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MIHICTEPCTBO INA?OE I IAOEE OE?A?IE OA?E?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE
OI?AA?NEOAO ?I.A.I. KAPA3IHA

Eaoaae?a aeo?iae?noeee

AEo?iae “Ie?iee o?oae” ye c?acie /i?iinioaiii? aeo?iae?noeee

?aoa?ao nooaeaioee

/aoaa?oiai eo?no o?eieia?/iiai

oaeoeueoaoo (niaoe?aeuei?noue —

aeo?iae?noeea)

?aaiiai? I.I.

Aeeeaaea/ – I.Ae. Oa?iee

Oa?e?a 2008

AEo?iae “Ie?iee o?oae” ye c?acie /i?iinioaiii? aeo?iae?noeee

Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i (1867-1919) – i?ioani? Oa?uee?anueeiai
Oi?aa?neoaoo c eaoaae?e caaaeueii? ?noi???. O 1902 ?. Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/
Ayc?a?i ye ?aaeaeoi? canioaaa aeo?iae “Ie?iee o?oae”. AEo?iae
eaae?o?eoaaany ye iaoeiai-e?oa?aoo?ia ? a?iiaaenueea aeaeaiiy. AEo?iae
iaa iiceoe?th, nii??aeiaio c? neia’yiio?euenoaii. Ia?iaei?noue ?aae?co?
naaa a iia?, a aac ia? iaia ieneaiiy ? oai?/ino?. ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai
?in. iaoe?iiae?cio e aoei i?enay/aii /aniien.

E?ioeaa? iane?aeee ?aaiethoe?e iieacaee, ui aiie ia i?eaiaeeee aei
iinoaaeaiieo ?aeaaeueieo oe?eae, eeoa ?oeioaaee noni?euenoai.

Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i aaaaeaa, ui iaoa A?o/ecia iio?aao? ne?iiieo
o?oae?aiee?a, ui ?iaeyoue naith “iaeaiueeo ni?aao” ca?aaee i?aeianaiiy
caaaeueiiai eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy. Oiio iaeaooi?e ?aaiethoe??, iaaeeaeaiiy
yei? aaea a?ae/oaaeiny, Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i i?ioenoaaea ie?iee
o?oae.

AEo?iae “Ie?iee o?oae” iiceoe?iioaaa naaa ye iiceiaee oeaio?
/i?iinioainoaa. O iueiio aoea ?ic?iaeaia ?aeaieia?y oeueiai ?ooo, yeith
a?i ei?enoo?oueny e iei?. A iniia? ?? caeeaaeaii aeoieo i?i oa, ui
i?aeei?ai? ?in??th ia?iaee, aeeth/ai? aei neeaaeo ?iia??? c? nai?ie
caieyie, ionyoue ?ic/eieoeny na?aae aaeeei?in?a ? ia iiaeii? e i??yoe i?
i?i ye? aeaiaioe aaoiiii??, ai ?in?enueeee ia?iae ? ?aeeiei ainiiaea?ai
o nai?e aea?aeaa?.

Oe?a?ioe?a ? a?ei?on?a ia iiaeia aeciaoe ie?aieie ia?iaeaie, oiio ui
oiae? ?in?yie caeeoaoueny a iaioino? a ?in?? ? c’yaeyoueny caeiii?
i?aenoaae aeey e?ea?aeaoe?? ?iia???.

O aeo?iae? aeiiooaaeany ?aeay na?oiaiai iaioaaiiy ?in??, aeoiaeo ?? aei
“na?oiaiai a?eueiiai ieaaio”; i?iaieiooaaeany iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaoe
ca?ith aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe. Ianeeueieoeueeeie iaoiaeaie iiaeiia
cai?iaaaeaeoaaoeny aaeeei?onueea aaaaiii?y e ona?aaeei? e?a?ie.

Aioenai?oeci noaa iniaeeaith oaiith, yeith aeo?iae caeiaany iino?eii.
Ioioiaeithth/e iiiyooy ?aaiethoe?eiino? ? ?a?aenoaa, “Ie?iee o?oae”
iaiaaaany cai?iaaaeeoe a noni?eueio na?aeii?noue aeoieo, ui
?aaiethoe?ei?noue ? ai?iaeith iaoe?iiaeuei?e na?aeiiino? e ineoieia??
?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo, yeee ca aieiaio ?aeath naiai ?noi?e/iiai aoooy ia?
a??iii?aeaeainoai oea?ecio, a an? ?aaie. caai?ooaiiy ? ni?aaith
?a?aenueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie. *aniien an?eyei e?eoeeoaaa ?
aee?eaaa ?a?aenoai, aae aei i?iaieioaiiy oe?eeii aano?aeieo ?aeae
na?oiai? ?a?aenueei? ciiae, caoiieaiiy ?a?ayie na?oiaiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
?eieo, aenaeaiiy ?a?a?a c ?in??, oi/a a ? eiooii naieo ?in?yi.

“Ie?iee o?oae” iaaeaaaa nai? noi??iee a?aeiiei /i?iinioaiiei
ioae?oeenoai A. Io?eoeaae/o, A. Ooeuea?io, A. Oa/eiao.

Aieiaiee i?ica?e aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee o?oae” — e?aea? ?in?enueeeo
iaoe?iiae?no?a Aaneeue Ooeuea?i. Iia?noue “?a?aeea. Noi??iea c ?noi???
iaoeo aei?a” ?iciia?aea? i?i ae?oaeao Aai? ?aaiiaa e Ai?? Aaeaeueiaia.
Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ?icaaea ?o o ??ci? ?aeaieia?/i? oaai?e. Oiio ?aaiia
aenooiea o aacao? c a??oiaaiei /i?iinioaiiei ianea?eai, ni?yiiaaiei
i?ioe ?a?a?a. sse ?a?aeea iai? Aaeaeueiai ?icoi?ea i?aaioo ?aaiiaa. Aiia
a?ae/oaaea i?ece?noai aei aeeae?a. Aieiaia ?aeay iia?no? – uia an?
iiethaeee ?in?th. ?aeaieia?y iia?no?: ? iaee?aua /anoeia ?a?aenoaa, yea
aieno?oueny a ?in?enueea aea?aeaaia aeeooy, aea ?o – iaeeieoe?, ? aiie
ia ciiaeooue iiaanoe ca niaith iano iaeiiieai?iiee?a, ye? oi/ooue
cieueoe ?in?th.

A iiia?aeaii? “Iia?ii” A. Ooeuea?i caeiya iiceoe?th ia?eoeaiiai,
aacnoi?iiiueiai niinoa??aa/a, aeo?iae?noaoa, yeee iieno?, a ia eiiaioo?
iiaa/aia.

Iiac?y /aniieno – ?eiiaaia ioae?oeenoeea.

A??o E. Eieia?eaiai? “?in?y aeey ?in?yi” – ia?ac aoae?aieoeoaa
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae.

Ia?oee ia??iae a ?noi??? aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee o?oae” oa ianooii?
o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Ia?oee ia??iae. O 1902 ?. aeeoei 4 /enea aeo?iaeo, ia ii/aoeo 1903 ?. –
5-oa /enei. I?iaieioaia Ayc?a?iei i?ia?aia aeicaieeea caeo/eoe aei
o/ano? o aeaeaii? oi?aa?neoaonuee? neee Oa?eiaa.

I?ioani? I.A. A?ooo?i aenooiea aeaeaaoeai aeo?iaeo ? iaaeaa aeey
?aaeaeoe?? i?ei?uaiiy o aeaniiio aoaeeieo.

O Ia?oiio ia??iae? cyaeeiny aaaaoi aa?o?nieo iaoa??ae?ae?a o iaoeiaiio
a?aeae?e? aeo?iaeo i?ioani?a Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.O. Noioeiaa
(“A?aeiioaiiy A.A. AEoeianueeiai aei A.O. Ea?oee, O.A. Oaa/aiea”), N.A.
Nieiaeiaa, ?.A. Iaooo?ea, ?.E. ?aae?ia (“?noi??y ienoaoea oa ?in. ooae.
noa?iaeeoiino?”) oa ?i.

E?oa?aoo?iee a?aeae?e oi?ioaaa A.?. Oa?oe??a. A?i ia?aeeaa c iieuenueei?
oa??, yeee ae?oeoaaany i’youe iiia??a iini?eue (iia?oue Eeaiaina THiio?
“*i?ia Aieioi”).

A aeo?iae? a?ae/oaaany eoeueo I.I. Iioaai?. Eiai a/aiiy i?i ca’ycie
ia?iaeiino?, iiae e ieneaiiy a?aeiia?aeaei ?aeaieia?/iiio iai?yieo
aeo?iaea. Aaaeeeaa i?noea caeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiy A.?. Oa?oe??aa “O/aiiy
I.I. Iioaai? i?i ia?iaei?noue ? iaoe?iiae?ci”, a yeiio aiai?eeiny, ui
ia?iae iiaeia oyaeyoe iaei??th ethaenueeith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noth. Aea
ie?aia ethaeeia neeueia nai?i cayceii ?c oe?eei nai?? iaoe??, aaeaea
iiaa – cia?yaeaey noai?aiiy aeoiee.

Ca A.?. Oa?oe??aei, I.I. Iioaaiy – caiaeeee neiayiio?e, yeee caia?a/oaaa
cani?/aiiy ?in?enueei? ia?iaeii? na?aeiiino? cao?aeieie aieeaaie.
Iniaeeai i?ioanooaaa A.?. Oa?oe??a i?ioe a/aiiy I.I. Iioaai? i?i
iaoe?iiaeueia naiiaoanoai ai ?iy eeaniai? ai?ioueae.

Aaaeeeaith aeey “Ie?iiai o?oaea” aoea noaooy O.A. Eaoiainueeiai
“Niiaaaee i?i i?ioani?a Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.I. Iioaaith”.

O?ii?ea iiaeaaaea a?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoa oa
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Iaea?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue “?onneiio
nia?aieth”, “Ie?iee o?oae” iiaeaaaa iaeyaee i?i/eoaieo o iueiio
aeiiia?aeae.

O iyoiio iiia?? aeeoei iia?aeiieaiiy (i?ae inaaaeii?i A. Eaoo — Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i), ui 15 a?oaeiy 1902 ?. Iaoa?ao?cueea “?onneia
nia?aiea” ooaaeeei eeiiioaiiy i?i a?aee?eooy nai?o a?aeae?e?a a ?ioeo
i?noao ?in??.

A ?aaeaeoe?ei?e noaoo? “I?aenoiee ia?oiai ?ieo” Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/
Ayc?a?i ienaa, ui iaaaeeeee ao?oie iiai?iee?a ?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea? ?ic??nny a Oa?eia?, caaaeyee /iio aeo?iae ci?oei?a ? aeeoei ia 20
ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a a?eueoa iaoa??ae?a, i?ae ieaioaaeiny. Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i iaieinea i?i ia?aianaiiy i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeaeaiiy
“Ie?iiai o?oaea” ia 1 n?/iy 1904 ?.

“Ie?iee o?oae” aeiiii?a Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i cao?ooaaoe
iaeiiaeoioe?a, oiane?aeie /iai a 1903 ?. a?i canioaaa oa?e?anueeee
a?aeae?e “?onneiai nia?aiey”.

Ae?oaee ia??iae. Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i caeeeeaa cao?ooaaoeny
iaaeiei oea?y-aaothoee ia?aae yce/ieoeueeith yiiinueeith caa?icith
(noaooa ?ieneiia Noaoaia “I?ia?aeaioe?ei? caaaeaiiy ? e?ioeaa? oe?e?
?in??”).

?ieneii ?icaeaaa a i?e ?aeath ?in?enueeiai ian?ai?cio. Caaaeaiiy ?in?? –
i?ioenoiyoe ionoeueiainoao ? yce/ieoeoao, i?eaanoe aei O?enoa “ia?iaee,
ui ia a?aeathoue ?noeiiiai Aiaa, — Eeoae, Ia?n?th, Aoaai?noai, ?iae?th”.
“E?ioeaaith iaoith” ?in?? iaieiooaaeiny anoaiiaeaiiy na?oiaiai iaioaaiiy
e iaa?iaiiy anueiai ethaenoaa a i?aaineaaio a??o.

Aieiaiith ?ioi?iaoe?eiith eaiiai??th Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?ia noaea
a?eia c a?eueiiaeoinoaii a oi?aa?neoaoao, iin?yie yeiai aoee a/i?aoi?
ni?a?ia?oieee /aniieno. O noaoo? “Iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoai?aiue” Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui “aeeeaaeaiiy iinoaaeaia
iai?aaeeueii ? aaaeaoueny iaeiina?/aieie a/eoaeyie”, ui “aeeo/aiiy
e?oa?e “youe” i?eiana oeiaeo”. Aaoi? i?iiiioaaa “cina?aaeeoe an? iiienee
ia noai?aiiy ?in?enueei? oeiee”. I?ci?oa a?i iacaaa oeae i?ioean
“iaoe?iiae?caoe?y ?in?enueei? oeiee”. Ca Aiae???i Na?a?eiae/ai Ayc?a?iei
o I?i?noa?noa? Ia?iaeii? Ina?oe ia a?ae/oaaany aea?aeaaiee aieea, aea
ianoaa /an eiai caaania/eoe.

O noaoo? “Iiiaeaiiy” A.N. Ayc?a?i aeiiinea Aeuiio Ia/aeuenoao, ui
“aeaeio?? “aeoiaaoae?” caeiaeeny i?aeaioiaeith iaeaooi?o ai?oe?a ca
aecaieaiiy, i?iiia?aeoaaee einiiiie?oe/io ? nioe?ae?noe/io iay/ith”. A?i
i?iiiioaaa i/enoeoe oeieo a?ae oaeeo “ia/aeueiee?a”.

Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a aeo?iae? — oe?a?ioe? ni?eeiaeeny ye /anoeia
?aeeiiai ?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo. AEo?iae ?aii?oaaa iayai?noue oe?a?inueei?
iaoee, e?oa?aoo?e, oaao?o.

A noaoo? iineianueeiai ?noi?eea I.I. Iaaeiaa “O/aia i?aoey iaia
i?ioani?a A?ooaanueeiai: Ia?en ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”.
Neiayinuee? ia?iaee ieneyoueny ye i?noeaa? neeaaeia? ?aeeiiai
?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo. Oioee, caiaaiy? a?i, i?eiee ia oai?eee ?in?enueeo
?noi??th, aiie oa?oiaeeee a ia?. Oey iao?eeaa iay/iy ae?oeoaaeany ye
iaoeiaa e?eoeea. Oaeei /eiii, “Ie?iee o?oae” iaieinea ia?nioth/eie an?
no?aeiineiayinuee? iiae.

O aaeao?enoe/iiio a?aeae?e? “Ie?iiai o?oaea” A.N. Ayc?a?i iaae?oeoaaa
?iiai eiycy Ae.I. Aie?oeeia “Ia ?on?”.

Aeaeaaaoeue ? ?aaeaeoi? aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee o?oae” A.N. Ayc?a?i

O 1902 ?.A.N. Ayc?a?i ye ?aaeaeoi? canioaaa aeo?iae “Ie?iee o?oae”, yeee
aoa i?enay/aii ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai ?in?enueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio.

Iia?e?coth/e an? neee aeey ai?ioueae c ?aaiethoe??th A.N. Ayc?a?i
i?aai?coaaa ia?aeeaae aeey “Ie?iiai o?oaea” i?aoe? ?iieeoa Oaia “?noi??y
o?aioeocueei? ?aaiethoe??”, yea aeiaiaeeea caoai?noue ? aacie?aei?noue
?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aai?io?a.

O 1906 ?.A.N. Ayc?a?i noai?ea ae?oea?ith aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee o?oae”. A
eieaeeao i?ioe?aaiethoe?eiiai ci?noo, ye? i?iaeaaaeeny ?aaeaeoe??th
aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee o?oae”, i?noeeeny i?ia?aei? noaoo? aeo?iaeo “Ie?iee
o?oae”, ioi?ieai? ye a?ioo?e. Iacaaa?ii ?aaeaeoe?y io?eiaea no?eueee
caiiaeaiue ia aaceiooiaio iinoaaeo aeaeaii? iath e?oa?aoo?e, ui Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i aoa ciooaiee ai?noeoe iaieioaiiy: ?aaeaeoe?y ia ia?
iiaeeeaino? aaceiooiaii iaaeneeaoe e?oa?aoo?o. Caeeeeaa ?iaeoe
aeia?ia?euei? iiaea?oae. Iacaaa “I?i?inueea eii?eea”. Aea caanaiiy
?aaiethoe?? aeeeeeaei ??cea nei?i/aiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae iiaea?oa.A.N.
Ayc?a?i o anyeee niin?a iaiaaaany i?eoiaaoe iaae?iiy “iao??ioecio”.

Aeieeee o?oaeiiu? c iaaeoiaeaeaaiiyi iaoa??aeo.A.N. Ayc?a?i nei?ioea
aeione aeo?iaeo (iiyaeeeny nia?ai? /enea), caiiaithaaa aeo?iae oe?eaaeie
ia?aeeaaeaieie oai?aie.A.N. Ayc?a?i nai aoa ciooaiee caeiyoeny
ia?aeeaaeaoeoaii. Ca i?aeienii “ia?aeeaae A.A. ” iioae?eoaaa ?iiai
o?aioeocueei? ienueiaiieoe? ia?e?ce aea Iiioaaan-Naa?ai “Nayuaiiee”.
Iaeiei ?c niinia?a iiaeieiiiy e?ece aeo?iaeo noaei cai?ioaiiy aei o/ano?
a iueiio oe?ieeo e?e aeoo?aieoeoaa.

Aei ioae?oeenoeee iaeaaeaea noaooy ?aaeaeoi?a Ayc?a?ia “Iniaeeaa aeoiea
i?i aoaioaaiiy O.A. Oaa/aiea”, aea a?i ii/aa c oiai, ui c aeeoeinoaa
aeia?a ciaeiiee c “Eiaca?ai”, a cae?i/o? oaa?aeaeaiiyi i?i
iaiiaeeea?noue aei oaiiaeeaiai noaaeaiiy aei Oaa/aiea. Ia aeoieo A.N.
Ayc?a?ia, Oaa/aiei i?ae?eaa? aieiai? canaaee o?enoeyinoaa. Oey noaooy
aoea ?aeeiei a?aeaoeii a “Ie?iiio o?oae?” ia oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o,
oe?eeii aeaianeoaaea /i?iinioaiio ?aeaieia?th /aniieno ? iineoaeeea
i?aenoaaith aeey caai?iie nayoeoaaoe tha?eae noie?oi?o ?ieiaei Oaa/aiea.

Ia oaee? ?icaoeo ?aaeoe?? Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i aoa ia?aiee
aeaiooaoii aei O?aouei? Aea?aeaaii? Aeoie. Aea aaoi?eoao /i?ii? nioi? a
?in?? oaeaeei iaaeaa. Ia ianooiiee oa?i?i Ayc?a?i aaea ia?aiee ia aoa.
A?i ?icoi?a, ui c iie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth i?eoiaeeoueny i?iuaoeny, a
aeo?iae? “Ie?iee o?oae” iiaeaa ioae?eaoe?th “Aeoinuee? aenooie A.N.
Ayc?a?ia”. Ooo a?i i?iiiioaaa /eoa/ai ia?aae?oee c? ca?o?a can?aeaiue
Aea?aeaaii? Aeoie o?aoueiai neeeeaiiy, ca?aeee aea?aa nai? aenooie.

Noaooy A. TH?nueeiai “I?aa? o O?ao?e Aeoi?”: ai?ioueaa o?aeoe?? A.N.
Ayc?a?ia i?ioe aoaeue-yeeo ci?i o aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/i?e nenoai? ?in??.

Iicaaaeaiee o?yaeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy “Ie?iee o?oae” caaeioa iai?ee?ioe?
1914 ?. Eenoiiaaeiaa /enei i?noeei iaieioaiiy: “O cayceo c oai?iaith
?aaeaeoi?a ia?aaeieaoa ia 1915 ?. a?aee?eoa ia aoaea”. Oae Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i aei?aaaeaa nai? aaaeaiiy i?eieieoe aeaeaiiy aeo?iaeo.

AEeooy Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i caaa?oeeiny o?aa?/ii: a?i aoa
?icno??eyiee i?aaiaie *E a /a?ai? 1919 ?.

Aeniiaee

“Ie?iee o?oae”, iacaaaeath/e ia naith /i?iinioaiio i?ia?aio, aoa
?noioiei ?ioi?iaoe?eiei i?iaeoii o Oa?eia?:

1) ye o?eueee aeo?iae aoei iic?oe?iiiaaii ye /i?iinioaiiee, Aiae??e
Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i caeeoeany a a?iiaaenuee?e ?cieyoe?? c iaaaeeeei
ao?oii iaeiiaeoioe?a;

2) Aiae??e Na?a?eiae/ Ayc?a?i aeiaiaeeeiny caeo/aoe ienueiaiieoeuee? e
ioae?oeenoe/i? neee c iaio noieeoeue e ?aa?ii?a ?in??;

3) aecia/eaoe nia? ?ieue oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaiee?a ?aeaieia?? ?in?enueeiai
iiia?o?cio, oa?e?anuee? /i?iinioaioe? ia aeiionoeee a Oa?e?a
aioe?a?aenueeeo iia?ii?a;

4) nie?ath/enue ia o?yaeiao o?iainiao i?aeo?eieo, “Ie?iee o?oae” i?ia?aa
o eiieo?aioe?? c aeaiie?aoe/iith aeo?iae?noeeith;

5) ii?acea aeo?iaeo aoea coiiaeaia eiai aioeoe?a?inueeith iiceoe??th.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a

1. *??y ??y. E?????y y?????y 1900-1917. I?. ???? I.A. I???a.I., E??+,
E???o ???e ?????e, 2008.

2. E. I???i. E??ey ?????? O????? ????. — 2007.

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