?aoa?ao ia oaio:

“?icaea?aeaaeaiiy

oa i?eaaoecaoe?y”?icaea?aeaaeaiiy oa i?eaaoecaoe?y a Oe?a?i? – yaeua
neeaaei? ? aaaaoia?aii?. ?aeeia, ui iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i
i?eaaoecaoe?th acaaae? – i?aaeeueia ?? i?aai?caoe?y aea? ciiao caeo/eoe
/eiae? eiooe a aea?aeaaio eacio ? ciaeoe a?eueoino? i?aei?e?inoaai
aea?aeaae iiaiioe?iieo aeaniee?a, ye? aoaeooue aeaaoe i?i oa, ui iaaoee.

Iaiao?aeieie neeaaeiaeie na?aaeiueino?ieiaiai c?inoaiiy aeiiii?ee, ?
iiaeaeueoee i?ia?an o ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo ?inoeoooe?e oa ca?eueoaiiy
iniiaiiai eai?oaeo /a?ac ?iaanooaaiiy. Aeiaaino?ieiaa c?inoaiiy
??oioo?oueny ia?aaaaeii ia oaoi?/iiio i?ia?an?, ui, ao?i, oaae ia? aooe
i?aeo?eiaiei a?aeiia?aeieie ?iaanoeoe?yie.

Iiaeaeueoa aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy aea?aeaae iaieio/a caeaaeaoeia a?ae
?iaanooaaiiy, i?e/iio ia o?eueee ? ia no?eueee o eiai o?aaeeoe?eiiio
“e?euee?niiio” aniaeo? (iaeiie/aiiy eai?oaeo), ne?eueee o “ye?niiio”
(a?aeaea/a a?ae ?iaanoeoe?e oa aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie). Oeueiio ieoaiiy oaeiae a?aeaaaeaia /eiaea i?noea.

Noai?aiiy oiia aeey caeo/aiiy i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e o ae?iaie/ee naeoi?
aoei iaeiei c caaaeaiue i?eaaoecaoe??. Ine?eueee aeey i?eaaoiiai
?iaanoi?a cacae/ae iaia? naino aeeaaeaoe nai? a?io? aac a?aeiia?aeiiai
ia?aoiaeo i?aa aeaniino?, a eiia?oe?ei? aaiee, ye? iicaaaeai? i?aaa
e?aaeeooaaoe aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?ae canoaao iniiaieo oiiae?a,
iaiaaeothoueny ei?ioeino?ieiaeie iiceeaie, ui aa?aioiaai? caianaie
i?iaeoeoe?? /e iaoa??ae?a, oi ia /anoeo aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o
caeeoathoueny athaeaeaoi? ?iaanoeoe?? (aai aeoaea iiae?ai? aei ieo
aea?aeaai? aa?aio?? ca aaie?anueeeie aeiaaino?ieiaeie e?aaeeoaie) oa
naii?iaanooaaiiy. O ?icaeioo?e ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? oea noaaeoue
aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa o nooo?ai a??o? oiiae ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?oi?o
i?eaaoieo eiieo?aio?a, aaeaea inoaii? aeiaeaoeiai aei oeeo ?ano?n?a
iiaeooue ei?enooaaoeny oaeiae aeiaaino?ieiaeie e?aaeeoaie, ai?ooaaoe
iae?aaoe?? oa caeo/aoe aeiaeaoeiaee eai?oae ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo. A
oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?, ia?ac?, aeii?io? naii?iaanooaaiiy, a ?io?
aeaea?aea ?iaanoeoe?eiiai eai?oaeo a?ae?a?athoue iaaaaaoi ne?iii?oo
?ieue. *e ni?ey? i?eaaoecaoe?y iie?auaiith yeino? oa e?eueeino?
?iaanoeoe?e ca oaeeo oiia?

*anoeia ?iaanoeoe?e i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o – ciai?oi? aeeaaeaiiy ii
a?aeiioaiith aei i?aei?e?inoaa. Cacae/ae, aiie ni?eythoue
?iciianthaeaeaiith a?eueo oni?oii? ae?eiai? eoeueoo?e, oiaoi ? i?yiei
?ino?oiaioii ?? a?aeai?o. Naii?iaanooaaiiy ca oiia ??aieo i?aaee a?e oa
aeio?eiaiiy ieao?aeii-o?iainiai? aeenoeeie?ie oaae ? ?ino?oiaioii
a?aeai?o, oi/a ? iaio iiooaeiei: i?eaooeia? iathoue iiaeeeaino?
c?inoaoe, caeoeia? – i?e?a/ai? ia aeaeai?oae?caoe?th.

Oaeei /eiii, ?iaanoeoe?? o i?eaaoiiio (i?eaaoeciaaiiio) naeoi?? iathoue
aooe iiceoeaii iia’ycaieie c a?cian-ieaioaaiiyi oa ia?eaoeiaii,
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??th, ciaioaiiyi aa?oa?o oa caai?aiaaiinoae oiui.
Ine?eueee iaeaooiaai?noue ia aeiiiiiao aea?aeaae naia ii nia?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia aieeaa? ia oni?oi?noue a?ciano, ca’ycie ia? aooe
neaaoei. Aea ie ia?ii i/?eoaaoe, ui ca oiiae a?eueo-iaio aei?noei?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o?, ooi iieeaaea?oueny ia aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo,
iathoue c?aooith i?ia?aaaoe, aaeaea oae? iano?i? oa i/?eoaaiiy, iaiaaia,
aaeueiothoue ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th oa ciaioothoue noeioee aei ?aoaeueiiai
aea/aiiy ?eie?a, ?ic?iaee a?cian-ieai?a oiui, oae naii ye ? noeioee aei
?iaanooaaiiy aeanieo eioo?a acaaae?.

I?eaaoeciaai? i?aei?e?inoaa iaioa ca ?io? noeeuei? aei i?aeaeuaiiy oe?i
ia naith i?iaeoeoe?th, ? oey caeaaei?noue noaoenoe/ii aeiaaaeaia.
Iaeiae, i?e oeueiio ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui oea iiynith?oueny a?aeai?ii
a i?ioean? i?eaaoecaoe??, aaeaea i?aei?e?inoaa-iiiiiie?noe caeaa?eueoiai
ia i?aeeyaaee iiai?e i?eaaoecaoe??. ? ana ae ?aei?aeii iecueeee ca
inoaii? ?iee ??aaiue ?ioeyoe??, ui iaa i?noea o 2001 ?ioe?, o iaai?e
i??? /anoeiai aoa caaacia/aiee naia i?eaaoeciaaiei naeoi?ii.

Ui noino?oueny caai?aiaaiinoae, oi aiae?c o?iainiaeo iieaciee?a aeia?a,
ui iaee?io? iieacieee iathoue i?aei?e?inoaa eieaeoeaieo oi?i aeaniino?,
aaeeea /anoeia yeeo ? aeoe?iia?ieie oiaa?enoaaie, noai?aieie a oiae?
i?eaaoecaoe??. I?eiaeii? c 1998 ?ieo iaaea?aeaaiee naeoi? i?iieneiaino?
(ca aeiyoeii IAE) iaeaea i?eieiea ca?eueooaaoe caai?aiaaiino? ia?aae
aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii oa oe?eueiaeie oiiaeaie. O 2000 ?ioe?
i?aei?e?inoaa c eieaeoeaiith oi?iith aeaniino? a iniiaiiio iiaaoaee
i?ino?i/aio e?aaeeoi?nueeo caai?aiaai?noue. C ii/aoeo oeueiai ?ieo ieie
aoea ciaioaia iaeaea iaiieiaeio (48,1%) i?ino?i/aia caai?aiaai?noue
ia?aae athaeaeaoii, a?eueoa iieiaeie i?ino?i/aieo caai?aiaaiinoae ii
no?aooaaiith, a oaeiae iaeaea o?aoeia (29,9%) i?ino?i/aieo
caai?aiaaiinoae ii ca?ieao?, ui ia?aaeuo? iieacieee iiaaoaiiy
caai?aiaaiinoae i?aei?e?inoaaie ?ioeo oi?i aeaniino?.
Ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c aeicaieea noaoenoe/ii aeiaanoe
caeaaei?noue i?ae aeeiai?eith i?ino?i/aieo e?aaeeoi?nueeeo
caai?aiaaiinoae o i?iieneiaino? ? oi?iith aeaniino?. I?e oeueiio /ei
a?eueoith aoea ieoiia aaaa i?aei?e?inoa iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a a
eiaeiiio c aeae?a i?iieneiai? ae?yeueiino?, oei oaeaeoa ciaiooaaeeny
i?ino?i/ai? e?aaeeoi?nuee? caai?aiaaiino? a oeueiio aeae? ae?yeueiino?.
E??i oiai, ca noaoenoeeith cia/eiith aeyaeeany caeaaei?noue aeeiai?ee
i?ino?i/aieo e?aaeeoi?nueeeo caai?aiaaiinoae a?ae /anoee aeeaiei
i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o eiaeiiio aeae? i?iieneiai? ae?yeueiino?.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee o a?eueoino?
aaeocae aoea ?noioii aeua i?ae o aea?aeaaiiio, ia?aaeuaiiy aeinyaaei
200-250%. Iaeiaioa i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? iaea i?noea a aea?aeaaieo
aeoe?iia?ieo eiiiai?yo. Iieaoa i?aoe? ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao ia
nueiaiaei? ia? o?ni?oee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie ?c ?? i?iaeoeoeai?noth,
i?e/iio ?noioii a?eueoee naia o i?eaaoeciaaiiio naeoi??. Aeiyoie
neeaaeathoue ciiao ae oaee aea?aeaai? AO, aea iieaoa i?aoe? ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ia aca?iicaeaaei?. Oiae, a?eueoa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? aecia/eea a?eueo
aenieee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? a ?ic?aooieo ia iaeio a?aei?aoeueiaaio
ethaeeii-aiaeeio, a oaeiae ??aaiue na?aaeiueii?ny/ii? ca?ieaoe. A?eueo
aenieee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, a oaeiae ?icoe?aiith aioo??oiueiai ?eieo e?a?ie, ui
aeiyoeiai aaaeeeai aeey Oe?a?ie, iiee a?i aeoaea neaaeee, ? no?eio?
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa. ??cieoey o i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
i?aei?e?inoa iaaea?aeaaiiai ? aea?aeaaiiai naeoi??a aeiiii?ee
ia?aaeuo? oaeo ??cieoeth ii ca?ia?oi?e ieao?, a ?acoeueoao?
iaaea?aeaaiee naeoi? ia? iaioo /anoeo aeo?ao ia ca?ieaoo a nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe??, ui ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith a?eueoiai i?eaooeo, yeee o cia/i?e
i??? ni?yiiao?oueny ia ?iaanooaaiiy. Inoaii?, yeui aiii cae?enith?oueny
aeineoue aeaaaeaii, iaaea? iiaeeeaino? aeey iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, aea aaea ia iniia? c?inoaiiy oiiaeiiniauaiiy ca
oiia aaeaeiai ea??aieoeoaa.

Ieoii? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy a aeoeai? oiiaee (onoaoeoaaiiy oa iaoeie) a
?ic?aooieo ia iaeiiai i?aoethth/iai o iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? nooo?ai
a?eueo?, iii?e eiai iaioo eai?oaeii?noe?noue, a oaeiae a?eueo ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eai? ii aaeocyo. Oaeei /eiii, ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie naia
iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o /anoea ?iaanoeoe?e a aeoeai? oiiaee inoaii?i
/anii ?noioii c?inea e o aaaaoueio aaeocyo ia?aaeuo? 50%.

Na?aae aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa iaaaaaoi /ano?oa cono??/athoueny
iaoa?iae?nonuee? iano?i? oa i/?eoaaiiy i?euea a?ae aea?aeaae. Oea ia
aeeaii, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui 16-18% aea?aeaaieo ? o?eueee 4-6%
iaaea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa io?eioaaee noaneae?? i?ioyaii 2000 ?ieo. Aea
ca’ycie noaneae?e c aeiiii?/iith iiaaae?ieith i?aei?e?inoa aeyaeany
cia/ouei o?eueee aeey iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o: aeinooi aei noaneae?e
?noioii aaeueio? ye aeoeaio, oae ? ?iaanoeoe?eio ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th
i?aei?e?inoa, ui aeiaiaeeoue iaaaoeaio caeaaei?noue a?ae noaneaeoaaiiy.
A?eueo oiai, na?aae i?aei?e?inoa, ui io?eiothoue i?yi? /e i?eoiaai?
noaneae??, ia niinoa??aa?oueny caeaaeiino? ?iaanooaaiiy a?ae iieaciee?a
ae?eiai? eoeueoo?e – a?cian-ieaioaaiiy oa ia?eaoeiao, oiaoi oe?
i?aei?e?inoaa iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o aeaeyaeathoue a??oa iaa?oue ca
aea?aeaai?. Oaeei /eiii, iinoa/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ?ano?n?a /a?ac
noaneaeoaaiiy (a?aee?eoa /e i?eoiaaia) ia ni?ey? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??, a
iaaiaee, aeicaiey? i?aei?e?inoaai a?aeoyaoaaoe ??. E??i oiai, o
iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea neeueii iia’ycaia c
iaoa?iae?ciii.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

1. I?eaaoecaoe?y a Oe?a?i?: ia?niaeoeae oa i?iaeaie // Aeiiii?ea. –
2000. — ?3.

2. Aeiiii?/iee neiaiee-aeia?aeiee. – E., 2001.

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