?AOA?AO

ia oaio

«Iaaaoeai? aieeae oe?aeeeaeo cae/ie (eo??iiy, aaeeaaiiy aeeiaieth ?
ia?eioee?a) ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie ? ai?ioueaa c ieie»

IEAI

1. Aieea eo??iiy ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

2. Aieea aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

3. Aieea aeeiaieth ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie.

Eo??iiy oa eiai aieea ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie noathoue nueiaiaei?
nioe?aeueiith ? iaaee/iith i?iaeaiaie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui eo??iiy othothio ?
aaeeeith iaaaciaeith aeey caei?ia(y ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy ??cieo
caoai?thaaiue, ye? ni?e/eiythoueny aei ia?aae/anii? nia?o? ethaeae.
Aeyaey?oueny, ui nia?oi?noue a?ae ?aeo eaaaiue na?aae eo?oe?a o 20 ?ac?a
aeua, i?ae na?aae oeo, ui ia eo?youe. Oaeiae eo?oe? a 13 ?ac?a /ano?oa
oai??thoue ia noaiiea?ae?th (caoai?thaaiiy na?oey) ? a 10 ?ac?a /ano?oa
— ia ae?aceiao oai?iao oeoiea. sse i?aaeei, eo?aoeue aeeaa ia 6-8 ?ie?a
iaioa, i?ae eiai ?iaaniee, yeee ia eo?eoue.

Ui oaea othothi? Othothi — oea iaeii??/ia ?ineeia c ?iaeeie
ianeueiiiaeo, aenooai? eenoee yei? i?ney niaoe?aeueii? ia?iaee
iiae??aiththoue ? aeei?enoiaothoue aeey eo??iiy. Aei neeaaeo eenoe?a
othothio aoiaeyoue oae? ?a/iaeie ye i?eioei, a?eee, aoaeaaiaee, i?aai/i?
eeneioe, niiee ? ao??i? ie??. Iniiaia iniaeea?noue othothio, caaaeyee
ye?e a?i a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo ?ineei ?iaeeie ianeueiiiaeo, — ai?no
i?eioeio.

I?eioei — iaeia c iaeneeuei?oeo ?ineeiieo io?oo, iniiaia neeaaeiaa
/anoeia othothiiaiai aeeio. O /enoiio aeaeyae? oea aacaa?aia ie??noa
??aeeia iai?e?iiiai caiaoo, a??ea ia niae. Aiia aeia?a ?ic/eiy?oueny o
aiae?, nie?o?, ao??? e eaaei i?iieea? e??cue neecia? iaieiiee ii?iaeieie
?ioa, iina, a?iio?a, oeoieo.

Aeaaii aaea noaa cae/iei ieaeao — «E?aiey i?eioeio aaeaa? eiiy!» Ie
/anoi ia caaeoio?iiny iaae ci?noii oeeo ne?a. Aea ae oaee ni?aaae?
aaeaa?! Aaeeea aa?ia oaa?eia iaaea? a?ae e?aieeie no?aoii? io?ooe.
Aeoaea /ooeea? aei i?eioeio ioaoe, nnaaoe? a oaeiae ?eae ? caiiiaiaei?.
Iai?eeeaae, yeui cii/eoe e?i/ee neeyii? iaei/ee i?eioeiii ?
aeioi?eiooeny iath aei aecueiaa ai?iaoey, oi a?i caaeia. Oaeiae e?aieeia
i?eioeio i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaeaae? an?o ?ea a aeaa??oi?.

Nia?oaeueia aeica i?eioeio aeey ethaeeie — 50-70 ia (1 ia ia e?eia?ai
iane o?ea). A?aeiii, ui e?euee?noue i?eioeio, yeee iaaeoiaeeoue ?c
othothiiaiai aeeio a i?aai?ci, noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 1/25 ai?noo eiai a
othothi?. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oa, ye /anoi ?iaeyoue caoyaeee i?ae /an
eo??iiy. Ethaeeia ae?noa? nia?oaeueio aeico i?eioeio. Aeeo?thth/e 20-25
neaa?ao ia aeaiue.

Io?oei?noue i?eioeio a?ae/oa eiaeiee, ooi acya o ?io ia?oo a aeeoo?
neaa?aoo. I?ooi ia iiaea aeieo?eoe ia?oi? neaa?aoe aei e?ioey. Oeueiio
caaaaeathoue caiaii?i/aiiy e ioaeioa, a /anii ? ua iai?e?ii?o?
a?ae/oooy, oae? ye ?ioaineaia neeiiaeae?eaiiy, ooi o aieia?, aieiaiee
a?eue, na?oeaaeooy, caaaeueia neaae?noue, o?ano?iiy ?oe, aethaaiiy,
i?iiin. O oyaeeeo aeiaaeeao ethaeeia iai?eoiii??. Iinooiiai i?aai?ci
i?enoiniao?oueny aei i?eioeio ? eo??iiy ia aeeeeea? oaeeo iai?e?iieo
a?ae/ooo?a. Oi/a io?o?iiy i?aai?cio o?eaa?, aea aeiaai aiii i?ye ia
aeyaey?oueny.

Oe?aeeeaa ae?y othothio ia iaiaaeo?oueny i?eioeiii. Aei neeaaeo
othothiiaiai aeeio aeecueei 30 io?oeieo ?a/iaei: ai?ae, neieeueia
eeneioa, /aaeiee aac oa ?i.

Othothiiaee aeei, yeee aaeeoa? eo?aoeue, ianaiia?aae iio?aiey? o aa?oi?
aeeoaeuei? oeyoe, a iio?i — o o?aoath oa eaaai?. I?ae aieeaii
othothiiaiai aeeio a?aeaoaa?oueny o?ii?/ia iiae?aciaiiy neeciai?
iaieiiee ai?oai?, ?icaeaa?oueny caiaeaiiy aieiniaeo ca(ycie, aiie
iioiauothoueny, a?oa?oathoue. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie oaia?o aieino
(a?oaee aiein eo?oey), ui iniaeeai iii?oii a iieiaeeo ae?iie.

Aiane?aeie iiae?aciaiiy neeciai? iaieiiee a?iio?a ? o?aoa? othothiiaei
aeeiii ?icaeaa?oueny ?o o?ii?/ia caiaeaiiy (a?iio?o ? o?aoa?o).

Oiio eo?oe? /ano?oa oai??thoue ia caiaeaiiy eaaaiue, ooaa?eoeueic,
caoai?thaaiiy o ieo iathoue oyaeeee ia?aa?a.

O/ai? anoaiiaeee, ui eo??iiy — iaeei c iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei oiai, ui ?icaeaa?oueny ?ae eaaaiue. Caoai?thaai?noue ia
?ae eaaaiue na?aae eo?oe?a o 30 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae na?aae oeo, ooi ia
eo?eoue. Oaeiae a?aeiii, ui eo??iiy ca?eueoo? ?ecee caoai??oe ia
ceiye?ni? iiaiooai?aiiy ?ioeo i?aai?a: yceea, ai?oai?, no?aaioiaeo,
oeoieo, na/iaiai i?oo?a. Othothiiaee aeei caoaii ?ae? ia
na?oeaai-noaeeiio nenoaio, aeeoaeueio nenoaio oa i?aaie o?aaeaiiy.

Iei? ie ia iiaeaii aiai?eoe i?i eo??iiy i?aee?oe?a ye i?i iaaeii?
ionoiu?. Eo??iiy — nioe?aeueia eeoi. *a?ac ia?icoi?iiy, ne?ia
iane?aeoaaiiy iiaee, aei?ineeo, ?iaaniee?a i?aee?oie ii/eia? eo?eoe —
nii/aoeo ?iaeoue iaeio caoyaeeo, aeeo?th? iaeio neaa?aoo, a iio?i
oyaiaoueny aei eeoia?nii? ia/ee ciiao ? ciiao. ? oae eo??iiy noa?
cae/eith. A ii/aoe eo??iiy iaaaaaoi eaaoa, i?ae iieeiooe. Ioiae, e?aua
ia ii/eiaoe.

O iaoeiaiio o?aeooaaii? ia?eiiai?y — oea oai?iaeeaee ineo?/iee noai,
yeee coiiaeaiee o?ii?/iith ?ioieneeaoe??th aiane?aeie ceiaaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieie ?a/iaeiaie ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ineo?/iith aai o?ce/iith
caeaaei?noue a?ae ieo.

Iaaaciaea ia?eiiai?? i/aaeaeia. Iaeaaaeueiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
noa? iaaecae/aeii na?eiciei nioe?aeueiei /eiieeii, yeee iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia noai caei?ia(y ? aeaaiiieo//y ethaeae, ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa
caaaeii. ??cei ca?eueoo?oueny /enei in?a, ye? iacaeiiii aaeeaathoue
ia?eioeee, ? i?iii?oe?eii aei oeueiai c?inoa? e?euee?noue cei/ei?a ia
a?oio? ia?eiiai??.

Uiaei i?e/ei aeaaeae? iioe?thaaii? i?eno?ano? aei caoaiiai caiyooy, oi
ooo ?nio? /eiaei aeaeaei iaiaeiicia/ieo aeoiie. Iaei? aeine?aeieee
iiyniththoue oea yaeua cae/aeiei caoe?eaaeaiiyi, aaaeaiiyi c?iaeoe
iaaiaee, ?io? coieiythoueny ia a?aenooiino? oaiea, caoeuaiino? /e
nai???aeiiio niinia? i?iaanoe /an. ? e eaoaai??y aiae?oee?a, ye?
aaaaeathoue iniiaiith i?e/eiith ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eiiai?? nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie: aac?ia?ooy, a?aenooi?noue nenoaie aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, eio?a,
a?aeaa?oi eaaeo/e, caeeoeeany iaiaeeioe? c aeaniith aeieath.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ceiaaeeaaiiy ia?eioeeaie ? iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai OO noie?ooy, aeina?ae aaeeaaiiy ethaeueie
ia?eioe/ieo ?a/iaei aei??th?oueny oeny/ie?ooyie. Ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii
ethaeeia caaaeaee oyaiaoueny aei iaa?aeiiiai. ? ?e, ye na?ae/eoue
i?aeoeea, ia aaaeei aoei a?aee?eoe oa?iieoeth: i?e?iaea a nai?e aeeaei?
i?noeoue ?ineeie, ei??iiy /e eenoy yeeo aeae?eythoue niee, ui
i?aei?iathoue iano??e, iaaeathoue nee, ?iaey/e aeeooy, oi/a e
iaiaaeiaai, «uaneeaei».

?nio? aace?/ aeieac?a oiio, ui ae?iaieoeoai, oi?a?aey ? niiaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo ?a/iaei iaa?aee oaeaeeeo oaii?a ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
aeiaaeueieo ianooaaao. A Oe?a?i? ca inoaii? ?iee ceiaaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie oa ?o iacaeiiiee ia?a iaaoee ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o. ?
yeui ?ai?oa, a ia??iae i?aae?iiy oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio eieeoiueiai
Nithco oey i?aaaea caiia/oaaeany, ne?aaaeany i?ae a?eoii «oa?iii», oi
nueiaiaei? ie ciooai? a?aeaa?oi aeciaoe , ui iaae Oe?a?iith iaaenea
?aaeueia caa?ica naiicieuaiiy iaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ye aioo??oi?o, oae ?
ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui iniiaiith ne?iaeiiith aacith ia?eiiai?? a
Oe?a?i? ? niioai?iee ian. Niieiia?e?a ian?iiy, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ie?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ye i?iaeoeo
oa?/oaaiiy. Ia?eiio?ooo i?noeoue ia aiii, a aieiaee iaeo. Ia aeaeue, a
inoaii? ?iee iaethnoee oe??? ?ineeie ae?eee iaeaiith aeo?ae ia iaeio
oe?a?inueeo inaeth. Ia caaaeath/e ia /enaeuei? oeace, iinoaiiae, ?io?
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ye? caai?iiythoue aen?aaiiy oa ae?iuoaaiiy oe???
eoeueoo?e, ethaee na?aeiii, a /e i? ni?eythoue ?iciianthaeaeaiith
ia?eiiai??. ? /eiaei i?eeeaae?a, eiee iae iiioey?eco?oueny ?
aen?aa?oueny c iaoith io?eiaiiy iaaeeae. C eiaeiei ?ieii e?euee?noue
aeyaeaieo oa cieuaieo i?aaiaie i?aaiii?yaeeo iacaeiiieo iin?a?a iaeo oa
eiiiie? c?inoa? a aeanyoee ?ac?a. I?iii?oe?eii ca?eueoothoueny ? inyae
aeeonaiiy c ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. sseui, neaae?ii, a 1996 ?ioe? a
Oe?a?i? a ia?eiae?ee?a aoei neiio?neiaaii 38, 2 oiiie ia?eic?eey, oi
ca?ac oey oeeo?a ia?aaeuo? 45 oiii. I?e/iio, iiiaae 70% ia?eicania?a
aiaoiaey?oueiny a aea?aeaa? ia iniia? aeanii? ne?iaeie.

sseui aei 1995 ?ieo ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie aoa ca?aa?no?iaaiee
?aeeiee oaeo iiyae a aea?aeaa? eiea?io, oi ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a ?o
e?euee?noue ia?aaeueea oeny/o.

Aaaee? neioaoe/i? ia?eioeee, ye? aeyaeythoueny ia oe?a?inuee?e
oa?eoi???, ye i?aaiee, ? ?acoeueoaoii aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeii?
cei/eiiino?.

Nueiaiaei? /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny iaaacia/ia oaiaeaioe?y iioe?aiiy
iaacaeiiiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ?o iaiaaee/iiai
aaeeaaiiy oa c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo ia?eiiai??th ia I?eea?iaoo?.
O?eaiaeia noaoenoeea na?ae/eoue, ui ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a e?euee?noue
aeyaeaieo cei/oei?a, iia(ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, c?inea a?eueo ye o aeaa
?ace. C iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ca oeae ia??iae aeeo/aii aeecueei o?ueio oiii
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. Iei? a iaeano? ia?aaoaa? ia iae?eo iaeaea 500 in?a
(a Oe?a?i? — a?ey 60 oeny/), ye? aaeathoueny aei iaiaaee/iiai aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a. Iniiaiith ia?eioe/iith aacith aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo
?a/iaei ia I?eea?iaoo? ? oaeiae niioai?iee iae, yeee iniaeeai iioe?aiee
a ianaeaieo ioieoao Aiai?iae/ainueeiai, Eieiieenueeiai, Ein?anueeiai,
Iaaea??iyinueeiai, Niyoeinueeiai, Oeniaieoeueeiai oa Oeoiaoeueeiai
?aeii?a. Aeania, ia oe?e iniia? ?iceaaa?oueny ia?eiiai?y.

Noaoenoeea na?ae/eoue, ui o?eueee a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo ui??/ii iiie?a?
ii 20-25 ia?eiiai?a. Iae/ano?oa a?ae ia?aaeicoaaiiy. Ae?eee, ye?
aeaioiaeythoue cia/io e?euee?noue ia?eioeea, aei?iaiaothoue eiai
i?oei?noue ia ia?eiiaiao, eio?? iieieeeny, oae ae iiaeoe, ia i?eei?. ?i
aaiaeyoue aeico ? aiie, ca nai?ie a?ae/oooyie, aecia/athoue, iane?eueee
ia?eioee neeueiee, aea ia??aeei aeoiaeeoue, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y aeyaeeany
iaaeoi aenieith ? «i?aeaeine?aei?» iiie?athoue.

Ia?eiiai?y iaaecae/aeii i?aenooiia ? oyaeea oai?iaa. Aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a ieu?aii ?oeio? ?ioi?oao ia?eiiaia, eiai na?oeaai-noaeeiio
nenoaio, aioo??oi? i?aaie. A?aioey «a?ei? nia?o?» aeaea? ciai?oi?e
aeaeyae: eiai oe??a, coae, aieinny. AEeooy ia?eiiai?a ae?eeoueny ia aea?
oace: ia?oa, a ye?e ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ae??th ia?eioee?a, ? ae?oaa oaca,
eiee ooeathoue /a?aiao aeico. I?/ei ?ioei ia?eiiai ia iiaea caeiaoeny,
ai ii/eia?oueny aeaoeeaa «eiiea».

Iaoa iaaeeoeeia iaa/eeany e?eoaaoe ia?eiiai?th. Oa a?aea a oiio, ui oey
ethaeeia ia??aeei iiaa?oa?oueny o eieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ? ia iiaea
ao?eiaoeny a?ae niieone ciiao n?iiaoaaoe «caai?iiaiee ie?ae». Ia aeaeue,
oai?iaa iano?eueee ci?ith? iniaeno?noue, ui ia?eiiaie, iaa?oue i?ney
o?eaaeiai e?eoaaiiy, aa?ooueny ca noa?a, ai ia iiaeooue aaeaiooaaoeny
aei ?nioth/eo oiia. Iani?iiiaei? iiaeieaoe iiaooia? /e nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie.

Aeey ?icaeiaieo eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i ?a?iie ? Aia?eee ieyoeoai oa
aeeiaie?ci noaee iaoe?iiaeueiei eeoii, iniiaiith c i?e/ei caoai?thaaiiy
? nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy. Ca nia?oi?noth aeeiaie?ci c eiai iane?aeeaie
iin?aea? o?ao? i?noea i?ney caoai?thaaiue na?oey oa noaeei ? ceiye?nieo
iooeei.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy iaeaea iianthaeii iii?oia oaiaeaioe?y aei
ca?eueoaiiy aaeeaaiiy nie?oiiai, ianaiia?aae ca ?aooiie ai??eee ?
ai??e/aieo ae?ia?a. Aeaaeae? a?eueoa o ceiaaeeaaiiy nie?oieie iaiiyie
aeyao?oueny ae?iie, i?aee?oe?a ? thiae?a.

A?aei?/a?oueny i?yiee ca(ycie i?ae ??aiai nia?oiino? a?ae aeeiaieueieo
caoai?thaaiue, e?euee?noth aaeeaaiiy nie?oiiai. Iieiaeia o?ainii?oieo
aaa??e c? nia?oaeueieie iane?aeeaie, oaeanoa ? naiiaoanoa iia(ycai? c
ieyoeoaii ? aeeiaie?ciii. Iieiae? ethaee aeiooue a?ae ?aioiai? nia?o?
(o?aaia, coieiea na?oey, aino?iai io?o?iiy aeeiaieai), a a noa?oiio
a?oe? aie?athoue a?ae oee?ico ia/?iee, caoai?thaaiue na?oey ? noaeei,
aeeiaieueieo ineoic?a, caiaeaiiy eaaaiue, ?aeo ai?oai? ? aeioee oiui.

Ieyoeoai ? aeeiaieue i?eiinyoue iaoiio noni?euenoao aaeee? ii?aeuei? ?
iaoa??aeuei? ao?aoe. I?e ceiaaeeaaii? aeeiaieueieie iaiiyie cieaeo?oueny
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ao?a/athoueny o?oaeia? iaaeee ? eaae?o?eaoe?y,
caiaiaaea? o?oaeiaa aeenoeeie?ia. Ca ?ic?aooieaie aeiiii?no?a, o in?a,
ye? iii??ii aaeeaathoue nie?oia, i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? cieaeo?oueny ia
4-5%. Aeecueei iieiaeie o?ainii?oieo aaa??e iia(ycaii c aaeeaaiiyi
aeeiaieth. Ae?iaie/? o?aaie /ano?oa aoaathoue o iiiaae?eie (oae caaiee
«aaaeeee» aeaiue) aai o aei? i?ney nayo, eiee i?aoeacaeaoi?noue
i?aai?cio ua ia a?aeiiaeeany i?ney aeeiaieueiiai ni(yi?iiy.

I?e aeeiaie?ci?, ye i?aaeei, ethaeeia ineo?/ii aeaa?aaeo?. Ao?a/a?oueny
ia o?eueee caei?ia(y, a e ethaenueea a?aei?noue. Aaaaoi ethaeae iiie?a?
a?ae aeeiaieth a iieiaeiio a?oe?. ?acii c ieyoeoaii o n?i(th i?eoiaeyoue
iaoa??aeuei? ianoaoee, ia a?oio? oeueiai ii/eiathoueny naa?ee,
iaaeioaa/aiiy, a?eee. Aaaaoi n?iae aiane?aeie oeueiai ?iciaaeathoueny.

Ioiae, ieyoeoai ? aeeiaie?ci — i?iaeaia na?oiaiai cia/aiiy, ? ai?ioueaa
c ieie aeiaaa? ni?eueieo coneeue. ?o ne?ae ?icoe?ithaaoe ia o?eueee ye
iniaenoo o?aaaae?th, a e ye nioe?aeueia eeoi.

Oni?o o ai?iouea? c aaeeaaiiyi aeeiaieueieo iaii?a cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aaeeueiiai aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy.
Aeoiaoaaoe ?icoiiee iiaeyae ia nie?oia iaee?aua aeaniei i?eeeaaeii. Eiee
aaoueee caaaeaee oaa?ac? ? a n?i(? ia aaeeaathoue aeeiaieueieo iaii?a,
ae?oe ?inoooue caei?iaeie. I?eeeaae aeey ieo — ?oi? aaoueee.

Ia i?iaeaio ieyoeoaa ? aeeiaie?cio iiaeii? aooe ni?yiiaai? coneeey an?o
/eai?a noni?euenoaa, a?iiaaeyinueeeo ? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e. Oaea
?iaioa i?eaaaea aei ciaioaiiy aeiaaee?a ieyoeoaa. A ia?niaeoea? iio??aii
noaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i inoaoi/io e?ea?aeaoe?th ieyoeoaa ? aeeiaie?cio.

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