I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Eieiieenueeee aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaee eieaaeae

?AOA?AO

ia oaio

«Iaaaoeai? aieeae oe?aeeeaeo cae/ie (eo??iiy, aaeeaaiiy aeeiaieth ?
ia?eioee?a) ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie ? ai?ioueaa c ieie»

Aeeiiaea:

nooaeaioea a?oie A-22

Oaaei??a I. A.

Eieiiey, 2000

IEAI

1. Aieea eo??iiy ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

2. Aieea aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

3. Aieea aeeiaieth ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

Eo??iiy oa eiai aieea ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie noathoue nueiaiaei?
nioe?aeueiith ? iaaee/iith i?iaeaiaie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui eo??iiy othothio ?
aaeeeith iaaaciaeith aeey caei?ia(y ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy ??cieo
caoai?thaaiue, ye? ni?e/eiythoueny aei ia?aae/anii? nia?o? ethaeae.
Aeyaey?oueny, ui nia?oi?noue a?ae ?aeo eaaaiue na?aae eo?oe?a o 20 ?ac?a
aeua, i?ae na?aae oeo, ui ia eo?youe. Oaeiae eo?oe? a 13 ?ac?a /ano?oa
oai??thoue ia noaiiea?ae?th (caoai?thaaiiy na?oey) ? a 10 ?ac?a /ano?oa
— ia ae?aceiao oai?iao oeoiea. sse i?aaeei, eo?aoeue aeeaa ia 6-8 ?ie?a
iaioa, i?ae eiai ?iaaniee, yeee ia eo?eoue.

Ui oaea othothi? Othothi — oea iaeii??/ia ?ineeia c ?iaeeie
ianeueiiiaeo, aenooai? eenoee yei? i?ney niaoe?aeueii? ia?iaee
iiae??aiththoue ? aeei?enoiaothoue aeey eo??iiy. Aei neeaaeo eenoe?a
othothio aoiaeyoue oae? ?a/iaeie ye i?eioei, a?eee, aoaeaaiaee, i?aai/i?
eeneioe, niiee ? ao??i? ie??. Iniiaia iniaeea?noue othothio, caaaeyee
ye?e a?i a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo ?ineei ?iaeeie ianeueiiiaeo, — ai?no
i?eioeio.

I?eioei — iaeia c iaeneeuei?oeo ?ineeiieo io?oo, iniiaia neeaaeiaa
/anoeia othothiiaiai aeeio. O /enoiio aeaeyae? oea aacaa?aia ie??noa
??aeeia iai?e?iiiai caiaoo, a??ea ia niae. Aiia aeia?a ?ic/eiy?oueny o
aiae?, nie?o?, ao??? e eaaei i?iieea? e??cue neecia? iaieiiee ii?iaeieie
?ioa, iina, a?iio?a, oeoieo.

Aeaaii aaea noaa cae/iei ieaeao — «E?aiey i?eioeio aaeaa? eiiy!» Ie
/anoi ia caaeoio?iiny iaae ci?noii oeeo ne?a. Aea ae oaee ni?aaae?
aaeaa?! Aaeeea aa?ia oaa?eia iaaea? a?ae e?aieeie no?aoii? io?ooe.
Aeoaea /ooeea? aei i?eioeio ioaoe, nnaaoe? a oaeiae ?eae ? caiiiaiaei?.
Iai?eeeaae, yeui cii/eoe e?i/ee neeyii? iaei/ee i?eioeiii ?
aeioi?eiooeny iath aei aecueiaa ai?iaoey, oi a?i caaeia. Oaeiae e?aieeia
i?eioeio i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaeaae? an?o ?ea a aeaa??oi?.

Nia?oaeueia aeica i?eioeio aeey ethaeeie — 50-70 ia (1 ia ia e?eia?ai
iane o?ea). A?aeiii, ui e?euee?noue i?eioeio, yeee iaaeoiaeeoue ?c
othothiiaiai aeeio a i?aai?ci, noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 1/25 ai?noo eiai a
othothi?. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oa, ye /anoi ?iaeyoue caoyaeee i?ae /an
eo??iiy. Ethaeeia ae?noa? nia?oaeueio aeico i?eioeio. Aeeo?thth/e 20-25
neaa?ao ia aeaiue.

Io?oei?noue i?eioeio a?ae/oa eiaeiee, ooi acya o ?io ia?oo a aeeoo?
neaa?aoo. I?ooi ia iiaea aeieo?eoe ia?oi? neaa?aoe aei e?ioey. Oeueiio
caaaaeathoue caiaii?i/aiiy e ioaeioa, a /anii ? ua iai?e?ii?o?
a?ae/oooy, oae? ye ?ioaineaia neeiiaeae?eaiiy, ooi o aieia?, aieiaiee
a?eue, na?oeaaeooy, caaaeueia neaae?noue, o?ano?iiy ?oe, aethaaiiy,
i?iiin. O oyaeeeo aeiaaeeao ethaeeia iai?eoiii??. Iinooiiai i?aai?ci
i?enoiniao?oueny aei i?eioeio ? eo??iiy ia aeeeeea? oaeeo iai?e?iieo
a?ae/ooo?a. Oi/a io?o?iiy i?aai?cio o?eaa?, aea aeiaai aiii i?ye ia
aeyaey?oueny.

Oe?aeeeaa ae?y othothio ia iaiaaeo?oueny i?eioeiii. Aei neeaaeo
othothiiaiai aeeio aeecueei 30 io?oeieo ?a/iaei: ai?ae, neieeueia
eeneioa, /aaeiee aac oa ?i.

Othothiiaee aeei, yeee aaeeoa? eo?aoeue, ianaiia?aae iio?aiey? o aa?oi?
aeeoaeuei? oeyoe, a iio?i — o o?aoath oa eaaai?. I?ae aieeaii
othothiiaiai aeeio a?aeaoaa?oueny o?ii?/ia iiae?aciaiiy neeciai?
iaieiiee ai?oai?, ?icaeaa?oueny caiaeaiiy aieiniaeo ca(ycie, aiie
iioiauothoueny, a?oa?oathoue. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie oaia?o aieino
(a?oaee aiein eo?oey), ui iniaeeai iii?oii a iieiaeeo ae?iie.

Aiane?aeie iiae?aciaiiy neeciai? iaieiiee a?iio?a ? o?aoa? othothiiaei
aeeiii ?icaeaa?oueny ?o o?ii?/ia caiaeaiiy (a?iio?o ? o?aoa?o).

Oiio eo?oe? /ano?oa oai??thoue ia caiaeaiiy eaaaiue, ooaa?eoeueic,
caoai?thaaiiy o ieo iathoue oyaeeee ia?aa?a.

O/ai? anoaiiaeee, ui eo??iiy — iaeei c iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ?ae eaaaiue. Caoai?thaai?noue ia
?ae eaaaiue na?aae eo?oe?a o 30 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae na?aae oeo, ooi ia
eo?eoue. Oaeiae a?aeiii, ui eo??iiy ca?eueoo? ?ecee caoai??oe ia
ceiye?ni? iiaiooai?aiiy ?ioeo i?aai?a: yceea, ai?oai?, no?aaioiaeo,
oeoieo, na/iaiai i?oo?a. Othothiiaee aeei caoaii ?ae? ia
na?oeaai-noaeeiio nenoaio, aeeoaeueio nenoaio oa i?aaie o?aaeaiiy.

Iei? ie ia iiaeaii aiai?eoe i?i eo??iiy i?aee?oe?a ye i?i iaaeii?
ionoiu?. Eo??iiy — nioe?aeueia eeoi. *a?ac ia?icoi?iiy, ne?ia
iane?aeoaaiiy iiaee, aei?ineeo, ?iaaniee?a i?aee?oie ii/eia? eo?eoe —
nii/aoeo ?iaeoue iaeio caoyaeeo, aeeo?th? iaeio neaa?aoo, a iio?i
oyaiaoueny aei eeoia?nii? ia/ee ciiao ? ciiao. ? oae eo??iiy noa?
cae/eith. A ii/aoe eo??iiy iaaaaaoi eaaoa, i?ae iieeiooe. Ioiae, e?aua
ia ii/eiaoe.

O iaoeiaiio o?aeooaaii? ia?eiiai?y — oea oai?iaeeaee ineo?/iee noai,
yeee coiiaeaiee o?ii?/iith ?ioieneeaoe??th aiane?aeie ceiaaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieie ?a/iaeiaie ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ineo?/iith aai o?ce/iith
caeaaei?noue a?ae ieo.

Iaaaciaea ia?eiiai?? i/aaeaeia. Iaeaaaeueiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
noa? iaaecae/aeii na?eiciei nioe?aeueiei /eiieeii, yeee iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia noai caei?ia(y ? aeaaiiieo//y ethaeae, ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa
caaaeii. ??cei ca?eueoo?oueny /enei in?a, ye? iacaeiiii aaeeaathoue
ia?eioeee, ? i?iii?oe?eii aei oeueiai c?inoa? e?euee?noue cei/ei?a ia
a?oio? ia?eiiai??.

Uiaei i?e/ei aeaaeae? iioe?thaaii? i?eno?ano? aei caoaiiai caiyooy, oi
ooo ?nio? /eiaei aeaeaei iaiaeiicia/ieo aeoiie. Iaei? aeine?aeieee
iiyniththoue oea yaeua cae/aeiei caoe?eaaeaiiyi, aaaeaiiyi c?iaeoe
iaaiaee, ?io? coieiythoueny ia a?aenooiino? oaiea, caoeuaiino? /e
nai???aeiiio niinia? i?iaanoe /an. ? e eaoaai??y aiae?oee?a, ye?
aaaaeathoue iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eiiai?? nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie: aac?ia?ooy, a?aenooi?noue nenoaie aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, eio?a,
a?aeaa?oi eaaeo/e, caeeoeeany iaiaeeioe? c aeaniith aeieath.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ceiaaeeaaiiy ia?eioeeaie ? iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai OO noie?ooy, aeina?ae aaeeaaiiy ethaeueie
ia?eioe/ieo ?a/iaei aei??th?oueny oeny/ie?ooyie. Ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii
ethaeeia caaaeaee oyaiaoueny aei iaa?aeiiiai. ? ?e, ye na?ae/eoue
i?aeoeea, ia aaaeei aoei a?aee?eoe oa?iieoeth: i?e?iaea a nai?e aeeaei?
i?noeoue ?ineeie, ei??iiy /e eenoy yeeo aeae?eythoue niee, ui
i?aei?iathoue iano??e, iaaeathoue nee, ?iaey/e aeeooy, oi/a e
iaiaaeiaai, «uaneeaei».

?nio? aace?/ aeieac?a oiio, ui ae?iaieoeoai, oi?a?aey ? niiaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo ?a/iaei iaa?aee oaeaeeeo oaii?a ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
aeiaaeueieo ianooaaao. A Oe?a?i? ca inoaii? ?iee ceiaaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie oa ?o iacaeiiiee ia?a iaaoee ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o. ?
yeui ?ai?oa, a ia??iae i?aae?iiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio eieeoiueiai
Nithco oey i?aaaea caiia/oaaeany, ne?aaaeany i?ae a?eoii «oa?iii», oi
nueiaiaei? ie ciooai? a?aeaa?oi aeciaoe , ui iaae Oe?a?iith iaaenea
?aaeueia caa?ica naiicieuaiiy iaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ye aioo??oi?o, oae ?
ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui iniiaiith ne?iaeiiith aacith ia?eiiai?? a
Oe?a?i? ? niioai?iee ian. Niieiia?e?a ian?iiy, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ie?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ye i?iaeoeo
oa?/oaaiiy. Ia?eiio?ooo i?noeoue ia aiii, a aieiaee iaeo. Ia aeaeue, a
inoaii? ?iee iaethnoee oe??? ?ineeie ae?eee iaeaiith aeo?ae ia iaeio
oe?a?inueeo inaeth. Ia caaaeath/e ia /enaeuei? oeace, iinoaiiae, ?io?
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ye? caai?iiythoue aen?aaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy oe???
eoeueoo?e, ethaee na?aeiii, a /e i? ni?eythoue ?iciianthaeaeaiith
ia?eiiai??. ? /eiaei i?eeeaae?a, eiee iae iiioey?eco?oueny ?
aen?aa?oueny c iaoith io?eiaiiy iaaeeae. C eiaeiei ?ieii e?euee?noue
aeyaeaieo oa cieuaieo i?aaiaie i?aaiii?yaeeo iacaeiiieo iin?a?a iaeo oa
eiiiie? c?inoa? a aeanyoee ?ac?a. I?iii?oe?eii ca?eueoothoueny ? inyae
aeeonaiiy c ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. sseui, neaae?ii, a 1996 ?ioe? a
Oe?a?i? a ia?eiae?ee?a aoei neiio?neiaaii 38, 2 oiiie ia?eic?eey, oi
ca?ac oey oeeo?a ia?aaeuo? 45 oiii. I?e/iio, iiiaae 70% ia?eicania?a
aiaoiaey?oueiny a aea?aeaa? ia iniia? aeanii? ne?iaeie.

sseui aei 1995 ?ieo ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie aoa ca?aa?no?iaaiee
?aeeiee oaeo iiyae a aea?aeaa? eiea?io, oi ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a ?o
e?euee?noue ia?aaeueea oeny/o.

Aaaee? neioaoe/i? ia?eioeee, ye? aeyaeythoueny ia oe?a?inuee?e
oa?eoi???, ye i?aaiee, ? ?acoeueoaoii aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeii?
cei/eiiino?.

Nueiaiaei? /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny iaaacia/ia oaiaeaioe?y iioe?aiiy
iaacaeiiiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ?o iaiaaee/iiai
aaeeaaiiy oa c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo ia?eiiai??th ia I?eea?iaoo?.
O?eaiaeia noaoenoeea na?ae/eoue, ui ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a e?euee?noue
aeyaeaieo cei/oei?a, iia(ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, c?inea a?eueo ye o aeaa
?ace. C iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ca oeae ia??iae aeeo/aii aeecueei o?ueio oiii
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. Iei? a iaeano? ia?aaoaa? ia iae?eo iaeaea 500 in?a
(a Oe?a?i? — a?ey 60 oeny/), ye? aaeathoueny aei iaiaaee/iiai aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a. Iniiaiith ia?eioe/iith aacith aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo
?a/iaei ia I?eea?iaoo? ? oaeiae niioai?iee iae, yeee iniaeeai iioe?aiee
a ianaeaieo ioieoao Aiai?iae/ainueeiai, Eieiieenueeiai, Ein?anueeiai,
Iaaea??iyinueeiai, Niyoeinueeiai, Oeniaieoeueeiai oa Oeoiaoeueeiai
?aeii?a. Aeania, ia oe?e iniia? ?iceaaa?oueny ia?eiiai?y.

Noaoenoeea na?ae/eoue, ui o?eueee a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo ui??/ii iiie?a?
ii 20-25 ia?eiiai?a. Iae/ano?oa a?ae ia?aaeicoaaiiy. Ae?eee, ye?
aeaioiaeythoue cia/io e?euee?noue ia?eioeea, aei?iaiaothoue eiai
i?oei?noue ia ia?eiiaiao, eio?? iieieeeny, oae ae iiaeoe, ia i?eei?. ?i
aaiaeyoue aeico ? aiie, ca nai?ie a?ae/oooyie, aecia/athoue, iane?eueee
ia?eioee neeueiee, aea ia??aeei aeoiaeeoue, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y aeyaeeany
iaaeoi aenieith ? «i?aeaeine?aei?» iiie?athoue.

Ia?eiiai?y iaaecae/aeii i?aenooiia ? oyaeea oai?iaa. Aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a ieu?aii ?oeio? ?ioi?oao ia?eiiaia, eiai na?oeaai-noaeeiio
nenoaio, aioo??oi? i?aaie. A?aioey «a?ei? nia?o?» aeaea? ciai?oi?e
aeaeyae: eiai oe??a, coae, aieinny. AEeooy ia?eiiai?a ae?eeoueny ia aea?
oace: ia?oa, a ye?e ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ae??th ia?eioee?a, ? ae?oaa oaca,
eiee ooeathoue /a?aiao aeico. I?/ei ?ioei ia?eiiai ia iiaea caeiaoeny,
ai ii/eia?oueny aeaoeeaa «eiiea».

Iaoa iaaeeoeeia iaa/eeany e?eoaaoe ia?eiiai?th. Oa a?aea a oiio, ui oey
ethaeeia ia??aeei iiaa?oa?oueny o eieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ? ia iiaea
ao?eiaoeny a?ae niieone ciiao n?iiaoaaoe «caai?iiaiee ie?ae». Ia aeaeue,
oai?iaa iano?eueee ci?ith? iniaeno?noue, ui ia?eiiaie, iaa?oue i?ney
o?eaaeiai e?eoaaiiy, aa?ooueny ca noa?a, ai ia iiaeooue aaeaiooaaoeny
aei ?nioth/eo oiia. Iani?iiiaei? iiaeieaoe iiaooia? /e nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie.

Aeey ?icaeiaieo eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i ?a?iie ? Aia?eee ieyoeoai oa
aeeiaie?ci noaee iaoe?iiaeueiei eeoii, iniiaiith c i?e/ei caoai?thaaiiy
? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy. Ca nia?oi?noth aeeiaie?ci c eiai iane?aeeaie
iin?aea? o?ao? i?noea i?ney caoai?thaaiue na?oey oa noaeei ? ceiye?nieo
iooeei.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy iaeaea iianthaeii iii?oia oaiaeaioe?y aei
ca?eueoaiiy aaeeaaiiy nie?oiiai, ianaiia?aae ca ?aooiie ai??eee ?
ai??e/aieo ae?ia?a. Aeaaeae? a?eueoa o ceiaaeeaaiiy nie?oieie iaiiyie
aeyao?oueny ae?iie, i?aee?oe?a ? thiae?a.

A?aei?/a?oueny i?yiee ca(ycie i?ae ??aiai nia?oiino? a?ae aeeiaieueieo
caoai?thaaiue, e?euee?noth aaeeaaiiy nie?oiiai. Iieiaeia o?ainii?oieo
aaa??e c? nia?oaeueieie iane?aeeaie, oaeanoa ? naiiaoanoa iia(ycai? c
ieyoeoaii ? aeeiaie?ciii. Iieiae? ethaee aeiooue a?ae ?aioiai? nia?o?
(o?aaia, coieiea na?oey, aino?iai io?o?iiy aeeiaieai), a a noa?oiio
a?oe? aie?athoue a?ae oee?ico ia/?iee, caoai?thaaiue na?oey ? noaeei,
aeeiaieueieo ineoic?a, caiaeaiiy eaaaiue, ?aeo ai?oai? ? aeioee oiui.

Ieyoeoai ? aeeiaieue i?eiinyoue iaoiio noni?euenoao aaeee? ii?aeuei? ?
iaoa??aeuei? ao?aoe. I?e ceiaaeeaaii? aeeiaieueieie iaiiyie cieaeo?oueny
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ao?a/athoueny o?oaeia? iaaeee ? eaae?o?eaoe?y,
caiaiaaea? o?oaeiaa aeenoeeie?ia. Ca ?ic?aooieaie aeiiii?no?a, o in?a,
ye? iii??ii aaeeaathoue nie?oia, i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? cieaeo?oueny ia
4-5%. Aeecueei iieiaeie o?ainii?oieo aaa??e iia(ycaii c aaeeaaiiyi
aeeiaieth. Ae?iaie/? o?aaie /ano?oa aoaathoue o iiiaae?eie (oae caaiee
«aaaeeee» aeaiue) aai o aei? i?ney nayo, eiee i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
i?aai?cio ua ia a?aeiiaeeany i?ney aeeiaieueiiai ni(yi?iiy.

I?e aeeiaie?ci?, ye i?aaeei, ethaeeia ineo?/ii aeaa?aaeo?. Ao?a/a?oueny
ia o?eueee caei?ia(y, a e ethaenueea a?aei?noue. Aaaaoi ethaeae iiie?a?
a?ae aeeiaieth a iieiaeiio a?oe?. ?acii c ieyoeoaii o n?i(th i?eoiaeyoue
iaoa??aeuei? ianoaoee, ia a?oio? oeueiai ii/eiathoueny naa?ee,
iaaeioaa/aiiy, a?eee. Aaaaoi n?iae aiane?aeie oeueiai ?iciaaeathoueny.

Ioiae, ieyoeoai ? aeeiaie?ci — i?iaeaia na?oiaiai cia/aiiy, ? ai?ioueaa
c ieie aeiaaa? ni?eueieo coneeue. ?o ne?ae ?icoe?ithaaoe ia o?eueee ye
iniaenoo o?aaaae?th, a e ye nioe?aeueia eeoi.

Oni?o o ai?iouea? c aaeeaaiiyi aeeiaieueieo iaii?a cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aaeeueiiai aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy.
Aeoiaoaaoe ?icoiiee iiaeyae ia nie?oia iaee?aua aeaniei i?eeeaaeii. Eiee
aaoueee caaaeaee oaa?ac? ? a n?i(? ia aaeeaathoue aeeiaieueieo iaii?a,
ae?oe ?inoooue caei?iaeie. I?eeeaae aeey ieo — ?oi? aaoueee.

Ia i?iaeaio ieyoeoaa ? aeeiaie?cio iiaeii? aooe ni?yiiaai? coneeey an?o
/eai?a noni?euenoaa, a?iiaaeyinueeeo ? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e. Oaea
?iaioa i?eaaaea aei ciaioaiiy aeiaaee?a ieyoeoaa. A ia?niaeoea? iio??aii
noaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i inoaoi/io e?ea?aeaoe?th ieyoeoaa ? aeeiaie?cio.

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