?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

Iaaeeoeeia a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?o 12-17 noie?ooyo

Oaiaeaeueiee eaae onoaiiaeany a ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo a ??ci? ?noi?e/i?
oa?i?ie. Oeae i?ioean ia?aoiaeo a?ae ?aaiaeanieoeoaa aei oaiaeae?cio
i?io?eaa o niaoeeo?/ieo aeey eiaeii? e?a?ie oi?iao. Oae, o Eeoa? oea
a?aeaoeiny a?ey ???-?? noie?ooy aei i.a. , a ?iae?? — o ia?o? noi??//y
iaoi? a?e, o Caeaaeacc? ? Na?aaei?e Ac?? a ?V-V? noie?ooyo, o e?a?iao
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie — o V-V? noie?ooyo, o ?in?? — a ?X noie?oo?.

Iaae?iiy Cao?aeii? ?einueei? ?iia??? a 476 ?. i.a. i?aaenoaaey? aeey
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ?noi?e/io a?aiue i?ae ?aaiaeanieoeueeith oi?iaoe??th ?
i?eeoiao?e ?e ia ci?io iiaith oi?iaoe??th — oaiaeaeueii?, i?ae oae
iaceaaiith noa?iaeaai?noth ? na?aaei?ie noie?ooyie. Na?aaeiueia?//y —
aiioa oaiaeaeueieo, /e e??iinieoeueeeo, a?aeiinei ioiieth? 12-13
noie?oue.

I?e oaiaeae?ci? ?nioaaei aeaa iniiaieo eeane: oaiaeaee ? caeaaei?
e??iaee . Caiaeii c ?inoii i?no i?aeneeeany oa? i?nueeeo ?ai?niee?a ?
eoioe?a — iaeaooi?e o?ao?e noai, ao?aeoac?y. I?ae aeaiia iniiaieie
eeanaie oaiaeaeueiiai noni?euenoaa i?ioyaii onueiai na?aaeiueia?//y
eoea ai?ioueaa, ui iai?eieiy?oueny.

Oaiaeaeueiee eaae O?aioe??, I?ia//eie, Aiae?? i?ieoia o?e noaae??.
Ia?oa noaae?y oaiaeae?cio (c V ii X-X? a.) — ?aii? na?aaeiueia?//y —
aeieeaaea aaciina?aaeiuei ca iaae?iiyi ?aaiaeanieoeueeiai eaaeo a ?ei? a
?acoeueoao? iianoaiiy ?aa?a ? aoi?aiaiiy «aa?aa??a».

I?ia?aneai? ?ene oaiaeaeueiiai eaaeo iicia/eeeny ia oaeaeei. Iia? oi?ie
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy neeaaeaeeny iia?eueii. Eaeueonuee? ? i?iaoeuee?
ieaiaia, ui ia?aiiaee ?aaiaeanieoeuee? aea?aeaae, i?eianee ?c niaith
ia?aaeeoee ?iaeiaiai eaaeo c eiai aeiiii?/ieie ? eoeueoo?ieie ?enaie,
ianaiia?aae c iaoo?aeueieie oi?iaie ainiiaea?noaa. Ia?ao?ae a?ae
aioe/iiai na?oo aei na?aaeiueia?//y a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? aoa ca’ycaiee
nii/aoeo c aeeaieei aeiiii?/iei ? eoeueoo?ii? niaaeeii. O ?aii?i
na?aaeiueia?//? ia?aaaaeaei iaoo?aeueia ainiiaea?noai. O e?a?iao
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie a ieei ?yaeo noie?oue a?aecia/aany caiaiaae iaoee.

A ae?oa?e noaae?? oaiaeae?cio a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? (i?eaeecii c X? ii XV
noie?ooy) — o ?icaeiooiio c ?inoii i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ?inee i?noa —
oeaio?e ?aianea ? oi?a?ae?. ?ai?nieee a i?noao ii?aeioaaeeny a oeaoe,
?icaeoie yeeo oa?aeoa?ii aeey aeaii? noaae??. Ii?yae c iaoo?aeueiei
ainiiaea?noaii iaea?aeaei ?icaeoie i?iiaa ainiiaea?noai. I?oei?ee
oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie. ?icaeaaeany ? ?inea oi?a?aey ona?aaeei?
e?a?ie ? i?ae e?a?iaie.

Ony aeooiaia eoeueoo?a na?aaeiueia?//y ciaoiaeeeany eiae ai?oii
oea?eiaii? ?aeaieia??, ui caoaa?aeaeoaaea aiaeanoaaiio iaci?ithaai?noue
?nioth/iai eeaniaiai ii?yaeeo ? aiiaeaiiy. «Na?oiaeyae na?aaei?o
noie?oue aoa ii ia?aaac? aaieia?/iei… oea?eaa aoea iaeaeuei
ocaaaeueiaiiyi ? naieoe??th ?nioth/iai oaiaeaeueiiai eaaeo», Aeaaeaiiee
Aaaonoei a ?V noie?oo? aenoaaea oa?aeoa?ia a oeueiio a?aeiioaii?
iieiaeaiiy: «Aaoi?eoao nayuaiiiai ienaiiy aeua an?o cae?aiinoae
ethaenueeiai ?icoio». Io?oe?eia oea?eaa ai?iea i?ioe ??anae-ni?ia
e?eoe/ii a?aeiineoeny aei nayuaiiiai ienaiiy ? oea?eiaieo aaoi?eoao?a. O
oeeo ??anyo ciaoiaeea aena?oeaiiy nioe?aeueiee i?ioano naeyi ? ai?iaeyi.
Aeey i?eaeooaiiy ??anae iai?ee?ioe? oeueiai ia??iaeo a eaoieeoeueeeo
e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie aoa noai?aiee iniaeeaee i?aai — ?iea?ceoe?y.
Ca?aene naia niaith aeieeaaei, ui oea?eiaia aeiaia aoea aeo?aeiei
iiiaioii ? iniiaith anyeiai ieneaiiy. TH?eni?oaeaioe?y,
i?e?iaeiciaanoai, o?einio?y — aanue ci?no oeeo iaoe i?eaiaeeany
a?aeiia?aeii aei iaa/aiiy oea?eae. A aiioo na?aaeiueia?//y iaoeo
aaaaeaee neoaeieoeath oea?eae, ? ?e ia aoei aeicaieaii aeoiaeeoe ca
iaae?, onoaiiaeai? a??ith.

O X-X?? noie?ooyo aeii?ioth/ith oi?iith o?einio?? a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?
noaea noieanoeea. O X??? noie?oo? noieanoeea aeinyaea naiai ?icea?oo.
Ci?no noieanoeee iieyaaa a ia??oiooaaii?, nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? caoeno?
io?oe?eii? oea?eiaii? ?aeaieia?? oeyoii ooo/ieo oi?iae?noe/ieo eia?/ieo
oeo?oaaiue. Eeaniaa cia/aiiy noieanoeee iieyaaei o aei?aaaeaii?
oaiaeaeueii? ???a?o?? ? ?ae?a?eii? ?aeaieia?? c iaoith iaeaei?noie?oi?
aenieoaoaoe?? o?oaeyueo ? oaeooaiiy i?ia?aneaii? aeoiee.

Noieanoeea aeoiaeeea c oiai iieiaeaiiy, ui an? iiaeeea? yaeiaiiy aaea
aeaii aai o nayuaiiiio ienaii?, aai a ooai?ao aaouee?a oea?eae.

O?einionueeith iniiaith na?aaeiueia?/ii? iaoee aoei a ia?oo /a?ao
iaa/aiiy A?enoioaey, cia/iith i??ith ia?ae?o/aia ? iinoaaeaia ia
neoaeao aiaineia’th. O na?aaei? noie?ooy A?enoioaeue aoa eaiii?ciaaiee
noieanoe/iith iaoeith, eiai iaceaaee «i?aaeoa/ae O?enoa a iiyniaii?
i?e?iaee». Einiiaii?y ? o?ceea A?enoioaey aeyaeeeny iaaecae/aeii
c?o/ieie aeey iaa/aiue aiaineia?a.

Oeaio?aie n?aaeecaaeiaie iaaeeoeeie aoee oi?aa?neoaoe. I?ioioeiaie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a c’yaeeeny oeiee, ui ?nioaaee a
a?aanueeeo oae?oaoao ? oeiea a Naea?ii. Aeua oeiea oeio oi?aa?neoaoo
?nioaaea o A?caio?? aaea a na?aaeei? ?X noie?ooy. O Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?
oi?aa?neoaoe i?aaenoaaeyee nii/aoeo /anoee ia’?aeiaiiy ui o/aoue ?
o/aueony, a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueiiai oeaoiaiai eaaeo na?aaeiueia?//y.
O X? noie?oo? aeiee oi?aa?neoao o Naea?ii, ia?aoai?aiee ia Naea?ineie
iaaee/ii? oeiee a?ey Iaaiiey, o X??-X??? noie?ooyo c’yaeeeny
oi?aa?neoaoe a Aieiiue?, Iii-iaeuea, Ia?eaeaa?, Iaaeoa, Ienoi?ae?, o X?
noie?oo? — o I?ac? ? A?aei?. *enei o/i?a a oi?aa?neoaoao ia ia?aaeuoaaei
aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a ia on?o oaeoeueoaoao. Noaoooe ? iaa/aeuei? ieaie
na?aaeiueia?/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a eiio?iethaaeeny eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith.
Aanue eaae aeeooy oi?aa?neoao?a aoa oneoiiaaiee c eaaeo oea?eiooo
onoaiia. Aaaaoi e?ea??a iaeaaeaee aei /a?ia/eo i?aeai?a. Na?onuee?
e?ea??, anooiath/e a iaaee/i? iinaaee, i?eeiaee i?enyao, iiae?aio aei
i?enyae nayuaiee?a. A oi?aa?neoaoao aeiioneaeiny aea/aiiy ? aeaye?
aioe/i? ienueiaiieee. A iaeano? iaaeeoeeie oaeei io?oe?eii aeciaiei
aioe/iei aaoi?ii aoa ianaiia?aae Aaeai. O Aaeaia na?aaeiueia?/iith
iaaeeoeeiith aoee ocyo? eiai iioa?aiaai? ?aeaae?ciii aeniiaee, aea
cian?i a?aeeeiooee eiai iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy (aeina?aee, ?ice?eooy), ui
aoei aieiaiith eiai caneoaith. Caaea/ath a/aieo aoei a ia?oo /a?ao
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaoe i?aaeeuei?noue a/aiiy aeciaieo aaoi?eoao?a o
A?aeiia?aei?e iaeano? ? eiiaiooaaoe eiai. Eiiaioa?? aei aeiaooe?a oiai
/e ?ioiai aaoi?eoaoiiai ienueiaiieea aoee iniiaiei aeaeii
na?aaeiueia?/ii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e. I?e?iaeiciaanoai ? iaaeeoeeia
oa?/oaaeeny ia aenia?eiaioaie, a aea/aiiyi oaeno?a Aaeaia ? A?iiie?aoa.
Aaeeeae ?iciia?a i?i Iaeei noieanoa, ui iiaa/eaoe a aiaoiia, ui ia?ae
noiaeyoueny a iiceo, a ia a na?oe?, ye o/ea A?enoioaeue, neacaa: «Ae
iai? iieacaee ana oea oae ythii ae a?ae/ooii, ui yeui ae oaeno
A?enoioaey ia aiai?ea cai?ioiiai (a oai i?yii neacaiee, ui ia?ae
ca?iaeaeothoueny a na?oea), oa iaiao?aeii aoei a aeciaoe oea ?noeiith».

Iaoiaee aeeeaaeaiiy ? naiee oa?aeoa? iaoee aoee /enoi noieanoe/ieie.
Nooaeaioe iaiai’youe cao/oaaee oa, ui aiai?eee i?ioani?a. Aeiaiaoe/ieie
a iaaeeoeei? aaaaeaeeny oai?e A?iiie?aoa, Aaeaia, Eai-Neiu (Aaeoeaiiu).
Neaaa ? aeene na?aaeiueia?/iiai i?ioani?a iieyaaee eieenue o eiai
ia/eoaiino? e a oi?ii? i?aeoaa?aeeoe eiaeia nai? iieiaeaiiy oe’eoeaoie,
ocyoi? a yeiai-iaaoaeue aaoi?eoaoo ? i?eaaaeaii? iaeaiyoue. Aeeniooe
i?aaenoaaeyee naiee c?o/iee aeiaaeie aeneiaeoe ona nai? ciaiiy ?
ienoaoeoai. ?noeia ? iaoea icia/aee o?eueee oa, ui aoei iaienaii, ?
na?aaeiueia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei i?inoi oeoia/aiiyi a?aeiiiai.
Oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeeny eiiaioa?? Aaeaia aei A?iiie?aoa, aaaaoi ooi
eiiaiooaaee Aaeaia.

O X???-X? noie?ooyo a oi?aa?neoaoao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ?icaeaaeany
noieanoe/ia iaaeeoeeia c ?? a?aeaa?iaieie iiaoaeiaaie, oiiaeyaeieie
aeniiaeaie e iii?aie. Oiio a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio eaea?noaiaaaeaiee
ii?yae c caniaaie, aeiaooeie iaaee/iith i?aeoeeith, ciaoiaeeee i?noea ?
oae?, canoinoaaiiy yeeo ??oiooaaeiny ia a?aeaeaeaiiio ii??aiyii?, ia
aeac?aeao aeo?i??, ano?ieia??, ui ae?yee ia /e oyao caaeiaieueiyee
i?eioe aaaaoeo eean?a.

Aeey iaaeeoeeie na?aaei?o noie?oue oa?aeoa?i? neeaaei? e?ea?nuee?
i?iiene. Oa?iaoe?y aoea aaciina?aaeiuei naycaoa c aeo?i??th. *enei
/anoei a iaeiiio ?aoeaio? ia??aeei aeioiaeeei aei aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a.
Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae e?e caeiaee i?ioeio?ooe: oae iaceaaiee oa?eaae,
ui aeeth/aa 70 ? a?eueoa neeaaeiaeo /anoei (iniiaia neeaaeiaa /anoeia —
ci??ia i’yni), a oaeiae ieo?eaeao (iaia). Ooeae aaaaeaany oaeiae caniaii
i?ioe on?o aioo??oi?o oai?ia, o oiio /ene? «ii?iauo» eeoiiaiie. Caniae
oe? oe?ioaaeeny aeoaea aei?iai. O aeayeeo i?noao, ui iniaeeai neaaeeeny
nai?ie oa?iaeaie ? ieo?eaeaoaie ? i?iaeaaaaoeo ?o a ?io? e?a?ie
(Aaiaoe?y, Ith?iaa?a), aeaioiaeaiiy oeeo cania?a ae?iaeyeiny
i?eanaethaeii, c aaeeeith o?i/eno?noth, o i?enooiino? aeaaee ?
cai?ioaieo iaee/.

?ice?eooy o?oi?a i?e ii?aiaeo ii/anoyo i?iaiaeeeeny aaea a V? noie?oo?
i.a. , aea aiie iaei ni?eyee ?icaeoeo iaaeeoeeie. Ia?o? ?ice?eooy,
ne?aee yeeo ae?eoee aei ian, i?iaiaeeeeny c X??? noie?ooy. (O 1231 ?.
?iia?aoi? O??ae??o ?? aeicaieea i?iaiaeeoe ?ice?eooy ethaenueeiai o?oia
iaeei ?ac o 5 ?ie?a, aea a 1300 ?. ?einueeee iaia onoaiiaea noai?a
iiea?aiiy anyeiio, ooi iani?eeoueny ?ic/eaioaaoe ethaenueeee /e o?oi
aeaa?eoe eiai, uia c?iaeoe e?noye. *an a?ae /ano aeayeei oi?aa?neoaoai
aeicaieyeiny ?iaeoe ?ice?eooy o?oi?a. Iaaee/iee oaeoeueoao o Iii-iaeuea
a 1376 ?. iaea?aeaa aeica?e ?ice?eaaoe o?oie no?a/aieo o Aaiaoe?? a 1368
?. aoei aeicaieaii ?iaeoe iaeia ?ice?eooy a ??e. O I?ac? ?aaoey?i?
?ice?eooy ii/aeeny eeoa a 1400 ?., oiaoi /a?ac 52 ?ieo i?ney a?aee?eooy
oi?aa?neoaoo. A?aeainueeee oi?aa?neoao iaea?aeaa oaeee aeica?e c 1403
?., aea ca 94 a?aea (c 1404 ?. ii 1498 ?.) oai aoei c?iaeaii anaai 9
?ice?eoo?a. O A?aeonaaeueaeneii oi?aa?neoao? ia?oee ethaenueeee o?oi aoa
?ice?eoee i?ney 200 ?ie?a i?ney i?aai?caoe?? oi?aa?neoaoo. ?ice?eooy
cae/aeia ?iaea oee?theueiee. I?ae /an ?ice?eooy i?ioani? aai?aoee /eoaa
oaiein eaoeinueeith iiaith aiaoii?/iee oa?? Aaeaia. Cae/aeia ?ice?eooy
iaiaaeoaaeiny /a?aaiith ? a?oaeiith ii?iaeieiaie.

O 1316 ?. Iiiaeeii Aea Eo//e neeaa i?ae?o/iee ii aiaoii??, iaiaaath/enue
cai?ieoe oo /anoeio ia?oi? eieae «Eaiiio e?ea?nueei? iaoee» Eai-Neiu, ui
i?enay/aia aiaoii??. Nai Iiiaeeii iaa iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eoe o?eueee aeaa
o?oie, ? eiai i?ae?o/iee aoa eiii?eyoe??th. Iniiai? nai? aiaoii?/i?
i?ciaiiy Iiiaeeii /a?iaa c iiaaiiai, iiaiiai iiieeie ia?aeeaaeo
a?aanueei? eiii?eyoe?? oai?o Aa-eaia. A?eueo aeaio noie?oue eieaa
Iiiaeeii caeeoaeany i?ae?o/ieeii ii aiaoii??.

O?eueee a ?oae?? iai?ee?ioe? XV- XV? noie?oue ?ice?eooy ethaenueeeo
o?oi?a c iaoith aeeeaaeaiiy aiaoii?? noaei a?eueo /anoei yaeuai.

Na?aae na?aaeiueia?/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a Cao?aeii? ?a?iie Naea?ineee ?
Iaaeoaineee a?ae?a?aaaee i?ia?aneaio ?ieue ? iaio ?ioeo caciaaaee aieeao
a?ae noieanoeee.

Aaea a noa?iaeaaiino? ?einueea eieii?y Naea?ii, ui eaaeaei aei i?aaeiy
a?ae Iaaiiey, aoea a?aeiia nai?i oe?ethuei ee?iaoii. I?eieea oai?eo,
i?e?iaeii, i?ea?a aei cina?aaeaeaiiy ooo e?ea??a. Ia ii/aoeo V? noie?ooy
a Naea?ii i?iaiaeeeeny cai?a aeey /eoaiiy oai??a A?iiie?aoa, i?ci?oa, a
?X noie?oo?, o Naea?ii aoea noai?aia iaaee/ia oeiea, i?iia?ac
oi?aa?neoaoo, ui aeiee o X? noie?oo?, Aeeeaaea/aie a Naea?ineie oeiae?
aoee ethaee ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae. Aeeeaaeaiiy iieyaaei a /eoaii?
oai??a a?aoeueeeo ? ?einueeeo, a i?ci?oa a?aanueeeo ienueiaiiee?a ? a
oeoia/aii? i?i/eoaiiai. Oe?ieith iiioey?i?noth a na?aaei? noie?ooy a
Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? ei?enoaany «Naea?ineee nai?oa?iee ?aaeaiaio»,
iiioey?iee ca??iee i?aaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? a?a??ie, ui aoa neeaaeaiee o
X? noie?oo? o a??oiaai?e oi?i? eaoeinueeith iiaith ? iaiaeii?aciai
aeaeaaaany.

Oi?aa?neoao, ui a?ae??ciyany a?ae a?eueoino? na?aaeiueia?/ieo
oi?aa?neoao?a iaaeoaineee, o aieiae?iiyo Aaiaoe?? noaa a?ae?a?aaaoe
?ieue i?ci?oa, oaea aei e?ioey na?aaeiueia?//y, a aiioo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.
Caniiaaii a?i aoa o X??? noie?oo? a/aieie, ui a?aee c iainueeeo iaeanoae
? c ?niai?? a?ae ia?ane?aeoaaiue eaoieeoeueei? oea?eiaii? ?aaeoe??. O
XV? a. a?i noaa oeaio?ii ia?aaeiai? iaaeeoeeie.

Na?aaei? noie?ooy ia Caoiae? ? ia Noiae? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiaei
yaeuai, ia a?aeiiei ae?aaiueiio na?oo a iiae?aieo ?ici??ao, aaeeeeie
ai?aeai?yie. Na?aae /eneaiieo ai?aeai?e na?aaei?o noie?oue iniaeeai
aaaeeo iai’youe i?i naaa caeeoeea «/i?ia nia?oue» o na?aaeei? X?
noie?ooy — /oio c i?e?aeiaiiyi aei ia? ?ioeo oai?ia. ?noi?eee ia aac?
aeaieo e?oiien?a, oea?eiaieo caien?a i?i iioiaaiiy, i?nueeeo o?ii?e ?
?ioeo aeieoiaio?a caoaa?aeaeothoue, ui aaaaoi aaeee? ii??ae nii?iaei?ee.
Oe? nionoioeea? ai?aeai?? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ?ic?ooith o an?o iaeanoyo
ainiiaea?nueeiai ? a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy. ?icaeoeo ai?aeai?e ni?eya ?yae
oiia aeieeiaiiy ? ??no i?no, ui a?ae??ciyeeny neoi/ai?noth, o?niioith ?
a?oaeii, iania? ia?anoaaiiy aaee/acii? e?eueeino? ethaeae — oae iaceaaia
aaeeea ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a c? Noiaeo ia Cao?ae, i?ci?oa aaeeea
a?enueeiai-eieii?caoe?eiee ?oo o cai?ioiiio iai?yieo — oae iaceaai?
o?anoia? iioiaee (a?n?i iioiae?a ca ia??iae c 1096 ii 1291 ?.).
Ai?aeai?? na?aaei?o noie?oue, ye ? ca?aci? oai?iae noa?iaeaaiino?
iienothoueny cae/aeii i?ae ocaaaeueithth/ei iaeiaioaaiiyi «ii?»
(aeine?aii «/oi»). Aea, noaey/e c? caa?aaeaiiai iienai, /oiith (ii?ii)
iaceaaee ??ci? caoai?thaaiiy: /oio, oeou (o ia?oo /a?ao neiiee), a?nio,
aeecaioa??th e ?i.; ia??aeei aoaaee ci?oai? ai?aeai??.

Oe?iea iioe?aiiy aeo?aee (i?ae oe??th iacaith oaeiae oiaaany, ?yae ?ioeo
eiyouo ii?acie, cie?aia neo?e?n) i?ae /an o?anoiaeo iioiae?a iaoiiaeei
ooai?aiiy i?aeaia na. Eaca?y aeey i?eeoaaiiy i?ieaaeaieo. Ca?aene ?
i?eooeeo aeey i?ieaaeaieo iaea?aeaee iaeiaioaaiiy eaca?ao?a. Ii?yae c
eaca?aoaie aeieeee i?eooeeo ? aeey ?ioeo ca?acieo oai?eo.

O aaeeeeo ii?oiaeo i?noao ?a?iie, eoaee ia oi?aiaeo noaeao caiineeeny
ai?aeai?? (Aaiaoe?y, Aaioy e ?i.), aeieeee iniaeea? i?ioeai?aeai?/i?
onoaiiae ? caoiaee: o i?yiiai ca’yceo c ?ioa?anaie oi?a?ae? aoee
noai?ai? ea?aioeie (aeine?aii «ni?ieaaeiaaea» — oa?i?i ?cieyoe?? ?
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ae?iaaeai i?eaoeeo noae?a); c’yaeeeny iniaeea?
ii?oia? iaaeyaea/? — «iiia/eoae? caei?ia’y». I?ci?oa, oaeiae o ca’yceo c
aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie na?aaeiueia?/ieo i?no, c’yaeeeny «i?nuee?
e?ea??», /e «i?nuee? o?ceee», ye ?o iaceaaee a ?yae? ?a?iiaenueeeo
e?a?i; e?ea?? oe? aeeiioaaee a iniiaiiio i?ioeai?aeai?/i? ooieoe??. O
?yae? aaeeeeo i?no aoee iioae?eiaai? niaoe?aeuei? i?aaeea — ?aaeaiaioe,
ui iaee iaoith caiia?aoe caiaoo ? iioe?aiith ca?acieo oai?ia; a?aeii?
eiiaeiinuee?, ia?ecuee?, ith?iaa?ne? i?aaeea oeueiai ?iaeo.

Aeey ai?ioueae ?c oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaii? a Na?aaei? noie?ooy
«iaa?ieacie» aoee ae?iaeai? niaoe?aeuei? i??e, ye ?cieyoe?y
«i?ieaaeaieo» o ?yae? e?a?i o oae iaceaai? eaca?aoe, iinoa/aiiy
«i?ieaaeaieo» ?iaii, /e o??nea/eith aeca?ii/eii aeey neaiae?caoe??
caeaeaeo uia oieeiooe c?oeiaiiy c ieie caei?iaeo. O i?nueeeo ai??o
ai?ioa?? iaeyaeaee ao?aeieo ? cao?eioaaee i?aeic??eeo ia «aeo?aeo».

Ai?ioueaa c ca?acieie oai?iaaie ni?eyea ? i?iaaaeaiith aeayeeo
caaaeueiinai?oa?ieo caoiae?a — o ia?oo /a?ao ii caaacia/aiith i?no
aeia?iye?niith ieoiith aiaeith. Aei /enea iaeaeaai?oeo o
na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?a?ii? nai?oa?ieo nii?oaeaeaiue a?aeiinyoueny
aiaeii?iaiaee aeaaiuei?onueeeo i?no.

Aei /enea ia?oeo e?ea?aiue, oi/i?oa, aiaiae?eaiue, ia Caoiae? iaeaaeaee
Eeiineee ? Ia?ecueeee «Aioaeue aeuea» — aoaeeiie aiaeee (aiie aoee
caeeaaeai? ia?oee — o V? noie?oo?, ae?oaee — o V?? noie?oo?), iio?i
e?ea?iy Aa?oieii?y a Eiiaeii? (X?? noie?ooy) ? ?i. Iae/ano?oa e?ea?i?
aeaooiaoaaee iaioaae iiianoe?yo.

Iiaanoueue?neay iaaeeoeeia a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? oe?eeii aoea i?aeeaaea
?ae?a?eii? ?aeaieia??. ?? iniiaiith caaea/ath aoei ni?eyoe iioe?aiith
eaoieeoeeaia. E?ea?nueea aeiiiiiaa iaae?eaiith ii?yae c i?n?iia?nueeith
? a?enueeiaith ae?yeuei?noth /aioe?a aoiaeeea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a
eiiieaen caoiae?a, ui cae?enithaaeeny eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith i?e
caaithaaii? oaiaeaeaie eiauo oa?eoi??e ? ia?iae?a. Cia?yaeaeyi
eaoieeoeueei? aeniain?? ii?yae ?c o?anoii ? ia/ai neoaeeee oe?ethu?
o?aae. *aioeyi i?iiiioaaeany iaaeaaaoe e?ea?nueeo aeiiiiiao ianaeaiith.
O a?eueoino? /aioe?a, cae/aeii, aoee a?aenooi? aeeaie? iaaee/i? ciaiiy ?
e?ea?nueea niaoe?ae?caoe?y, oi/a na?aae ieo, aacnoii?aii, aoee
ieoaoeuee? e?ea??. Iiianoe?nuee? e?ea?i? neoaeeee i?aeoe/ieie oeieaie
aeey e?ea??a-/aioe?a, o ieo iaeiie/oaaany aeina?ae e?eoaaiiy oai?ia,
aeaioiaeaiiy e?e. Aea, ca’ycoth/e iaaeeoeeio c oea?eaith, aeio?eiaiiyi
ia?yae?a, iieeoaaie, iieayiiyi, a e?eoaaiiy c «/oaeanaie nayoeo» ? o.i.
, aiie aaeueioaaee ?icaeoie iaoeiai? iaaeeoeeie.

C aaeocae i?aeoe/ii? iaaeeoeeie a na?aaei? noie?ooy a ca’yceo c
/eneaiieie a?eiaie ?icaeeany o??o?a?y. O??o?a??th a na?aaei? noie?ooy
ou?eueiyeeny ia no?eueee e?ea??, ui cae?i/eee iaaee/i? oaeoeueoaoe,
ne?eueee i?aeoeee — einoii?aae ? oee?theueeeei. Iaea?eueo iiaia
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo na?aaeiueia?/ii? o??o?a?? aeaa o XV? noie?oo?
?iaeiia/aeueiee o??o?a?? iiaiai /ano Aia?oac Ia?a (O?aioe?y), ui aeeoea
c oaieneiaeo oee?theueiee?a.

O?aoy noaae?y oaiaeae?cio (XV?-XV?? noie?ooy) o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? aoea
ia??iaeii eiai oiaaeea ? ?iceeaaeaiiy, ii??aiyii oaeaeeiai ?icaeoeo
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? iio?i ca?iaeaeaiiy a iaae?ao
oaiaeae?cio eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei ? ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa,
i?aaenoaaeyth/e ia?ao?ae aei ianooiiiai — nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai — ?
/ane?e oi?iaoe?? — eai?oae?cio.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a

Iaaee/iee aioeeeeiiaaee/iee neiaiee.Aaoi?: ?.?. Aeoiaanueeee, A.?.
O?iyi, I. I. Cyaethe, A. I. Eoae?eoeueeee.

Ae??cee aeo?iaeo “Iaaee/iee a?niee” oa “Ioi?iia caei?ia‘y”.

E?eoaaiiy oa ae?aaiinoeea. – 2001 ?. — ?2. – N.33-38. Eieaniee I.?.,
Eai/einueea ?.?

Nae?eaeia I.?. ?noi??y iaaeeoeeie. – E., 2001.

Aaa?eeia E.O., Oaoa?eiia A.A. Aiaoiiey: O/aaiee. – E., 1985.

I.?.Naiei, A.E.Aeee/ «Aiaoiiey /aeiaaea» eieaa 2 «Aioo?aiiea i?aaiu.
Nenoaiu iaania/aiey (yiaeie?eiiay, ninoaeenoay, eiioiiay, ia?aiay
nenoaiu)» Iineaa, Iieen-Aeueyin-A 1999a.

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