EO?NIAA ?IAIOA

ia oaio

«IAONOIEEA A OeEA?EUeIIIO I?AA?»

I E A I

Anooi

Aeaaa I. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

1. Iiiyooy caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

2. Niiniae caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

3. Ie?ai? niiniae caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

Aeaaa II. Iaonoieea ye niin?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

1. Iiiyooy oa ooieoe?? iaonoieee.

2. Oi?ie iaonoieee.

3. Aeaee iaonoieee.

4. Oeyoe anoaiiaeaiiy iaonoieee.

5. Canoinoaaiiy iaonoieee.

Aeaaa III. Oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a ca?oa?aeiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa?.

1. Oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a e?a?iao ?a?iie.

2. Oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a aiaei-aia?eeainueeeo
e?a?iao.

Caeeth/i? iieiaeaiiy.

Anooi

Oey i?aoey ia? ca iaoo aeine?aeeoe no/ani? iieiaeaiiy iaeiiai ?c
?inoeooo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa — ?inoeoooo iaonoieee.

A iei?oi?o oiiaao aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee o/anieee
oeea?eueiiai ? oi?aiaiai ia?ao caoe?eaaeai? a canoinoaaii? ??ciiai
?iaeo aa?aio?e aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue, cia/aiiy yeeo iaiii??ii c?inoa?.
Aeey /iai a i?aeoeoe? no/aniiai ia?ao ?ic?iaeaii neeaaeio ?
aaoaoiiai?oio nenoaio caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue. Aeeiiaiiy
oeea?eueiii?aaiaeo iaia’yce?a — oea oa aeiaia??ia aeenoeeie?ia, yea
iaiao?aeia ia eeoa aeey aeiiii?ee, a e aeey noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.
Aeania ca aeiiiiiaith ?o aeeiiaiiy noai?ththoueny aoiinoa?a iiaaae aei
aeiia caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi, i?aai?caoe?e.
Iaonoieea ? iaeiei ?c iaeiioe?ai?oeo niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiue ? ?? ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecaia/aiiy o ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?
aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe. Naia oeae iiiaio, a oaeiae oa iaea oaaaa, yea
i?eae?eyeanue ?inoeoooo iaonoieee, ii??aiyiii c aaaeo/eie ?inoeoooaie
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa (ye,iai?eeeaae, th?eaee/ieo in?a /e aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino?), aieeioee ia aea?? oaie na?aae cai?iiiiiaaieo.

Aeaaa I. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

1. Iiiyooy caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

A oiiaao ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ?nio? aaeeea eiia??i?noue iaaeeiiaiiy
ai?aeieeii nai?o ciaia’ycaiue. Oea iiaea a?aeaooenue ye /a?ac
iaaeia?inia?nio iiaaae?ieo naiiai ai?aeieea, oae ? a ?ac? eiai
iaieaoini?iiiaeiino?. Oa?oaiaae/ A.O. noaa?aeaeo?: “Ciaia’ycaiiy aea?
i?aai aeiaaaoe, aea ia i?eioooaaoe aeiaeeiiaiiy ae??, ia?oeyio
ai?aeieeii. sseui c? noi?iie ai?aeieea iaia? ? ia iiaea aooe i?yei?
aa?aio?? a oiio, ui anoaiiaeaia ciaia’ycaiiy aoaea oi/ii aeeiiaii, oi,
oi/a a, iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe e?aaeeoi?o oie iaeiiaee ?ioa?an, yeee
aeey iueiai ii?aeio?oueny c ciaia’ycaiiyi. Ae?enii, ana iaeii ai?aeieea
a?aeiia?aea? ca eiai aeeiiaiiy, ? yeui ai?aeiee ooeey?oueny a?ae
aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, oi ?ioa?an e?aaeeoi?a, ui iia’ycaiee c oeei
ciaia’ycaiiyi, iiaea aooe cae?eniaii i?eioniai c iaeia ai?aeieea:
/anoeia oeueiai iaeia, a yeui iaiao?aeii, ? ana iaeii,aoaea ?aae?ciaaia
noni?eueiith aeaaeith ? io?eiai? eiooe i?aeooue ia caaeiaieaiiy ?ioa?ano
e?aaeeoi?a” A. O. Oa?oaiaae/, O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa,iineaa,1995

Ioaea aei ai?aeieea, yeee ia aeeiio? aai iaiaeaaeiei /eiii aeeiio?
ciaia’ycaiiy canoiniaothoue iaai?, ia?aaeaa/aii? caeiiii caoiaee
i?eiono, ye? iaceaathoueny naieoe?yie ciaia’ycaiiy. Iai?eeeaae,
a?ae?a?aiiy ?a/? o ai?aeieea, noyaiaiiy caeoe?a, yeeo caciaa e?aaeeoi?.
Iaeiae iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeeea?noue o eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ai?aeiee
ia aeeiio? aai iaiaeaaeiei /eiii aeeiio? ciaia’ycaiiy, canoinoaaoe aei
iueiai cacia/ai? caniae i?eiono, ?ioa?ane e?aaeeoi?a iiaeooue
caeeoaoenue iacaaeiaieaieie. Ni?aaa o oiio, ui ?iiae? aaaeei, a oi e
iaiiaeeeai aeiaanoe iayai?noue oa ?ici?? caeoe?a, yeeo caciaa e?aaeeoi?
aiane?aeie iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy.

E??i oiai, ?ioa?ane e?aaeeoi?a iiaeooue caeeoaoenue iacaaeiaieaieie c
?ioeo i?e/ei, cie?aia /a?ac a?aenooi?noue o ai?aeieea iaeia, ia yea
iiaea aooe caa?iaii noyaiaiiy ca iiciaii e?aaeeoi?a. Oiio a no/aniiio
i?aa? ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia cania?a (niinia?a), iieeeeaieo c?iaeoe
iieiaeaiiy e?aaeeoi?a a?eueo iaae?eiei, a iaai?e i??? caaacia/eoe
aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy ai?aeieeii. Aiie iieyaathoue a iieeaaeai? ia
ai?aeieea aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoyaeaiue ia aeiaaeie iaaeeiiaiiy /e
iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, aai a i?eoyaiai? aei aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiiy ii?yae c ai?aeieeii o?ao?o in?a, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e
ii?o/eoaeuenoa?, aai a ?aca?aoaaii? iaeia, ca ?aooiie yeiai iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooi aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy (caaaeaoie, canoaaa), aai a aeaea/?
ciaia’ycaiiy oiiaiiaaaeaieie ia oa i?aaiaie iieaoeoe aecia/aio a?ioiao
noio (aaie?anueea aa?aio?y).

Niiniae, ui noeioeththoue iaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy noi?iiaie iieeaaeaieo ia
ieo ciaia’ycaiue, aecia/athoueny caeiiiaeaanoaii aai anoaiiaeththoueny
oaiaeith noi??i. A?eueo?noue ?c niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiue ia? caeaaeiee a?ae iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy oa?aeoa? ? i?e
iaae?eniino? iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy, /e i?eieiai? eiai ae?? i?eieiythoue
nai? ?nioaaiiy. Aea caeiiiaeaanoaii ia?aaeaa/ai? ? oae? niiniae
caaacia/aiiy, ye? iiaeooue aooe naiino?eieie, iai?eeeaae, aaie?anueea
aa?aio?y.

Niiniae, ui caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue, anoaiiaeththoueny a
?ioa?anao e?aaeeoi?a. Oi/a ia an? niiniae caaacia/aiiy a?aeiinyoueny aei
naieoe?e, aea an? i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii noai?ththoue aeiaeaoeia?
iaoyaeaiiy aeey ai?aeieea. Oae, i?e canoaa? e?aaeeoi? ca ?aooiie
canoaaeaiiai iaeia ai?aeieea ia? i?aai iiaaneoe nai? i?aoaic?? aei
iueiai. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai ae iaeia iiaeooue aooe iiaaoai? ? aeiaeaoeia?
aeiiae e?aaeeoi?a ii nieao? iaonoieee, a?aeoeiaeoaaiith caeoe?a oa ?i.

Ia?aiee noi?iiaie niin?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue iiaeiai
aooe ienueiiai cao?eniaaiee aai a naiiio ciaia’ycaii?, ia caaacia/aiiy
yeiai a?i iai?aaeaiee, aai a aeiaeaoeia?e oaiae?. Aeaye? c niinia?a
aeiaaathoue ia i?inoi ienueiiai?, a ? iioa??aeueii caa??aii? oi?ie ?o
cae?eniaiiy ? iaa?oue ciaoe?aeueii? ?a?no?aoe?? (canoaaa, aaie?anueea
aa?aio?y).

An? niiniae caaacia/aiiy iinyoue ciaia’ycaeueii-i?aaiaee oa?aeoa? ?
iathoue ia iao? ni?eyoe aeeiiaiith ciaia’ycaiiy, ui aeyaeany i?e/eiith
?o anoaiiaeaiiy. Aea caniae aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiue ??ci?. A aeayeeo neooaoe?yo aaaeaiiy oieeiooe
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (nieaoe oo?aoieo naieoe?e) noeioeth? ai?aeieea aei
iaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy, a ?ioeo, caa?ica ao?aoeoe
iaeii (canoaaa), iaa?oue, yeui oea ia ? ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
yeeie-iaaoaeue aeiaeaoeiaeie iaoyaeaiiyie, niiioea? ai?aeieea aei oiai
ae.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, ui neeaaea? ci?no niiniao caaacia/aiiy
aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy /e o?eueee aeinyaiaiiy c eiai
aeiiiiiaith aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy /e oaeiae iieeaaeaiiy ia
ai?aeieea aeiaeaoeiaiai iaoyaeaiiy niiniae caaacia/aiiy aai
a?aeiinyoueny aei “i??e” a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,aai ca oae? ia
aeciathoueny. Oae, iaonoieea a?aeiineoueny aei caoiae?a
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, a canoaaa, ii?o/eoaeuenoai,
aaie?anueea aa?aio?y ia ? i??ith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.Naiieeaiei A. I.,
Iooe?i A. A., A?aaeaeaineia i?aai Oe?aeiu, Ee?a,1994

2. Niiniae caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

Ca /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue iiaea caaacia/oaaoenue
caaaeaoeii, iaonoieeith, canoaaith, ii?o/eoaeuenoaii ? aa?aio??th (no.
178 OeE Oe?a?ie).

a) Caaaeaoie.

Caaaeaoeii aecia?oueny a?ioiaa noia, ui aeaea?oueny iaei??th c
aeiaia??ieo noi??i a ?aooiie iaeaaeieo c ia? ca aeiaiai?ii ieaoaae?a
ae?oa?e noi?ii? a i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o ? a caaacia/aiiy
eiai aeeiiaiiy (i. 1 no. 195 OeE).

Caaaeaoeii /ano?oa anueiai caaacia/othoueny ciaia’ycaiiy i?ae
a?iiaaeyiaie (aeiaiai?e i?aiaee aea/ieo ? aeeeeo i?ei?uaiue,
eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo), oi/a, iaia i?aenoaa aeey aeeeth/aiiy caaaeaoea ?c
/enea niinia?a caaacia/aiiy ciaia’ycaiue, ui neeaaeothoueny i?ae
th?eaee/ieie iniaaie ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i.

Oaiaea i?i caaaeaoie iacaeaaeii a?ae noie caaaeaoea iiaeiia aooe
neeaaeaia o ienueiia?e oi?i?. OeE ia cacia/a?oueny, ui iaaeiaea?aeaiiy
ienueiiai? oi?ie i?eaiaeeoue aei iaae?eniino? oaiaee i?i caaaeaoie.
Ioaea ianoathoue caaaeuei? iane?aeee iaaeiaea?aeaiiy i?inoi? ienueiiai?
oi?ie oaiaee, aecia/ai? no. 46 OeE, oiaoi iaaeiaea?aeaiiy i?inoi?
ienueiiai? oi?ie iicaaaey? noi?iie i?aaa a ?ac? nii?o iineeaoeny aeey
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oaiaee ia iieacaiiy na?aee?a, a o aeiaaeeao, i?yii
cacia/aieo o caeii?, oyaia ca niaith iaae?eni?noue oaiaee. Ia? nooo?aa
cia/aiiy /?oe?noue neeaaeaiiai aeieoiaioa i?i caaaeaoie. Caaeey
oieeiaiiy nii?o noia, ui ia?aaea?oueny o yeino? caaaeaoeo, iiaeiia aooe
iacaaia a ye caaaeaoie.

O a?aeiineiao uiaei caaaeaoeo aa?ooue o/anoue noi?iie iniiaiiai
ciaia’ycaiiy: ai?aeiee — caaeaoeiaeaaaoeue oa e?aaeeoi? —
caaeaoeiio?eioaa/.

Caaaeaoie aeeiio? o?e ooieoe??: ye can?a ieaoaaeo, iina?ae/aiiy oa
caaacia/aiiy. Caaaeaoie aeaea?oueny a ?aooiie ieaoaae?a ca iniiaiei
ciaia’ycaiiyi, oei naiei aeyaeyth/e naaa caniaii iiaiiai /e /anoeiaiai
aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy, niiniaii eiai aeeiiaiiy ? aeeiio?
ieao?aeio ooieoe?th. Oaea caeaoi?noue aei iieaoe iniiaiiai ai?ao
caeeaeo? caaaeaoie c aaainii, yeee oaae aeeiio? ieao?aei? ooieoe??. Aea
ia a?aei?io a?ae aaaino caaaeaoeo aeanoea? e ?io? ooieoe??. Aeeiioth/e
ia?aaea/ath caaaeaoeo /anoeio /e ana iniiaia ciaia’ycaiiy, ai?aeiee
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? eiai iayai?noue. C oeei iia’ycaia iina?ae/oaaeueia
ooieoe?y caaaeaoeo. Noia, ui ia?aaeaia a ye caaaeaoie, ca?aoiao?oueny a
?aooiie aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy ? a oe?e /anoei? aa?aioo?,
caaacia/o? eiai aeeiiaiiy caaacia/oaaeueia ooieoe?y caaaeaoea. A. O.
Oa?oaiaae/, O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa,iineaa,1995

Caaaeaoie iiaea aeeiioaaoe ? eiiiainaoe?eio ooieoe?th, ai noi?iia,
a?aeiia?aeaeueia ca iaaeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o, ciaia’ycaia a?aeoeiaeoaaoe
ae?oa?e noi?ii? caeoee c ca?aooaaiiyi noie caaaeaoeo, yeui a aeiaiai??
ia ia?aaeaa/aii ?ioa (/. 2 no.195 OeE).

Oa ui a?aeiia?aeaeueia ca iaaeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o noi?iia, yea aeaea
caaaeaoie, ao?a/a? eiai, a aeioaaoa a iaaeeiiaii? aeiaiai?o noi?iia, yea
iaea?aeaea caaaeaoie, iiaa?oa? ae?oa?e noi?ii? iiaea?eio noio caaaeaoeo,
caeeaeo? caaaeaoie c naieoe?yie, anoaiiaeaieie a yeino?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia aeiaaeie iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiiy.

A aeiaiai?? caaeaoeo iiaea noaaeoenue oiiaa i?i iaiaaeaiiy ?ici??o
caeoe?a noiith caaeaoea, i?e yeiio noi?iie a?aeiiaeythoueny a?ae i?aaa
ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a, ia iie?eoeo noiith caaaeaoeo. E??i oeueiai,
caaaeaoie iiaeiai aooe iiaa?iaiee, yeui iniiaia ciaia’ycaiiy i?eieiaii
aei eiai aeeiiaiiy ca oaiaeith noi??i, ui aeo?ea? c iio?aeiiai oa?aeoa?o
niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue, aai aiane?aeie
iaiiaeeeaino? aeeiiaiiy ii iacaeaaeiei a?ae noi??i ianoaaeiai.

a) Ii?oea.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae caaaeaoeo ii?oea ye niin?a caaacia/aiiy noi?oue
aacni??ii aeua, oiio ui ooo aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? caeo/athoueny iia?
iniae, ui iae?athoueny aeey oe??? iaoe c iaeyaeo ia ?o
nieaoini?iiiaei?noue. A OeEO aea?oueny ianooiia aecia/aiiy ii?oee.
Ii?oea — oea aeiaia??, ca yeei ii?o/eoaeue ciaia’yco?oueny ia?aae
e?aaeeoi?ii ?ioi? iniae a?aeiia?aeaoe ca aeeiiaiiy iath naiai
ciaia’ycaiiy a iiaiiio ianyc? aai a /anoei? (no. 191 OeEO).

Ii?oea oea aeiaia??, yeee aeieea? aiane?aeie oaiaee i?ae e?aaeeoi?ii oa
ii?o/eoaeai. Anoaiiaeaiiy ii?oee, ye niiniao caaacia/aiiy, ia?aaeaa/a?
?nioaaiiy ?ioiai, iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy: aiii aeieea? /e c iei /e
i?ney, aea ia ?ai?oa.

Aeiaia?? ii?oee oeeaaea?oueny o?eueee o ienueiia?e oi?i? ? iiaea
caaacia/oaaoe o?eueee ae?enio aeiiao. *eiia oeea?eueia caeiiiaeaanoai
anoaiiaeth? iaai? iaiaaeaiiy aeey in?a, ye? iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye
ii?o/eoaeue. Oae, ia iiaeooue aooe ii?o/eoaeyie athaeaeaoi?
i?aai?caoe??, aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa, ca yeeie cae??ieth?oueny iaeii
ia i?aa? iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa ?io?.

Coieieiinue ia aeieeath/eo c ii?oee a?aeiinei i?ae e?aaeeoi?ii oa
ai?aeieeii, e?aaeeoi?ii oa ii?o/eoaeai, ii?o/eoaeai oa ai?aeieeii.

1. A?aeiioaiiy i?ae ii?o/eoaeai oa ai?aeieeii ii aieiaiiio ciaia’ycaiith
ia ci?ith?oueny a?ae i?e?aeiaiiy ii?oee. Aea aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy c?
noi?iie ii?o/eoaey i?eieiy? i?aai e?aaeeoi?a aei ai?aeieea.

2. Aieiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia a?aeiioaii? e?aaeeoi?a aei
ii?o/eoaey.

E?aaeeoi? ai?aa? aeiaaaoe a?ae ii?o/eoaey anueiai oiai, ui ciaia’ycaiee
aoa aeeiiaoe ai?aeiee, yeui o?eueee ii?oea ia aoea /anoeiaith. OeE
ia?aaeaa/a?, ui ii?o/eoaeue a?aeiia?aea? a oiio ae ianyc?, ye ?
ai?aeiee. Oae, yeui ?ioa ia anoaiiaeaii aeiaiai?ii ii?oee, ii?o/eoaeue
ciaia’ycaiee nieaoeoe e?aaeeoi?o i?ioeaioe ca ei?enooaaiiy e?aaeeoii,
a?aeoeiaeoaaoe caeoee, nieaoeoe iaonoieeo (/. 2 no. 192 OeE).

Ai?aeiee ? ii?o/eoaeue ianooue nie?aea?io a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?aae
e?aaeeoi?ii, yeui ?ioa ia ia?aaeaa/aii aeiaiai?ii ii?oee (no 192 OeE).
Nie?aea?ii a?aeiia?aeathoue ia?aae e?aaeeoi?ii ? iniae, ui ?acii aeaee
ii?o/eoaeuenoai. Noi?ni? ii?o/eoae? ianooue nie?aea?io
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia o?eueee iaeei c iaeiei, aea ? c ai?aeieeii.

Ia’?i ? oa?aeoa? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ii?o/eoaey caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?noo
aeiaiai?o ii?oee. Iai?eeeaae, ii?o/eoaeue ai?aa? iaoiiaeoe, ui a?i
ii?o/a?oueny ca iiaa?iaiiy ai?aeieeii eeoa iniiaii? noie aac
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy iaonoieee oa caeoe?a. O aeiaaeeo i?aae’yaeaiiy aei
ii?o/eoaey aeiia e?aaeeoi?a ii?o/eoaeue ai?aa? aenoaaoe i?ioe aeiia
e?aaeeoi?a caia?a/aiiy. Ii aeeiiaiith ii?o/eoaeai ciaia’ycaiiy ai?aeieea
e?aaeeoi? ciaia’ycaiee a?o/eoe ii?o/eoaeth aeieoiaioe, ui cana?ae/othoue
aeiiao e?aaeeoi?a oa ia?aaeaoe i?aaa, ye? caaacia/othoue oeth aeiiao,
iai?eeeaae i?aai canoaae.

Ciaia’ycaiiy ii?o/eoaey a?aeiia?aeaoe ca aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy
ai?aeieeii ia icia/a?, ui ii?o/eoaeue i?eeia? ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy
i?aaenoaaeoe oa, uiaei /iai ciaia’ycoaaany ai?aeiee. A?i iiaea aooe
i?inoi ia caeaoai ii ia’?eoeaiei i?e/eiai aeeiiaoe oea. Oiio ii?o/eoaeue
ii caaaeueiiio i?aaeeo iana iaia’ycie a?aeoeiaeoaaoe a a?ioia?e oi?i?
iaaeeiiaia ai?aeieeii. sse?ac oiio iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ii?o/eoaeuenoai io?eiaei a a?ioiaeo ciaia’ycaeueieo a?aeiineiao.

3. A?aeiineie i?ae ii?o/eoaeai oa ai?aeieeii caiaeyoueny aei oiai, ui
ii?o/eoaeue, aeeiiaaoe ca ai?aeieea eiai ciaia’ycaiiy, io?eio? i?aaa
e?aaeeoi?a ca oeei ciaia’ycaiiyi. Ii?o/eoaeue io?eio? i?aai aeiaaaoe
a?ae ai?aeieea aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy o oiio ia’?i?, a yeiio a?i nai
aeeiiaa aeiiao e?aaeeoi?a. A. O. Oa?oaiaae/, O/aaiee ?onneiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa,iineaa,1995

Ii?ie OeE i?i ii?oeo — aeeniiceoeai?, oiio aeiaia??, oaeiae, ye
niaoe?aeuei? i?aaia? aeoe, iiaea ia?aaeaa/aoe ?ioee ?iciiae?e i?aa ?
iaia’yce?a noi??i ii aeiaiai?o ii?oee.

I?eieiaiiy ii?oee ianoa? c i?e/ei, ye? iaee neeo i?e eiai anoaiiaeaii?
/e aiane?aeie ianooiieo ianoaaei. Ii?oea i?eieiy?oueny: a) ca aca?iiith
aeiiiaeai?noth e?aaeeoi?a ? ii?o/eoaey, a) a ?ac? i?eieiaiiy iniiaiiai
ciaia’ycaiiy, a) a neeo ceeooy a iaei?e inia? e?aaeeoi?a ? ii?o/eoaey,
ii?o/eoaey ? ai?aeieea, a) e??i oiai, yeui e?aaeeoi? i?ioyaii o?ueio
i?nyoe?a c aeiy ianoaiiy no?ieo ciaia’ycaiiy ia i?aae’yaeoue iiciao aei
ii?o/eoaey. sseui no?ie aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy ia cacia/aiee, aai
aecia/aiee iiiaioii aeiiae, oi i?e a?aenooiino? ?ioi? oaiaee
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ii?o/eoaey i?eieiy?oueny i?ney cae?i/aiiy iaeiiai
?ieo c aeiy oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o ii?oee.

O a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie canoiniao?oueny iniaeeaee aeae ii?oee
— oae caaia aa?aio?y.

a) Aa?aio?y.

Ca aeiaiai?ii aa?aio?? aeuanoiy/a i?aai?caoe?y ( aa?aio )
ciaia’yco?oueny a?aeiia?aeaoe ia?aae e?aaeeoi?ii i?aeeaaei? i?aai?caoe??
ii acyoeo inoaiiueith ia naaa iaia’yceao.

Ca nai?th noooth aa?aio?y ? ii?oeith, aea c ?yaeii niaoeeo?/ieo
iniaeeainoae:

1. Aa?aio?y canoiniao?oueny eeoa o a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie,
oiae? ye ii?oea iiaea iaoe i?noea o a?aeiineiao c o/anoth
a?iiaaeyi.Aa?aioii, ye i?aaeei, ? aeuanoiy/a i?aai?caoe?y ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ai?aeieea, yea ciaia’ycaia aieeaaoe ia i?aei?e?inoai,
aaeeaaoe caoiae?a aei onoiaiiy iaaeie?e?a o ainiiaea?nuee?e oa
o?iainia?e ae?yeaiino?, ni?eyoe aeeiiaiith ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae
e?aaeeoi?ii.

2. Aa?aio?eia ciaia’ycaiiy iaaea?oueny aeuanoiy/ith i?aai?caoe??th
o?eueee o iaaeao eioo?a, ui ?o a?aeo? o ai?aeieea aeey oiai, uia
naiino?eii aeeiiaoe ciaia’ycaiiy,o oie /an ye ca aeiaiai?ii ii?oee
ii?o/eoaeue iiaea acyoe ia naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeeiiaiiy
ai?aeieeii ciaia’ycaiue o iiaiiio ianyc?.

3.Aa?aio caaaeaee iana ia?aae e?aaeeoi?ii aeiaeaoeiio,
noaneae?a?io (uiaei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ai?aeieea) a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
.

4.Aa?aio, yeee aeeiiaa ca ai?aeieea ciaia’ycaiiy, ia ia? i?aaa
cai?ioii? aeiiae aei inoaiiueiai.

A?aeiia?aeii aei no. no. 194, 196 OeE Oe?a?ie aa?aio?y i?eieiy?oueny c
i?eieiaiiyi caaacia/oaaeueiiai iath ciaia’ycaiiy, a oaeiae o ca’yceo ?c
iai?aae’yaeaiiyi e?aaeeoi?ii iiciao aei aa?aioa o no?iee, ia?aaeaa/ai?
no. 194 OeE Oe?a?ie.

Aa?aio?y oe?iei canoiniao?oueny aeey caaacia/aiiy iice/ie, ye?
aeaeathoueny i?aai?caoe?yi aaieaie.Oae,e?aaeeooaaiiy ii an?o aeaeao
iice/ie i?aei?e?inoa, ui iiaaii i?aoeththoue, aaiee cae?eniththoue,ye
i?aaeei eeoa ca oiiae iaaeaiiy aeuanoiy/eie i?aai?caoe?yie aa?aio?eieo
ciaia’ycaiue i?i iiaaoaiiy iice/ie o anoaiiaeai? no?iee.

ae) Canoaaa.

Nooue canoaae ye caniao caaacia/aiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui e?aaeeoi?
(canoaaiaea?aeaoaeue) ia? i?aai o aeiaaeeo iaaeeiiaiiy ai?aeieeii
caaacia/aiiai canoaaith ciaia’ycaiiy iaea?aeaoe caaeiaieaiiy c
aa?oino? canoaaeaiiai iaeia ia?aaaaeii ia?aae ?ioeie e?aaeeoi?aie, ca
aeiyoeaie, cacia/aieie a caeiiiaeaanoa? (no. 181 OeE Oe?a?ie).

?nio? aea? i?aenoaae aeieeiaiiy i?aaa canoaae — ia iniia? aeiaiai?a oa
ia iniia? caeiio i?e ianoaii? aeacaieo o iueiio ianoaaei, oiaoi, yeui a
caeii? ia?aaeaa/aii, yea iaeii ? aeey caaacia/aiiy yeiai ciaia’ycaiiy
aecia?oueny canoaaeaiei iaeiii. ?ic??ciythoue aeaa iniiaieo
aeaea canoaae: 1)canoaaa c ia?aaea/ath iaeia o aieiae?iiy
canoaaiaea?aeaoaey (caeeaae) 2)canoaaa, eiee iaeii caeeoa?oueny o
canoaaiaeaaoey. sse i?aaeei aeae canoaae caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiaee noi??i.
I?e caeeaae? canoaaeaia iaeii ia?aoiaeeoue o aieiae?iiy
canoaaiaea?aeaoaey, yeee iiaea iei ei?enooaaoeny, yeui oea ia?aaeaa/aii
aeiaiai?ii. Eiee aeei?enoaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny io?eiaiiyi aeioiae?a,
oi ana, ui io?eio? oaeei niiniaii canoaaiaea?aeaoaeue, iiaeiii
iai?aaeyoeny ia iie?eooy aeo?ao ii oo?eiaiith canoaaeaiiai aai
ca?aoiaoaaoeny ye iiaa?iaiiy ai?ao (i?ioeaio?a ii ai?ao). I?e caeeaae?
iiaeeeaino? canoaaiaeaaoey, iia’ycai? ?c ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi oeei iaeiii,
iaiaaeai?, ine?eueee iaeii (??/) ia?aaea?oueny o aieiae?iiy
canoaaiaeaaoey aai ciaoiaeeoueny o iueiai i?ae caieii, ia/aoeith /e
?ioeie ciaeaie, ui na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oea iaeii ciaoiaeeoueny a
caeeaae?.

Ae?th/a caeiiiaeaanoai aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui i?aaeiaoii canoaae iiaea
aooe aoaeue-yea iaeii, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ?a/ae, aeeo/aieo c ia?ao. A
neeaae iaeia, yea iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii o yeino? canoaae, aeeth/a?oueny
ii noo? ana oa, ui ia? /e iiaeiii iaoe a?ioiaee aea?aaeaio (?a/?, a?io?,
oe?ii? iaia?e, ia?ooii?noue ? o.i.). Caeiiiaeaaoeai aeiionea?oueny ?
canoaaa oaeeo ?a/ae, ye? iiaeooue aeieeiooe o iaeaooiueiio, iai?eeeaae
canoaaa iaeaooiueiai a?iaeath,i?eieiaeo neioa ? o.i.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo iaeia, ui ia?aaea?oueny o canoaao, canoaaa
iiae?ey?oueny ia ianooii? aeaee: canoaaa ia?ooiiino?; canoaa
o?ainii?oieo cania?a; canoaaa oiaa??a a iai?io?; canoaaa oe?iieo
iaia??a; canoaaa iaeiiaeo i?aa; canoaaa a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

I?e ia?aaea/? caeeaaeaiiai iaeia canoaaiaea?aeaoaeth ia iueiai caeiiii
/e aeiaiai?ii iiaea aooe iieeaaeaii iaia’ycie cano?aooaaoe oea iaeii.
E??i caaaeueiiai iaia’yceo ii no?aooaaiith iaeia ia canoaaiaea?aeaoaey
caeiiii /e aeiaiai?ii iieeaaeaoeny iaia’ycie ii no?aooaaiith ia
aeiaaeie, yeui aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie aoaea i?eieiaia eiai ae?yeuei?noue
aai cae?eniaia eiio?neaoe?y iaeia, ui ? i?aaeiaoii canoaae. I?e ianoaii?
no?aoiaiai aeiaaeeo canoaaiaea?aeaoaeue ia? i?aai ia?oi/a?aiaiai
caaeiaieaiiy nai?o aeiia ?c no?aoiai? noie.

Ia eiaeio c noi??i iieeaaea?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia aeiaaeie
iacaaacia/aiiy noi?iiiino? i?aaeiaoo canoaae. Canoaaiaeaaaoeue iiaea
aeiaaaoe aeino?ieiaiai aeeiiaiiy caaacia/aiiai canoaaith ciaia’ycaiiy,
yeui i?aaeiao canoaae aeaoa ?c aieiae?iiy canoaaiaeaaoey, o yeiai eiai
aoei caeeoaii, ia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oiiaaie aeiaiai?o. Aeino?ieiaa
aeeiiaiiy caaacia/aiiai canoaaith ciaia’ycaiiy ia?aaeaa/aii ? o aeiaaeeo
ao?aoe i?aaeiaoo canoaae ii i?e/eiai, ca ye? canoaaiaea?aeaoaeue ia iana
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, yeui canoaaiaeaaaoeue ia nei?enoo?oueny i?aaii ia
cai?uaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa canoaae.

Canoaaiaeaaooeue ai?aa? aeiaaaoe ia o?eueee aeino?ieiaiai aeeiiaiiy
caaacia/aiiai canoaaith ciaia’ycaiiy, aea ? caa?iaiiy noyaiaiiy ia
i?aaeiao canoaae o aeiaaeeao iaaeio?eiaiiy iaiaaeaiue ia ia?acanoaao
iaeia, yeui oaea iaiaaeaiiy aoei anoaiiaeaia caeiiii; ii?ooaiiy oiia
caa??aaiiy /e oo?eiaiiy iaeia, yeui oe? ii?ooaiiy iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei
ao?aoe /e iioeiaeaeaiiy iaeia; i?e iaaeaii? a a?aiaeo aai cae?eniaii?
?ioeo ?icii?yae/eo ae?e canoaaiaeaaoey aac caiaee canoaaiaea?aeaoaey.

Aeiaia?? canoaae iiaeiai oeeaaeaoeny o ienueiia?e oi?i?.O aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeia iioa??aeueia iina?ae/aiiy (aeiaia?? i?i ?iioaeo).

I?aai canoaae i?eieiy?oueny o ?ac?:

a) c i?eieiaiiyi caaacia/oaaeueiiai ciaia’ycaiiy;

a) o ?ac? caaeaae? canoaaeaiiai iaeia;

a) c i?eaeaaiiyi canoaaiaea?aeaoaeai i?aaa aeaniino? ia canoaaeaia
iaeii;

a) O ?ac? i?eioniaiai i?iaeaaeo canoaaeaiiai iaeia

Canoaaa ye can?a caaacia/aiiy ciaia’ycaiiy canoiniao?oueny o a?aeiineiao
i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie,i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie ? i?aai?caoe?yie,a oaeiae i?ae
i?aai?caoe?yie.Iae/ano?oa canoaaa canoiniao?oueny o ae?yeueiino?
eiiaa?ae?a oa aaie?a. Oienoie TH. E., Na?a??a A. I., O/aaiee ?onneiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996

E??i ?icaeyiooeo niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue ?nithoue
ua oae? niiniae ye oo?eiaiiy ? aaie?anueea aa?aio?y, ye?, iiee ui, ia
ciaeoee o ian caeiiiaeaa/iai cae??ieaiiy.Iai? caea?oueny iaia?
iaiao?aeiino? aeaaeaeueii ?icaeyaeaoe oe? ?inoeoooe, oae ye aeuaiienaieo
niinia?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue aeinoaoiuei aeey
i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy ?inoeoooo caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue
aoe?eiio.

Aeaaa II. Iaonoieea ye niin?a caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue.

1.Iiiyooy oa ooieoe?? iaonoieee.

Ii/eiath/e ?icaeyaeaoe ieoaiiy i?i iiiyooy iaonoieee ie ia iiaeaii ia
caa?iooe oaaae ia oa?aeoa?i?noue oa ae?aci?noue naiiai iaeiaioaaiiy
oeueiai ?inoeoooo iaonoieeith, oa ia coieieoeny, oi/a a ei?ioei, ia
iioiaeaeaii? oeueiai iaeiaioaaiiy, ui anoaiiaeeinue ua a ia??iae
?nioaaiiy aeaaiuei?onueeiai i?aaa ? i?oeii caa?aaeinue a iaoiio
oe?a?inueeiio i?aa?. Aaaaeathoue, ui oa?i?i iaonoieea iioiaeeoue a?ae
ae??ne?a “noiyoue” ? “onoiyoue”, ye? a ?yae? iai’yoiee?a
aeaaiuei?onueeiai i?aaa iaae?eyeenue aeaiia cia/aiiyie, a naia:
ii-ia?oa, ye eaoaai??y o?ce/ii? noaa?eueiino?, iai?eeeaae, o o?ac?
“onoiye ia iiaao”; ii-ae?oaa, o ?icoi?ii? a??iino? nai?e ia?oeyioe?,
a??iino? aeaiiio neiao; iai?eeeaae, aene?a “onoiyoue ia neiaa” icia/a?
aeeiiaoe aeaio ia?oeyieo. O ca’yceo c oeei ae?oaei ci?noii ae??neiaa
“onoiyoue” ?iaiiee, ui ooai?eany a?ae oiai ae ei?iy, a naia, neiai
“onoieea” icia/a? aeeiiaiiy ia?oeyiee. I?e i?e?aeiaii? aei oeeo ne?a
caia?a/aiiy (“ia onoiyoue”, “iaonoieea”), neiaa icia/athoue, ui oie, ooi
aeaa ia?oeyieo ?? ia aeeiiaa, a yeui oey ia?oeyiea iineea i?aaiaee
oa?aeoa?, – ia aeeiiaa i?eeiyoiai ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy. C? neiaii
“iaonoieea” o oeueiio inoaiiueiio cia/aii? (iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeia
aeeiiaiiy i?eeiyoiai ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy) ie iaiaeii?aciai
cono??/a?iinue a th?eaee/ieo aeoao ieioeiai (aeiaiai?ao, caienao,
a?aiioao ? o.i.). Neiai “iaonoieea” aaeeaaee aeey iicia/aiiy oaeoo
iaaeeiiaiiy (/e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy) ai?aeieeii i?eeiyoiai ia naaa
ciaia’ycaiiy, ca yea iaaeeiiaiiy ai?aeiee iana iaaea?aei? aeey iueiai
i?aaia? iane?aeee, iai?eeeaae, iaia’ycie nieaoeoe e?aaeeoi?o aeacaio a
aeiaiai?? iaaio noio a?ioae. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, “iaonoieea” icia/a? eeoa
naio iani?aai?noue ai?aeieea o aeeiiaii? ciaia’ycaiiy, a ia o? i?aaia?
iane?aeee, ye? iiaeii? ianoaoe aeey ai?aeieea o ca’yceo c oe??th
i?eiouaiith iani?aai?noth. Ia??ai? c oeei, c ii/aoeo 18 noie?ooy, ie
ii/eia?ii cono??/aoe a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao c? neiaii “iaonoieea”, ui
aaeeaa?oueny caeiiiaeaaoeai aaea ia aeey iicia/aiiy o?eueee oaeoo
iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy, a aeey iicia/aiiy naieo i?aaiaeo
iane?aee?a, ianoaiiy yeeo aeeeeeaia oaeoii iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai
aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy.

Oei naiei neiai “iaonoieea” io?eio? oie ci?no, yeee ciaeiiee iai oaia?,
eiee neiai “iaonoieea” ye th?eaee/iee oa?i?i iaeii/anii i?aee?aneth?
i?yiee ca’ycie i?aaiaiai ?inoeoooo, ui iei iicia/a?oueny, c oaeoii
iani?aaiino? ai?aeieea o aeeiiaii? i?eeiyoiai ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy ?
aeaco? ia iniiaiee oa?aeoa? ? ci?no oeueiai ?inoeoooo, a naia — ye ia
i?aaiaee iane?aeie oe??? iani?aaiino?. A?aaa E. A., Aeiaiai?iay
iaonoieea a niaaoneii i?aaa, Iineaa, 1950

“Iaonoieeith (oo?aoii, iaiath) aecia?oueny aecia/aia caeiiii aai
aeiaiai?ii a?ioiaa noia, yeo ai?aeiee iiaeiai nieaoeoe e?aaeeoi?ia? a
?ac? iaaeeiiaiiy aai iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, cie?aia a ?ac?
i?ino?i/aiiy aeeiiaiiy” — oaea aecia/aiiy iaonoieee aeaia a no. 179
Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie. Ia coieiyth/enue ooo ia aeaoaeueiiio
aiae?c? oeueiai aecia/aiiy, y a oio?a aeei?enoaoe oea aecia/aiiy o?eueee
aeey oiai, uia ia eiai iniia? aeaoe caaaeueio i?aaiao oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iaonoieee, a naia, i?aee?aneeoe aeaa aeanoeaeo iaonoieoe? iiiaioa: ??
caaacia/oaaeueio ? aeiaeaoeiao (aeoeani?io) i?e?iaeo.

Ia?oee iiiaio ae?aaea?oueny o oiio, ui iniiaia i?aaiaa ooieoe?y, yeo
aeeiio? iaonoieea, iieyaa? a oe??ieaii? ciaia’ycaeueieo a?aeiinei oeyoii
caaacia/aiiy ?ioa?ano e?aaeeoi?a ii ciaia’ycaiith, oiaoi iaeaaeiiai eiio
i?aaa aeiiae. Oeae ?ioa?an e?aaeeoi?a, ui caaacia/o?oueny iaonoieeith,
iiaea i?iyaeyoenue aai o aeeiiaii? ai?aeieeii iieeaaeaieo ia iueiai
iaia’yce?a, aai o iie?eoo? oeo caeoe?a, ye? iiaea iiianoe e?aaeeoi?
aiane?aeie iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ai?aeieeii oeeo
iaia’yce?a. Caaacia/aiiy oeueiai ?ioa?ano aeinyaa?oueny niiioeaiiyi
ai?aeieea aei aeeiiaiiy nai?o iaia’yce?a, oeyoii caa?ice ieaoaaeo
iaonoieee, a i?e ?o iaaeeiiaii? /e iaiaeaaeiiio aeeiiaii? iaonoieea
neoao? iie?eooyi caeoe?a, ui aeieeee oeei iaaeeiiaiiyi /e iaiaeaaeiei
aeeiiaiiyi. Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aeoiea A.O. Oa?oaiaae/a, uiaei oe???
ooieoe?? iaonoieee: “Iaonoieea ia? aeaiyea cia/aiiy, yea ? ia o?eueee
niiniaii caaacia/aiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, aea ? niiniaii aecia/eoe ?ici??
aeiaai?iaee ca a?aenooi a?ae ciaia’ycaiiy. Iaonoieea ia? ia oaac? /e 1)
niiioeaoe ai?aeieea aei aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, ye aoei cacia/aii aeua
/e 2) anoaiiaeoe iiia?aaeiuei ?ici?? ni?e/eiaii? iaaeeiiaiiyi oeiaee,
iniaeeai eiee ? oneeaaeiaiiy i?e aeiaaaeaii? ?? aaee/eie
(a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a). A?aeiia?aeii aei iiaea?eiiai naiai
i?ecia/aiiy, iaonoieea ia? aeaiyeiai ?iaeo iane?aeee: aai
oneeaaeith?oueny ciaia’ycaeueia a?aeiioaiiy, oeyoii oiai, ui ia
ca?eueithth/e ai?aeieea a?ae iniiaiiai iaia’yceo, iieeaaea? ia iueiai ua
iiaee oyaa?; aai ae ci?ith? iiia?aaei? ciaia’ycaeueia a?aeiioaiiy,
ia?aoai?thth/e eiai a iiaa, aeueoa?iaoeaia, a neeo yeiai ai?aeiee iiaea
aai aeeiiaoe iaoiiaeaio ae?th /e caieaoeoe iaaio noio a?ioae.” A. O.
Oa?oaiaae/, O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa,iineaa,1995

Iaoa caeiiiaeaanoai ?icoi?? iaonoieeo, ye caaaeueia i?aaeei, a ia?oiio
eiai cia/aii?. Oeea?eueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie aecia/a? iaonoieeo,
ianaiia?aae, ye iaeei ?c oeyo?a caoenoo oeea?eueieo i?aa, yeee
a?aeiia?aeii aei no. 6 OeEO cae?enith?oueny, cie?aia, oeyoii noyaiaiiy c
ii?ooieea iaonoieee (oo?ao). Aaa/ath/e a iaonoieoe? eeoa naieoe?th. Oiio
caeiiiaeaaaoeue a?aeiineoue ?? oaeiae aei iaeiiai c aeae?a caaacia/aiiy
aeeiiaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ciaia’ycaiue (no. 178 OeE Oe?a?ie).

Iaonoieeith iiaea caaacia/oaaoenue aoaeue-yea oeea?eueia ciaia’ycaiiy a
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aaia?aeiineiao, iacaeaaeii a?ae i?aenoaa ?o aeieeiaiiy
(no. 4 OeE Oe?a?ie). Ca?aeii c /. 2 no. 179 oeueiai eiaeaeno iaonoieeith
iiaea caaacia/oaaoeny eeoa ae?enia aeiiaa, a oiio ?? canoinoaaiiy ?
iiaeeeaei eeoa i?e i?aae’yaeaii? oaei? aeiiae.

Ae?oaee iiiaio, a naia, aeoeani?iee oa?aeoa? iaonoieee aaciina?aaeiuei
aeo?ea? c ia?oiai iiiaioo. Ae?enii, yeui iniiaia iaoa, ooieoe?y
iaonoieee iieyaa? a oiio ui, aiia caaacia/o? ?ioa?an e?aaeeoi?a ii
ciaia’ycaiith, oi iaonoieea iiaeeeaa eeoa oai ? o?eueee oai, aea ?nio?
yea-iaaoaeue ciaia’ycaiiy, ui iiaea aooe caaacia/aia, aea ?nio? i?aai
e?aaeeoi?a ia aeiiao, ui iaeaaeeoue eiio a neeo ciaia’ycaiiy. Ioaea,
iaonoieea caaaeaee ia?aaeaa/a? ?nioaaiiy yeiai-iaaoaeue ciaia’ycaiiy,
yea iath ? caaacia/o?oueny. Oeae aeiaeaoeiaee oa?aeoa? iaonoieee io?eio?
na?e i?iya, c iniaeeaith ?aeue?oi?noth naia, oi/a a o oiio, ui c iaeyaeo
ia oaeo caeaaei?noue iaonoieee a?ae aieiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy iaae?eni?noue
inoaiiueiai iaieio/a i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaae?eniino? iaonoieee.

Aeey iicia/aiiy ciaia’ycaiue iaonoieee, ui iinyoue aeoeani?iee ii
a?aeiioaiith aei iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy oa?aeoa?, a caeiiiaeaanoa?
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? oa?i?ie. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao iiaa eaea
i?i oo?ao, a ?ioeo i?i iaith, a o?ao?o i?i iaonoieeo o aocueeiio
?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa. A iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aaaaoi?aciai
cae?enithaaeenue ni?iae ?iciaaeoaaoe iiiyooy iaonoieee, iai? ? oo?aoo,
aea aiie aei oni?oo ia i?eaaee. ?ica?aeiino?, caea?oueny, iaia? eeoa a
oiio, ui iaiy – oea oaeee aeae iaonoi?/iiai ciaia’ycaiiy, yea
canoiniao?oueny ca iaaeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy a no?ie. Ooo aei?a/ii
i?ioeeooaaoe A.A. Aaiaaeeeoiaa, yeee cacia/a?, ui i?iaaaeaiiy
ne?eueee-iaaoaeue aecia/aiiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae iaonoieeith ? iaiath, c
iaeii? noi?iie, ? c oo?aoii, c ?ioi?, “? aaaeea caaea/a ? a oie aea /an,
naia c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o iicaaaeaia iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy” A. A.
Aaiaaeeeoia, Ainoaea?noaaiiay nioeeaeenoe/aneay nianoaaiiinoue, ecae.
Aeaaeaiee iaoe NNN?, Einoeooo i?aaa,1948

2. Oi?ie iaonoieee.

A oeea?eueiei i?aa? ?ic??ciythoue aea? oi?ie iaonoieee: oo?ao ? iaiy.
Iaonoieea iiaea ia/enethaaoenue ye iaaia a?ioiaa noia, ui noyao?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c caeiiii /e aeiaiai?ii c? noi?iie, ui ia aeeiiaea /e
iaiaeaaeiei /eiii aeeiiaea iieeaaeaia ia ia? ciaia’ycaiiy, ? oiae? aiia
iaceaa?oueny oo?aoii. Iaonoieea ye a?ioiaa noia, ui noyao?oueny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c caeiiii /e aeiaiai?ii ca eiaeiee aeaiue i?ino?i/ee
aeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy i?ioyaii aecia/aiiai /ano /e aac
iaiaaeaiiy a /an?, iaceaa?oueny iaiath.

Aeaye? i?aaia? aeoe (ye i?aaeei, i?aecaeiiiiai oa?aeoa?o), aecia/athoue
iaonoieeo, ye naiino?eiee niin?a caoenoo oeea?eueieo i?aa ? caaacia/aiiy
aeeiiaiiy oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo ciaia’ycaiue. Oae, i. 57 Iieiaeaiiy i?i
iinoaaee i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia?aaeaa/a?
noyaiaiiy iaonoieee, a ia iai? /e oo?aoo. Oaea iiceoe?y aaa/a?oueny
iaaeoiaiith, ine?eueee oo?ao ? iaiy ? aeinoaoi?ie aeey ?aae?caoe??
ooieoe?e iaonoieee.

sse iaiy, oae ? oo?ao iiaea ia/enethaaoenue o a?aenioeiaiio a?aeiioaii?,
aai o oaa?ae?e noaaoe?. I?e/iio, no. 179 OeE ia?aaeaa/a? o?eueee a?ioiao
oi?io iaonoieee. O i?iaeo? OeE Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/aaoueny, ui iaonoieeith
iiaea aooe “anoaiiaeaia o aeiaiai?? iaeiiaa oe?ii?noue”.

3. Aeaee iaonoieee

Caeaaeii a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?aaa ia noyaiaiiy iaonoieee c i?aaii ia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a ?ic??ciythoue /ioe?e aeaee iaonoieee. A
oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoa? oea ciaeoei cae??ieaiiy a no. no. 204, 253,
356 OeE Oe?a?ie. Ioaea, aeae?eythoue:

–cae?eiao, ui ia aeeeth/a? i?aaa aeiaaaoe a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a, aea
ia a iiaiiio ia’?i?, a eeoa a /anoei?, ia iie?eo?e iaonoieeith (no. 356
OeE Oe?a?ie);

–oo?aoio aai eoioeyoeaio, i?e ye?e caeoee iiaeooue aooe noyaioo? a
iiai?e noi? iiiaae iaonoieeo (no. 253 OeE Oe?a?ie);

–aeueoa?iaoeaio, eiee ii aeai?o e?aaeeoi?a iiaeooue aooe noyaioo? aai
iaonoieea, aai caeoee;

–aeeeth/io, eiee aeiionea?oueny noyaiaiiy o?eueee iaonoieee (/. 2 no.
204 OeE Oe?a?ie).

Cae?eiaa iaonoieea canoiniao?oueny a on?o aeiaaeeao, yeui caeiiii /e
aeiaiai?ii ia ia?aaeaa/aii ?ioeo aeae?a iaonoieee.

4. Oeyoe anoaiiaeaiiy iaonoieee.

Iaiao?aeii ?ic??ciyoe aea? i?aaiaeo i?aenoaae, a neeo yeeo ca
oe?a?inueeei oeea?eueiei i?aaii iiaea aeieeiooe iaonoieea. Oeeie aeaiia
iiaeeeaeie i?aaiaeie i?aenoaaaie ? caeii (/e ?ioee ii?iaoeaiee aeo) ?
aeiaia??. O ca’yceo c oeei ?ic??ciythoue caeiiio iaonoieeo ? iaonoieeo
aeiaia??io, ui ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a no. no. 6, 178 OeE Oe?a?ie.

I?ae caeiiiith iaonoieeith aa?oi ?icoi?oe oaeo iaonoieeo, yea ia o?eueee
aaciina?aaeiuei anoaiiaeaia aeey iaaieo i?aaia?aeiinei caeiiii, ui
aecia/athoue ?? ?ici?? ? oiiae noyaiaiiy ? o.i., aea i?aaiaa ae?y yei?
ianoa? aaciina?aaeiuei a neeo oeueiai caeiio, iacaeaaeii a?ae aie?
eiio?aaaio?a, oiaoi aac aoaeue-yei? oaiaee i?ae ieie. I?ae aeiaia??iith
iaonoieeith ?icoi?thoue oaeo iaonoieeo, yea io?eio? naith th?eaee/io
neeo o?eueee aiane?aeie oaiaee noi??i.

Caeii i?yii ia caai?iiy? anoaiiaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aii? iei iaonoieee a
ie?ai?e oaiae? noi??i. Aeayeeie i?aaiaeie aeoaie oaea iiaeeea?noue i?yii
aeiionea?oueny. Cie?aia, o iinoaiia? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 24
a?oaeiy 1993 ?. “I?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ianai?/ania aeeiiaiiy
a?ioiaeo ciaia’ycaiue” cacia/a?oueny i?i noyaiaiiy iai? ca oiiae, yeui
a?eueoee ?? ?ici?? ia anoaiiaeaii oaiaeith noi??i. Oiio noi?iie iathoue
i?aai caaacia/eoe aeiaia??i? ciaia’ycaiiy caeiiiith iaonoieeith, ia
ci?ithth/e ?? ?noioieo oiia (i?aenoaa ? ii?yaeeo noyaiaiiy, aeaeo ?
?ici??o).

Ioaea, iaonoieea iiaea aooe anoaiiaeaia caeiiii aai aeiaiai?ii /e
caeiiii ? aeiaiai?ii iaeii/anii. O iaeieo aeiaaeeao anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii? iaonoieee oaiaeith noi??i iiaea iaoe eeoa ?ioi?iaoeaiee
oa?aeoa?, o ?ioeo — naiino?eiee, oi/a a noi?iie ? ia ciaee i?i ?nioaaiiy
caeiiii? iaonoieee.

Caeiiiaeaanoai ia i?noeoue iaia’yceiaeo aeiia, ye? iathoue aooe
aeiaea?aeai? i?e anoaiiaeaii? iaonoieee. I?ioa, i?aeoeea ae??oaiiy
noaeaie ainiiaea?nueeeo nii??a i?ae th?eaee/ieie iniaaie na?ae/eoue, ui
i?e anoaiiaeaii? ye caeiiii?, oae ? aeiaia??ii? iaonoieee, iiaeii? aooe
aecia/ai? i?aenoaae ? ii?yaeie ?? noyaiaiiy, ?ici?? ? aeae. Naia oe?
aeiiae ?icoe?iththoueny ye ?noioi? oiiae iaonoieee.

5. Canoinoaaiiy iaonoieee

Caeii anoaiiaeth? iaia’ycie ai?aeieea nieaoeoe iaonoieeo, ia
ia?aaeaa/ath/e i?e oeueiio iaia’yceo e?aaeeoi?a ?? noyaoaaoe, iaa?oue
eiee aeey oeueiai ? aeinoaoi? i?aaia? i?aenoaae. Aea e??i e?aaeeoi?a,
i?aai ia noyaiaiiy iaonoieee iaeaaeeoue noaeo. Cie?aia a?a?o?aaei? noaee
Oe?a?ie i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiiy c ainiiaea?nueeiai nii?o, iathoue i?aai
iaa?oaoe iiai?noth aai /anoeiai o aeioiae aea?aeaae ia?aaeaa/ai?
caeiiiaeaanoaii naieoe??, yeui iiceaa/ e ia i?aae’yaea aeiiae i?i ?o
nieaoo (i. 2 no. 83 AIE Oe?a?ie). Ioaea, aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iaonoieee
iaaeinoaoiuei iayaiino? oaeoo ?? anoaiiaeaiiy. Ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia?
aieaaeyaeaiiy noyaoaa/a.

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey canoinoaaiiy iaonoieee ? oaeo iayaiino?
oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai ciaia’ycaiiy. Caeiiia iaonoieea i?aeeyaa?
noyaiaiith a on?o aeiaaeeao eiee ?nio? oaea ciaia’ycaiiy, iacaeaaeii
a?ae i?aenoaa eiai aeieeiaiiy ( aeiaia??ieo /e iicaaeiaia??ieo), i?e
aeiaea?aeaii? on?o ?ioeo oiia iaa?oioiaaiino? noyaiaiiy. Iayai?noue
aeiaiai?o, ye oea ia?aaeaa/a?oueny no. 180 OeE, ? iaia’yceiaith oiiaith
aeey noyaiaiiy aeiaia??ii? iaonoieee. A?aoiaoth/e, ui iaonoieea iiaea
aooe anoaiiaeaia caeiiii ? aeiaiai?ii iaeii/anii, e?aaeeoi?, a ?ac?
iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, io?eio? i?aai ia
na?e ?icnoae aeiaaaoe a?ae ai?aeieea noyaiaiiy caeiiii? aai aeiaia??ii?
iaonoieee.

sse aaea cacia/aeinue, i?e noyaiaii? iaonoieee e?aaeeoi? ia
ciaia’ycaiee aeiaiaeeoe ?ici?? caaaeaieo eiio caeoe?a. Iaeiae, yeui
iaeaaeia aei nieaoe iaonoieea ? iaaei??ii aaeeeith ii??aiyii ?c caeoeaie
e?aaeeoi?a, noae ai?aa? ?? ciaioeoe ( no. 205 OeE oe?a?ie ? no. 83 AIE
Oe?a?ie ). ??oaiiy i?i oea iiaea i?eeiyoe o?eueee noae, aeey /iai a?i
ai?aa? cai?ineoe aeieace i?i ?ici?? caaaeaieo caeoe?a. I?e oeueiio noae
aa?a aei oaaae nooi?iue aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy ai?aeieeii, iaeiiaee noai
noi??i,ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o ciaia’ycaii?, ia o?eueee iaeiia? a e ?io?
?ioa?ane noi??i,ui caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao.Cacaia/aia i?aaeei
noino?oueny a?aeiinei o yeeo aa?ooue o/anoue a?iiaaeyie. Ciaioaiiy
?ici??o iaonoieee o a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie iiaea iaoe i?noea
eeoa o aeeeth/ieo aeiaaeeao.

Ii ie?aiei aeaeai ciaia’ycaiue caeiiii iiaea aooe iaiaaeaia i?aai
ia iiaia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a (iaiaaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue). Oae
iaiaaeaio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiue ianooue i?aaie ca’yceo ? o?ainii?oo.

Aeey noyaiaiiy iaonoieee anoaiiaeaii nei?i/ai? no?iee iiciaii?
aeaaiino? (no. 72 OeE Oe?a?ie). O iei?oi?o oiiaao aoei a aeioe?eueii
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae oe??? i?aaiai? ii?ie. Eeeae Ae., I?AAI OE?A?IE, 1996,
? 12, no.64 — 67

Aeaaa III. Oeea?eueii i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a ca?oa?aeiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa?.

1. Oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a e?a?iao ?a?iie.

Iaonoieea ? iaeiei c iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo niinia?a caaacia/aiiy
aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue ? oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a
i?aeoeoe? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?. Iaonoieea – ?inoeooo, oa?aeoa?iee
aieiaiei /eiii i?aao e?a?i eiioeiaioaeueii? ?a?iie; naia o oeeo e?a?iao
aiia aeeiio? ooieoe?? caaacia/aiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue. Caaaeueia
?icoi?iiy iaonoieee iaeiaeiaa o oeeo e?a?iao ? caiaeeoueny aei
ianooiiiai: aiia aecia/a?oueny, ye a?ioiaa noia /e ?ioa aneiiaeaia o
aeiaiai?? iaeiiaa oe?ii?noue, yeo ai?aeiee ciaia’yco?oueny nieaoeoe
e?aaeeoi?o o aeiaaeeo iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy
(no. 1226 OAE; no. 339 AAO; no. 160 OIC). Iaonoieea – aeoeani?ia
ciaia’ycaiiy, ui iiai?noth iiae?ey? aeieth aieiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy
(no.1227 OOeE; 344 AAO; aac. 2 no. 163 OIC).

O ca’yceo c iaonoieeith aeieea? ?yae ieoaiue, ui aieiaiei /eiii
noinothoueny ?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c ae?enieie caeoeaie, ye? io?eiaa
e?aaeeoi? a ?acoeueoao? ae?e iani?aaiiai ai?aeieea.

I?aai an?o e?a?i aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui iniiaia i?ecia/aiiy iaonoieee
iieyaa? a ca?eueiai? e?aaeeoi?a a?ae iaiao?aeiino? aeiaiaeeoe ?ici??
caeoe?a. I?e ianoaii? ianoaaei, ia?aaeaa/aieo o aeiaiai??, a?i i?inoi
iiaea aeiaaaoe a?ae ai?aeieea nieaoe noie iaonoieee. sseui iayai? caeoee
ia?aaeuothoue ?ici?? iaonoieee, oi, ca?aeii aac. 2 ia?. 340 AAO ? aac. 2
no. 161 OIC, e?aaeeoi? iiaea aeiaiaeeoe ? noyaoaaoe noio iayaieo
caeoe?a. E??i oiai, ye AAO, oae ? OIC iaaeathoue noaeo i?aai ca
eeiiioaiiyi ai?aeieea ciaioeoe ?ici?? iaonoieee, yeui aoaea anoaiiaeaii,
ui aiia iaaei??ii aaeeea, ii??aiyii ?c caeoeaie e?aaeeoi?a (aac. 1 ia?.
343 AAO; aac. 3 no. 163 OIC). O a?aeiia?aeiino? c ia?. 348 AAO ciaioaiiy
iaonoieee ia canoiniao?oueny aeey oi?aiaeo oaiae.

O?ioe ii ?ioiio oey i?iaeaia ae??oo?oueny a i?aa? O?aioe??. Ca?aeii no.
1229 OAE, iaonoieea “yaey?oueny a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi ca caeoee, ye?
e?aaeeoi? iana aiane?aeie iaaeeiiaiiy iniiaiiai ciaia’ycaiiy”. E??i
oiai, ca?aeii no. 1152 OAE, “yeui oaiaea anoaiiaeth?, ui noi?iia, yea ia
aeeiiaea ??, niea/o? aecia/aio noio a yeino? caeoe?a, oi ae?oa?e noi?ii?
ia iiaea aooe iaaeaii i? a?eueoo, i? iaioo noio”. Oaeei /eiii,
e?aaeeoi?, a i?eioeei?, iicaaaeaiee iiaeeeaino? aeiaaaoe aeieaoe
a?eueoi? noie, iaa?oue, yeui iayai? caeoee cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue
iaonoieeo. Aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy ia aeathoue iiaeeeaino? ? ai?aeieeo
aeiaaaoe cieaeaiiy noie iaonoieee, e??i aeiaaee?a, eiee ciaia’ycaiiy ia
aeeiiaii /anoeiai, a iaonoieea aoea ia?aaeaa/aia ca iiaia iaaeeiiaiiy
ciaia’ycaiiy. (no. 1231 OAE).

Oe? noai?? ? aeoaea iaaio/e? ii?ie caeiio aoee aeaui iii’yeoai? a 1975
?ioe?, eiee no. 1152 OAE aoea aeiiiaiaia iieiaeaiiyi, ui iaaeaaaei
noaeae? i?aai ci?ieoe noio iaonoieee, yeui, ia eiai aeoieo, aiia iaaeoi
aeniea /e iaaeoi iaea. Oiiae aeiaiai?o, ui noia?a/aoue oe?e ii?i?,
aeciaaaeenue iaae?enieie. Oaeei /eiii, o?aioeocueea i?aai oaia?
caeeceeinue c eiioeaioe??th iaonoieee, ui oa?aeoa?ia oeea?eueiiio i?aao
I?ia//eie oa Oaaeoea???.

Ii ne?eueee iaonoieea iineoue a i?eioeei? oa?aeoa? eiiiainaoe?? ? i?aeoi
cai?uo? caeoee a?ae iaaeeiiaiiy /e iaiaeaaeiiai aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o,
e?aaeeoi? iiaea noyaoaaoe iaonoieeo ?acii c aeeiiaiiyi, o?eueee yeui
aiia aoea anoaiiaeaia ia aeiaaeie i?ino?i/ee (ia?. 341; /. 2 no. 1229
OAE), a OIC iia’yco? oea e??i i?ino?i/ee c ii?ooaiiyi oiiae i?i i?noea
aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o (aac. 2 no. 160 OIC).

I?aai I?ia//eie oa Oaaeoea??? aeiionea? aeeth/aiiy o aeiaia?? oiiae i?i
oo?aoiee oa?aeoa? iaonoieee. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaonoieea aoaea
noyaoaaoenue iiiaae caeoee.

2. Oeea?eueii i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy iaonoieee a aiaei-aia?eeainueeeo
e?a?iao.

Iieiaeaiiy aiaei-aia?eeainueeiai i?aaa i?i iaonoieeo a cia/i?e i???
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae i?eien?a eiioeiaioaeueiiai i?aaa. Ianaiia?aae, a
aiaei-aia?eeainueeiio i?aa? a?aenooi? ?aeeia iiiyooy, ?aeaioe/ia
iiiyooth iaonoieee. Oai ?nio? aeaa iiiyooy: iiia?aaeiuei ia/eneai?
caeoee (liquidated damages) ? oo?ao (penalty). Aeoiaey/e c iieiaeaiiy,
ca?aeii yeiai caniae oeea?eueii-i?aaiaiai caoenoo iiaeooue iaoe o?eueee
eiiiainaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, a ia oa?aeoa? iiea?aiiy, caaaeueia i?aai
iinoaiiaeei, ui o aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o noyaiaiith i?aeeyaathoue
iiia?aaeiuei ia/eneai? caeoee, a oo?ao i?eiee ia iiaea aooe noyaiooi.
Ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? a?aeiia?aeii? aeiaia??ii? oiiae a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio
aeiaaeeo ae??oo? noae. Aeey noaeo ia ia? cia/aiiy, ye iacaaee noi?iie
noio, yea i?aeeyaa? nieao? i?e ii?ooai? aeiaiai?o, – liquidated damages
/e penalty. Noae ciaia’ycaiee aeine?aeeoe neooaoe?th, yea iaea i?noea a
iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o, ?icaeyiooe, iane?eueee anoaiiaeaiiy aeaii?
noie aoei iaa?oioiaaii, a ye?e i??? noi?iie naia a iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy
aeiaiai?o iiaee i/?eoaaoe, ui caeoee a?ae iiaeeeaiai ii?ooaiiy aoaeooue
??ai? noi?, ui iaoiiaeaia a aeiaiai??. ?ici?? ae?enieo caeoe?a, ye? aoee
caaaeaii? e?aaeeoi?ia? a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o, cia/aiiy ia
ia?. Aaaeeeai eeoa, iane?eueee i/?eoaaiiy anoaiiaeaiiai ?ici??o aoei
iaa?oioiaaii a iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o.

A iaea?eueo e?aei?e oi?i? oeae i?eioeei i?iaiaeeoueny a aiae?enueeiio
i?aa?:yeui a?aeiia?aeia oiiaa aeiaiai?o aoea eaae?o?eiaaia noaeii ye
iiia?aaeiuei ia/eneai? caeoee, oi e?aaeeoi? io?eia? anoaiiaeaio noio,
iaa?oue, yeui a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o eiio ia caaaeaii i?yeeo
caeoe?a.

Uiaei i?aaa NOA, oi noaee a oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeiiaeythoue a
i?enoaeaeaii? iaoiiaeaii? noie, oiaoi aa?aoueny aei oaaae ? neooaoe?y,
ui neeaeany a iiiaio ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o. sse a Aiae??, oae ? a NOA,
yeui noae i?eeia ??oaiiy, ui noia anoaiiaeaia a?eueii /e c iaoith
iia?ice ai?aeieeo, a?aeiia?aeia oiiaa eaae?o?eo?oueny ye oo?ao, ?
e?aaeeoi?, ui aaaea? io?eiaoe caaeiaieaiiy, iiaeiai a cae/aeiiio
ii?yaeeo aeiaiaeeoe ?ici?? ae?enieo caeoe?a, ui eiio aoee caaaeai?. Oeae
i?aeo?ae io?eiaa caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy a NOA a no. 2-718 AOE, ca?aeii
ye?e caeoee, aecia/ai? a oaiae?, iiaeooue aooe noyaioo?, “iaeiae o?eueee
o ?ici???, yeee iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?icoiiei o ca’yceo c i/?eoaaiith /e
ae?eniith ao?aoith, ui ni?e/eiaia ii?ooaiiyi aeiaiai?o”. Oei naiei i?yii
ciaia’yco? a?aoe aei oaaae neooaoe?th ui ?nio? a iiiaio ia o?eueee
oeeaaeaiiy, aea ? aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o.

Oaeei /eiii, iaonoieea a aiaei-aia?eeainueeiio i?aa? ia aeeiio? oeo
caaacia/oaaeueieo ooieoe?e, ye? aeanoea? ?e a eiioeiaioaeueiiio i?aa?,
ine?eueee o an?o aeiaaeeao ia iiceaa/aa? caeeoa?oueny oyaa? aeiaaaeaiiy
iaa?oioiaaiino? noie, ui aecia/aia a aeiaiai??. *a?ac oea iaonoieea ia
io?eiaea a oeeo e?a?iao aaeeeiai iioe?aiiy.

NIENIE E?OA?AOO?E

I. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe

1. Oeea?eueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie a?ae 1 n?/iy 1964

2. A?a?o?aaeiee i?ioeanoaeueiee Eiaeaen Oe?a?ie a?ae 6 eenoiiaaea 1991

3. Caeii Oe?a?ie “ I?i canoaao ” a?ae 2 aeiaoiy 1992

4. Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 24 a?oaeiy 1993 ?. “ I?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ianai?/ania aeeiiaiiy a?ioiaeo ciaia’ycaiue”

5. Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae 25 /a?aiy 1993 ?. “ I?i
ii?iaoeae ia?ao ieao?aeieo aeieoiaio?a a Oe?a?i?”

6. Oeac I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 2 /a?aiy 1994 ?. ? 276/94 “ I?i
iaa?aeeeaaei? caoiaee uiaei o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai caaacia/aiiy
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?iaeiaieue/eo ?ano?n?a 1994-1995 ?ie?a”

II. Aaoi?nuee? i?aoe?

1. A?aaa E. A., Aeiaiai?iay iaonoieea a niaaoneii i?aaa, Iineaa, 1950

2. Naiieeaiei A. I., Iooe?i A. A., A?aaeaeaineia i?aai Oe?aeiu,
Ee?a,1994

3. Nooaiia ?. A., A?aaeaeaineia i?aai, Iineaa,1994

4. Oienoie TH. E., Na?a??a A. I., O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai
i?aaa, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996

5. Oa?oaiaae/ A. O., O/aaiee ?onneiai a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, Iineaa1995

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