AIEEA AAOUeEIANUeEI? NII’? IA OI?IOAAIIss IIAeAEI

OETHAO O NO*ANII? IIEIAeI.

Inoaii?i /anii cia/ii c?inea oaaaa aei i?iaeai oethao i nii’?. Aenieee
?iaaiue ?iceo/aiue, iniaeeai na?aae iieiaeeo niiae, iiaeaeuea iioa?an
aei aeineiaeaeaiiy i???ioaoe?? iieiaei aiaeiinii oethao i nii’?, a a
ca’yceo c oeei i aei i?iaeai iiaeaioiaee aei oethao-niiaeieo aiaeiinei.
Ae?ioaiiy oaeeo i?iaeai caeaaeeoue aiae aaaaoueio oaeoi?ia, na?aae yeeo
iniaeeaa iinoea caeiathoue ineoieiai/ii. Ineoieiai/ia aioiaiinoue aei
oethao i niiaeiiai aeeooy — aaaaoianiaeoia i?iaeaia, yea aeeth/a? a naaa
ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ineoieiai/ii? noaoi iniaenoinoi, ?? ?icaeoie,
iaieiaeiiiy noa?aioeiaie /ieiai/i? i aeiii/i? iiaaaeiiee. Aeaaiiieo//y
nii’? caeaaeeoue aiae niaoeeoiee canai?ieo ?ieae /ieiaiea i ae?oaeeie,
aaoueea i iaoa?i. Ciaiiy i oyaeaiiy i?i naaa ye ethaeeio iaaii? noaoi ic
niaoeeo?/ieie aeey /ieiaiea i aeiiee iio?aaaie, oeiiiinieie
i???ioaoe?yie, iioeaaie, iioa?anaie i oi?iaie iiaaaeiiee, a oaeiae
oyaeaiiyie i?i niiaeia aeeooy neoaeaoue ineoieiai/iei oiiii oethao i
aieeaathoue ia iiaeiniaenoinii aiaeiineie iiae?oaeaey.

Ia iiceoeith iieiaei ii a?aeiioaiith aei oethao I niiaeiiai aeeooy
aieeaathoue: 1) iniaeeainoi no?oeoo?e niiaeiiai aeeooy a
aaoueeianueeiio aeiii, ?iciiaeie niiaeieo ?ieae I ?o aeeiiaiiy; 2)
yeinoi iniaenoinoi iiae?oaeaey (oa?aeoa?, oeiiiinii i?i?ioaoei?, niaee,
cae/ee, iniaeeainoi iiae?oaeaey (oa?aeoa?, oeiiiinii i?i?ioaoei?, niaee,
cae/ee, iniaeeainoi iio?aaii-iioeaaoeieii? noa?e i ii.); 3) oyaeaiiy i?i
iaeaae ae?oaeeie /e /ieiaiea (i/ieoaaiiy, iia’ycaii ic oethaii, aeiiae
aei niiaeiiai aeeooy); 4) i?in?iaeia iioeaaoeiy. Aaaeeeaei yaeythoueny
ua aeaa iiiaioe: aeaniee i?eeeaae aaoueeia i yeinoue ?o aeoiaiiai aieeao
ia aeioae. Iaeaieueo cia/eia ?ieue a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iaeaooiueiai
nii’yieia iaeaaeeoue aaoueeianueeie nii’?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeineiaeaeaiue A.E. Aaneeue?ai?, A.A. Nenaiei, A. Naoi?, A.A. Oa?/aaa,
E.A. *oeei, yei i?iaiaeeeeny c ?aniiiaeaioaie ?icieo nioeiaeueieo
eaoaai?ie aaoueeianueea nii’y caeia? ia?oa iinoea na?aae aeaiaioia
nioeiaeueiiai iie?ina?aaeiaeua (aeioeieueii caeeaaee, oeiea, caniae
ianiai? iioi?iaoei? i ii.). ?? no?oeoo?e i nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue iieiaei i?i iiae?oaei?
aeeooy. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iiceoeaia i?i?ioaoeiy iieiaei ia
oetha i nii’th caaacia/o? iiaia nii’y c ni?eyoeeaei ineoieiai/iei
eeiiaoii. A iaiiaieo nii’yo oi?ioaaiiy i?i?ioaoeie ia oetha i nii’th
oneeaaeith?oueny aianeiaeie aeaoi?iaoei? ?ieueiai? nioeiaeicaoei? —
aiaenooiinoue iaeiiai ic aaoueeia ye ia’?eoa iaeaioeoieaoei?. Aeaii
nioeiieiai/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue naiae/aoue: ?iceo/aiiy aaoueeia a o?e ?ace
caieueoo? ai?iaiaeiinoue ?iceo/aiiy aeioae, a oie /an ye ?iceo/aiiy
aeioae, yei ?inee a iiaieo nii’yo, neeaaea? iaeei ic aeaaaeoeyoe. Aeey
iiaiioe?iiiai ?icaeoeo i oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi /ieiaiea i aeiiee
iaiaoiaeiee iaoa?einueeee i aaoueeianueeee aieea c ia?oeo iinyoeia
aeeooy aeeoeie.

Aeioe ni?eeiathoue aiae aaoueeia oi?io iiaaaeiiee, iiaenaiaeiii
?aaeoei?, ?iciiiaiioii iiceoeaii /e iaaaoeaii cae/ee, cia/eii yeinoi
iiaeaei iiae?oaeiio aiaeiinei. Ia iniiai eiioeaioei? aeoaethaaiiy
aaoueeianueeeo yeinoae (Duda, Sipova) ?iaeea?aeooi iaa/a?oueny /ieiai/i?
i aeiii/i? ?iei, ia? oaiaeaioeith ianaiaeiii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a nii’?
iiaeaeue a?aeiinei aaoueeia iacaeaaeii aiae oiai iiaeiaathoueny aiie
eiio /e ii. Terman ii?iaithth/e aiaeiineie aeaaiiieo/ieo i eiioeieoieo
iiae?oaeiio ia?, anoaiiaea, ui ia a?iaiiaaaeaiinoue iiae?oaeiio ca’yceia
aaeeeee aieea iathoue: ni?eyoeeaa iiaeaeue oethao aaoueeia; aa?ii
aiaeiineie aaoueea aei iaoa?i; uaneeaa aeeoeinoai. A?iaiiaaaeaii /eaie
nii’? aoee niieieieie i a aeeoeinoai, ?o ?iaeei ea?aee, /anoioa ianoeee,
c ieie aieueo aiaee?eoi iaaiai?thaaee naenoaeueii i?iaeaie. Caiaeii
eiioeaioei? aeoaethaaiiy yeinoae a?aoia i nanoa? (Toman) aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaeeaiaeooi iaiaaa?oueny a iiaeo nioeiaeueieo ca’yceao
?aaeicoaaoe nai? aiaeiineie aei a?aoia i nanoa?. Aieueo noieei i aaeaei
oethae niinoa?iaathoueny a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee aiaeiineie iiae
ia?oia?aie aoaeothoueny naia ca oeei i?eioeeiii, a?aoiaoth/e noaoaao
i?eiaeaaeiinoue. Iiae?oaeii aiaeiineie iiaeooue aooe aai iiaiinoth
eiiieaiaioa?ieie (/ieiaie iaa iieiaeoo nano?o, aai ae?oaeeia — noa?oiai
a?aoa) /e /anoeiai eiiieaiaioa?ieie (iai? iaee noa?oeo a?aoia /e
nanoa?), aai ae iaeiiieaiaioa?ieie. I?e iaeiiieaiaioa?iiio oethai
aiaeii/a?oueny ca’ycie ic ii?yaeeii aeeoeie a aaoueeianueeie nii’? (eiee
aeaa ia?oia?e aoee noa?oeie na?aae aeioae) aai ae ic noaooth (iaeei ic
ia?oia?ia aai ae aeai? iaee eeoa a?aoia /e nanoa?). Iniaeeaa iinoea
caeiathoue aeioe, yei ia iaee ii a?aoa, ii nano?e; aeey ieo a nii’? aoea
eeoa iaeia iiaeaeue — aaoueeianueeee oetha.

Sipova ocaaaeueiea nai? aeineiaeaeaiiy i?i aieea aaoueeianueei? iiaeaei
ia iiaeaeue oethao iieiaei? nii’? neiaeoth/ei /eiii:

1. Aeeoeia iaa/a?oueny o aaoueea oi?? ae noaoi /ieiai/i? (/e aeiii/i?)
?iei, yea a iiaeaeueoiio caa?iaa?oueny.

2. Ia?ac aaoueea i?ioeeaaeii? noaoi ia? cia/iee aieea ia aeai?
iaeaooiueiai ia?oia?a. sseui ?ieue aaoueea i?ioeeaaeii? noao? a n?i’?
iiceoeaia, oi aea?? iiae?aiiai ia?oia?a aaaea aei iiae?oaeiuei?
aa?iii??. sseui ae aaoueei i?ioeeaaeii? noaoi a?a? iaaaoeaio ?ieue i
aeeoeia ?? ia i?eeia?, oi ia?oia? c iiaeiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
yaey?oueny aeaea?aeii iaaaoeaieo ?aaeoeie.

3. Iiaeaeue aaoueeianueei? nii’? aecia/a? a aieiaieo ?enao iiaeaeue
nii’?, yeo, a ianeiaeie oeueiai, noai?ththoue ?o aeioe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a oethai ia?oia?ia, yei i?aaenoaaeythoue yaii i?ioeeaaeii iiaeaei,
iinoieii aiaeaoaa?oueny ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo. Ai?iaiaeiinoue
aa?iiiieiiai nithco oei aeua, /ei aeeae/i iiaeaei niiae, ic yeeo aeeoee
iiae?oaeii ia?e.

Aieea aeaniiai i?eeeaaeo aaoueeia ia iaeaooi? niiaeia aeeooy iieiaeiai
iiae?oaeaey yaeyany i?aaeiaoii iaoiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeai?eiao
noeoiiinoue noaiiaeee iiae?oaeii ia?e ci noaaeai niieueiiai aeeooy 3-5
?ieia. Aeineiaeaeaiiy a naaa aeeth/aei aea/aiiy: 1) onoaiiaie ia aeai?
iaeaooiueiai ia?oia?a; 2) aiaeiioaiiy ?aniiiaeaioa aei aaoueeianueei?
nii’?; 3) aiaeiineie ?aniiiaeaioia c aaoueeaie; 4) niiae ?aniiiaeaioia i
?o aiaeiiaiaeiinoue «iaeaaeueiie» nii’?.

Ii anie aeai?eiaie noeoiiinoi i?eaeecii 80,7 % oioiee, uia ?o ae?oaeeia
ca nai?ie yeinoyie aoea iiaeiaia ia ?o iaoi?. 80,1% aeiiie ic ani??
aeai?ee oioiee aooe iiaeiaieie ia naith iaoi?. A iaaeaaiiieo/ieo nii’yo
eieueeinoue ?aniiiaeaioia, yei ioeiieee yeinoi nai?? iaoa?i ye
iaeaaeueii, ciaioeeinue aei 29 %. Eiaeai o?aoie /ieiaie ic aeaaiiieo/ii?
nii’? oioia ae aooe iiaeiaiei ia naiai aaoueea i eiaeia i’yoa aeiiea
oioiea, uia ?? /ieiaie ca nai?ie iniaenoinieie yeinoyie aoa iiaeiaiee ia
?? aaoueeia. 98% aeiiie i 85% /ieiaieia ic iaaeaaiiieo/ieo niiae
ioeiieee yeinoi nai?o aaoueeia, ye ia aiaeiiaiaeii ?o iaeaaeo nii’yieia.
Oiaoi, a iaaeaaiiieo/ieo nii’yo aca?ieie aaoueeia i iniaenoinii yeinoi
nii’yieia ia yaeythoueny i?eeeaaeii iiae?oaeiueiai aeeooy, a eeoa
iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia aeioae. Oiio aieueoinoue oaeeo iieiaeeo ethaeae
iaiaaathoueny iiaoaeoaaoe nai? iaeaooi? niiaeia aeeooy ii-iioiio i
aeoiaaoe a niai yeinoi nii’yieia, i?ioeeaaeii yeinoyi ?o aaoueeia. Aea,
ye iieacaee, aeineiaeaeaiiy E.Aioaea, A.A.Oa?/aaa, A.E.Nii?iiaa a
?aaeueiiio niiaeiiio aeeooi aiie ?o aeoaeththoue.

I?iaaaeaia iaie aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui aieueoinoue oeo, ooi
ioeiith? naie oetha ye «iaeaaeueiee» (83%), oae naii ioeiiththoue i
oetha nai?o aaoueeia. Oi, a eiai aeyaeeenue o?oaeiiui a niiaeiiio
aeeooi, ?aooaaee oetha nai?o aaoueeia «aiaeiinii oi?ioei o 69%
aeiaaeeia.

Oaea ae caeiiiii?iinoue aeyaeaia i a eiioeieoieo neooaoeiyo. *ei aieueoa
aoei eiioeieoia a aaoueeianueeeo nii’yo, oei /anoioa aiie aeieeaee a
nii’yo aeioae.

C /enea ?aniiiaeaioia, aiaeiineie iiae aaoueeaie yeeo aoee
caaeiaieueieie, 49% cioeioeeny ic eiioeieoaie a nai?io niiaeiiio aeeooi.
Oiaoi, iaaeaaiiieo/iee ineoieiai/iee eeiiao nii’? iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
noaaieueiinoue oethao aeioae. C.A.ssieiaa, ?.O.Aaieueaei?aa, I.E.Ein?aa
a nai?o aeineiaeaeaiiyo aiaeii/aee, ui a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iioeae
naa?ie aaoueeia i iioeae naa?ie aei?ineeo aeioae o aeaniie nii’?,
ni?aiaaeathoue. Aca?ieie iiae aaoueeaie, noa?aioeie iiaaaeiiee a nii’?,
canai?ii a aeeoeinoai i thiinoi, a c?ieiio aioei cia/ii aieeaathoue ia
oa?aeoa? aiaeiinei iiae iiae?oaeaeyi, ia caaeiaieaiinoue i noieeinoue
oethao.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iaie aieaoe aea/aeenue iiaeyaee, oi?aaeiiiy,
oeiiiinii i?i?ioaoei? ?aniiiaeaioia ia oetha aaoueeia, oa?aeoa?
aaoueeianueeeo aca?iei, aiaeiineie ?aniiiaeaioia c aaoueeaie. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aieaooaaiiy 55% iieoaieo ioeiieee aiaeiineie nai?o
aaoueeia ye aeaaiiieo/ii, 48% i?ithoue i?i oa, uia ?o iiaeaeueoa niiaeia
aeeooy neeaeinue oae naii, 9% ia oioiee, uia aiaeiioaiiy a ?o nii’yo
aoee iiaeiaii ia aaoueeianueei, 44% ?aniiiaeaioia ioeiieee aiaeiineie
aaoueeia ye iaaeaaiiieo/ii, eiioeieoii.

Aeoiaey/e ic iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia i?i oa?aeoa? aca?iei a
aaoueeianueeie nii’?, ie oiiaii ?icaeieeee ?o ia o?e a?oie:

I a?oia — ?aniiiaeaioe, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue aiaeiineie nai?o aaoueeia
ye aeaaiiieo/ii i yei yaeythoueny aeey ieo ii?iith;

II a?oia — ?aniiiaeaioe, yei ?aoothoue aiaeiineie aaoueeia
iaaeaaiiieo/ieie, yei ia yaeythoueny i?eeeaaeii iiae?oaeiueiai aeeooy.

Oaeei /eiii, oa?aeoa? aiaeiinei iiae?oaeaey aaaaoi a /iio aiaeiiaiaea?
oa?aeoa?o aiaeiinei ?o aaoueeia. A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee eiioeieoe iiae
aaoueeaie ia?aoiaeeee iaaio iaaeo, aeeeaath/enue a ?icii i?iyae aca?iii?
iai?eycii, aea ni?aaa ia aeioiaeeea aei ?iceo/aiiy, aeioe ia?iaeei
ni?eeiaee oaei aca?ieie ye aioeiiaeaeue ii?iaeueii? nii’? i, anooiath/e
a oetha, nai? iiae?oaeii aca?ieie aoaeoaaee ii-iioiio. sseui eiioeieo
aaoueeia aeinyaa? e?aeiuei? iaaei i noa? ianoa?iiei aeey iaio noi?ii,
oi iioa?anai aeioae aieueoa aiaeiiaiaea? ?iceo/aiiy, iiae iiaeaeueoa
niieueia aeeooy aaoueeia.

Aa?iiiiy niiaeiiai aeeooy aaoueeia ia? i iioi ianeiaeee aeey
iaeaooiueiai niiaeiiai aeeooy aeioae. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui iieiaei ia?e,
yei iiceoeaii ioeiieee oetha nai?o aaoueeia, i?iyaeythoue o aca?ieiao a
nai?e nii’? aieueoa oiea?aioiinoi, ceaaiaee i ?icoiiiiy. 42% iieoaieo ic
oaeeo niiae i?iyaeyee iiaia aca?ii?icoiiiiy a ieoaiiyo aaaeaiiy
aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa, a oie /an ye oi, /e? aaoueee ?iceo/eeenue,
oaei yeinoi i?iyaeyee eeoa a 28% aeiaaeeia. Ioiae, aaoueee, iiae?oaeaey
yeeo neeaeinue aeaaiiieo/ii, aeathoue aeioyi iaaeyaeiee i?eeeaae oiai,
ye iiaeiia aoaeoaaoenue niieueia aeeooy /ieiaiea i ae?oaeeie. Aiie
aeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai i oei naiei caaacia/othoue oniioia
aeoiaaiiy. Niieueii aei? aaoueeia yaeythoueny aaaeeeaei ia?aaeaa/aiiyi
oniioiiai oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoinoi.

Aeineiaeaeoth/e aieea iniaenoiai i?eeeaaeo aaoueeia ia iaeaooi? niiaeia
aeeooy aeioae, ie aeyaeee, ui aieueoinoue ia? ic «?aeaaeueiiai»
iiae?oaeaey aiaeiiaiee, ui aaoueee neoaeeee ?i i?eeeaaeii iiae?oaeiueiai
aeeooy (69%). A a?oii iiae?oaeiio ia?, o aca?ieiao yeeo iaaii o?oaeiiui,
iiceoeaiee i?eeeaae aaoueeia niinoa?iaaany ?iaeoa — 58% iieoaieo.

Aiaeic iaea?aeaieo aeaieo naiae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey aieueoinoi
?aniiiaeaioia (60%) aeai? aaoueeia aoee i?eeeaaeii; aaoueee ia caaaeaee
aoee i?eeeaaeii aeey 31% ?aniiiaeaioia; i?eeeaaeii aoee eeoa iaia aeey
6% iieoaieo; i?eeeaaeii aoa eeoa aaoueei — 1%; ae?inee ia a nii’? 2%
?aniiiaeaioia. sse aa/eii, aieueoinoue iiceoeaii ioeiith? i?eeeaae
aaoueeia. Aea /anoeia iieoaieo ia iaee a aeeoeinoai iinoieiiai
iiceoeaiiai i?eeeaaeo iaio aaoueeia, ui iaaaoeaii aiaeia?aceeinue ia ?o
aioiaiinoi aei oethao.

Iiaeiaii aeaii ie io?eiaee i?e aiaeici oa?aeoa?o aeoiaiiai aieeao
aaoueeia ia aeioae. 62% ?aniiiaeaioia ?aoothoue, ui a ?o nii’? aoei
aaoi?eoaoia aeoiaaiiy, ia iaiineiaeiaia aeoiaaiiy aeacothoue 30%;
eiaa?aeueia aeoiaaiiy niinoa?iaa?oueny o 9 % iieoaieo. Ia caieoaiiy «Ui
ia aeaooiaoaaei aan o aiaeiineiao iiae aaie i aaoeie aaoueeaie?»
a?aeiiaiaei ?iciiaeieeeenue ianooiiei /eiii: aieueoinoue ?aniiiaeaioia
(90%), yei ioeiieee aca?ieie iiae aaoueeaie iiceoeaii, caaeiaieaii
nai?ie noinoieaie ic aaoueeaie, oi/ooue aeoiaoaaoe nai?o aeioae oae
naii.

Na?aae ?aniiiaeaioia, yei ia oi/ooue iaoe oaei aca?ieie, ye iiae
aaoueeaie, ia caaeiaieaii nai?ie noinoieaie c aaoueeaie, aiae/oaathoue
ia?icoiiiiy c ?o noi?iie. Aiaeic aiaeiiaiaeae ?aniiiaeaioia ic
iaaeaaiiieo/ieo niiae iieacaa, ui 35% ic ieo ioeiiththoue nai? noinoiee
c aaoueeaie ye aeaaiiieo/ii, oi/a aiaeii/a?oueny aeayea ia?icoiiiiy ci
noi?iie aaoueeia aai iaeiiai ic ieo.

Iaea?aeaii aeaii aeaee iiaeeeainoue, ui oa?aeoa? aeoiaaiiy a
aaoueeianueeie nii’? cia/iith ii?ith aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy ia?aco
iaeaooiuei? nii’?. Iaee?aua a oeueiio ieaii, ia aeoieo E.Aioaea,
yaey?oueny ?icoiia aeoiaaiiy, yea aeeth/a? a naaa iaiaoiaeio
aeiiaeeainoue, niieueia i?iaaaeaiiy aieueiiai /ano, aeaiie?aoe/ii
aiaeiineie. Aaaeeeaei yaey?oueny iineiaeiaiinoue aaoueeia o aeoiaaiii.
Ca iaoeie aeaieie oea ciaoiaeeoue nai? aiaeia?aaeaiiy a iiae?oaeiueiio
nithci aeioae. Aeyaeeiny, ui aieueoinoue iieoaieo, /e? aaoueee aoee
caaaeaee iineiaeiaieie o aeoiaaiii, naii noai?eee aa?iiiieiee oetha. A
oai, aea o aeoiaiiio i?ioeani ia aoei ocaiaeaeaiiy aeoiaieo aeie oethae
aoee iaio aaeaeeie. Oaeei /eiii, noieeinoue, noaaieueiinoue iaeaooiuei?
nii’? oeieeii caeaaeeoue aiae nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/iiai oa?aeoa?o
aaoueeianueei? nii’?. Aeioethaia aeiaaiinoeea, ineoieiai/ia
eiinoeueoaoeiy iieiaei? nii’? aeanoue iiaeeeainoue cacaeaeaaiaeue
anoaiiaeoe i?iaeaiii ciie iiae?oaeaey, i?iaanoe a/ania ineoieiai/ia
ao?o/aiiy c iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?iceo/aiiy oa e?eciaiai noaio.

EIOA?AOO?A

1. Ea?ae Aioae. I?iaeaie iiae?oaeiueiai aeaaiiieo//y. I.,1988.

2. E?aoioaee N. Ineoioa?aiey naiaeii-naenoaeueiuo aeenaa?iiiee.

3. Ieoei O.I. Naiaeiay ineoa?aiey i?e iaa?icao e ineoicao. E.,1978.

4. Naiuey a nenoaia i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey. Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu
ainieoaiey iiae?inoeia, I.,1979.

5. Oa?/aa A.A. A?ae e naiuey NNN?. I., 1979.

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