nnoaeu
iiae eiie?aoiue iauaeo e?aaeeoiaaiey (a oii /enea iiae ii?aaeaeaiiua
aeaeu oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e cao?ao). Iiyoiio e?aaeeou,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, oi?aiaua eee iin?aaeie/aneea
oeaee, ia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua eee ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua iia?aoeee, ia
auaeaeythony. Yoi, iaeiaei, ia icia/aao, /oi oaeiai ?iaea e?aaeeou ia
i?aaeinoaaeythony aiana. Nnoaeu ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ?aiaa e
i?aaeinoaaeythony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii eeanneoeoee?othony iie ia ii
iauaio, a ii niiniao auaea/e nnoae, a oaeaea a caaeneiinoe io n?iea
e?aaeeoiaaiey.

A niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie Aaiea ?innee i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoa ia
?aciiia?aciua iio?aaiinoe caaiueeia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny

ianeieueeeie niiniaaie:

• a ?aciaii ii?yaeea;

• iiiai?aciaui niiniaii a ia?o iio?aaiinoe a i?aaeaeao ioe?uaaaiie
caaiueeo eeiee e iaoneiaeaiiiai a e?aaeeoiii niaeaoaiee n?iea
e?aaeeoiaaiey:

• iin?aaenoaii iieaou ?ac?uaa a ieaoaaeiii iai?ioa i?aaei?eyoey a aeaea
aeaaaoiaiai naeueaei ia aai ?an/aoiii (oaeouai, ei??aniiiaeaioneii)
n/aoa;

• ia aaca iauaaeeiaiey e?aaeeoiiai iioaioeeaea ?yaea aaieia
(eiini?oeeaeueiiai e?aaeeoa);

• ae?oaeie niiniaaie.

Auaea/a nnoaeu iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny eae iooai iieaou ca n/ao e?aaeeoa
?acee/iiai ?iaea ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, oae e iooai ca/eneaiey
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiue (oaeouee, ei??aniiiaeaioneee) n/ao.
E?aaeeou th?eaee/aneei eeoeai i?aaeinoaaeythony i?e yoii oieueei a
aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea, oece/aneei eeoeai — a aaciaee/iie e iaee/iie oi?ia
/a?ac eanno aaiea. I?e eciaiaiee oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey aaie-e?aaeeoi? e
eeeaio ninoaaeytho aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea.

Iiaaoaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe ii nnoaea i?iecaiaeeony iooai nienaiey
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa n ?an/aoiiai n/aoa caaiueea eeai ii ieaoaaeiiio
o?aaiaaieth aaiea-e?aaeeoi?a (anee eeeaio ianeoaeeaaaony a ae?oaii
aaiea). Anee ?a/ue eaeao i iiaaoaiee e?aaeeoa oece/aneei eeoeii, oi yoi
iiaaoaiea inouanoaeyaony ia aaca ienueiaiiiai ?anii?yaeaiey oece/aneiai
eeoea, ii/oiaiai ia?aaiaea, aciina ei a eanno aaiea iaee/iuo aeaiaa,
oaea?aeaiey ec ca?ieaou caaiueea, yaeythuaainy nio?oaeieeii aeaiiiai
e?aaeeoiiai o/?aaeaeaiey.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo n?iee e?aaeeoiaaiey i?aaei?eyoee onoaiaaeeaathony
aaieaie a neaaeothueo i?aaeaeao: aei 30 aeiae, io 31 aei 90 aeiae, io 91
aei 180 aeiae, io 181 aeiy aei 1 aiaea, io 1 aiaea aei 3 eao, nauoa 3
eao.

2. NENOAIA IOeAIEE E?AAeEOINIINIAIINOE EEEAIOIA AAIEA

2.1. IIIssOEA E E?EOA?EE E?AAeEOINIINIAIINOE EEEAIOA

E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue eeeaioa eiiia?/aneiai aaiea — niiniaiinoue caaiueea
iieiinoueth e a n?ie ?ann/eoaoueny ii naiei aeieaiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai
(iniiaiiio aeieao e i?ioeaioai).

E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue caaiueea a ioee/ea io aai ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ia
oeene?oao iaieaoaaee ca enoaeoee ia?eiae eee ia eaeoth-eeai aeaoo, a
i?iaiice?oao niiniaiinoue e iiaaoaieth aeieaa ia aeeaeaeooth
ia?niaeoeao. Noaiaiue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe a i?ioeii yaeyaony iaeiei ec
oi?iaeueiuo iieacaoaeae, ia eioi?ua iie?athony i?e ioeaiea
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa. Anee caaiuee eiaao i?in?i/aiioth
caaeieaeaiiinoue, a aaeain eeeaeaeai e aeinoaoi/ai ?acia? nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea, oi ?aciaay caaea?aeea ieaoaaeae aaieo a i?ioeii ia yaeyaony
iniiaaieai aeey caeeth/aiey i iae?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa.
E?aaeeoiniiniaiua eeeaiou ia aeiioneatho aeeeoaeueiuo iaieaoaaeae aaieo,
iinoaaueeai, athaeaeaoo.

O?iaaiue e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i noaiaie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai (/anoiiai) ?enea aaiea, naycaiiiai n auaea/ae
eiie?aoiie nnoaeu eiie?aoiiio caaiueeo.

Ie?iaay e ioa/anoaaiiay aaieianeay i?aeoeea iicaieeea auaeaeeoue
e?eoa?ee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa: oa?aeoa? eeeaioa, niiniaiinoue
caeinoaiaaoue n?aaenoaa, niiniaiinoue ca?aaioaoue n?aaenoaa a oiaea
oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe aeey iiaaoaiey aeieaa (oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe),
eaieoae, iaania/aiea e?aaeeoa, oneiaey, a eioi?uo niaa?oaaony e?aaeeoiay
naeaeea, eiio?ieue (caeiiiaeaoaeueiay iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe caaiueea,
niioaaonoaea oa?aeoa?a nnoaeu noaiaea?oai aaiea e i?aaiia iaaeci?a).

Iiae oa?aeoa?ii eeeaioa iiieiaaony aai ?aiooaoeey eae th?eaee/aneiai
eeoea e ?aiooaoeey iaiaaeaea?ia, noaiaiue ioaaonoaaiiinoe eeeaioa ca
iiaaoaiea aeieaa, /aoeinoue aai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaee e?aaeeoa,
niioaaonoaea aa e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea aaiea. ?aiooaoeey eeeaioa eae
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea neeaaeuaaaony ec aeeeoaeueiinoe aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a aaiiie noa?a, niioaaonoaey yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae
n?aaeiaio?aneaaui, ec aai e?aaeeoiie enoi?ee, ?aiooaoeee a aeaeiaii ie?a
aai ia?oia?ia (iinoaaueeia, iieoiaoaeae, e?aaeeoi?ia). ?aiooaoeey
iaiaaeaea?ia ioeaieaaaony ia iniiaa eo i?ioanneiiaeecia (ia?aciaaiea,
iiuo ?aaiou), ii?aeueiuo ea/anoa, ee/iiai oeiainiaiai e naiaeiiai
iieiaeaiey, ?acoeueoaoia acaeiiioiioaiey ?oeiaiaeeiuo eie no?oeoo? n
aaieii. Aeaaea i?e /aoeii iiieiaiee eeeaioii oeaee eni?aoeaaaiie nnoaeu
auaea/a aa yaeyaony ?eneiaie, anee iia i?ioeai?a/eo ooaa?aeaeaiiie
e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea (iai?eia?, ia?ooaao ooaa?aeaeaiiua eeieou
ioaeaeueiuo naaiaioia e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey).

Niiniaiinoue caeinoaiaaoue n?aaenoaa icia/aao iaee/ea o eeeaioa I?aaa ia
iiaea/o cayaee ia e?aaeeo, iiaeiene e?aaeeoiiai aeiaiai?a eee naaaeaiey
ia?aaiai?ia, o.a. iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieiiii/ee o i?aaenoaaeoaey
i?aaei?eyoey eee oe?i, aeinoeaeaiea niaa?oaiiieaoey eee ae?oaea i?eciaee
aeaaniiniaiinoe caaiueea — oece/aneiai eeoea. Iiaeienaiea aeiaiai?a
iaoiieiiii/aiiui eee iaaeaaniiniaiui eeoeii icia/aao aieueooth
aa?iyoiinoue iioa?ue aeey aaiea.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo e?eoa?eaa e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa yaeyaony aai
niiniaiinoue ca?aaioaoue n?aaenoaa aeey iiaaoaiey aeieaa a oiaea oaeouae
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ecaanoia e ae?oaay iiceoeey, eceiaeaiiay a yeiiiie/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a, eiaaea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue naycuaaaony ni noaiaiueth
aeiaeaiey eaieoaea a iaaeaeaeeiinoue. Iineaaeiaa e yaeyaony oi?iie
caueou io ?enea iaanoeaiaiey n?aaenoa a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, /oi ia
iiaeao yaeyoueny iniiaiui i?eciaeii e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caaiueea. Aeaei
a oii, /oi aeey aunaiaiaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ec iaaeaeaeeiinoe
o?aaoaony a?aiy. Aeiaeaiea n?aaenoa a iaaeaeaeeiinoue naycaii n ?eneii
iaanoeaiaiey aeoeaia. Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia
eeeaeaeiinoue aaeaina, yooaeoeaiinoue (i?eaueueiinoue) aeayoaeueiinoe
caaiueea, aai aeaiaaeiua iioiee.

Eaieoae eeeaioa yaeyaony ia iaiaa aaaeiui e?eoa?eai e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa. I?e yoii aaaeiu neaaeothuea aeaa aniaeoa aai ioeaiee: 1) aai
aeinoaoi/iinoue, eioi?ay aiaeece?oaony ia iniiaa neiaeeaoeony o?aaiaaiee
e ieieiaeueiiio o?iaith onoaaiiai oiiaea (aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea) e
eiyooeoeeaioia oeiainiaiai eaaa?a; 2) noaiaiue aeiaeaiey nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea a e?aaeeooaioth iia?aoeeth, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
?ani?aaeaeaiee ?enea iaaeaeo aaieii e caaiueeii. *ai aieueoa aeiaeaiey
nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, oai aieueoa e caeioa?aniaaiiinoue caaiueea a
ouaoaeueiii ioneaaeeaaiee oaeoi?ia e?aaeeoiiai ?enea.

Iie iaania/aieai e?aaeeoa iiieiaaony noieiinoue aeoeaia caaiueea e
eiie?aoiue aoi?e/iue enoi/iee iiaaoaiey aeieaa (caeia, aa?aioey,
ii?o/eoaeuenoai, no?aoiaaiea), i?aaeoniio?aiiue a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a.
Anee niioiioaiea noieiinoe aeoeaia e aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa eiaao
cia/aiea aeey iiaaoaiey nnoaeu aaiea a neo/aa iauyaeaiey caaiueea
aaie?ioii, oi ea/anoai eiie?aoiiai aoi?e/iiai enoi/ieea aa?aioe?oao
auiieiaiea ei naieo iaycaoaeuenoa a n?ie i?e oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaieyo.
Ea/anoai caeiaa, iaaeaaeiinoue aa?aioa, ii?o/eoaey e no?aoiaaoaey
iniaaiii aaaeiu i?e iaaeinoaoi/iii aeaiaaeiii iioiea o eeeaioa aaiea,
i?iaeaiao n eeeaeaeiinoueth aai aaeaina eee aeinoaoi/iinoueth eaieoaea.

E oneiaeyi, a eioi?uo niaa?oaaony e?aaeeoiay iia?aoeey, ioiinyony
aeaeouay eee i?iaiiciay yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia, ?aaeiia e
io?anee, iieeoe/aneea oaeoi?u. Yoe oneiaey ii?aaeaeytho noaiaiue
aiaoiaai ?enea aaiea e o/eouaathony i?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i noaiaea?oao
aaiea aeey ioeaiee aeaiaaeiiai iioiea, eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina,
aeinoaoi/iinoe eaieoaea, o?iaiy iaiaaeaeiaioa caaiueea.

Iineaaeiee e?eoa?ee — eiio?ieue ca caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie iniiaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe caaiueea e niioaaonoaeai aai noaiaea?oai aaiea
iaoeaeeaaao aaiee?a ia iieo/aiea ioaaoia ia neaaeothuea aii?inu: eiaaony
ee caeiiiaeaoaeueiay e ii?iaoeaiay iniiaa aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
caaiueea e inouanoaeaiey e?aaeeooaiiai ia?ii?eyoey, eae iiaeeyao ia
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe caaiueea iaeeaeaaiia eciaiaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (iai?eia?, iaeiaiaiai), ianeieueei naaaeaiey i
caaiueea e nnoaea, niaea?aeaueany a e?aaeeoiie cayaea, ioaa/atho
noaiaea?oai aaiea, caoeene?iaaiiui a aeieoiaioa i e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea, a
oaeaea noaiaea?oai i?aaiia aaieianeiai iaaeci?a, eiio?iee?othueo
ea/anoai nnoae.

Eceiaeaiiua e?eoa?ee ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa aaiea
ii?aaeaeytho niaea?aeaiea niiniaia aa ioeaiee. E /eneo yoeo niiniaia
ioiinyony:

• ioeaiea aeaeiaiai ?enea; • ioeaiea iaiaaeaeiaioa;

• ioeaiea oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe eeeaioa ia iniiaa nenoaiu oeiainiauo
eiyooeoeeaioia;

• aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea;

• nai? eioi?iaoeee i eeeaioa;

• iaaethaeaiea ca ?aaioie eeeaioa iooai auoiaea ia ianoi.

Ianiio?y ia aaeeinoai e?eoa?eaa e niiniaia ioeaiee, nouanoaoao
niaoeeoeea a aiaeeca e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo
eeoe, e?oiiuo, n?aaeieo e iaeeeo eeeaioia. Yoa niaoeeoeea caeeth/aaony a
eiiaeiaoeee i?eiaiyaiuo niiniaia ioeaiee, a oaeaea a eo niaea?aeaiee.

2.2. E?AAeEOINIINIAIINOUe E?OIIUO E N?AAeIEO I?AAeI?EssOEE

Ioeaiea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoee iniiauaaaony
ia oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo aaeaina, io/aoa i i?eauee, e?aaeeoiie cayaea,
eioi?iaoeee ia enoi?ee eeeaioa e aai iaiaaeaea?ao. A ea/anoaa niiniaia
ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eniieuecothony nenoaia oeiainiauo
eiyooeoeeaioia, aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea, aeaeiaiai ?enea e
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

2.2.1. Oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioia
eiiia?/aneiai aaiea

A ie?iaie e ?inneeneie aaieianeie i?aeoeea eniieuecothony ?acee/iua
oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou aeey ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caaiueea. Eo
auai? ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie eeeaioo?u aaiea, aiciiaeiuie i?e/eiaie
oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee, e?aaeeoiie iieeoeeie aaiea. Ana eniieuecoaiua
eiyooeoeeaiou iiaeii ?acaeoue ia iyoue a?oii:

1. Eiyooeoeeaiou eeeaeaeiinoe:

· eiyooeoeeaiou oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe

· eiyooeoeeaiou auno?ie (iia?aoeaiie) eeeaeaeiinoe

2. Eiyooeoeeaiou yooaeoeaiinoe (iai?a/eaaaiinoe):

· iai?a/eaaaiinoe caiania

· iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe

· iai?a/eaaaiinoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

· iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeoeaia

3. Eiyooeoeeaio oeiainiaiai eaaa?aaea

· niioiioaiea anao aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa (e?aoein?i/iuo e
aeieain?i/iuo) e aeoeaia

· niioiioaiea anao aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea

· niioiioaiea anao aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea

· niioiioaiea anao aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea (aeoeeiia?iue eaieoae – iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau)

· niioiioaiea aeieain?i/iie caaeieaeaiiinoe e oeene?iaaiiuo (iniiaiuo)
aeoeaia

· niioiioaiea nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e aeoeaia

· niioiioaiea iai?ioiiai nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e oaeoueo aeoeaia

4. Eiyooeoeeaiou i?eaueueiinoe:

· eiyooeoeeaio ii?iu i?eaueueiinoe

· eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe

· eiyooeoeeaiou ii?iu i?eauee ia aeoeeth

5. Eiyooeoeeaiou ianeoaeeaaiey aeieaa:

· eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey i?ioeaioa

· eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey oeene?iaaiiuo ieaoaaeae

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaaao, niiniaai ee caaiuee a
i?eioeeia ?ann/eoaoueny ii naiei aeieaiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai.

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao niiinoaaeaiea oaeoueo
aeoeaia, o.a. n?aaenoa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao eeeaio a ?acee/iie oi?ia
(aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue iaooi aeeaeaeoeo
n?ieia iiaaoaiey, noieiinoe caiania oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e
i?i/eo aeoeaia), n oaeoueie ianneaaie, o.a. iaycaoaeuenoaaie aeeaeaeoeo
n?ieia iiaaoaiey (nnoaeu, aeiea iinoaaueeai, ii aaenaeyi, athaeaeaoo,
?aai/ei e neoaeauei). Anee aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aauoatho n?aaenoaa
eeeaioa, iineaaeiee yaeyaony iae?aaeeoiniiniaiui. Ec yoiai auoaeatho e
i?eaaaeaiiua ii?iaoeaiua o?iaie eiyooeoeeaioa. Cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa,
eae i?aaeei, ia aeieaeii auoue iaiaa 1. Eneeth/aiea aeiioneaaony oieueei
aeey eeeaioia aaiea n i/aiue auno?ie iai?a/eaaaiinoueth eaieoaea.

Eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie (iia?aoeaiie) eeeaeaeiinoe eiaao ianeieueei eioth
niuneiaoth iaa?oceo.

Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oo /anoue oaeoueo ianneaia,
eioi?ay ioiineoaeueii auno?i i?aa?auaaony a iaee/iinoue, aioiaoth aeey
iiaaoaiey aeieaa. E eeeaeaeiui aeoeaai a ie?iaie aaieianeie i?aeoeea
ioiinyony aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, a
?inneeneie — oaeaea /anoue auno?i ?aaeecoaiuo caiania.

Iacia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe — i?iaiice?iaaoue
niiniaiinoue caaiueea auno?i aunaiaiaeeoue ec naiaai iai?ioa n?aaenoaa a
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia aeey iiaaoaiey aeieaa aaiea a n?ie.

Eiyooeoeeaiou yooaeoeaiinoe (iai?a/eaaaiinoe) aeiiieiytho ia?aoth a?oiio
eiyooeoeeaioia — iieacaoaeae eeeaeaeiinoe e iicaieytho naeaeaoue aieaa
iainiiaaiiia caeeth/aiea. Iai?eia?, anee iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe ?anooo
ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe e noieiinoe caiania i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii eo caiaaeeaiee, iaeuecy iiauoaoue eeann
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caaiueea. A a?oiio eiyooeoeeaioia yooaeoeaiinoe
aoiaeyo:

· iai?a/eaaaiinoue caiania

· iai?a/eaaaiinoue aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe a aeiyo

· iai?a/eaaaiinoue iniiaiiai eaieoaea (oeene?iaaiiuo aeoeaia)

· iai?a/eaaaiinoue aeoeaia

Eiyooeoeeaiou yooaeoeaiinoe aiaeece?othony a aeeiaieea, a oaeaea
n?aaieaathony n eiyooeoeeaioaie eiieo?e?othueo oe?i e ni
n?aaeiaio?aneaauie iieacaoaeyie.

Iieacaoaee oeiainiaiai eaaa?aaea oa?aeoa?ecotho noaiaiue iaania/aiiinoe
caaiueea nianoaaiiui eaieoaeii.

Aa?eaiou ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia iiaoo auoue ?acee/iua, ii yeiiiie/aneee
niune eo iaeei: ioeaieoue ?acia? nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e noaiaiue
caaeneiinoe eeeaioa io i?eaea/aiiuo ?ano?nia. A ioee/ea io
eiyooeoeeaioia eeeaeaeiinoe i?e ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia oeiainiaiai
eaaa?aaea o/eouaathony ana aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa eeeaioa aaiea
iacaaeneii io eo n?ieia. *ai auoa aeiey i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa
(e?aoein?i/iuo e aeieain?i/iuo) e iaiueoa aeiey nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea,
oai ieaea eeann e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa. Iaeiaei ieii/aoaeueiue
auaiae aeaeaaony oieueei n o/aoii aeeiaieee eiyooeoeeaioia
i?eaueueiinoe.

Eiyooeoeeaiou i?eaueueiinoe oa?aeoa?ecotho yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
anaai eaieoaea, aeeth/ay aai i?eaea/aiioth /anoue. ?aciiaeaeiinoyie yoeo
eiyooeoeeaioia yaeythony:

• eiyooeoeeaiou ii?iu i?eaueueiinoe;

• eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe;

Niiinoaaeaiea o?ao aeaeia eiyooeoeeaioia ?aioaaaeueiinoe iieacuaaao
noaiaiue aeeyiey i?ioeaioia e iaeiaia ia ?aioaaaeueiinoue oe?iu.

• eiyooeoeeaiou ii?iu i?eauee ia aeoeeth:

Anee aeiey i?eauee a au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ?anoao, oaaee/eaaaony
i?eaueueiinoue aeoeaia eee eaieoaea, oi iiaeii ia iiieaeaoue ?aeoeia
eeeaioa aeaaea i?e oooaeoaiee eiyooeoeeaioa oeiainiaiai eaaa?aaea.

Eiyooeoeeaiou ianeoaeeaaiey aeieaa (?uii/iua eiyooeoeeaiou) iieacuaatho,
eaeay /anoue i?eauee iiaeiuaaony i?ioeaioiuie e oeene?iaaiiuie
ieaoaaeaie. Iauay noiia eo ?an/aoa caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai:

Eiie?aoiay iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey /eneeoaey oeacaiiuo eiyooeoeeaioia
caaeneo io oiai, ioiinyony ee i?ioeaioiua eee oeene?iaaiiua ieaoaaee ia
naaanoieiinoue eee oiea/eaathony ec i?eauee.

Iai?eia?, anee i?ioeaiou e eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee ioiinyony ia
naaanoieiinoue, a aeeaeaeaiaeu e i?i/ea oeene?iaaiiua ieaoaaee
oiea/eaathony ec i?eauee, a ?acoeueoaoii oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?e
iaoae nenoaia o/aoa yaeyaony aaeainiaay i?eaueue, oi /eneeoaeue
eiyooeoeeaioa iie?uoey oeene?iaaiiuo ieaoaaeae aoaeao en/eneyoueny
neaaeothuei ia?acii: Aaeainiaay i?eaueue + I?ioeaioiua ieaoaaee +
Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee.

Eiyooeoeeaiou ianeoaeeaaiey aeieaa iieacuaatho, eaeay /anoue i?eauee
eniieuecoaony aeey aiciauaiey i?ioeaioiuo eee anao oeene?iaaiiuo
ieaoaaeae. Iniaia cia/aiea yoe eiyooeoeeaiou eiatho i?e aunieeo oaiiao
eioeyoeee, eiaaea aaee/eia i?ioeaioia oiea/aiiuo iiaeao i?eaeeaeaoueny e
iniiaiiio aeieao eeeaioa eee aeaaea aai i?aauoaoue. *ai aieueoay /anoue
i?eauee iai?aaeyaony ia iie?uoea i?ioeaioia oiea/aiiuo e ae?oaeo
oeene?iaaiiuo ieaoaaeae, oai iaiueoa aa inoaaony aeey iiaaoaiey
aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e iie?uoey ?eneia, o.a. oai ooaea
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue eeeaioa.

Ia?a/eneaiiua oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoueny ia iniiaa
oaeoe/aneeo io/aoiuo aeaiiuo eee i?iaiiciuo aaee/ei ia ieaie?oaiue
ia?eiae. I?e noaaeeueiie yeiiiieea eee ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiii
iieiaeaiee eeeaioa ioeaiea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caaiueea a aoaeouai
iiaeao iie?aoueny ia oaeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee a i?ioeua ia?eiaeu. A
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea oaeea oaeoe/aneea iieacaoaee aa?oony eae ieieioi ca
o?e aiaea. A yoii neo/aa iniiaie ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe yaeythony n?aaeiea ca aiae (eaa?oae, iieoaiaeea,
ianyoe) inoaoee caiania, aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
n?aaenoa a eanna e ia n/aoao a aaiea, ?acia? aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea
(onoaaiiai oiiaea), nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e o.ae.

A oneiaeyo ianoaaeeueiie yeiiiieee (iai?eia?, niaae i?iecaiaenoaa),
aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee oaeoe/aneea iieacaoaee ca i?ioeua ia?eiaeu ia
iiaoo yaeyoueny aaeeinoaaiiie aacie ioeaiee niiniaiinoe eeeaioa
iiaaneoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa, aeeth/ay nnoaeu aaiea, a aoaeouai. A yoii
neo/aa aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoueny eeai i?iaiiciua aeaiiua aeey ?an/aoa
iacaaiiuo eiyooeoeeaioia, eeai ?anniao?eaaaiue niinia ioeaiee
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey (i?aaiecaoeee) aeiiieieony ae?oaeie. E
iineaaeiaio iiaeii ioianoe aiaeec aeaeiaiai ?enea a iiiaio auaea/e
nnoaeu e ioeaieo iaiaaeaeiaioa.

I?e auaea/a nnoae ia ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiua n?iee (aiae e aieaa)
oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii iieo/aiea io eeeaioa, e?iia io/aoa ca i?ioeua
ia?eiaeu, i?iaiiciiai aaeaina, i?iaiica aeioiaea, ?anoiaeia e i?eauee ia
i?aaenoiyuee ia?eiae, niioaaonoaothuee ia?eiaeo auaea/e nnoaeu. I?iaiic
iau/ii iniiauaaaony ia ieaie?iaaiee oaiiia ?inoa (nieaeaiey) au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee e aeaoaeueii iainiiauaaaony eeeaioii.

Iienaiiua oeiainiaua eiyooeoeeaiou e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe ?ann/eouaathony
ia iniiaa n?aaeieo inoaoeia ii aaeainai ia io/aoiua aeaou. Iieacaoaee ia
1-a /enei aeaeaei ia anaaaea io?aaeatho ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea aeae e
ioiineoaeueii eaaei eneaaeathony a io/aoiinoe. Iiyoiio a ie?iaie
aaieianeie i?aeoeea eniieuecoaony aua nenoaia eiyooeoeeaioia,
?ann/eouaaaiuo ia iniiaa n/aoa ?acoeueoaoia. Yoio n/ao niaea?aeeo
io/aoiua iieacaoaee iai?ioia ca ia?eiae. Enoiaeiui iai?ioiui iieacaoaeai
yaeyaony au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee. Iooai eneeth/aiey ec iaa ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia (iaoa?eaeueiuo e o?oaeiauo cao?ao, i?ioeaioia, iaeiaia,
aii?oecaoeee e o.ae.) iieo/atho i?iiaaeooi/iua iieacaoaee e a eiia/iii
eoiaa iieo/atho /enooth i?eaueue ca ia?eiae.

2.2.2. Aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea eae niinia ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
caaiueea

Aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea — niinia ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa
eiiia?/aneiai aaiea, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo eniieueciaaiea oaeoe/aneeo
iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iai?io n?aaenoa o eeeaioa a io/aoiii
ia?eiaea. Yoei iaoiae aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/aaony io iaoiaea ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa ia iniiaa
nenoaiu oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia, ?an/ao eioi?uo no?ieony ia
naeueaeiauo io/aoiuo iieacaoaeyo.

Aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea caeeth/aaony a niiinoaaeaiee iooiea e i?eoiea
n?aaenoa o caaiueea ca ia?eiae, niioaaonoaothuee iau/ii n?ieo
eni?aoeaaaiie nnoaeu. I?e auaea/a nnoaeu ia aiae aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai
iioiea aeaeaaony a aiaeiaii ?ac?aca, ia n?ie aei 90 aeiae — a
eaa?oaeueiii e o.ae.

Yeaiaioaie i?eoiea n?aaenoa ca ia?eiae yaeythony:

• i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay a aeaiiii ia?eiaea;

• aii?oecaoeey, ia/eneaiiay ca ia?eiae;

• aunaiaiaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ec:

a) caiania;

a) aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

a) iniiaiuo oiiaeia;

a) i?i/eo aeoeaia;

• oaaee/aiea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

• ?ino i?i/eo ianneaia;

• oaaee/aiea aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea;

• auaea/a iiauo nnoae.

A ea/anoaa yeaiaioia iooiea n?aaenoa iiaeii auaeaeeoue:

• oieaoo:

a) iaeiaia;

a) i?ioeaioia;

a) aeeaeaeaiaeia;

a) oo?aoia e iaiae;

• aeiiieieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a:

a) caianu;

a) aeaaeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue;

a) i?i/ea aeoeau;

a) iniiaiua oiiaeu;

• nie?auaiea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

• oiaiueoaiea i?i/eo ianneaia;

• iooie aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea;

• iiaaoaiea nnoae.

?acieoea iaaeaeo i?eoieii e iooieii n?aaenoa ii?aaeaeyao aaee/eio iauaai
aeaiaaeiiai iioiea. Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai ia?a/iy yeaiaioia
i?eoiea e iooiea n?aaenoa, eciaiaiea ?acia?a caiania, aeaaeoi?neie e
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, i?i/eo aeoeaia e ianneaia, iniiaiuo
oiiaeia ii-?aciiio aeeyao ia iauee aeaiaaeiue iioie. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
yoiai aeeyiey n?aaieaathony inoaoee ii noaoueyi caiania, aeaaeoi?ia,
e?aaeeoi?ia e o.ae. ia ia/aei e eiiaoe ia?eiaea. ?ino inoaoea caiania,
aeaaeoi?ia e i?i/eo aeoeaia a oa/aiea ia?eiaea icia/aao iooie n?aaenoa e
iieacuaaaony i?e ?an/aoa ni ciaeii “— “, a oiaiueoaiea — i?eoie n?aaenoa
e oeene?oaony ni ciaeii “+”. ?ino e?aaeeoi?ia e i?i/eo ianneaia
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?eoie n?aaenoa (“+”), nieaeaiea — eae iooie (” —
“).

Eiathony iniaaiiinoe a ii?aaeaeaiee i?eoiea e iooiea n?aaenoa a nayce n
eciaiaieai iniiaiuo oiiaeia. O/eouaathony ia oieueei ?ino eee nieaeaiea
noieiinoe eo inoaoea ca ia?eiae, ii e ?acoeueoaou ?aaeecaoeee /anoe
iniiaiuo oiiaeia a oa/aiea ia?eiaea. I?aauoaiea oeaiu ?aaeecaoeee iaae
aaeainiaie ioeaieie ?anniao?eaaaony eae i?eoie n?aaenoa, a ia?aoiay
neooaoeey eae iooie n?aaenoa. I?eoie (iooie) n?aaenoa a nayce n
eciaiaieai noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia = Noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia
eiiaoe ia?eiaea — Noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia ia/aei ia?eiaea +
?acoeueoaou ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo oiiaeia a oa/aiea ia?eiaea.

Iiaeaeue aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea iino?iaia ia a?oiie?iaea yeaiaioia
i?eoiea e iooiea n?aaenoa ii noa?ai oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Yoei
noa?ai a iiaeaee aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea (AAeI) iiaoo
niioaaonoaiaaoue neaaeothuea aeiee:

• oi?aaeaiea i?eaueueth i?aaei?eyoey;

• oi?aaeaiea caianaie e ?an/aoaie;

• oi?aaeaiea oeiainiauie iaycaoaeuenoaaie;

• oi?aaeaiea iaeiaaie e eiaanoeoeeyie;

• oi?aaeaiea niioiioaieai nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e e?aaeeoia.

Iienaiiue iaoiae aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea iacuaaaony einaaiiui, Iauaa
niaea?aeaiea i?yiiai iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai. Iauee
aeaiaaeiue iioie (*enoua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa) = Oaaee/aiea
(oiaiueoaiea) aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe + Oaaee/aiea (oiaiueoaiea)
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa 3 ?acoeueoaoa eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe +
Oaaee/aiea (oiaiueoaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?acoeueoaoa oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. ?an/ao ia?aiai neaaaaiiai: Au?o/ea e ?aaeecaoeee —
Ieaoaaee iinoaaueeai e ia?niiaeo + I?ioeaiou iieo/aiiua — I?ioeaiou
oiea/aiiua — Iaeiae. ?an/ao aoi?iai neaaaaiiai iauaai aeaiaaeiiai
iioiea: Iinooieaiey io i?iaeaaee iniiaiuo aeoeaia — Eaiaeiaeaiey. ?an/ao
o?aoueaai neaaaaiiai: E?aaeeou iieo/aiiua — Iiaaoaiea aeieaiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa + Yienney iaeeaaoeee 1 Yienney aeoeee — Auieaoa
aeeaeaeaiaeia.

Aeey aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea aa?oony aeaiiua eae ieieioi ca o?e
enoaeoea aiaea. Anee eeeaio eiae onoie/eaia i?aauoaiea i?eoiea iaae
iooieii n?aaenoa, oi yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
– e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe. Eieaaaiea aaee/eiu iauaai aeaiaaeiiai iioiea, a
oaeaea e?aoeia?aiaiiia i?aauoaiea iooiea iaae i?eoieii n?aaenoa aiai?eo
i aieaa ieceii ?aeoeiaa eeeaioa ii o?iaith e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe.
Iaeiiaoe, nenoaiaoe/aneia i?aauoaiea iooiea iaae i?eoieii n?aaenoa
oa?aeoa?ecoao eeeaioa eae iae?aaeeoiniiniaiiai. Neiaeeaoayny n?aaeiyy
iieiaeeoaeueiay aaee/eia iauaai aeaiaaeiiai iioiea (i?aauoaiea i?eoiea
iaae iooieii n?aaenoa) iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny eae i?aaeae auaea/e iiauo
nnoae. Oeacaiiia i?aauoaiea iieacuaaao, a eaeii ?acia?a eeeaio iiaeao
iiaaoaoue ca ia?eiae aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa.

Aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i neaauo ianoao
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Iai?eia?, iooie n?aaenoa iiaeao auoue naycai:
oi?aaeaieai caianaie, ?an/aoaie (aeaaeoi?u e e?aaeeoi?u), oeiainiauie
ieaoaaeaie (iaeiae, i?ioeaiou, aeeaeaeaiaeu). Auyaeaiea neaauo iano
iaiaaeaeiaioa eniieuecoaony aeey ?ac?aaioee oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey,
io?aaeaiiuo a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a. Iai?eia?, anee iniiaiui oaeoi?ii
iooiea n?aaenoa yaeyaony eceeoiaa ioaea/aiea n?aaenoa a ?an/aou, oi
“iieiaeeoaeueiui” oneiaeai e?aaeeoiaaiey eeeaioa iiaeao auoue
iiaeaea?aeaiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe a oa/aiea
anaai n?iea iieueciaaiey nnoaeie ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia. I?e oaeii
oaeoi?a iooiea eae iaaeinoaoi/iay aaee/eia aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea a
ea/anoaa oneiaey e?aaeeoiaaiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue niaethaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ii?iaoeaiiai o?iaiy eiyooeoeeaioa oeiainiaiai eaaa?aaea.

Aeey ?aoaiey aii?ina i oeaeaniia?aciinoe e ?acia?a auaea/e nnoaeu ia
ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiue n?ie aiaeec aeaiaaeiiai iioiea aeaeaaony ia
oieueei ia iniiaa oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ca enoaeoea ia?eiaeu, ii e ia
iniiaa i?iaiiciuo aeaiiuo ia ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae. Oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua
eniieuecothony aeey ioeaiee i?iaiiciuo aeaiiuo. A iniiaa i?iaiica
aaee/eiu ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia i?eoiea e iooiea n?aaenoa eaaeeo eo
n?aaeiaa cia/aiea a i?ioeua ia?eiaeu e ieaie?oaiua oaiiu i?e?inoa
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee.

2.2.3. Aiaeec aeaeiaiai ?enea eae niinia ioeaiee e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa

Aeaeiaie ?ene — yoi ?ene, naycaiiue n oai, /oi e?oaiiai?io oiiaeia
Caaiueea iiaeao ia caaa?oeoueny a n?ie e n i?aaeiieaaaaiui yooaeoii.
Oaeoi?aie aeaeiaiai ?enea yaeythony ?acee/iua i?e/eiu, i?eaiaeyuea e
i?a?uaiinoe eee caaea?aeea e?oaiiai?ioa oiiaeia ia ioaeaeueiuo noaaeeyo.
Oaeoi?u aeaeiaiai ?enea iiaeii na?oiie?iaaoue ii noaaeeyi e?oaiiai?ioa.

1 noaaeey — nicaeaiea caiania:

• eiee/anoai iinoaaueeia e eo iaaeaaeiinoue;

• iiuiinoue e ea/anoai neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee;

• niioaaonoaea niiniaa o?ainii?oe?iaee oa?aeoa?o a?oca;

• aeinooiiinoue oeai ia nu?uea e aai o?ainii?oe?iaeo aeey caaiueea;

• eiee/anoai iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo iieoiaoaeai e i?iecaiaeeoaeai nu?uey e
ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae;

• ioaeaeaiiinoue iinoaaueea;

• yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u;

• iiaea ia caeoiaaiia nu?uea e ae?oaea oeaiiinoe;

• oaeoi?u aaethoiiai ?enea;

• iianiinoue aaiaea ia?aie/aiee ia auaic e aaic eiii?oiiai nu?uey. II
noaaeey — noaaeey i?iecaiaenoaa:

• iaee/ea e eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aai/ae neeu;

• aic?ano e iiuiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey;

• caa?oaeaiiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey;

• ninoiyiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee.

III noaaeey — noaaeey nauoa:

• eiee/anoai iieoiaoaeae e eo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue;

• aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiinoue aeaaeoi?ia;

• noaiaiue caueou io iaieaoaaeae iieoiaoaeae;

• i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue caaiueea e aaciaie io?anee ii oa?aeoa?o e?aaeeooaiie
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee;

• noaiaiue eiieo?aioeee a io?anee;

• aeeyiea ia oeaio e?aaeeooaiie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee iauanoaaiiuo
o?aaeeoeee e i?aaeii/oaiee, iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee;

• iaee/ea i?iaeai ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa ia ?uiea aeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee; •
aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u;

• oaeoi?u aaethoiiai ?enea;

• aiciiaeiinoue aaiaea ia?aie/aiee ia auaic ec no?aiu e aaic a ae?oaoth
no?aio i?iaeoeoeee.

E?iia oiai, oaeoi?u ?enea ia noaaeee nauoa iiaoo eiiaeie?iaaoueny ec
oaeoi?ia ia?aie e aoi?ie noaaeee. Iiyoiio aeaeiaie ?ene ia noaaeee nauoa
n/eoaaony aieaa aunieei, /ai ia noaaeee nicaeaiey caiania eee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe aiaeec aeaeiaiai ?enea a iiiaio
auaea/e nnoaeu nouanoaaiii aeiiieiyao ioeaieo e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa ia iniiaa oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia, eioi?ua ?ann/eouaathony ia
iniiaa n?aaeieo oaeoe/aneeo aeaiiuo enoaeoeo io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua oaeoi?u aeaeiaiai ?enea iaycaoaeueii i?eieiathony ai
aieiaiea i?e ?ac?aaioea aaieii noaiaea?oiuo oi?i e?aaeeoiuo cayaie,
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iainiiaaiee aiciiaeiinoe auaea/e nnoaeu.

Ioeaiea aeaeiaiai ?enea eiiia?/aneei aaieii iiaeao oi?iaeeciaaoueny e
i?iaiaeeoueny ii nenoaia nei?eiaa, eiaaea eaaeaeue oaeoi? aeaeiaiai
?enea ioeaieaaaony a aaeeao.

Aiaeiae/iay iiaeaeue ioeaiee aeaeiaiai ?enea i?eiaiyaony e ia iniiaa
ae?oaeo e?eoa?eaa. Aaeeu i?inoaaeythony ii eaaeaeiio e?eoa?eth e
noiie?othony. *ai aieueoa noiia aaeeia, oai iaiueoa ?ene e aieueoa
aa?iyoiinoue caaa?oaiey naeaeee n i?iaiice?oaiui yooaeoii, /oi iicaieeo
caaiueeo a n?ie iiaaneoue naie aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa.

2.2.4. Ii?aaeaeaiea eeanna e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa

Eeann e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony ia aaca iniiaiuo e
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae. Iniiaiua iieacaoaee, aua?aiiua aaieii,
aeieaeiu auoue iaeciaiiu ioiineoaeueii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy. A aeieoiaioa
i e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea aaiea eee ae?oaeo oeene?otho yoe iieacaoaee e eo
ii?iaoeaiua o?iaie. Iineaaeiea auaatho i?eaioe?iaaiu ia ie?iaua
noaiaea?ou, ii yaeythony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie aeey aeaiiiai aaiea e
aeaiiiai ia?eiaea. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe nenoaio
iieacaoaeae, i?eiaiyaoeony iaeiei ec Iueth-Ei?eneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
a na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia.

Iaai? aeiiieieoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae iiaeao ia?aniao?eaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee. A ea/anoaa eo iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue ioeaieo aeaeiaiai ?enea, iaiaaeaeiaioa, aeeeoaeueiinoue
i?in?i/aiiie Caaeieaeaiiinoe aaieo, iieacaoaee, ?ann/eoaiiua ia iniiaa
n/aoa ?acoeueoaoia, ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca aaeaina e o. ae.

Eeann e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa ii?aaeaeyaony ia aaca iniiaiuo
iieacaoaeae e ei??aeoe?oaony n o/aoii aeiiieieoaeueiuo.

Eeann e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe ii o?iaith iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae iiaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny ii aaeeueiie oeaea. Aeey ?an/aoa aaeeia eniieuecoaony
eeann iieacaoaey, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony iooai niiinoaaeaiey oaeoe/aneiai
cia/aiey n ii?iaoeaii, a oaeaea cia/eiinoue (?aeoeia) iieacaoaey.

?aeoeia, eee cia/eiinoue, iieacaoaey ii?aaeaeyaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueii aeey
eaaeaeie a?oiiu caaiueeia a caaeneiinoe io iieeoeee aeaiiiai
eiiia?/aneiai aaiea, iniaaiiinoae eeeaioa, eeeaeaeiinoe eo aaeaina,
iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea. Iai?eia?, aunieay aeiey e?aoein?i/iuo ?ano?nia,
iaee/ea i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii nnoaeai e iaieaoaaeae
iinoaaueeai iiauoatho ?ieue eiyooeoeeaioa auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe, eioi?ue
ioeaieaaao niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey e iia?aoeaiiio aunaiaiaeaeaieth
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Aoyaeaaiea ?ano?nia aaiea a e?aaeeoiaaiea
iinoiyiiuo caiania, caieaeaiiinoue ?acia?a nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
iiauoaao ?aeoeia iieacaoaey oeiainiaiai eaaa?aaea. Ia?ooaiea
yeiiiie/aneeo a?aieoe e?aaeeoa, “cae?aaeeoiaaiiinoue” eeeaioia
auaeaeaatho ia ia?aia ianoi i?e ioeaiea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe o?iaaiue
eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe.

Iauay ioeaiea e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe aeaaony a aaeeao. Aaeeu i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie noiio i?iecaaaeaiee ?aeoeiaa eaaeaeiai iieacaoaey ia eeann
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe.

Ei??aeoe?iaea eeanna e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ieioea
aeiiieieoaeueiua iieacaoaee iiaoo iiieceoue eeann, a oaeaea iiauneoue.

Iaeeiaeiaue o?iaaiue iieacaoaeae e ?aeoeia a aaeeao iiaoo auoue
iaania/aiu ca n/ao ?aciuo oaeoi?ia, iaeie ec eioi?uo naycaiu n
iiceoeaiuie i?ioeannaie, a ae?oaea n iaaaoeaiuie. Iiyoiio aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey eeanna aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oaeoi?iue aiaeec
eiyooeoeeaioia e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe, aiaeec aaeaina, eco/aiea iieiaeaiey
aeae a io?anee eee ?aaeiia.

2.3. IOeAIEA E?AAeEOINIINIAIINOE IAEEEO I?AAeI?EssOEE

E?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny oaeei aea
ia?acii, eae e niiniaiinoue e iiaaoaieth aeieaa o e?oiiuo e n?aaeieo
caaiueeia — ia iniiaa oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe,
aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea e ioeaiee aeaeiaiai ?enea.

Iaeiaei eniieueciaaiea aaieii oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia e iaoiaea
aiaeeca aeaiaaeiiai iioiea cao?oaeiaii ec-ca ninoiyiey o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe o yoeo eeeaioia aaiea. O ca?oaaaeiuo e ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana, eae i?aaeei, iao eeoeaice?iaaiiiai
aooaaeoa?a. E?iia oiai, ?anoiaeu ia aoaeeoi?neoth i?iaa?eo aeey yoeo
eeeaioia aaiea iaaeinooiiu. Iiyoiio ionoonoaoao aoaeeoi?neia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea io/aoa caaiueea. A nayce n yoeie i?e/eiaie ioeaiea
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe eeeaioa iniiauaaaony ia ia aai oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe, a ia ee/iii ciaiee ?aaioieeii aaiea aeciana aeaiiiai
eeeaioa. Iineaaeiaa i?aaeiieaaaao iinoiyiiua eiioaeou n eeeaioii: ee/iia
eioa?aueth n eeeaioii, ?aaoey?iia iinauaiea aai i?aaei?eyoey.

A oiaea ee/iiai eioa?aueth n ?oeiaiaeeoaeai iaeeiai i?aaei?eyoey
auyniythony oeaeue nnoaeu, enoi/iee e n?ie aica?aoa aeieaa. Eeeaio
aeieaeai aeieacaoue, /oi e?aaeeooaiua caianu e ii?aaeaeaiiiio n?ieo
niecyony, a e?aaeeooaiua cao?aou aoaeoo nienaiu ia naaanoieiinoue
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey /anoiai iinauaiey i?aaei?eyoey aaie
e?aaeeooao oieueei aeeceaaeauea oe?iu.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue aua iaeio iniaaiiinoue iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee —
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie e ?aaioieeaie eo ia?aaeei yaeythony /eaiu iaeiie naiuee
eee ?iaenoaaiieee. Iiyoiio aiciiaeii niaoaiea ee/iiai eaieoaea
aeaaeaeueoea n eaieoaeii i?aaei?eyoey. Ec yoiai auoaeaao neaaeothuay
iniaaiiinoue a i?aaiecaoeee e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee aaiea n i?aaei?eyoeyie
iaeiai Aeciana ca ?oaaaeii (NOA): iiaaoaiea nnoaeu aa?aioe?oaony
aeaaeaeueoeai, eiaiii aai eiouanoaii. Ii a nayce n yoei i?e ioeaiea
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe iaeeiai eeeaioa o/eouaaaony oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea
aeaaeaeueoea. Iineaaeiaa ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa ee/iiai oeiainiaiai
io/aoa.

Oi?ia ee/iiai oeiainiaiai io/aoa niaea?aeeo naaaeaiey ia aeoeaao e
ianneaao oece/aneiai eeoea. I?e yoii auaeaeythony caeiaeaiiua aeoeau e
iaania/aiiua ianneau. E aeoeaai ioiinyony iaee/iua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa,
aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee, aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ?iaenoaaiieeia,
ae?ocae e ae?oaeo eeoe, iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai, aueoiiay noieiinoue
no?aoiaaiey aeecie e ae?. Ianneau neeaaeuaathony ec aeieaia aaieai,
?iaenoaaiieeai e ae?oaei eeoeai, caaeieaeaiiinoe ii n/aoai e iaeiaai,
noieiinoe caeiaeaiiiai eiouanoaa, ieaoaaeae ii eiio?aeoai, e?aaeeoia,
eniieueciaaiiuo aeey no?aoiauo ieaoaaeae e ae?. Aeey aieaa aeaoaeueiiai
aiaeeca aeaaony ?anoeo?iaea ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia aeoeaia e ianneaia
oece/aneiai eeoea.

Oaeei ia?acii, nenoaia ioeaiee aaieii e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe iaeeeo
caaiueeia neeaaeuaaaony ec neaaeothueo yeaiaioia:

1. Ioeaiea aeaeiaiai ?enea.

2. Iaaethaeaiea ca ?aaioie eeeaioa.

3. Ee/iua niaanaaeiaaiey aaiee?a n aeaaeaeueoeai i?aaei?eyoey. 4.
Ioeaiea ee/iiai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey aeaaeaeueoea.

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