?AOA?AO

c eo?no “Iniiae aea?aeaae ? i?aaa”

ia oaio

Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?ioean

a Oe?a?i?

IEAI

?. Aeoiee oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio.

??. ?aea? oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio o O?O no.

???. Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?ioean a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue

IV. Eiinoeoooe?iiae?ci o iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

I?i Oe?a?io iiaeia eacaoe ye i?i aea?aeaao c aeaai?ie eiinoeoooe?eieie
o?aaeeoe?yie, a?eueoa oiai — naia iaoa e?a?ia aeaea na?oia? ia?oee
c?acie aeaiie?aoe/ii? eiinoeoooe?? ca 65 ?ie?a aei oiai, ye aoei
i?eeiyoi neaaaoio eiinoeoooe?th Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee, ui ??
aaaaeathoue a?aei?aaiith oi/eith aeaiie?ao??. I?ioa i?aeaaeeie
oe?a?inueei? eiinoeoooe?? caeeaaeaeeny ua a aeaai? /ane. Ni?iaoeii
iine?aeiaii iaeyiooe iniiai? aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
eiinoeoooe?eii? ?aea?.

?. Aeoiee oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio

Oe?a?inueeee ia?iae o ia?oee aea?aeaaiee ia??iae (eiyaea Oe?a?ia-?onue,
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea oa Eeoianueei-?onueea aea?aeaae) ia iaa aeaniiai
ienaiiai caeiio eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaeiae naia oiae? aoee
caeeaaeai? iaai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo ?aeae a Oe?a?i?. A /ane eiyaei? Oe?a?ie
iaeaaaeeea?oith iai’yoeith, ui caa?aaea aeaai? ii?ie cae/a?aiai i?aaa,
aoea “?onueea I?aaaea”. E??i cae/a?aiai i?aaa, o “?onuee?e I?aaae?”
c?a?ai? e “eiyae? onoaae”, aea aiie oaae ca ci?noii oa oi?iith aeeae/?
aei cae/a?aiai i?aaa, i?ae aei ienaiiai caeiio. Aeania caeiiioai?/a
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aoea iacia/ia ? aeoaea
iaiaaeaia ia?aaaaith cae/a?aiai i?aaaea. Na?aae oaeeo aeieoiaio?a iiaeia
iacaaoe eiyae? aeiaiai?e, ui iathoue caeaa?eueoiai oi?io ienaiiai
caeiio, ? aaaaeathoueny iaeaeaai?oeie. Aei ian ae?eoee i?aeia?iaei?
aeiaiai?e, aeiaiai?e eiyc?a i?ae niaith oa c ia?iaeii.

Aea?aeaaiee ono??e Oe?a?ie-?on? iaa on? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiaeaeueoiai
noai?aiiy i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo no?oeoo?. Oiai/ania a?/a i?aaii??ii
?icaeyaeaoe ye i?aai i?yiiai ia?iaeii?aanoaa, yeee ooieoe?iioaaa o
aeaeyae? cai??a a?iiaaeyi i?noa, caie? ? ?icaeyaeaa oa aeiinea ooaaee o
ni?aaao, ui noinoaaeeny oe?eiai eiyc?anoaa /e caie?. Oae? a?/ia?
c?a?aiiy a?ee ia?aaoey?i? ? ia iaee /?oeiai noaoono, aea a ?yae?
aeiaaee?a ia ieo iae?aeeny eiyc? aai oeeaaeaeeny aeiaiai?e c ieie, ye?
iiaeia iacaaoe ca?iaeeii oe?a?inueei? eiinoeoooe??. O oeueiio ieai?
Ee?anueea aea?aeaaa ?icaeaaeany a eiioaeno? aea?aeaaieo oi?i i?aae?iiy
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, aea c ?? caiaiaaeii (e?iaoeue 14 — 15 no)
o?aaeeoe?? aeaiie?aoecio oa ia?eaiaioa?ecio ia ae?noaee iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo.

Ae?eoee aei ian ??ciiiai?oi? ca ci?noii oa cia/aiiyi Iaea?eueo nooo?aei
caeiiii, nenoaiaoeciaaiei ye th?eaee/iee aeo a ?aeeiee aeieoiaio,
noaea o?aoy ?aaeaeoe?y Eeoianueeiai noaoooo. iai’yoee caeiiioai?/i?
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeaaee ca Eeoianueei-?onueei? aeiae.
Eiai ooaaeaii ia niei? 1588 ?ieo, iaae?oeiaaii ?ieii i?ci?oa, i?ney
/iai a?i iaaoa /eiiino? o Eeoianueei-?onuee?e aea?aeaa?, a oaeiae
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui a?ae?eoee aei Iieueu?. Iaeiei c iniiaieo
aeaea?ae noaoooo aoea ?onueea I?aaaea. IA ii/aoeo 17 no oeae noaooo aoa
ia?aeeaaeaiee iieuenueeith iiaith c aeiaeaoeaie o?eae?a iieuenueeeo
ca??iee?a cae/a?aiii i?aaa) ? iaae?oeiaaiee 1614 ?ieo o A?euei?.
Aeaeaiiyi Eeoianueeiai noaoooo aoei caaa?oaii i?ioean oi?o?eaoe??
i?aaiae? nenoai ?onueeeo caiaeue oa eeoianueeiai i?aaa. Cai?noue
??ciiiai?oieo i?noeaaeo i?aa oia?oa aoei noai?aii caaaeueia “iiniieeoa
i?aai”, ?aeeia aeey an??? Eeoianueei-?onueei? aea?aeaae.

Nioe?aeueiee ci?no Eeoianueeiai noaoooo a?aeia?aaeaa ?ioa?ane
i?ea?eaeiaaiiai oeyoaonueeiai noaio. Ca nai?ie i?aaie/eie yeinoyie
noaooo ia?aaa?ooaaa aaaaoi oiae?io?o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo eiaeaen?a ?
oiio ni?aaeya ?noioiee aieea ia caeiiiaeaanoaa non?aei?o aea?aeaa. A?i
iaa /eii?noue ye io?oe?eiee ca??iee caeii?a ? a Eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa?,
i?ioa aeoaie aea?aeaaii-eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o iiaeia aaaaeaoe eeoa
aeiaiai?e aeiae noaiiaeaiiy Aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae.

Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee iaa oe?ieo i?ia?aio noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? oa iaiaaaany eiinoeoooe?eii cae??ieoe ??. C ia?oeo ?ie?a
naiai aaoueiaioaaiiy a?i i?iooea i?iaeaie a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei c
non?aei?ie aea?aeaaaie, oeeaaoe ?yae i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a.
Ia?ayneaanueeee aeiaia??, i?aeienaiee i?ae Aaoueiaiueiith oa Iineaith,
ae??oea aeieth Oe?a?ie. Aieiai? eiai i?eioeeie aoee caeeaaeai? a oiae?
ia?aaiai??a aaoueiaia oa eicaoeueei? aa?o?aee c iineianueeei
iinieuenoaii Aooo?e?ia. Iniiao? oiiae aoee aeaoae?ciaai? i?ae /an
ia?aae ?c noa?oeiith oa ae?noaee inoaoi/io ?aaeaeoe?th a 23 noaooyo c
i?aeienii aaoueiaia. Caiaeii o Iinea? ca iaeacii oea?y Ieaen?y aoei
noi?iiaaii 11 noaoae. On? oe? aeieoiaioe neeaee iiaiee oaeno aeiaiai?o
1654 ?ieo, icia/aiiai ye “eiinoeoooe?y”. Aei oeueiai aeieoiaioo
caiaeii aiaethaaee oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ae?y/? aei OO noie?ooy
aeeth/ii. Aeiaia?? ia caaaaeaa Oe?a?i? i?iaiaeeoe iacaeaaeio
iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo. Aiae?coth/e ?noi?e/i? iiae?? oiai ia??iaeo,
iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i iii?iaeueio aanaeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae Iineae, yeo
aea th?a anoaiiaethaaa aeiaia?? 1654 ?ieo.

I?ney nia?o? Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?aai Aeaianueeee i?iaeiaaeea
aea?aeaaieoeueeo iie?oeeo uiaei a?aeiiaeaiiy Aaeeeiai Eiyc?anoaa
?onueeiai. Ii/aoie oaei? ae?yeueiino? iieeaaeaii Ei?noinueeei o?aeoaoii
c? Oaaoe??th, a caiaeii cae??ieaii a Aaaeyoeueeiio o?aeoao?. Iaeiei c
oai?aoeeii oeueiai aeiaiai?o aoa TH??e Iaie?e/. A iniiao aeieoiaioo
iieeaaeaii ?aeath nithco o?ueio aea?aeaa: Ei?ie?anoaa Iieuenueeiai,
Aaeeeiai Eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai oa A?enueea Caii?icueeiai, a?ioa
iiia?aaeiuei ocaiaeaeai? ioieoe aoee cai?iai? ei?ie?anueeith ?aaeith ?
?aoeo?eiaai? o nei?i/aiiio aeaeyae?. Ia?oee aa??aio Aaaeyoeueeiai
o?aeoaoo a?ae 6 aa?aniy 1658 ? ia? ca aieiaia iieiaeaiiy oa, ui “any
??/iiniieeoa ia?iaeo iieuenueeiai, eeoianueeiai oa ?onueeiai
a?aeiiaeth?oueny iaii?ooii, ye aiie aoee ia?aae a?eiith, a a?aieoeyo ?
naiaiaeao nai?o… “ Aaoueiai ye aaeeeee eiycue ?on? aoa aea oaeoi
aieiaea?ai Oe?a?ie, a?i, ieo?iiieeo oa i?aaineaai? ?ieneiie iaee
can?aeaoe a ni?eueiiio naiao?. Oaeiae aeieoiaio aecia/aa aaeeeo
e?euee?noue i?aa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Oey i?ia?aia ia aoea
?aae?ciaaia /a?ac noeioeueiaaio Iineaith “?aaiethoe?th /a?i?”, i?ioa
i?aaiaiiy oeiinoeoothaaoe naiino?eieoeueeo ?aeath ia iieeoaei
oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny ia??iaeo ae?yeueiino?
Iao?a Aei?ioaiea, ?aaia Iacaie oa Ieeeia I?eeea.

“Iaeoe ? eiinoeoooe??”, iaienai? aaoueiaiii A?enueea Caii??cueeiai
Ieeeiii I?eeeii oa eiai niiaeaeaeieeaie A. Aa?oeeeii oa A.
Aieia?ianueeei, i?eeiyo? 5 ea?oiy 1710 ?ieo o Aaiaea?ao, ? ia?oith
oe?a?inueeith eiinoeoooe??th a ?? no/aniiio ?icoi?ii?. “Iaeoe e
Eiinoeoooe?? caeii?a oa aieueiinoae A?enueea Caii?icueeiai” neeaaeai? ye
oaiaea i?ae aaoueiaiii oa A?enueeii Caii?icueeei (ia?iaeii Oe?a?ie), ui
aoei oa?aeoa?iei aeey cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? o?aaeeoe?? ? a?ae??ciyeiny
a?ae ?aeae no?aeiiai iao??iii?ae?cio.

Eiinoeoooe?y neeaaea?oueny c i?aaiaoee oa 16 ia?aa?ao?a, aea
noi?ioeueiaai? aieiai? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aea?aeaae. O ia?oiio
ia?aa?io? “Iaeo?a oa Eiinoeoooe?e” ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy a??e, cayaeaii
i?i i?aaineaa’y ye iai?aio ?ae?a?th a aea?aeaa?, a oaeiae i?i
a?aeiiaeaiiy aaoieaoae??. Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao aaaeeeaee oei, ui /?oei
icia/ea ei?aeiie aea?aeaae, aecia/ai? Cai??anueeei aeiaiai?ii 1649
?ieo. Aaoueiai aoa ciaia’ycaiee aa?aaoe oa?eoi??aeueio oe?e?ni?noue
e?a?ie.

I?eioeeiiaee oa?aeoa? ia? oinoee ia?aa?ao, aea caeeaaeai? i?eioeeie
oi?aae?iiy oa ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Eiinoeoooe?y
iaaiith i??ith a?oiooaaeany ia ?aea? iiae?eo aeaaee ia caeiiiaeaa/o,
aeeiiaa/o oa noaeiao. Caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea iaeaaeeoue ?aae?, /eaiaie
yei? ? iieeiaieee c? nai?th noa?oeiith, nioieee, “aaia?aeuei? ?aaeieee
a?ae an?o iiee?a” oa “iinee a?ae Ieciaiai A?enueea Caii??cueeiai aeey
neooaiiy ? iaaiai?aiiy ni?aa, uia acyoe aeoeaio o/anoue»” ?aaea iiaeiia
cae?aoeny o?e/? ia ??e — ia ??caeai O?enoiaa, Nayoi Aaeeeiaeiy oa
Iie?iae, a oaeiae ca ??oaiiyi aaoueiaia. On? aaaeeea? aea?aeaai?
ni?aae aaoueiai ia? iiia?aaeiuei ocaiaeaeoaaoe, “ia aeaniee ?icnoae
i?ui ia iiaeiii i? ii/eiaoeny, i? ae??ooaaoeny, i? cae?enithaaoeny”.
Noae oaeiae iaa ae?yoe iacaeaaeii, ine?eueee aaoueiai “ia iiaeiai
ea?aoe nai ?c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae ? iiinoe, aea oaea i?aaiii?oaaiiy — ?
oienia, ? aeiaaeeiaa — ia? i?aeeyaaoe ?icaeyaeo Aaia?aeueiiai Noaeo,
yeee ? iiaeiai aeianoe ??oaiiy ia iiaeaaeeeaa ? ia eeoeai??ia, a oaea,
yeiio eiaeai ioneoue i?aeei?eoeny ye ia?aiiaeaiee caeiiii”.

Eiinoeoooe?y Ieeeia I?eeea ae?yea ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? aei 1714
?ieo. Oaeno aoa neeaaeaiee eaoeinueeith oa noa?ioe?a?inueeith iiaaie.
“Iaeoe ? Eiinoeoooe?? caeii?a oa aieueiinoae A?enueea Caii??cueeiai”
aoee iaienai? i?ae cia/iei aieeaii ?aeae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai
ia?eaiaioa?ecio ? caeeaaeaee aieiai? i?eioeeie ?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie
i?aae?iiy.

??. ?aea? oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio o O?O noie?oo?.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?aeae eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio o O?O no a?ae?a?aei
Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueea oiaa?enoai (1846-1847). Aeoiaey/e c ?aeae
iaineaa?cio, aiii ?ic?iaeei iiaeaeue noni?euenoaa, ui aaco?oueny ia
canaaeao ni?aaaaeeeaino?, a?aoa?noaa, naiaiaee, ??aiino?. Iniiai?
aeieoiaioe ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a (“Eieae aoooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”,
“Caeii Aiaeee”, “Noaoo Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai oiaa?enoaa”), a?aeicae
(“A?aoe oe?a?ioe?”, “A?aoe aaeeei?in?yie oa iieyee”) aeoiaeeee c ?aea?
i?i iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy neia’yinueeiai nithco. Ia?iaeaie a?aoaie
iacaai? aoee ?in?yie, oe?a?ioe?, iieyee, /aoe, neiaaee, oi?aaie,
na?ae oa aieaa?e. On? oe? aeoe iiioey?ii-aeaeea?aoeai? ? ia iiaeooue
ca?aoiaoaaoeny aei eiinoeoooe?eieo, i?ioa iaeei ?c /eai?a oiaa?enoaa
Aai?a?e Aiae?ocueeee ?ic?iaea i?ae aieeaii Ieeiee Aoeaea “Ia/a?ee
Eiinoeoooe?? ?anioae?ee”.

Ia?oeo aeaa i?iaeoe Eiinoeoooe?? iaienai? a 1846-47 ??. Iiaeyaee aaoi?a
aaiethoe?iioaaee a?ae iaiaaeaiiy aei cai?ie iiia?o?/ii? aeaaee ia
?anioae?eainueeo. Inoaii?e aa??aio aeeo/aiee a Aiae?ocueeiai i?ae /an
iaooeo aaea ia caneaii? a Iao?icaaiaenueeo a aa?aci? 1850 ?ieo.

Ca no?oeoo?ith oa ci?noii “Ia/a?ee” ia?aaoeoaaeeny c ia?iaeieoeueeeie
eiiaaioe?yie. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeany ieoaiiyi naiia?yaeoaaiiy.
Aeieoiaio aecia/a? iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaee ye iniiae
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, iieno? iaoai?ci ae?yeueiino? ie?oao, iaeano?,
ooaoo. Aea?aeaaa iaea ia’?aeiaoe 7 aaoiiiiieo ooao?a ?c nai?ie
i?aceaeaioaie. Na?aae ooao?a iacaai?: 1)Oe?a?ia c *i?iiii?’yi,
Aaee/eiith ? E?eiii; 2)Iieueua c Iiciaiith, Eeoaith oa Eaoa??th;
3)Aanna?aa?y c Iieaeiaith oa ?oioi??th; 4)Inoca?; 5) Na?a?y; 6)Aieaa??y;
7)Aeii. Oe?eaai, ui o neia’yinuee?e eiioaaea?aoe?? ia ciaoiaeeii
?in??, ui aoei iaoa?aeoa?ii aeey oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee aeaiiai ia??iaeo. I?i iayai?noue oaeeo iano?i?a na?ae/aoue neiaa
Aiae?ocueeiai o iaoa??aeao ne?aenoaa: “I?e i?e ?nioaaea iaoa
iaei?in?enueea: anoaiiaeaiiy Aaoueiaiueie, yeui iiaeia, ie?aii, yeui
i? — a Neia’yiuei?”.

A inoaii?e /aa?o? O?O noie?ooy oe?a?inueea eiinoeoooe?eia ieaooi?ia
ae?noaea ?icaeoie o i?aoeyo Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa. I?ae aieeaii
aeaeaa?eno?a oa i?aaenoaaiee?a aiae?enueeiai e?aa?ae?cio Ae?aaiiaiia
noai?ea eiioeaioe?th noni?euenoaa, ui a?oioo?oueny ia ?aea? anioe?aoe??
aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaieo iniaenoinoae. Oeyo aei oeueiai ?aeaaeo —
oaaea?ae?ci c iaeneiaeueiith aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??th oa naiia?yaeoaaiiyi
a?iiaae ? iaeanoae.

O nai?o i?aoeyo Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia ia ia?oa i?noea noaaeoue oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaae ia canaaeao iie?oe/ii? naiaiaee. Oe?a?inueeee ieneeoaeue i?ae
iie?oe/iith naiaiaeith ?icoi?a i?aaa ethaeeie oa a?iiaaeyieia, aei yeeo
iaeaaeaoue: iaaeioi?eai?noue iniaenoino?, aeeooy, i?eaaoiiai
eenooaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueiino? (iiae), naiaiaea nia?no?, ae?oeo,
ia’?aeiaiue, iin?iiy ca?i?, aeai?o aeeoea ? caiyoue, a oaeiae i?aai
iiciao ia iinaaeiao iniao /e a?aeiinoai oa ni?ioeao iacaeiiiei ae?yi
/eiiaiee?a. ??ai?noue on?o o a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aaao oa iaia’yceao, ia
aeoieo Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ia iiaea aooe a?aei?iaia aeiaeiei caeiiiaeaa/ei
aeoii. Aeiyoeii iiaea aooe eeoa a?enueeiaee noai.

Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia ?ic?iaea eiinoeoooe?eiee i?iaeo ia?aoai?aiiy
?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaio oaaea?aoeaio aea?aeaao —
“I?iaeo iniia noaoooo oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa “A?eueia ni?eea”” (1884
?). Aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ono??e ooo iaaaaeo? oaaea?aoeai? ?anioae?ee NOA,
Oaaeoea???. Aeey aaeeao ia caeiiiaeaa/o oa aeeiiaa/o ae?yeuei?noue
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a noai?th?oueny Nithcia Aeoia, ui ?ai?acaioo?
?ioa?ane iaoe?iiaeueieo iaeanoae. Aeoia ia? i?aai coieiyoe ??uaiiy oa
ae?? oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo, aea?aeaaieo iaeao, ye? aoiaeyoue o
noia?a/i?noue c ?ioa?anaie iaeanoae.

I?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy — iniiaa eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai iie?oieiaa.
Naia oiio ?icae?e 3 ?icii/eia?oueny c i?aa ethaeeie, a ca ieie ae?oaei
ca aaaeeea?noth eaea naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ooo aaoi? ?aaeaiaioo?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?inoeooo?a i?noeaaiai naii?yaeoaaiiy a?ae naea aei
iaeano?, ye? iiaeii? aooe cao?eniaai? a niaoe?aeueiiio noaooo?. Aei
eiiiaoaioe?? iaeanii? aeoie aoiaeeoue oe?ea iecea i?aa a?ae
naiino?eiino? a iiaeaoeia?e iie?oeoe? aei aeaniiai caeiiioai?aiiy, ui
aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i ieaiiaaiee oaaea?aoeaiee noaoon iaeano? o
neeaae? ?in??. Iaeiae Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia ?aaeueii ioe?ith? iiaeeeaino?
aeiei??iieo ci?i o oiae?oi?e ?in?enuee?e aiia??? ? i?iiiio? nenoaio
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia eeoa aeey noa’?eo?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
a e ianaiia?aae aeey iaeanieo iai?niee?a. Aaoi? “A?eueii? ni?eee” a
Aeiaeaoeo ?? iiynith? ?ieue iaeaniiai iai?nieea, ui i?ecia/a?oueny
aeaaith aea?aeaae. O aeiaaeeo eiioe?eoo o a?aeiineiao i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy c aea?aeaaieie /eiiaieeaie eiai iieeeeaiee
?ica’ycaoe aeuee noae — Naiao. Eiee iaeaniee iai?niee ia?aaeueoue nai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, oi eiai /aea? a?aenoaaea. Ia aeoieo Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aa oa naiia?yaeoaaiiy noai?eoue iaai?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai aecaieaiiy oa
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Oiio, i?aenoiiaoth/e na?e i?iaeo,
Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia o caeeth/i?e /anoei? cao?enoaaa, ui iaoith
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa iiaeii? aooe:

Oe?e? caaaeueii-a?iiaaenuee?: a) i?aaa ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia — ye
iaiao?aeia oiiaa iniaenoi? a?aeiino? ? ?icaeoeo; a) naiia?yaeoaaiiy — ye
iniiaa aeey ?ooo aei nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?; 2) Oe?eue
aocueeiiaoe?iiaeueia — iie?oe/ia naiaiaea ye can?a aeey iiaa?iaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? aei n?i’? iaoe?e eoeueoo?ieo.

Niaaeei?ioeai iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo eiioeaioe?e ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a oa
Ae?aaiiaiiaa noaa Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee. O 1905 ?ioe? a?i aeoeaii
aeeth/eany o iaaiai?aiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai ieoaiiy a ?in??. A o?aai? 1905
?ieo a?i aeeeaa i?iaeo iaeaooiueiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo a ?in?enuee?e
?iia??? o noaoo? “Eiinoeoooe?eia ieoaiiy ? oe?a?inoai a ?in??”,
iioae?eiaai?e a aeo?iae? “E?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaee a?niee”.

O noaoo? aiae?co?oueny oiai/ania noaiiaeua ?in??, i?noea oe?a?inueeiai
?ooo a eiioaeno? caaaeueii?in?enueeiai, ni?inoiaothoueny iiaeyaee
?in?enueeeo e?aa?ae?a. Ooo i?enooi?e iiaee eiinoeoooe?eiee i?iaeo. O
noaoo? oa?i?ie “aeaiie?ao?y” oa “oaaea?ae?ci” c iaeyaeo ia oeaico?o
a?aenooi?, ?o cai?iaii neiaaie “i?ia?aneaiee”, “?ai?acaioaoeaiee”,
“?aoe?iiaeueiee”, ye? iiai?noth ia?aaeathoue nooi?noue eiioeaioe??
ia?aoai?aiue. A?ooaanueeee aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eea e?eoeoe? i?eioeeio
No?oaa uiaei i?yieo aeai??a ana?in?enueeiai ia?eaiaioo ye ?aeeii?
no?oeoo?e i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaaee. Iaoii?noue a?i ?ic?iaea iaoai?ci
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ?in?enueei? ?iia???.
Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii aoei ia?aianoe i?yi? aeai?e aei iaeanieo
(iaoe?iiaeueieo) naei?a, aeaiooaoe yeeo caiaeii iaee oi?ioaaoe
ia?eaiaio. Ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? ioieo i?i i?aaa aaoiiiiieo iaeanoae.
Eiaeiith c ieo oi?aaey? ia?aiee naei. A?eueoa iaoe?iiaeueia oa?eoi??y
ia? a?eueo? iiaiiaaaeaiiy naeio. Ioaea, eiinoeoooe?eiee i?iaeo Ieoaeea
A?ooaanueeiai 1905 ?ieo a?oioo?oueny ia aeaio iniiaieo i?eioeeiao:
?ai?acaioaoe?eiee o?yae oa iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueia
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y. Iaeiae oe? eiino?oeoeai? i?iiiceoe?? A?ooaanueeiai
noiniaii eiinoeoooe?eii-aaiethoe?eieo ci?i aoee i?aeoe/ii iacae?eniaii?
ca oiia ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Iacaaaeath/e ia noaaeueio ioe?ieo noaoo? “Eiinoeoooe?eia ieoaiiy ?
oe?a?inoai a ?in??” ae?y/aie oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo,
iaaia /anoeia ?aaeeeae?a e?eoeeoaaea oeae i?iaeo. Oae, o
“E?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaiio an?ieeo” c’yaeeany ioae?eaoe?y “Ia eeaeaeoa
a?na?o”, i?eienoaaia Ieeie? I?oiianueeiio, a ye?e noaa?aeaeo?oueny,
ui ii?yooieo ne?ae ooeaoe ia a “aaia?ae?a ? iieeiaiee?a oe?a?inoaa”, a a
“naiiio ia?iae?, a eiai iieiaeiio iieie?ii?. . . “. O oeueiio ae ?ioe?
iaoe?iiae-?aaeeeaeueia e?eei oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo cai?iiiioaaei na?e
aa??aio eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?iaeoo. Iniiaiee caeii “Naiino?eii? Oe?a?ie”
Ni?eee ia?iaeo oe?a?inueeiai aoa aeae?oeoaaiee o ia?oiio iiia?? /aniieno
Oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ia?o?? “Naiino?eia Oe?a?ia” o aa?ani? 1905 ?ieo.
A aacao? cacia/aeiny, ui i?iaeo iniiaiiai caeiio i?aeaioiaeaii a?oiith
/eai?a OII. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui an? i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe ia?o??
aiooaaeeny ca aeoeaii? o/ano? e?aea?a OII oa ?aaeaeoi?a “Naiino?eii?
Oe?a?ie” Ieeiee I?oiianueeiai, iiaeaii i?eionoeoe eiai aaciina?aaeith
i?e/aoi?noue ? aei oeueiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?iaeoo. Oeae iniiaiee caeii
noai?aiee i?ae cia/iei aieeaii ?aeae I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Iaeiae aaoi??a
aeieoiaioo ia aaeiaieueiya i?eioeei eieaeueiiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a iaaeao
?in?enueei? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae. A
Eiinoeoooe?? acaaae? ia caaaeo?oueny ?in?y, a a iniiao iieeaaeaii
i?eioeei iiaii? naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie, yea ia?eia? 9 caiaeue:
*i?iiii?nueea, Neia?aenueea, E?aiaa?aaeia, I?ai?/ia, Iie?nny,
I?aaiaa?aaeia, Ai?iaa ? Iiaeiaii?nueea. I?iiiioaaeiny noai?aiiy
i?aceaeaionueei? ?anioae?ee, aea caeiiiaeaa/o aeaaeo ia?eia? ?aaea
i?aaenoaaiee?a oa naiao. ?aeay aeaio iaeao (“oao”) ia?eaiaioo a?aoiao?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aei?iiino? caiaeue (naiao neeaaea?oueny c
aeaiooao?a, ia?aieo a?ae eiaeii? aie?, a ?aaea i?aaenoaaiee?a — c
aeaiooao?a a?ae ??cieo aeai?/eo ie?oa?a). Aeeiiaa/o aeaaeo ia?eia?
i?aceaeaio Anaoe?a?inueei? ni?eee, ui iae?a?oueny an?i ia?iaeii /a?ac
ieaa?noeeo ia 6 ?ie?a. Noaeiaa aeaaea iaeaaeeoue noaeai ? noaeaeyi.

? a eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?iaeo? ? noaooy i?i iaoe?iiae?caoe?th caie?,
i?ioa a?ae a?eueoiaeoeueei? nioe?ae?caoe?? aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny
i?eioeeiii a?ae/oaeaiiy ca aeeoi oa ?iciiae?eii caie? ca iaoe?iiaeueiith
iciaeith (/oaeeioe? ia iaee i?aaa i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth).

???. Eiinoeoooe?eiee i?ioean a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue.

Ioaea, ia ii/aoeo OO no a Oe?a?i? eiinoeoooe?eii ie?aneeeeny aeaa
iai?yiee iie?oeei-i?aaiai? oa eiinoeoooe?eii? aeoiee:
ia?iaeieoeueei-oaaea?aoeaiee ? eiina?aaoeaii-aea?aeaaieoeueeee. Ia?oee
iia’ycaiee, ianaiia?aae, c A?ooaanueeei ? aoa aaeueie iiioey?iee a
Oe?a?i?, ae?oaee — ?c I?oiianueeei ? i?ioiaeea noaae?th noaiiaeaiiy.
Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aoei coiiaeaii iiia?aaei?ie aoaiaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. C /ano noai?aiiy Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee (17 aa?aciy 1917 ?) ii/aany i?ioean ?icaoaeiae ?inoeooo?a
aea?aeaaiino?. Ia?oei aeoii caeiiiaeaa/iai oa?aeoa?o aoa ? Oi?aa?nae,
yeee i?iaieinea iaiao?aei?noue aeanieo caeii?a ? naiino?eiiai
ii?yaeeoaaiiy ia nai?o caieyo. I?ney aeeneon?? i?ae Oei/aniaei O?yaeii
oa Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith aoa i?eeiyoee ?? Oi?aa?nae, aea cacia/aeiny,
ui Oe?a?ia aecia? Ana?in?enuee? Onoaiia/? Cai?e, ye? iathoue noaaeeoe
?? aaoiiii?th. I?aaiao iniiao ii?icoi?iiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa
Oei/aniaiai O?yaeo aoei ioi?ieaii a Noaooo? Aeuiai Oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie,
yeee i?aeaiooaaea Iaea ?aaea 29 eeiiy 1917 ?ieo. Iaeiae Oei/aniaee o?yae
ia caoaa?aeea oeae Noaooo ? aeaeaa “Oei/aniao ?ino?oeoe? aeey
Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa??aoo”, ui nooo?ai iaiaaeoaaea i?aaa oe?a?inueei?
aaoiiii??. Ca?aeii c iei Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao i?iaieiooaaany
i?aaiii Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo ? Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea iicaaaeyeany
caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aa, oe?a?inueea oa?eoi??y ciaiooaaeany aei 5 aoaa?i?e.
Aea iii?e ana “Oei/aniaa ?ino?oeoe?y” noaea eiinoeoooe?eiei caeiiii, ui
?ai?acaiooaaa ae?yeuei?noue aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee a Oe?a?i?.

Oaeoe/iee a?ae?ea a?ae ?in?? caeiiiaeaa/i cao?enoaaa ??? Oi?aa?nae,
iaieioaiee 20 eenoiiaaea 1917 ?ieo, ui noaa ia?oei aeoii
eiinoeoooe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iei ia?aaeaa/aeany
oe?iea i?ia?aia iie?oe/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.
Aoee i?iaieioai? aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie — naiaiaea neiaa, ae?oeo,
a??iniia?aeaiiy, cai??a, iaaeioi?eai?noue iniae, neanoaaiiy nia?oii?
ea?e. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny neanoaaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth, yea
noaaaea aeani?noth anueiai ia?iaeo oa iaaeaaaeany aac aeeoio,
ai?iaaaeaeoaaany 8-aiaeeiiee ?iai/ee aeaiue, i?aai ?ia?oie/iai eiio?ieth
a i?iieneiaino?. I?ney i?iaieioaiiy ??? Oi?aa?naeo Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee
i?enooiea aei ae?iaeaiiy ni?aaaeiuei? Oe?a?inueei? Eiinoeoooe??, iniiae
yei? aoee iioae?eiaai? 20 eenoiiaaea 1917 ?ieo a aacao? “Ia?iaeia aiey”.
5 aieiaieo /anoei i?iaeoo: 1)caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ia, aea
anoaiiaeth?oueny aea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? Oe?a?ie, ?? oa?eoi??y oa iniiai?
i?aaa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?inueei? ?anioae?ee; 2)aecia/aiiy a?aeiinei c
oaaea?aoeaiith ?in?enueeith ?anioae?eith, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeoue
Oe?a?ia; 3)eiiiaoaioe?y aeui? caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee ia?eia?oueny
Anaia?iaeieie cai?aie oa ?o i?aceae??th; 4)aecia/aiiy aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee
— Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a; 5)aecia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? noaeiai? aeaaee —
Aaia?aeueiiai Noaeo. Aieiaa, ia?aiee Anaia?iaeieie Cai?aie, ?
aieiaith Oe?a?inueei? ?anioae?ee, oiaoi canooia? i?noea i?aceaeaioa.
A?i aea i?aaenoaaey? Oe?a?io o a?aeiineiao c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ?
aeeiio? ?io? ooieoe??, iia’ycai? c i?aaenoaaieoeoaii ?anioae?ee.

Iiaeaeueoee ia?aa?a iiae?e, cie?aia caa?ica a?eueoiaeoeueei? ieoiaoe??
oa iaiao?aei?noue iacaeaaeieoeueeiai noaoooo ia ie?iaeo ia?aaiai?ao o
A?ano?, coiiaea i?eeiyoooy 4 Oi?aa?naeo. Naia a?i 22 n?/iy 1918 ?ieo
i?iaieinea naiino?ei?noue oa iacaeaaei?noue oe?a?ie, noaa
caeiiiaeaa/ith iniiaith iiai? aea?aeaae. I?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe?? aoei
a?aeeeaaeaii. A Oi?aa?nae? eoeiny i?i naiino?ei?noue oe?a?ie,
cacia/aeiny, ui i?iaeaio oaaea?aoeaiiai ca’yceo c eieeoiueith
?in?enueeith aea?aeaaith inoaoi/ii ae??oaoue Anaoe?a?inuee? Onoaiia/?
cai?e. Aeeiiaa/ei i?aaiii iacaaii a aeieoiaio? ?aaeo Ia?iaeieo
I?i?no??a, ui cai?ieea Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao. ?? aieiaiith iaoith
noaei oeeaaeaiiy ie?o c oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie. 4 Oi?aa?nae aeciaa
ca iaiao?aeia yeiaeoaeaeoa i?eeiyooy Eiinoeoooe??. Aeai?e aei Onoaiiaeo
Cai??a, a?aee?eoyo yeeo aoei i?ecia/aia ia 9 n?/iy 1918 ?ieo, /a?ac
ai?ii? iiae?? aoee a?aeeeaaeai? ? i?iaaaeai? aaea o ea?oi? e ia ii an?e
Oe?a?i?. Ca oeae /an ia?eaiaionueea eii?n?y Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
i?aeaiooaaea iiaee i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe??, yeee a?aoiaoaaa ?aae??
naiino?eiiai noaoono Oe?a?ie. Ia can?aeaii? Iaei? ?aaee 27 ea?oiy 1918
a?ae o?aeoe?? nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a A?eaae?e Noaiaiaiei
cai?iiiioaaa aei?o/eoe eii?n?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, yea ae?iaeaey aeey
Onoaiia/eo cai??a i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, iaaaeii aianoe eiai ia
iaeaeeae/iio can?aeaii? ia ?icaeyae ? caoaa?aeaeaiiy Iaei? ?aaee.
Can?aeaiiy aoei i?ecia/aii ia 29 ea?oiy.

Ia inoaiiueiio can?aeaii? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo aoei
caneooaii ? ooaaeaii i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe??, aai “Noaoooo i?i aea?aeaaiee
ono??e, i?aaa ? aieueiino? OI?”, i?ioa aiia oae ? ia iaaoea /eiiino?.
Aiooaaeany Eiinoeoooe?y ia c?acie aeaiie?aoe/ieo eiinoeoooe?e ?a?iie oa
NOA. Iaeei c aieiaieo i?eioeei?a — iiae?e aeaaee. Caeiiiaeaa/o aeaaeo
cae?eniththoue Anaia?iaei? Cai?e, ye? iae?athoueny oeyoii anaia?iaeiiai
aieinoaaiiy. Aiie ?icaeyaeathoue ? caoaa?aeaeothoue caeiie,
i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e, iaieioothoue a?eio, eiio?ieththoue ?aaeo
I?i?no??a. ?aaea I?i?no??a ia?eia? aeeiiaa/o aeaaeo. Aeuith noaeiaith
?inoeoooe??th ? Aaia?aeueiee Noae, ia?aiee Anaia?iaeieie Cai?aie: a?i
aeeiio? eanaoe?ei? ooieoe?? aeey an?o noae?a, noaeeoue /eai?a
Anaia?iaeieo Cai??a ? i?i?no??a.

Iniiaiee Caeii aeciaaaa ca a?iiaaeyiaie an? eiinoeoooe?ei? naiaiaee, a
iaoe?iiaeueiei iaioeiai caaacia/oaaa i?aai iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueii?
aaoiiii??. Aeey ?in?enueei?, ?a?aenueei? oa iieuenueei? iaoe?e i?aai ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?niiaeueio aaoiiii?th aa?aiooaaeiny i?yiith ae??th
oeueiai caeiio, iaoeyi aea a?ei?onuee?e, /anuee?e, iieaeaane?e,
i?iaoeueeee, oaoa?nuee?e, a?aoeuee?e oa aieaa?nuee?e iiaeia aoei
nei?enoaoeny oeei i?aaii, yeui iiaeaoe aei Aaia?aeueiiai Noaeo cayao ia
iaio ye a?ae 10 oeny/ a?iiaaeyi OI?, ui cayaeee i?i i?eiaeaaei?noue aei
aeaii? iaoe??. Iaeaeuei caeiiiaeaa/ei i?aaiii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Nithco ?
Iaoe?iiaeuei? Onoaiia/? Cai?e, ui iae?athoueny ia iniia? ??aiiai,
i?yiiai ? oa?iiiai aieinoaaiiy, a?aoiaoth/e i?eioeei i?iii?oe?eiiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa. Iaeaeuei aeeiiaa/ei i?aaiii Nithco ? Iaoe?iiaeueia
?aaea, yea iae?a?oueny Iaoe?iiaeueieie Cai?aie. Iaeiae on? iinoaiiae,
ui noinothoueny eiiiaoaioe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Nithco, iathoue
?icaeyaeaoeny ? caoaa?aeaeoaaoeny Anaia?iaeieie Cai?aie OI?. Aeey
inoaoi/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa aiooaaany i?iaeo iiaiai iiae?eo Oe?a?ie. A?ooaanueeee
cai?iiiioaaa iiae?e ia 30 caiaeue, c yeeo 3 i?noa — Ee?a, Oa?e?a oa
Iaeano — aeeo/aee a ie?ai? ie?oae c i?ei?nueeeie oa?eoi??yie. Oe? caie?
iaee a neoaoaaoe ie?oaaie i?e aeai?ao aei Oe?a?inueeeo Anaia?iaeieo
Cai?ao, aei ieo iiaea a aooe i?enoiniaaia aaei?i?no?aoeaia oa noaeiaa
aeaaea, a aieiaia — a ?o ?aieao ?icaeaaeiny a a?iiaaenueea
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

C iaeyaeo ia neeaaei?noue neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, i/aaeaeii, Eiinoeoooe?y
ia iaea oain?a ia anoaiiaeaiiy noaa?eueii? aeeiiaa/i? oa iacaeaaeii?
noaeiai? aeaaee. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaeea?aoeaia i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? noaeo oa o?yaeo, aiie i?aeii?yaeeiaaeeny ananeeueiiio
ia?eaiaioo. Anaia?iaei? Cai?e iaee i?aai iaieiooaaoe aiooi iaaeia??e ye
o?yaeia? a oe?eiio, oae ? ie?aiei i?i?no?ai. Iie?oe/i? ianoaiiaea a
Oe?a?i? oa i??i?eoaoia ?ieue iie?oe/ii-eiioe?eoieo ia?o?eieo o?aeoe?e o
ia?eaiaio?, aacnoii?aii, aaee a aei aia?o?? oa i?aeia?o?eii? ai?ioueae.
TH?eaee/iei iiinainii aoea a?aenooi?noue a Iniiaiiio Caeii?
a?aenooi?noue iinaaee Aeaae aea?aeaae (i?aceaeaioa) oa Aeaae o?yaeo
(i?ai’??-i?i?no?a). Ia inoaiiueiio can?aeaii? Iaei? ?aaee I?aceaeaioii
Oe?a?ie aoei ia?aii Ieoaeea A?ooaanueeiai, i?ioa i?i oeth iinaaeo oa ??
ooieoe?? a Eiinoeoooe?? i?/iai ia cacia/aeiny.

Oei /anii ia?aeaeueii a Ee?a? a?aeaoaaany c’?cae
oe?ai?ia?a-caieaaeaniee?a, 6, 5 oeny/ aeaeaaao?a yeiai aenooieee ca
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? oa ooai?aiiy aaoueiaiaoo. Aeaeaaaoe
c’?caeo iaeiinoaeii ia?aee aaoueiaiii Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ui iiaeia
iacaaoe ii/aoeii iiaiai ia??iaeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? —
iiia?o?/iiai. Oeueiai ae aeiy ii?eethaeiai? “A?aiioa aei anueiai
Oe?a?inueeiai Ia?iaeo” oa “Caeiie i?i oei/aniaee aea?aeaaiee ono??e
Oe?a?ie”, ye? noaee i?aaiaeie iniiaaie ae?yeueiino? aaoueiaiaoo. A
“A?aiio?” cayaeaii, ui Nei?iiaaenueeee iaieioo?oueny Aaoueiaiii an???
Oe?a?ie, aea oei/aniai aa?a ia naaa anth iiaiioo aeaaee. Oeaio?aeueio
?aaeo oa caiaeuei? eii?oaoe ?iciouaii, i?ioa an? /eiiaieee iathoue
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ?iaioo.

“Caeiie i?i oei/aniaee aea?aeaaiee ono??e” aecia/aeeny /eiieie aei
neeeeaiiy Nieio, aei oiai ae /ano aeaaea iaeaaeaea aeeeth/ii Aaoueiaio
Oe?a?ie, yeee iaieiooaaany iaeaeuei ea??aieeii on?o ciinei Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaae oa aa?oiaiei aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/ai a?i?? oa oeioo. I?ia?aeiith
a??ith a Oe?a?i? aeciaaaeany i?aaineaaia. Anoaiiaethaaany noaoon
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa, oiiae iaaoooy eiai iaee aooe aecia/ai? ie?aiei
caeiiii. I?eaaoia aeani?noue iaieiooaaeany iaaeioi?eaiith, ? ??
a?ae/oaeaiiy aoei iiaeeeaa eeoa ca a?aeiia?aeio ieaoith. Ie?aiee ?icae?e
i?enay/aii ?ie? caeiio a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa?, ui aoei iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeai aeey oiai/anii? iaeiio?ieueaaii? neooaoe??. Aaia?aeueiee Noae
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae i?ecia/aany aeey ioi?iie ? caoenoo a aea?aeaa?.

O ia??iae ca?ieii? ai?ioueae c aaoueiaiaoii Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa iaaiee
/an i?ney ?? cae?i/aiiy Aee?aeoi??y OI? aoea ?aaiethoe?eiei i?aaiii c
aeeeoaoi?nueeeie i?aaaie, ia?eiath/e caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o oa noaeiao
aeaaeo. Iinoaea i?iaeaia eiinoeoothaaiiy o?aouei? oi?ie oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?. Oaea caaaeaiiy ionea ?ica’ycaoe O?oaeiaee Eiia?an 22
n?/iy 1919 ?ieo. A?i ooaaeea “Oi?aa?nae O?oaeiaiai Eiia?ano” oa “Caeii
i?i oi?io oe?a?inueei? aeaaee”, ui ia aoee ?icaeioo? a eiinoeoooe?eiee
aeo, a oaeiae ia?aaeaa iiaiiaaaeaiiy cae?enithaaoe aa?oiaio aeaaeo
Aee?aeoi??? aei ianooiii? nan??. I?eioeeiiaiai oa?aeoa?o iaaoee ??oaiiy
i?i noai?aiiy oei/aniai? aa?oiaii? aeaaee Niai?ii? Oe?a?ie, aeoiaey/e c
aeoo ceoee OI? oa COI?.

Eiee c 15 eenoiiaaea 1919 ?ieo aeaaea ia?aeoea oaeoe/ii aei Neiiia
Iaoeth?e, Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio aoei c?a?aii Anaoe?a?inueeo
Iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaeo, ui iinoaaeea ca iaoo onoiooe Aee?aeoi??th, yea
naia i?aeoe/ii ia?anoaea ?nioaaoe, neeeeaoe Aea?aeaaiee Niei
(ia?aaeia?eaiaio) ? iaieineoe oei/aniao eiinoeoooe?th OI?. I?ney
ia?aaiai??a Aieiaiee Ioaiai a?enuee OI? Neiii Iaoeth?a iiia?oeya
ae?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe eiinoeoooe?th. A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiiae ?aaee
I?i?no??a a?ae 9 o?aaiy 1920 ?ieo o Eai*yioe? ii/aea ?iaioo ni?eueia
eii?n?y, i/ieaia i?i?no?ii aioo??oi?o ni?aa Ieoaeeii
A?eeinueeei.?acoeueoaoii ieaia?ieo can?aeaiue noaei i?eeiyooy c
aeiaeaoeaie i?iaeoo, i?aeaioiaeaiiai canooiieeii Anaoe?a?inueei?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee Noaiaiii Aa?aiii. I?ioa i?ney ia?aiiy a Ee?a?
iiaiai o?yaeo A’y/aneaaa I?ieiiiae/a ?iaioa oey i?eieieeany, ? ca oaeeo
oiia 1 /a?aiy 1920 ?ieo i?aceae?y Anaoe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee
naia a?o/eea o?yaeo na?e i?iaeo Iniiaiiai Caeiio c aeiiaith
yeiaeoaeaeoiai ae?iaeaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Eii?n?y
iae?aco i?ney noai?aiiy aeiooaia aoea aaaeothaaoeny aei Oa?iiaa, iiaee
i?i?no? aioo??oi?o ni?aa I. Nae?eianueeee ?aii?oaaa ?aeath ae?iaeaiiy
eiinoeoooe??, ? o?yaeiaa eii?n?y ?ic?iaeyea i?iaeo caeiio i?i aa?oiaia
oi?aae?iiy oa i?i Aea?aeaaio Ia?iaeio ?aaeo. I?ney iiaiai oeueoeiaoeio
Anaoe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee 30 na?iiy 1920 ?ieo ?aaea I?i?no??a
ie?aiith ooaaeith ooai?eea iiao O?yaeiao Eii?n?th c ae?iaeaiiy iiai?
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ui neeaaeaeany c 16 /ieia?e c
i?i?no?ii caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Aiae???i I?eianueeei ia /ie?. Eii?n?y
?icaeyioea o?e i?iaeoe Eiinoeoooe??: Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
Anaoe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee oa Iooi Aeoaeueiaia, i?ney
iaaiai?aiiy acyea ca iniiao ae?oaee i?iaeo, yeee aoa cia/ii ?icoe?aiee ?
ia?a?iaeaiee. I?iaeo O?yaeiai? Eii?n??, iiaeaiee ?aae? i?i?no??a aeey
?icaeyaeo, ooaaeaiiy oa iaieioaiiy, iaieiooaaa Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao
naiino?eiith oa iacaeaaeiith, c aeaiie?aoe/ii-?anioae?eainueeei, ia
iniiaao ia?eaiaioa?ecio, ono?i?i. Caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea iaeaaeaea
Aea?aeaai?e ?aae?, aei neeeeaiiy ?? — Aea?aeaaiiio Nieio, aeeiiaa/a
aeaaea — Aieia? aea?aeaae oa ?aae? I?i?no??a, noaeiaa — iacaeaaeiei
noaeai. O Eiinoeoooe?th aoei caeeaaeaii aoiia?ao?/iee i?eioeei
aecia/aiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.Ie?ai? ?icae?ee i?enay/aii i?aaineaai?e
oea?ea?. Aoei oaeiae aeeth/aii oe?eee ?yae iiaeo noaoae. Iaeiae oeae
aeieoiaio caeeoeany i?iaeoii ? ia aoa caoaa?aeaeaiee o?yaeii OI?.
Iaoii?noue 12 eenoiiaaea 1920 ?ieo N. Iaoeth?a caoaa?aeea “Caeii i?i
oei/aniaa aa?oiaia i?aae?iiy ? ii?yaeie caeiiiaeaanoaa a OI?” oa “Caeii
i?i Aea?aeaaio Ia?iaeio ?aaeo”.

I?ney ieoiaoe?? Oe?a?ie ?aaeyinueeeie a?enueeaie a?eueoiaeee iaiaaaeeny
th?eaee/ii i?aeoaa?aeeoe naith i?eoeeuei?noue aei aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? ? ii/aee iaaiai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? eiinoeoooe??.
A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiia ??? c’?caeo EI(a)O, i?iaeo ia?oi? Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?inueei? ?N? aoa ?ic?iaeaiee Oeaio?aeueiei Aeeiiaa/ei Eii?oaoii oa
?aaeith Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a Oe?a?ie oa noaaeaiee OeE Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie.
A iniiao i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe?? O?N? aoei iieeaaeaii eiinoeoooe?th ??ON?.

??? Anaoe?a?inueeee c’?cae ?aae 10 aa?aciy 1919 ?ieo i?eeiya ia?oo
Eiinoeoooe?th Oe?a?inueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee.
Oeae Iniiaiee Caeii, ye ? Eiinoeoooe?y ?NO??, a?oiooaaany ia
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiio a/aii? i?i nioe?ae?noe/io ?aaiethoe?th oa
aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa??aoo ? naia oiio aoa a?eueoith i??ith iie?oe/iei,
i?ae i?aaiaei aeieoiaioii. Aea?aeaaiith oi?iith aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo
Eiinoeoooe?y aecia/eea ?anioae?eo ?aae, aea any iiaiioa aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee iaeaaeeoue o?oaeyuei o oi?i? ?aae ?ia?oie/eo, naeyinueeeo oa
/a?aiiia?i?enueeeo aeaiooao?a. Oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ?aae aacoaaeiny ia
i?eioeei? iai?yieo aeai??a: aei i?nueei? ?aaee ?ia?oieee iae?aee 1
i?aaenoaaieea a?ae 100 aeai?oe?, a?ae ?ioeo aa?noa o?oaeyueo 1 a?ae 300,
“Iao?oaeia? aa?noae” aoee iicaaaeai? i?aaa iae?aoe ? aooe ia?ai?. Oea
icia/aei, ui ?anioae?ea ?aae i?iaieioaia eeaniaith i?aai?caoe??th.

O ca’yceo c ooai?aiiyi N?N? oa i?eeiyooyi ia?oi? Eiinoeoooe??
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco (n?/aiue 1924 ?) aoee aianai? a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie
aei Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. 15 o?aaiy 1929 ?ieo O? Anaoe?a?inueeee c’?cae
?aae caoaa?aeea iiao Eiinoeoooe?th O?N?, ui aianea ci?ie uiaei
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith (aei neeaaeo O?N? c 1924 aei 1940 ?? aoiaeeea
Iieaeaanueea Aaoiiiiia Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?aaeyinueea ?anioae?ea). Aoei
cao?enoaaii o?enooiaiaao nenoaio oi?aae?iiy.

Ci?ia EI?N iie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a coiiaethaaea a?aeiia?aeia i?aaiaa
caaacia/aiiy. I?eeiyooy i?ia?aiii? oace i?i ia?aiiao nioe?ae?cio noaei
ia?aaeoiiaith iiaiai Iniiaiiai Caeiio. Ne?aeii c Eiinoeoooe??th N?N?
1936 ? O?V Anaoe?a?inueeee c’?cae ?aae caoaa?aeea Eiinoeoooe?th O?N?.

*aoaa?oo Eiinoeoooe?th O?N? aoei i?eeiyoi 20 /a?aiy 1978 ?ieo
iica/a?aiaith nueiiith nan??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee ?anioae?ee. ?? oaeno
?ic?iaeea eii?n?y c A. Ua?aeoeueeei ia /ie? a?aeiia?aeii aei
Eiinoeoooe?? N?N? 1977 ?ieo.

On? /ioe?e ?aaeyinuee? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie aoee aeieoiaioaie
iie?oe/ieie ? ?ic?iaeyeeny nia?oo a ?aeaieia?/ieo a?aeae?eao OeE EI?N.
A?aoiaoth/e oa, a oaeiae noaoon eaac?aea?aeaae, yeith aoea Oe?a?ia, oe?
eiinoeoooe?ei? aeoe c iaaiei canoa?aaeaiiyi iiaeia a?aeianoe aei a?oie
iniiaieo caeii?a aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaii-eiinoeoooe?eia ?aeay i?iaeiaaeoaaea ?nioaaoe ? a /ane
?aaeyinueei? ieoiaoe??. Ia ai?a?aoe?? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i?
i?aai?caoe?? ? ia?o?? ianoithaaee i?aai ia iaoe?iiaeueia naiiaecia/aiiy
Oe?a?ie, aiaethaaee aei i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e na?oo c i?eaiaeo
eieii?aeueiiai noaoono O?N? o neeaae? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. Aea?aeaaiee
oeaio? OI? a aecee?, Aea?aeaaia i?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie a ai?a?aoe??, Na?oiaee
eiia?an a?eueieo oe?a?ioe?a oa ?io? a?iiaaenuee? ia’?aeiaiiy ?ic?iaeyee
ieceo aeieoiaio?a caeiiiaeaa/iai oaoaeoa?o uiaei iaeaooiuei? iiaeae?
iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe i?aoeth Ieeiee Noe?ai?nueeiai, iaienaio a 1940 ?ioe? a oi?i?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?iaeoo. Naia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o
ae?anii?? oa ?oo iii?o ia oa?ai? Oe?a?ie ni?e/eieee no/anio ai?ioueao ca
ooaa?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? oa eiinoeoooe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii? noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae.

IV. Eiinoeoooe?iiae?ci o iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?.

O no/aniee ia??iae iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae ca i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie iinoaei ieoaiiy ?ic?iaee iiai? Eiinoeoooe??. Ia?o??,
a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, ii/eiath/e c ia?aaeaeai?/i? eaiiai?? aei
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie (eenoiiaae-aa?acaiue 1990 ?) aeoeaiooaaee oaaao
ia iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee oa i?eeiyooy iiaiai Iniiaiiai Caeiio ye
aaaeeeaiai ao?eaooo noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae. ?aaeueiee i?ioean noai?aiiy
iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? o?eaa? a?ae /ano i?eeiyooy Aeaeea?aoe?? i?i
aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao ? ioiieth? aeae?eueea aoai?a.

Ia?oee aoai iia?oiueiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio Oe?a?ie aoei ?icii/aoi
Aeaeea?aoe??th i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie. A oeueiio
aeieoiaio? aoei cacia/aii, ui Aeaeea?aoe?y ? iniiaith aeey iiai?
Eiinoeoooe??, caeii?a Oe?a?ie oa aecia/a? iiceoe?? ?anioae?ee i?e
oeeaaeaii? i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae. Aeaeea?aoe?y oaeiae iecia/eea
iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeiae Oe?a?ie ye noaa?aiii?, iaoe?iiaeueii?, i?aaiai?
oa aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae.

Ae?oaei aoaiii o eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?ioean? noaei noaaeaiiy Aa?oiaiith
?aaeith Eiioeaioe?? iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie 19 /a?aiy 1991 ?ieo.
Eiioeaioe?y aia?oa a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio aecia/eea
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? canaee, na?aae iaeaaaeeea?oeo aoei iacaaii:

aeciaiiy ethaeeie ye iaeaeui? nioe?aeueii? oe?iiino? oa, a?aeiia?aeii,
i??i?eoaoi?noue i?aa oa naiaiae iniae;

i??i?eoao caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae;

noaa?eueiee oa?aeoa? Eiinoeoooe??;

i?yiee oa?aeoa? ae?e ii?i Eiinoeoooe??.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui Eiioeaioe?y aoea noaaeaia aei i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, a?eueo?noue i?aeoiae?a oeueiai aeieoiaioo
caeeoathoueny aecia/aeueieie aeey iiaeaeueoi? eiinoeoooe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?.

O?ao?i aoaiii iia?oiueiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? ne?ae
aaaaeaoe 1 eeiiy 1992 ?ieo. Naia oiae? Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie ooaaeeea
iinoaiiao i?i aeianaiiy ia?oiai i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ia
anaia?iaeia iaaiai?aiiy. sse a?aeiii, ia?oee i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe?? aoei
i?aeaioiaeaii Eiinoeoooe?eiith eii?n??th, noai?aiith 24 aeiaoiy 1990
?ieo. Aei Eiinoeoooe?eii? eii?n??, ca iinoaiiaith, oa?eoei 59 /eai?a
i?ae aieiaoaaiiyi Eaii?aea E?aa/oea, a caiaeii ni?aaieiaith aoei ia?aii
?aaia Iethua. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaaiai?aiiy i?iaeoo ia nan?? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie 30 /a?aiy — 1 eeiiy 1992 ?ieo aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i
anaia?iaeia iaaiai?aiiy Iniiaiiai Caeiio aea?aeaae. I?ae /an
eiinoeoooe?eii? aeeneon??, ui o?eaaea i?ioyaii 15 eeiiy — 1 eenoiiaaea
1992 ?ieo, aoei aianaii 47 oeny/ i?iiiceoe?e oa caoaaaeaiue aei i?iaeoo
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie. C?aaeaaiaaiee aa??aio i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe?? aoei
aeianaii ia ?icaeyae nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie 7-8 aeiaoiy 1993
?ieo. Iane?aeeii nan?eiiai iaaiai?aiiy aoea ioae?eaoe?y ooi/iaiiai
i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, ii?eethaeiaiiai a i?an? 26 aeiaoiy 1993
?ieo. O ia??iae a?ae 26 aeiaoiy 1993 ?ieo ?aaeueiee eiinoeoooe?eiee
i?iaeo a Oe?a?i? aoei i?ecoieiaii. Ieoaiiy i?i i?aeaioiaeo Eiinoeoooe??
aeiaeiiai ?aco ia aiineeiny aei ii?yaeeo aeaiiiai ieaia?ieo can?aeaiue
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie /e iaa?oue iino?eieo eii?n?e. Eiinoeoooe?eia
eii?n?y i?aeoe/ii naiie?ea?aeoaaeany. Aiaeii/an o a?iiaaenueeeo oa
iaoeiaeo eieao eiinoeoooe?eia aeeneon?y o?eaaea.

*aoaa?oee ia??iae, a ?acii ?c iei ? a?aeiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?, ?icii/aany 10 eenoiiaaea 1994 ?ieo. Aa?oiaia ?aaea
Oe?a?ie iiaiai neeeeaiiy ooaaeeea iinoaiiao “I?i neeaae eii?n?? c
ii?aoethaaiiy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie”. Noaoon iiai? Eiinoeoooe?eii?
eii?n?? ii??aiyii c iiia?aaeiueith aoa ci?iaiee c “eii?n?? Aa?oiaii?
?aaee” ia “oei/aniai caaaeueiiaea?aeaaio eii?n?th”. Aei ?? neeaaeo
aa?eoee i?aaenoaaieee an?o noa’?eo?a caeiiiaeaa/i? ?i?oe?aoeae (anueiai
41 iniaa), ni?aaieiaaie noaee I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie Eaii?ae Eo/ia oa
Aieiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Ieaenaiae? Ii?ic. Ia ia?oiio can?aeaii?
Eiinoeoooe?eia eii?n?y aecia/eea, ui ca ?iai/o iniiao neoaoaaoeia i?iaeo
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie a?ae 26 aeiaoiy 1993 ?ieo, a oaeiae acyea aei oaaae
eiinoeoooe?ei? ?ic?iaee iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.
Aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe iaae i?iaeoii Eiinoeoooe?? aoei noai?aii naeoe??
c oaeeo ieoaiue: caaaeuei? canaaee eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo, i?aaa,
naiaiaee oa iaia’ycee ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia, a?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai a aea?aeaaa, caeiiiaeaa/a, aeeiiaa/a ? noaeiaa aeaaee,
oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e oa oa?eoi??aeueia i?aai?caoe?y aeaaee.

Eiinoeoooe?eia ae?yeuei?noue o oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany iie?oe/iei
i?ioenoiyiiyi i?ae a?eueo?noth Aa?oiaii? ?aaee oa I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie.
Ca oaeeo oiia aeieeea ?aeay i?eeiyooy caeiiii?iaeoo o oi?i? iaei?
Eiinoeoooe?? ia ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?iaeoo
Eaii?ae Eo/ia ai?n ia ?icaeyae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee i?iaeo Caiiio “I?i
aea?aeaaio aeaaeo ? i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”. A?eueo ye
i?ai?/ia ia?eaiaionueea oa nioe?aeueia aeeneon?y caaa?oeeany
i?aeienaiiyi Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Aeiaiai?o i?ae Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith oa
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai? canaaee i?aai?caoe?? oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ia ia??iae aei i?eeiyooy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie a?ae 8
/a?aiy 1995 ?ieo. Aeiaia?? i?noea ii?iaoeaii aecia/aio eia?eo
iiaeaeueoiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeieoiaio cao?enoaaa iieiaeaiiy
i?i iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy oiia aeey i?eeiyooy iiai? eiinoeoooe?? a
no?ie ia i?ci?oa 1 ?ieo c aeiy i?aeienaiiy oeueiai Aeiaiai?o. I?ney eiai
i?aeienaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiee i?ioean i?enei?eany. ?iai/a a?oia
Eiinoeoooe?eii? eii?n??, aei yei? aoiaeeee ia?aaaaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaai?
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie iaoeiaoe?, i?aeaiooaaea i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe?? a?ae
15 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo. Ia can?aeaii? Eiinoeoooe?eii? eii?n?? 23
eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo aeuaicia/aiee i?iaeo Iniiaiiai Caeiio Oe?a?ie aoei
noaaeaii a?eueo?noth aiein?a. Eiinoeoooe?eia eii?n?y noai?eea ?iai/o
i?aeeii?n?th, ui iaea aei?aaeoe iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe??
canaaeai aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? aeaaee oa noni?euenoaa. Ia
i?aeeii?n?th iieeaaeaeiny caaaeaiiy i?aeaiooaaoe i?iaeo, ocaiaeaeaiee
i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
Aa?oiaiiai noaeo Oe?a?ie, aeuiai a?a?o?aaeiiai noaeo. I?iaeo aoei
ii?eethaeiaii /a?ac 3 i?nyoe? — 24 ethoiai 1996 ?ieo. O ii??aiyiiy c
aeuacaaaeaiei i?iaeoii Eiinoeoooe?? iiaee iaa oe?eo ieceo iiceoeaieo
ci?i: ooi/iaiiy aei i?aaiaoee, ?icae?e?a “I?ieo?aoo?a”, “Aaoiiii?y
E?eio”, cae??ieaii oi?oa?io oi?io aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, neiaie?eo
aea?aeaae, aecia/aii o?aeoa? ooai?aiiy e?a?ie ia i?aenoaa? cae?eniaiiai
oe?a?inueeith iaoe??th i?aaa ia naiiaecia/aiiy, ooi/iaii i?enyao
I?aceaeaioa oa aaaaeaii i?enyao aeey an?o /eai?a ia?eaiaioo. Aiaeii/an o
/anoei?, yea noino?oueny i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?iaeo ia caciaa nooo?aeo ci?i.

Ooaaeaiiy oaeiai iaaeaiie?aoe/iiai i?iaeoo Eiinoeoooe?? ia’?eoeaii
i?iaieoaaei a iaia?eaiaionuee?, neaeia? iaoiaee iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae,
ia?aaeon?i ca iinaaeo I?aceaeaioa. Aoei iaiao?aeia iiaeaeueoa na?eicia
ii?aoethaaiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oaenoo. Ianooiiee i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe??
a?ae 11 aa?aciy 1996 ?ieo aeeeeeaa cia/iee ?aciiain o aeaaeieo,
ia?o?eieo, aiae?oe/ieo eieao. Aaea a ianooiiiio i?iaeo? a?ae 20 o?aaiy,
aeiii?aoeaiaaiiio oei/aniaith niaoe?aeueiith eii?n??th Aa?oiaii? ?aaee,
aa/eii ?yae nooo?aeo ci?i, ui noinoaaeeny iiaiiaaaeaiue ? noaoono
ia?eaiaioo, i?noey oa iiaiiaaaeaiue o?yaeo, i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo
aaei?i?no?aoe?e. Aoei iineeaii ?ieue noaeiai? aeaaee, iiaiiaaaeaiiy
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. I?ae /an iiaeaeueoi? ia?eaiaionueei?
aeeneon?? aoei oaeiae aianaii ieceo ci?i aei i?iaeoo oa i?eeiyoi i?iaeo
Eiinoeoooe?? o ia?oiio /eoaii? 4 /a?aiy 1996 ?ieo. I?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie ca
i?aeo?eiee ?aaee iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa iai?iie e ?aaee ?aa?ii?a
aeneiaea nai? iani?eeiyooy ci?ie aeayeeo iieiaeaiue i?iaeoo. C iaoith
caa?aaeaiiy caeiiii?iaeoo a ?aaeaeoe?? a?ae 11 aa?aciy I?aceaeaio
i?aeienaa Oeac i?i i?iaaaeaiiy anaoe?a?inueeiai ?aoa?aiaeoio 25 aa?aniy
1996 ?ieo naia ca oaenoii oeueiai i?iaeoo eiinoeoooe??. Ca oaeeo
ianoaaei aeaiooaoe aoee aeiooai? i?iaeiaaeeoe iaaiai?aiiy i?iaeoo
Eiinoeoooe?? a ae?oaiio ? o?aoueiio /eoaii? e ooaaeeee Iniiaiee Caeii
Oe?a?ie 28 /a?aiy 1996 ?ieo. Ca aaaaeaiiy a ae?th iiai? Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie i?iaieinoaaei 338 aeaiooao?a, “i?ioe” — 18 ? “oo?eiaeinue” — 5.
Oaeei /eiii, 28 /a?aiy 1996 ?ieo cae?i/eany aoai eiinoeoooe?eiiai
cae??ieaiiy no/anii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ca?aeii c ooaaeaiith Eiinoeoooe??th, Oe?a?ia aecia/aia ye noaa?aiia ?
iacaeaaeia, aeaiie?aoe/ia, nioe?aeueia i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa. Ca oi?iith
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith — oi?oa?ia aea?aeaaa ?c canoa?aaeaiiyi
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? aeey ?anioae?ee E?ei. Ca
oi?iith aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy — i?aceaeaionueei-ia?eaiaionueea
?anioae?ea. Nenoaia i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ii?aeio? aeaiaioe
a?iiaaeyinueei? oa aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?e. Oaeei /eiii, ?inoeoooaie
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy aeciaii ia o?eueee n?euenuee?,
naeeui?,i?nuee? ?aaee oa ?o aeeiiaa/? i?aaie, a e ?aeiii? oa iaeani?
?aaee. Aiaeii/an, iii?e canoa?aaeaiiy noiniaii i?yiiai oa?aeoa?o ae??
eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?i, ?aaeueia i?aaiaa oii?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aeaaee oa
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa c i?eeiyooyi a?aeiia?aeieo
caeii?a.

Aiae?c ia?aa?ao iiae?e no/aniiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?ioeano aea?
i?aenoaae oaa?aeeoe, ui i?e ooaaeaii? Eiinoeoooe?? aoei aeinyaiooi
aenieiai nooiaiy iie?oe/ii? eaa?oeiiino?, iaaiiai nooiaiy noni?eueii?
eaa?oeiiino?, aea aeinoaoiuei iecueei? i?aaiai? eaa?oeiiino? (a
nooi?niiio, a ia oi?iaeueiiio aei???). Ca?aeii c oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie
i?e ooaaeaii? Eiinoeoooe?? aoei aeio?eiaii i?aaiai? aace /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Naia oiio oaia??oi? nenoaiaoe/ia ii?ooaiiy Eiinoeoooe??,
neaae?ii, o?yaeiaeie ?iciii?yaeaeaiiyie o noa?? ina?oe oa ioi?iie
caei?ia’y aeaeyaea? oe?eeii ii?iaeueiei yaeuai. I??i?eoao iie?oeee
a?aeaeaa?oueny ? a no/aniiio caeiiioai?aii?, ?aeeia a?aei?ii?noue
iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaaeaaiy a?eia caeii?a i?ae a?eeaie aeaaee nueiaiaei?
iaaoea caaa?aeaiiy eiinoeoooe?eii? a?eie caeii?a. Ci?no aaea oeueiai
i?ioenoiyiiy caeeoeany iaci?iiei — ai?ioueaa ca iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?e
?aii?oaaii? ii?i Eiinoeoooe??. Ia aeaeue, i??i?eoao iie?oeee aecia/ea ?
ia?oa ??oaiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo, yea aeaiooaoe ? iie?oeee iacaaee
iie?oe/iei eiii?ii?nii. Iaeiae, o?aaa iaaaaeaoe, ui Eiinoeoooe?eiee
Noae iieeeeaiee caoeuaoe caeii, aea ia aeooeoaaoe iie?oe/iee eiii?ii?n.

Oaeei /eiii, no/aniee eiinoeoooe?eiee noai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i??i?eoaoii
iie?oeee iaae i?aaii. Eeoa ca oiia aeii?iaioe i?aaa iaae iie?oeeith
iiaeaii niiae?aaoeny, ui Eiinoeoooe?y c iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/iiai
aeieoiaioa ia?aoai?eoueny ia i?aaiaee. Oeueiai a/eoue oe?a?inueeee
aeina?ae ? na?oiaa i?aeoeea eiinoeoooe?iiae?cio. Naia ca oaeeo ianoaaei
no/ania oe?a?inueea Eiinoeoooe?y noaia Iniiaiei Caeiiii ye aeey
a?iiaaeyi, oae ? aeey aeaaee.

AEEI?ENOAIA E?OA?AOO?A

Ieeiea Oiiaiei. Naiiicia/aiiy Oe?a?ie — a?ae ?noi??? aei iie?oeee. —
Ee?a, 1998.

?noi??y oe?a?inueei? Eiinoeoooe??. Oii?yaeieee A. Nethna?aiei, I.
Oiiaiei. — Ee?a, 1997

Eiinoeoooe?? iiaeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa Ac??. Oii?yaeiee N. Aieiaaoee. —
Ee?a, 1996.

O?anoiiao?y c i?aaiciaanoaa. — Ee?a, 1996.

Eiinoeoooe?ei? aa?aio?? caoenoo ethaeeie o noa?? i?aaiioi?iiii?
ae?yeueiino?. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

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