Na?oiaa e?oa?aoo?a

a oia?aaeeao

Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e ?? iieiaeie O?O
noie?ooy.O oeae ia??iae a?aeaoaa?oueny aino?ee eiioe?eo i?ae
i?ioeeaaeieie oaiaeaioe?yie. Caaaeueiee ooaeiaei?e caiaiaae
i?iyaey?oueny aaea o oai?/ino?
ienueiaiiee?a-iaoo?ae?no?a.(aeea.iaoo?ae?ci).Aei 60-70 ?ie?a
a?aeiineoueny aeieeiaiiy ?ii?an?ii?cio o O?aioe??, caiaeii a I?ia//ei?
oa ?ioeo e?a?iao.(aeea.?ii?an?ii?ci). Ia?oeie aeania aeaeaaeaionueeeie
oa/?yie ? neiaie?ci, aaouee?aueiith yeiai aoea O?aioe?y 70-80 ??, ?
anoaoeci, ui ioi?ieany a Aiae?? 90-o.(aeea.neiaie?ci)Anoaoeci — oa/?y,
ye?e i?eoaiaiiee eoeueo aeoii/aii? e?ane. Eiai i?ea?/ieee ao?ooaaeeny
iaaeiei aeo?iaeo «AEiaoa eieaa» (1894-97), aenoaath/e aanei «ienoaoeoai
ca?aaee ienoaoeoaa». Iao?ii anoaoecio aoa Inea?
Oaeeae.Anoaonueei-oi?iae?noe/ia ienoaoeoai, ui i?ioenoaaeyei naaa
?aae?cio ? aeaeea?oaaei naith aiie?oe/i?noue, a?aeia?aaeaei e?eco
ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa.Oe? oa/?? aecia/eeeny aei ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy.Ia ?oi?e iniia? caiaeii aeieeee iia?, iiaea?i?nonuee?.
Aiaeii/an ?ioei iaa?no?aeueiei iai?yiii a e?oa?aoo?? oeueiai ia??iaeo ?
?aae?ci. (aeea.?aae?ci) Aeinyaiaiiy ?aae?cio aoee iniaeeai aaeee? /a?ac
oa, ui ana?aaeei? oeueiai iai?yio c*yaeyeeny iia? yeino?, i?ae?eiaeeny
ia?inoee iiai? e?oa?aoo?e.

I?iaeaia ?aae?cio na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e ?? iieiaeie O?O noie?ooy.E?eoe/iee
?aae?ci e?ioey O?O noie?ooy anooia? a iiao nioao naiai ?icaeoeo,iaaoaa?
?yae iiaeo ?en, ui a?ae??ciythoue eiai a?ae eeane/iiai ?aae?cio
na?aaeeie noie?ooy.Ia iaae? noie?oue a?i caaieiao? i?ia?aei? iiceoe?? a
na?oiaiio e?oa?aoo?iiio i?ioean?. Ienueiaiieee-?aae?noe ae?thoue o
O?aioe?? (Iiiannai, O?ain, ?ieeai), Aaeeeia?eoai?? (Oaeen, Oio,
Aienoi?n?),I?ia//ei? (a?aoe Iaiie, Aaoioiai), Neaiaeeiaanueeeo e?a?iao
(?anai, Aiaea?nai-Iueiena), NOA (Ia?e Oaai, Eiiaeii, Ae?aeca?,I.Aai??),
a oaeiae a ?ioeo e?a?iao.I?aeianaiith ?aae?cio ni?eya i?aai?/iee ca*ycie
c o?aaeeoe?yie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa, ?aaiethoe?eiei ?iiaioeciii,
ni?acao/iei ienueiaiieeai iiai? aiioe nai?th ni?yiiaai?noth o
iaeaooi?.??cei i?aeneeth?oueny ioae?oeenoe/iee a?e ?aae?noe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, c*yaey?oueny a?aee?eoa oaiaeaioe?ei?noue o caoeno? nai?o
iiaeyae?a. I?eeii ia*?eoeaii? iiia?ae?, aaeineiiaeaiee Oeiaa?ii,
iinooia?oueny i?eeiiia?, a yeiio ioe?iea yaeu, iieai?ea, aeeneon?y,
a?aee?eoee aeya iiceoe?? ienueiaiieea ? cae/aeieie ?a/aie. Oe?ie?
ocaaaeueiaiiy, ni?eea? a?iioace, caa?iaiiy aei aeinyaiaiue iaoee oa
eoeueoo?e — ana oea ?ene iiaiai ?aae?cio. E?oa?aoo?a caaaa/o?oueny a
aeai?iaiio a?aeiioaii?: aaaaoi ??ciiaeae?a ?iiaio, caaaa/aiiy oaiaoeee ?
no?oeoo?e iiaaee, i?aeeii ae?aiaoo?a??.A?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean iiiaeaiiy
oaao?o, ia noeaio aeoiaeyoue aaaeeea? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie.Iaeiei c
i?ia?aeieo iioea?a ? aee?eooy ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa. Ai?ioueaa ca
naiaiaeo oai?/i? iniaenoino? ooaeiaeieea.?noi?eei-?aaiethoe?eia
oaia.Oaaaa, yeo ?aae?noe i?eae?eythoue iniaenoino?, aeiiiiaaa? ?i
aeinyaoe oni?o?a o ciaethaaii? oa?aeoa??a, aaaea aei iiaeeaeaiiy
ineoieia?cio. Aaaaoiiai?oi?oa noathoue cia?aaeaeuei? caniae ethaeeie a
e?oa?aoo??, caniae a?aee?eooy ?? aioo??oiiai na?oo.

?iiaioeci ? iai?iiaioeci. Iai?iiaioeci — oea oiiaia iaeiaioaaiiy
eiiieaeno ??ciiiai?oieo oa/?e a ?a?iiaenuee?e ooaeiaei?e eoeueoo??
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, ui aeieeee ia?aaeon?i ye ?aaeoe?y ia
iiceoea?ci a ?aeaieia?? oa iaoo?ae?ci a ienoaoeoa? oa a?ae?iaeeee ?yae
anoaoe/ieo i?eioeei?a ?iiaioecio — iaoin iniaenoi? aie?,caia?a/aiiy
iianyeaeaiiiai, eoeueo ???aoe?iiaeueiiai, iioya aei oaioanoeee oiui.
Nthaee a?aeiinyoue o?aioeocueeee neiaie?ci, iino?ii?an?ii?ci, aea
caeaa?eueoiai oeae oa?i?i canoiniaothoue aei aiae?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e,
aea iaeaecia/i?oei i?aaenoaaieeii eiai ? ?aae?a?ae
E?ie?ia.Nii??aeiai?noue iai?iiaioecio c aeaeaaeaioaie i?iyaey?oueny a
oiio, ui a?i noai?th? ooo/iee na?o.Iai?iiaioeee oyae?ee aei aeai?o
i?eaiaeieoeueeiai, aaaioth?iiai, «aecioe/iiai» ?iiaio, iniiae yeiai
caeeaee Iaei ??ae oa Eoia?. Ia?oei c i?iiia?aeaeth iai?iiaioecia
aenooiea ?iaa?o Eueth?n No?aainii (1850-1894), ui i?ioenoaaeya
ienoaoeoai ao?aeoaci?e ae?eniino?.A i?eaiaeieoeueeeo ?iiaiao «Ino??a
nea?a?a» (1883),»Aee?aaeaiee»(1886),»Eao??iia» (1893) oiui a?i noai?ea
caoiiethth/ee na?o,yeiio aeanoea? aoiai?ci oa aeaiie?aoeci. Aeaeicao
Eii?aae (1857-1924) — iine?aeiaiee No?aainiia i?enay/oaaa nai? ?iiaie
ii?th.?aae?a?ae E?ie?ia ia?oei cai?iaaaeea o e?oa?aoo?o oei «ethaeeie
ae??» — nieaeaoa, /eiiaieea, i?n?iia?a, ?ic?iaeyth/e eieii?aeueio
oaiaoeeo o iacae/iiio ieai?.

I?iaeaia iaoo?ae?cio. Iaoo?ae?ci, ui neeaany o O?aioe?? ye e?oa?aoo?ia
oa/?y ? io?eiaa oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ?a?ii? ? Aia?eoe? a inoaiith
o?aoeio O?O noie?ooy, ia aoa aeania aeaeaaeaionueeith oa/??th.A?i
cayaeya i?i naaa ye i?i iaoiae, ui ?icaeaa? oa iiaeeaeth? ?aae?noe/ia
ienoaoeoai, aoa nii??aeiaiee c ?aae?ciii, iicaya aeiaaaa a?ae
ooaeiaeieea oaaaei?oiai,aeaoaeuei?oiai aea/aiiy oeo noi??i aeeooy, aei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy yeeo a?i caa?oaany,noeioethaaa ?ioa?an aei i?iaeai
nioe?aeueii? ia??aiino?, aaiaeea aei noa?e ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy
?yae iiaeo oai.Iaoo?ae?noe/iee iaoiae ? ia?ao?aeiei, a?i i?eioeeiiai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?aae?noe/iiai, iicaye iia*ycaiee c a?aeiiaith a?ae
oei?caoe??, aeiai?o oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoa??aeo, c a?aeiiaith a?ae
i?iieeiaiiy a nooi?noue cia?aaeoaaieo yaeu. Iaoo?ae?ci nie?a?oueny ia
o?einio?th oa anoaoeeo iiceoea?cio. A?aeiiaa a?ae oe?ieeo
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue, oioia?ao?/ii oi/ia cia?aaeaiiy
ae?eniino?, aeoeaiooaaiiy a?ieia?/iiai i?eioeeio niaaeeiaino?, ae??th
yeiai iaoo?ae?noe iaiaaaeeny iiynieoe iioiaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
ia??aiino?.A?ieia?caoe?y i?eieaeo? ethaeeio.Niaaeeiaee oaeoi?
o?ainoi?io?oueny a ia?ac a??ciiai oaooio — aiaeanoai neiaie?no?a, ui
i?iyaey?oueny a ?aiiueiai Aaoioiaia, Aainoia.Iaoo?ae?ci iinooiiai
ae?iaeaeo?oueny.

?ii?an?ii?ci o e?oa?aoo??. Oa?i?i «?ii?an?ii?ci» iioiaeeoue a?ae
o?aioeocueeiai neiaa «impression» — «a?aaeaiiy». Aeieeioaoe a?ae ii/aoeo
a aeeaiieno, a?i ?icaeoioany ? a e?oa?aoo??, caeaa?eueoiai a iiac??.
Ienoaoeoai ooaeiaeiee?a (A.Iaia, I.?aioa?) aoei ia a?aenooiii a?ae
?aae?cio, a eiai iiaaoi?nueeei ?icaeoeii. ?ii?an?ii?nonueea ienoaoeoai
a?aee?eaaei iiaeeeaino? aeey i?iieeiaiiy o aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie,
ae?iaeei nenoaio i?eioeei?a eiai ?ice?eooy. Aaniethoecaoe?y
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, noa*?eoeaiiai, oaeiai, ui ia iio?aao? ia?aa??ee c
aeiiiiiaith ia*?eoeaieo e?eoa???a a?aaeaiiy ye ia?oiiniiae ooaeiaeiueiai
ia?aco i?ecaiaeeoue ?ii?an?ii?ci aei a?ae?eao a?ae aeeooy.

Neiaie?ci ye oai?/?e iaoiae. Neiaie?ci, ui io?eiaa oe?iea
?iciia?thaeaeaiiy ia o?eueee o O?aioe??, aea aeiee, a e o Aaeuea??,
I?ia//ei?, ia? aioe?aae?noe/io ni?yiiaai?noue, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
i?aaiaii? i?aenoaaeoe ia i?noea ia?ac?a, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ia*?eoeaio
?aaeuei?noue, ia?ace-neiaiee, ui ae?aaeathoue iayni? a?aeo?iee
noa*?eoeaieo iano?i?a (Aa?eai), oa?iie/a oa ???aoe?iiaeueia aeeooy aeoo?
aai ia iaio oa?iie/iee «ni?a iane?i/aiiino?», iaaiieeio aeieth
(Iaoa?e?ie). O nai?o anoaoe/ieo iano?iyo oa a ooaeiaei?e i?aeoeoe?
neiaie?noe iathoue o?niee ca*ycie c o?einionueeei ?aeaae?ciii. Eee/ooue
aei cia?aaeaiiy iioiea?/iiai na?oo, a?aeiiaeyth/enue a?ae cia?aaeaiiy
na?oo ?aaeueiiai oa aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai ???aoe?iiaeuei?
neiaiee. Aeieeioaoe ye «e?ee a?ae/ath», ye i?ioano i?ioe neoino?
ao?aeoaciiai ?nioaaiiy, neiaie?ci aenoioa ?yae naiiaooieo oa nai???aeieo
oaeaio?a.

O?aioeocueea e?oa?aoo?a (iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, ia??iaeecaoe?y).

Oai?/ee oeyo Iiiannaia. Ia?iaeeany a Ii?iaiae?? a 1850 ?ioe?, oetha
aaouee?a ?aii ?iciaany, ? ia oi?ioaaiiy A? aieeaaea iao??, ui ?icaeaaea
a iueiio ethaia aei e?oa?aoo?e. A?i aoa a?aei?aaeaiee aei nai?ia???, aea
caiaeii aeeeth/aiee ca a??o? ? a/eany a ?oainueeiio eieaaeae?. Oai?/ee
oeyo ii/eia?oueny c a??o?a o aeon? ia?ianueei? oeiee. C 1873 aei
1881?ieo eiai iaa/aiiyi ea?oaaa Oeiaa?. A?i iaiaaaany noai?eoe c
Iiiannaia ienueiaiieea ca aeaniith iiaeiaith: cioooaaa eiai neae?oe a
a?o?aao, ?iaea aeaaaeeaei, i?ene?ieeaei o ?iaio? iaae oaenoii. O 1880
?ioe? iioae?eiaaia iiaaea “Ieoea”, ui noaea a?aei?aaiei ioieoii
Iiiannaia ye iiaae?noa. Ca 10 ?ie?a a?i noai?th? 16 ca??ie iiia?aeaiue,
6 ?iiai?a (AEeooy (1883), “Ethaee ae?oa” (1885), “Iiio-I??ieue”(1886),
“I’?? ? AEai”(1888), “Neeueia ye nia?oue”(1889), “Iaoa na?oea”*(1890)),
o?e eieae iooueiaeo cai?oie ? aace?/ aacaoieo ? aeo?iaeueieo noaoae. Aoa
aeo?iae?noii, a?a na?onueea, iaa?oue ?icionia aeeooy, a?aa o/anoue o
iie?oe/ieo ?io?eaao, aaaaoi iaiae?oaaa, a oiio /ene? ? ia yoo? i?ae
iacaith “Ethaee ae?oa”. Aaea a na?aaeei? 80-o iaoi?ioa oai?iaa neeueii
aieeaa? ia eiai i?aoeacaeaoi?noue. Oea a?aeaeeiny ia oaiaoeoe?
iiia?aeaiue “I?ey”, “A?i?”, “Ooi cia?” oiui. “I?ey” — uiaeaiieeia?
caiene oai?i? ethaeeie, ui ia iiaea ca?eueieoeny a?ae i?eia?, ye? ??
ia?ane?aeothoue. Iiia? a?i o 1893 ?ioe? ineoe?ea?i?, aea i?ia?a 2
inoaii?o ?iee i?ney iaaaeaei? ni?iae naiiaoanoaa. Iiiannai, ia a?aei?io
a?ae Ciey ? O?aina, ia noai?ea iiaeo oa/?e aai aeai??a a e?oa?aoo??,
i?ioa aenooiea ?c neioaci anueiai, noai?aiiai ieie. C eeane/iiai
?aae?cio O?O noie?ooy, ?iiaioe/ieo oa iaoo?ae?noe/ieo aeaiaio?a a?i
noai?th? aeaniee iaiiaoi?iee noeeue, ?icaeaoe an? oi?ie iiaaee, ui
?nioaaee aei iueiai. Aia?oa noaa aeaaaoe /eoa/aa? ia?an?/i? oiaoee
aeeooy ia?niiaae?a c iiaeeaeaiith ineoieia??th, c o?enaoe??th eaaeaa
iii?oieo ia iiaa?oi? aoooy ethaenueeeo ii/ooo?a, ui io?eiaei iacao
“i?aeoaenoo”.

AEeooy ? oai?/?noue Ciey. Ai?eue Ciey, oai?aoee iaoo?ae?noe/ii? oeiee,
ia?iaeeany 2 ea?oiy 1840 ?ieo a Ia?eae? a ?iaeei? ?iaeaia?a.O ca*yceo c
aaeeeeie i?iaeoaie, a yeeo a?aa o/anoue aaoueei, Ciey i?iaiaeeoue
aeeoeinoai ia i?aaei? O?aioe??.O 7 ?ie?a a?i ao?a/a? aaoueea, eiai
a?aeaeathoue aei iain?iio, a caiaeii aei eieaaeaeo a Aen?.Oai a?i
ciaoiaeeoue ae?oaa — Iiey Nacaiiy, caiaeii aaeeeiai ooaeiaeieea.Ia
anooieaoe aei oi?aa?neoaoo, a?i c o?oaeii ciaoiaeeoue ?iaioo ? i??? i?i
ienueiaiieoeueeo ea?*??o.A 1864-1868 ?ieao Ciey a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae
thiaoeueeiai caoiieaiiy iiac??th ia ei?enoue i?ice.Eiai ia?oa ca??ea
iiia?aeaiue — «Eacee I?iii», ca iath c*yaeythoueny ?iiaie «Niia?aeue
Eeiaea»,»Caiia?o iiia?ei?»,»Ia?naeuenuee? oa?iieoe?»,»Oa?aca
?aeai»,»Iaaeeai Oa?a», a oaeiae aaaaoi ioae?eaoe?e a aacaoao.O oeeo
oai?ao a?ae/ooiee aieea ?iiaioecio, ui i?iyaey?oueny a iiooeo
i?aeianaieo aa?i?a, naioeiaioaeueiiio oii?. I?ney iiceoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy
«Oa?ace ?aeai» a?iiaaenuee?noth Ciey caaeoioaeoueny i?i iaiao?aei?noue
oe?oiai ? ??ciia?/iiai aea/aiiy noni?euenoaa, i?i cia?aaeaiiy eiai o
??ciiiai?oi?oeo aniaeoao. Caaeoio? na??th «?oaii-Iaeea?e», yeo noai?th?
ca ia??iae c 1868 aei 1893 ??e.A 20 ?iiaiao a?i noai?th? oe?eo aiioo
no/aniiai aeeooy.A ia??iae noai?aiiy na??? a?i aaaea aeoeaio
aeo?iae?nonueeo ae?yeuei?noue.Ca oeae ia??iae a?i caaiaeeoue ?iaeeio,
noai?th? oai?aoe/i? iniiae iiaiai iai?yio — iaoo?ae?cio, a iueiai
c*yaeythoueny iine?aeiaieee oa o/i?.Ciey c*yniao?, ui iniiaia
noia?a/i?noue /ano — «ai?ioueaa i?aoe? oa eai?oaeo».I?ney cae?i/aiiy
«?oaii-Iaeea??a» ii/eia?oueny ?iaioa iaae iiaeie oeeeeaie: «O?e i?noa»,
ui neeaaea?oueny c ?iiai?a «Eo?ae» (1894),»?ei» (1896) oa «Ia?eae»
(1898). Ciey ioae?eo? ca??eo e?oa?aoo?ieo noaoae, ? ia?aoo? i?enooia?
aei inoaiiueiai oeeeeo, oae ? ia caaa?oaiiai — «*ioe?e ?aaiaae?y». Ooo
ia ia?oee ieai aenoiooa ethaeeia iaoee, cao/aoue aioe?ae?a?ei?
iano?i?.Ciey iaiaaa?oueny aenoiooe ia ia?oee ieai aino?? ioae?oeenoe/i?
i?iaeaie.Ainaie 1897 ?ieo a?i oa*yco?oueny a ni?aao Ae?aeoona, ? ca
ia?aco i?aceaeaioa eiai canoaeaeothoue ia ??e oa*yciaiiy. Ciey ioneoue
ao?eaoe aei Eiiaeiia ? o?eueee i?ney ia?aiiae ae?aeoona??a iiaa?oa?oueny
aeiaeiio.Nia?oue Ciey ianooieea /a?ac io?o?iiy aacii ca iac*yniaaieo
ianoaaei.

Oai?/ee oeyo Aa?eaia. Iaeaecia/i?oei o?aioeocueeei iiaoii-neiaie?noii ?
Iieue Aa?eai (1844-1896). O?aa?/i?noue eiai na?oini?eeiyooy iia’ycaia c
o?aa?/iei iaee//yi aiioe oa ianoaaeiaie aiaaiiiiai aeeooy naiiai iiaoa.
Nei iaaaaaoi io?oea?a, a?i cae?i/ea eieaaeae, o 20 ?ie?a noaa
/eiiaieeii o Ia?eae?, iae?oaeeany c i?uaieith ? a?a cae/aeia aeeooy.
Aea iiac?y, yeith a?i caoiiethaaany ua c? oeiee, i?eaaaethaaea eiai
a?eueoa. A 1871 ?ioe? a?i a?aa o/anoue o iianoaii? Eiioie, caoei
cono??any c ?aiai ?… eoa-eoa… i?i?oaee, ei?iooa, Aa?eai ?iceo/eany
c ?iaeeiith, a /a?ac iaaiee /an ? c ?aiai oaae. Ia?ai?iaoaaa aace?/
i?ioan?e, a?/ii iaa o?iainia? i?iaeaie, ia iaa aea aeeoe. Nai? a??o?
a?i caienoaaa ia oiaoi/eao iaia?o. Iiaoe/ia oai?/?noue Aa?eaia ii/aeany
a o?aaeeoe?yo Ia?ianueei? oeiee c ?? i?aaiaiiyi aei /?oeino? ia?ac?a,
neoeueioo?iino? iiae. I?ioa aaea a ia?oeo c??eeo ca??eao “Naoo?i?/i?
iiaie” (1866) oa “Aaeaioi? nayoa” (1869) aeieeathoue iia? aeeai? ia?ace.
Iaee?ioa iiaoe/ia eieaa Aa?eaia — “?iiaine aac ne?a” — iiiaeoa
i?aaiaiiyi i?aeneeeoe ioceeo a??oa. “Ioceea iiiaae ona” — iniiaa
neiaie?nonueei? iiaoeee. “?iiaine” ia ca’ycai? ?aeeiith oaiith, ooo ? ?
ethaiaia e??eea, ? o?aai?nonuee? iioeae, ? iniaeeai oaia i?e?iaee.
I?aaeiaoe a Aa?eaia ?niothoue ie?aii a?ae iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo, a?i ia
i?aaia aei oe?e?niiai eiai a?aeoai?aiiy. A eiai a??oao iaeaea iaia?
iiae?e, a?i na?aeiii a?aeaa?oa?oueny a?ae ?aaeueieo iiae?e, uia
caa?iooeny aei ethaenueeiai na?oey. I???ioaoe?y Aa?eaia ia ioce/i?noue
ii?iaeeea a iueiai iniaeea? i?eeiie i?aai?caoe?? a??oa — aeae?eaiiy
ia?aaaaeath/iai caoea, i?aaiaiiy aei iiaoi??a, /anoa aeei?enoaiiy
nooe?eueieo ?ei. O a??o? “Iiaoe/ia ienoaoeoai”, iaienaiiio a 1874
?ioe?, Aa?eai noaa?aeaeoaaa oe? i?eeiie, ia?iae?thth/e “I. I. “ Aoaei,
noaa?aeaeoth/e ana a aaniethoii i?ioeeaaeiiio aei iueiai eeth/?. Aa?eai
i?iaieinea cai?io yniino? ioce/i?noth, caeeeeaa iiao?a i?aaiooe “ca
iaaeo caiiiai”, a?i noeeyany aei noa’?eoea?cio. O 80-o? ?iee Aa?eai
caa?oa?oueny aei ?ae?a??, eiai oai?/?noue caiaiaaea?, ? a?i iiie?a? a
aeeaie?e a?aeiino?.

Oai?/ee oeyo ?aiai. Oai?/?noue A?oth?a ?aiai (1854-1891) iieeaea ii/aoie
oaiaeaioe?yi neiaie?cio, a?i aa?eoia a e?oa?aoo?o iaeii/anii ye
oai?aoee ? i?aeoee iiaiai iai?yio. Ia?iaeeany o i?ia?ioe?eiiio i?noa/eo
Oa?eaa?eue o noai??e ao?aeoaci?e ?iaeei?. Iaaecae/aeii ?aii?e
?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie, aaea a io?ioeoa? eiai iiaoe/i? oai?e aoee
c??eeie. E?eueea ?ac?a a?i ao?eaa c aeiio, a ae?ciaaoeny i?i
?aaiethoe?th a Ia?eae?, ao?e ooaee, aea cai?cieany — eiioia aaea aoea
?ica?iieaia. A Ia?eae? a?i ?ioaa?oaaany a iiaoe/ia na?aaeiaeua,
caeeceany c Iieai Aa?eaiii. ?acii aiie iaiae?oaaee ? oai?eee.
Aeeiaie?ci, ia?eiiai?y, aiiinaenoae?ci ? ana oaea. ?aiai aeey
oai?/ino? iio??aai aoa “aeiaaee ?iceaae on?o ii/ooo?a”, a?i caeiaany
“aeo?i??th neiaa”. A oaeiio noai? a?i iaienaa ca??ee i?ica?/ieo oa
iiaoe/ieo o?aaiaio?a “E?oi a iaee?” (1873) oa “Ica??iiy” (1875).
C?icoi?aoe naith iiieeeia?noue o ?ie? “i?i?iea iiac??”, ?aiai ia
aeiaaee /an a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae ia?. I?ney oeueiai a?i a?aei?aaey?oueny
aei Ao?eee, a iiaa?oa?oueny aaea ia?aae nia?oth. Iiaoe/ia oai?/?noue
?aiai o?eaaea anueiai aeecueei aeanyoee?ooy. A eiai a??oao ia?aieaeeny
e??eci oa ??ii?y, a a iaea?eueo ?iiaioe/i? a??o? i?ae aeeaa?oueny
oieiaeiee no?oi. A iiooeao aa?i?/iiai iiao caa?oa?oueny aei ?aaiethoe??
a iie?oe/ieo a??oao. Neiaie?ci ?aiai ua a thiiio a?oe? ciaeoia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a a??oao “Eieuei?iaee niiao” (1870) oa “I’yiee ei?aaaeue”
(1870). “Eieuei?iaee niiao” — iiac?y iiooeo, ?aiai ooea? iiaeeea?noue
ocaiaeeoe e??eeo c aeeaiienii, iaethiie c ?eoiii a??oa. A?aeiia?aeii
aei nai?? anoaoe/ii? caaea/? “aiai?eoe i?i iaynia iaynii” ?aiai
ii??aith? caoeia? ?yaee c ia?acaie, ye? eiio i?eoiaeyoue o aieiao,
aiaeii/anii ioce/ii, aa?iii?eii noai?thth/e iiac?th c ianiiae?aaii
ni?eeaeie ia?acaie. “I’yiee ei?aaaeue” aoa iaienaiee ?aiai a 16 ?ie?a.
A?i ia ciaa i?/iai i?i ii?a, oiio a oeueiio a??o? ii?a — eiai aeania,
aeaeoiaia, eiai i???. Ia?ac i’yiiai ei?aaey iana aaee/acia e??e/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? neeaaea?oueny a iaoaoi?o. Iiao ? ei?aaaeue oi ?niothoue
ie?aii, oi ceeaathoueny a ?aeeiee ia?ac. Ii?a iinoa? a ?ioaineaiino? oa
??ciiiai?oiino? eieuei?o, cia?aaeaia iacae/ii yne?aaeie oa?aaie. Aea
iaa?oue eie?? ciaoiaeeoueny o ?on?, a aacia?a?aieo ia?aoiaeao,
ia?aeeaao. Iino?eii i?iy?oueny aeooaaiee noai e??e/iiai aa?iy, ui
ao?aoea a?ae/oooy /ano ? i?inoi?o — a?ae/ae aeeoeie iinooia?oueny
caoiieaiith aaciaaeiith e?anith na?oo, iio?i no?aoo. A??o cae?i/o?oueny
iioeith ooae ca aaouee?aueiith ethaeeie, ui aaaaoi ia?aaeeea ?
ia?aaa/eea.

Aaiethoe?y ae?aiaoo?a?? Iaoa?e?iea. Ii??n Iaoa?e?ie — oai?aoee ? i?aeoee
neiaie?nonueei? ae?aie. Eiai oai?/ee oeyo aoa aeiaaee ? ie?aeiee: aaaaoi
i’?n, a??o?a, o?einionueeeo o?aeoao?a. I?iaeaiaoeea i’?n, eiai
iiaeyaee, noaaeaiiy aei neiaie?cio iinooiiai i?iyeeny, a OO noie?oo?
a?i a?aeiiaeany a?ae aaaaoueio iiaeyae?a 90-o ?ie?a, iiaeieaa ianei?ci,
iaaeeceany aei ?aae?cio, a iio?i ciia iiaa?ioany aei i?noeee. Iaoa?e?ie,
aeoaea neeaaeia iniaeno?noue, aaaaeaa, ui i?ia?an ia ?iaeoue ethaeeio
iiai? aiioe uaneea?oith, aeia??oith, caei?ia?oith, eiai eyeaei
ciaoe?iaiiy ethaeeie. A nai?e ia?o?e i’?n? “I?eioeana Iaeai” (1889) a?i
noaaeoue ieoaiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy, a aieiaiee ia?niiaae a?aeaeaeaii
iaaaaeo? Aaieaoa. Oaia i?e?a/aiino? eiaeii? aeeai? ?noioe. A i’?nao 90-o
— aeiaeii? ?aaeueii? i?eeiaoe /ano aai i?noey. Aeaei?aoe??
iai?aoaioanoe/i?, ?iaia aa?i?a — aeaeoiai? a aeon? noa?iaeiieo eacie.
Eiioeaioe?y ethaeeie-ia??iiaoee, ethaeeie-?a?aoee a ?oeao aeie? ? nia?o?
i?ecaaea aei iaienaiiy ?ioeo i’?n: . A 90-o? ?iee a?i noai?th? 4
iaeaiuee? ae?aie — “Iai?ioaia” (1891), “Ne?i?”(1891), “Oai ana?aaeei?”
(1894) oa “Nia?oue Oaioaaeeey” (1894). I’?na “Ne?i?” — neiaie?nonueea
ae?aia. Caaeoeai? ne?i? — a oe?ieiio o?aeooaaii? — ethaenoai, ui ia
ciaoiaeeoue aeoiaeo c e?no aeeooy. “Nia?oue ea?o? iaoei aeeooyi, ? a
iaoiai aeeooy iaia? ?ioi? oe?e?, ie??i nia?o?”, ca aeanieie neiaaie
aaoi?a. “Nia?oue Oaioaaeeey”: ae?y ciia a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ino?ia?, aea
aeeaa ei?ieaaa, yea iaeaco? i?eaanoe ooaee iaeaiueeiai oeii/eea.
Ei?ieaaa cae?a?oueny aaeoe Oaioaaeeey, aea an?, ooi oi/a coieieoe ?? —
ia iiaeooue. O?eueee nano?a oeii/eea ?a?aia iaiaaa?oueny a?yooaaoe eiai,
? ae?aeiaii aaoi? i?aeaiaeeoue ae?th aei nia?o? oeii/eea ca aeaa?eia.
?aii? i’?ne Iaoa?e?iea ia ca/?iaee i?iaeai iie?oeee, nioe?aeueieo
o?oaeiiu?a. Neea Iaoa?e?iea o caa?iai? aei oeaio?aeueieo ieoaiue aoooy.
Eiei i?iaeai neiaie?nueonueei? ae?aie ie?aneeei ? eiei nai???aeieo
noeai?/ieo i?eeii?a, aaaaeaieo a oaao? Iaoa?e?ieii. Noaaeaiiy aei
aa?iy ye aei ?a?aoee a ?oeao aeie? aecia/a? eiai nai???aei?noue,
a??i?oa a?aenooi?noue nai???aeiino?. Oaeiai aa?iy ia o?aaa a?aoe —
aeoi? noa? ia??iiaoeith a ?oeao ?aaeena?a, /ey ?ieue c?inoa?, ?
ooaeiaeieea. A i’?n? “Ne?i?” iiaeia iii?iyoe i?noeyie ?aie?ee
ia?niiaae?a, ? i?/iai ia ci?ieoueny. Ioceea noaea iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii
neiaie?nonueeiai niaeoaeeth, i?aeneethaaea iano??e, caiiaithaaea
aaaee? iaoce. Ana oa?aeoa?ia, iiaooiaa, nioe?aeueia na?aeiii
i?eae?aeiny c a?e aeoi?a. Aaee/acio ?ieue a?aei iia/aiiy. I?ioa
neiaie?nonueea ae?aia oae ? ia noaea caaaeueiiaeinooiiith.

Oai?/ee oeyo Aa?oa?ia. Ai?eue Aa?oa?i ia?iaeeany a 1855 ?ioe? a n?i’?
ae??aiiai ?aioue? a i?noa/eo Naio-Aiai iaiiaeae?e a?ae Aioaa?iaia.
A/eany a Aaio?, caoei — ia th?eaee/iiio oaeoeueoao? Eoaainueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, caoei noaaeoaaany a A?thnae?, aeoiath/e caeiaoeny
aaeaieaoo?ith. I?ioa ua c 15 ?ie?a Aa?oa?i ii/aa ienaoe a??o?, ?
aeoaea nei?i caeeioa th?eni?oaeaioe?th ca?aaee iiac??. Ia?oee ia??iae
oai?/ino? i?ioiaeeoue i?ae ciaeii caoiieaiiy noa?iaeiiei oeaiaiaenueeei
ienoaoeoaii, a oaeiae caeeaeaiiyi c “Iieiaeith Aaeuea??th”, ui
i?iiaaaiaeoaaea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei ia?iaeiino?. Oae a 1883
?ioe? aeieea? eiai ia?oa ca??ea “Oeaiaiaenuee? a??o?”, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaoa??ae?ciii, aaaaonoaii, yne?aaeie oa?aaie,
ieanoe/i?noue ia?ac?a. Ca “ON” eaea ca??ea “Iiiaoe” (1886), ui ??cei
eiio?anoo? c ieie c? oaiith oa iano?i?i. Iiao i?aaia iae?aneeoe ia?ace
ethaeae, ui i?enayoeee naaa ?aea?. Oe?ea aaea?ay oei?a /aioe?a:
ai?/iee, oaiaeaeueiee, aeeeee, iie??eeaee oiui. O 1887 ?ioe? a aeeoo?
Aa?oa?ia ii/eia?oueny aaaeea aeooiaia e?eca, eiee ae?eni?noue ii/aea
ao?a/aoe naith ?aaeuei?noue, ni?eeiaeany ye ia?aiiy. Ae?aaeaiiyi
oeueiai ia??iaeo ? ca??ee “Aa/i?e”(1888), “E?aoe” (1888) oa “*i?i?
niieineeie” (1891). A oe?e o?eeia?? cao/aoue iioeae aacaeoiae?,
o?aa?cio, a?ae/ath. Aa?oa?i caeeaeo?oueny c anoaoeeith aeaeaaeaino.
AEaoeea? ia?ace iathoue, ye i?aaeei, ocaaaeueiaii-neiaie?/iee ci?no.
?icoi iiaoa, i?eaieiioaiee oeeie ia?acaie, a?aeiiaey?oueny eiio
neoaeeoe, ni?eeiaoe eia?eo yaeu oa ?oi?e ca’ycie. Ia?aaaaea?
/a?aiii-/i?ia aaia eieuei??a. Oea iaeaaae/ee ia??iae o oai?/ino?
Aa?oa?ia. I?ioa Aa?oa?i ia ? aeaeaaeaioii a /enoiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai
neiaa. Ianooiiee ia??iae iia’ycaiee ?c iiaa?iaiiyi aei naeyinueei? oaie,
ia oeae ?ac a ?? o?aa?/iiio aniaeo?. Ca??ee “Iiey a ia?aii?” (1893) oa
“I?eia?i? naea” (1894) ciaeueiaothoue aaia?noue aaeuea?enueeiai
naeyinoaa, eiai i?e?a/ai?noue. Ianooiia ca??ea — “I?noa-ni?ooe” (1896)
— ? ia?aoiaeii aei oaie eai?oae?noe/iiai i?noa, noia?a/iinoae, ye?
aiii iana, inieneaiiy oeueiai anueiai a naoe?e/iiio oa iaoaoe/iiio
eeth/?. Aa?oa?i ini?ao? i?aoeth, ?ia?oie/ee ?oo. A?ae oeeo ca??ie
Aa?oa?i ii/eia? ienaoe a?eueiei a??oai, aaaaeath/e, ui ?aiee ?ici??o
iaiaaeothoue iiaoa. Ae?aia “Na?oaiiy”(1898), iaeia c aeaio ae?ai,
iaienaieo Aa?oa?iii iai?ee?ioe? O?O noie?ooy, ?icaeaa? a oiiai?e,
ooii?/i?e oi?i? oaio iianoaiiy. Ae?y ?? a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaeoiaiiio
i?no?, iaeiaeaiiio ai?iaeeie a?enueeaie, c yeeie a?aoathoueny eiai
iaoeaioe?. A 1899 ?ioe? aeieea? ae?aia “Iiianoe?”, ui iiaa?oa? Aa?oa?ia
aei oaiaoeee ca??ee “Iiiaoe”. A ca??oe? “Iaee//y aeeooy” (1899) ethaeeia
iinoa? ia o?eueee a nai?o eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo ca’yceao, a e o an?e
??ciiiai?oiino? a?aeiinei ?c i?e?iaeith, c? na?oii, ? a?aeiineie oe?
inieneththoueny aaniethoii ii-iiaiio. Ethaeeia ia?anoa? aooe
aeaetha?aeiith i?ueieith a einiin?. Ca??ee 900-o ?ie?a — “Aoei?
neee”(1908), “Eieuei?iaa nyeai”(1906), “Aea?aeaai? ?eoie”(1910) —
iathoue eaeoiioeaii aecaieueio oaio, i?ioa aiia ?ice?eaa?oueny a ieo o
oe?oiio ?noi?e/iiio ?aeo?n?. Iiao noaaeoue nia? caaea/o i?inoaaeeoe
?noi??th ai?ioueae ethaenoai ca aeooiaia ? nioe?aeueia ca?eueiaiiy. O
i?ci?o ca??eao nai?o a??o?a — “Any Oeaiae??y”(1904-1911), “Noaeeueiaai?
ieae”(1912), “Eaaaiaee Oeaiae??? oa A?aaaioo”(1916) Aa?oa?i
iiaa?oa?oueny aei oaiaoeee nai?o ?aii?o oai??a. I?ae /an a?eie a
Aa?oa?ia ia?aaaaeathoue iaoe?iiaeuei?, iaa?oue oia?i?noe/i? iioeae
(“*a?aii? e?eea a?eie”, “Ne?eaaaeaia Aaeuea?y”). Caaeioa a?i i?ae
ii?caeii ia aiecae? i?ae /an a?eie.

E?oa?aoo?a Aaeuea?? (caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea). Naiino?eia aaeuea?enueea
e?oa?aoo?a, i???ioiaaia ia o?aioeocueeo, iinoa? a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
O?O noie?ooy o ca’yceo c ao?oeeaei i?iieneiaei ?icaeoeii. ??
ia?aaea?nieeii aoa Oa?eue aea Einoa? (1827-1879) c ?noi?e/iei ?iiaiii
“Eaaaiaea i?i O?ey Oeaioi?aaey” (1867), ia?oei cia/iei ?aae?noe/iei
oai?ii a a e?oa?aoo??. A 80-90 ?iee ?aae?noe/iee iai?yi ia’?aeiaany
iaaeiei aeo?iaeo “Iieiaea Aaeuea?y” (1881-1897). Eai?ee Eaiiiue?
(1844-1913) — o/aiue Ciey, oai?ea o aeon? iaoo?ae?noe/iiai ?iiaio,
noaaea aaeee? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie, a?aeia?aaeath/e oa?aeoa?i? aeey
naiai /ano noni?euei? i?ioeane. Iani?eeiyooy oeeo i?ioean?a ii?iaeaeo?
aaeuea?enueeee neiaie?ci, ni?acao/iee c o?aioeocueeei. AEi?ae ?iaeaiaao
(1855-1898), iiao ? ?iiai?no, iaiiaith? nai? oai?e ooaith i?i ieioea,
iani?eeiyooyi no/aniino?, i??yie i?i noa?o Oeaiae??th. Aeai?aneai? oaie,
nia?oue o ca??oe? “Oea?noai iia/aiiy”, iaea?aeii?oiio ?iiai? “Ia?oaee
A?thaaa” (1892). ?iaeaiaao noaa?aeaeo? i?noe/io ?aeath iaioaaiiy nia?o?
oa oa?iieoe? iaae aeeooyi ethaeeie ia?aaaaeii ca aeiiiiiaith ooaeiaei?o
ia?ac?a nai?o oai??a, oei /anii Iaoa?e?ie iaiaaa?oueny aeaoe oe?e ?aea?
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, oai?y/e o?einio?th ? anoaoeeo aaeuea?enueeiai
neiaie?cio. Ii??n Iaoa?e?ie (1862-1949) — oai?aoeue ? oai?aoee
neiaie?nonueei? ae?aie. A 90-o? ?iee a?i noai?th? 4 iaeaiuee? ae?aie —
“Iai?ioaia” (1891), “Ne?i?”(1891), “Oai ana?aaeei?” (1894) oa “Nia?oue
Oaioaaeeey” (1894), ui iaeiiai?oa ae?aaeathoue ?aeaae?noe/io
o?einionueeo i?ia?aio Iaoa?e?iea, aeeeaaeaio iei o o?aeoao? “Nea?a
iie??ieo”. “Nei?e ioao” (1908) — iaee?aua i’?na Iaoa?e?iea, a ye?e
aeei?enoaia oi?ia ia?iaeii? eacee. Ai?eue Aa?oa?i (1855-1916) —
iiao-neiaie?no, ui coi?a ae?aceoe onth neeaaei?noue ia?ao?aeii? aiioe,
a?aeia?aceaoe ia o?eueee ?iciaae ? e?ao noa?eo oi?i, a e ia?aae/oooy
iiaeo, ui iana iia? iaae??. Ia?oa ca??ea — “Oeaiaiaenuee? a??o?” — iana
a?aeaeoie i?aee?aneaiiai iaoa??ae?cio. Ianooiia — “Iiiaoe” —
ianiiae?aaii noai?a ? no?eiaia, ? , ia?aoo?, eiai iaeaeua ae?aaeaiiy —
“Aa/i?e” (1888), “*i?i? niieineeie” (1891), “Iiey o ia?aii?”(1893),
“I?eia?i? naea” (1894), “I?noa-ni?ooe”(1896), “Iaee//y aeeooy”(1899),
“Aoei? neee”(1908), “??ciieieuei?iaa nyeai”(1906), “Aea?aeaai?
?eoie)(1910). Aa?oa?i oaeiae ? aaoi?ii aeaio ae?ai, na?aae yeeo
iaeaecia/i?oa — “Na?oaiee” (1898). A i?ci?o ca??eao Aa?oa?ia “Any
Oeaiae??y” (1904-1911), “Oaeethth/? ieae”(1912), “Eaaaiaee Oeaiae??? oa
A?aaaioo” (1916) a?aeiiaeth?oueny naeyinueea oaiaoeea ?aii?o oai??a.
Aa?oa?i caaeioa i?ae ii?caeii ia aiecae? a ?oai?.

E?oa?aoo?a Ii?aaa?? (caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea). Iiaeaaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy a Ii?aaa?? iai?ee?ioe? O?O noie?ooy
ni?e/eieei i?aeeii eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, a oiio /ene? ? e?oa?aoo?e.
Aei?ino»??ia Aei?inii (1832-1910) ii/aa c ?iiaioe/ieo iia?noae c aeeooy
naeyi. Nioe?aeuei? eiioe?eoe a ieo i?aei?iai? ia ii?aeuei?, i?ioa
aeooiaiee na?o naeyi cia?aaeaiee c aeeaieith iiaaaith oa ni?a/oooyi.
Caiaeii Aei?inii ia?aeoia aei aoa?cio, nioe?aeueiiai i?ioanoo, ui
a?aeia?aceeiny a i’?nao “Aaie?oonoai” oa “?aaeaeoi?” (1875). Iaeaeua
aeinyaiaiiy — ae?aiaoe/ia aeeeia?y “Iiiaae iao? neee” (1883-95). C
?aae?noe/ieie nioe?aeueieie ?iiaiaie aenooiea o 80-o? ?iee Aeaenaiaea?
Oeieaii. A?ia Aa?ai?a (“Naeyie-nooaeaioe” (1883) ), THian E? (“Aeia?/ii
canoaeaeaiee”, 1893) — o?aa?/ia aeeooy naeyi. A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy
noie?ooy a ii?aacuee?e e?oa?aoo?? neeuei?oa a?ae/oaa?oueny iaoo?ae?ci oa
?ii?an?ii?ci, a e?oa?aoo?o i?iieeathoue ?aea? I?oeoa. Iaeyne?aa?oa oea
a?aeia?aceeiny a oai?/ino? Eiooa Aainoia. A?i aeaathooaaaa 1890 ?ioe?
?iiaiii “Aieiae”, ui caa?ioa ia naaa oaaao iienii aeeooy aac?ia?oiiai,
ui ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaae? caaeaae?. Nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia oiieoueny o
ii?? ineoieia?/ieo iiae?iaeoeue. Nioe?aeueia e?eoeea aeieea? a ?iiai?
“?aaeaeoi? Ethiaa” (1893), aea caoei cieea?. Aainoi cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia
ineoieia?/i?e i?ic?. Ae?aiaoe/ia o?eeia?y i?i a/aiiai ?aa?a Ea?aii “I?ae
ai?ioaie oea?noaa”. Aai?ee ?anai (1828-1906) — iaeaecia/i?oee
ii?aacueeee ae?aiaoo?a (aeae? i?i ?anaia).

Oai?/ee oeyo Aai??ea ?anaia. Ia?iaeeaoeny a i?noa/ea O??i, ?anai o 8
?ie?a iio?aiea a oiiae a?aeiino? ? aieiaeo, eiee eiai aaoueei
?ici?eany. A 15 ?ie?a a?i ionea ia?a?oaoe aei A?einoaaeo, ua iaioiai
i?noa/ea, aea a?i i?aoethaaa o/iai aioaea?y ? i??ya i?i e?oa?aoo?o.
Ia?o? eiai a??o? — i?ae aieeaii “Aanie ia?iae?a”. O 1849 ?ioe? ieoa
aeiaio “Eao?e?ia”, aea aeaaiuei?einueeee ia?niiaae iinoa? o a?aei?iiiio
a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai o?aeooaaii?. O 1850 ?ioe? ia?a?oaa aei noieeoe?,
aea a?aa o/anoue a eoeueoo?iiio ? iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?, ui noa? i?e/eiith
iaienaiiy naoe?e/ii? i’?ne “Ii?ia, aai ethaia iie?oeea”. Ia?a?oaaoe a
1851 ?ioe? aei Aa?aaia, ?anai noa? oaao?aeueiei ?aaeena?ii. Aea/ath/e
?noi??th ? neaiaeeiaanueeee oieueeei?, ?anai i?eoiaeeoue aei aeai?o
?noi?e/ii? ae?aie, yea iiaeiia, ia eiai aeoieo, ianaiia?aae
ia?aaeaaaoe aeoo /ano. A ae?ai? iathoue ai?ioeny ia ?aea?, a eiie?aoi?
ethaee. I’?na iiaeiia i?iaeiaaeoaaoeny i?ney caa?ne a ethaenuee?e oya?.
I?i neaiaeeiaanueeo ?noi??th ?anai ieoa “Aiaaoe?nueeee eo?aai” (1850),
“O?o ?iaa? c Ano?ioa” (1854), “Aaieao a Noeueoaoaa”(1855), “Oeao
E?eue?e?ain” (1856), “Aieiaieee a Oaeueaaeaiae?” (1857), “Ai?ioueaa ca
i?anoie” (1863). A “Ai?iouea? ca i?anoie” aaea yaii aeaeii iniiaio oaio
oai?/ino? ?anaia, ui iinoa? a 60 ?iee — aca?iieoe ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa. Ai? ye ?aaeena?, ai? ye ae?aiaoo?a ?anai aeciaiiy ia
caeiaoa ? oiio a 1864 ?ioe? caeeoa? aaouee?aueio, iaiae?oth/e ?a?iiith.A
1870-o ?ieao eiai aeoeai?noue c?inoa?, a?i oai?eoue, ao?ethth/e a
ienoaoeoa? aia?o?nonuee? iiaeyaee. Ae?aie “Eana? oa aaeaeayiei”, aea
ae??oothoueny i?iaeaie ono?ith na?oo. ?iciiaa i?i no/ani?noue ia
no/aniiio iaoa??ae? ii/eia?oueny c nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei?
ae?aiaoe/ii? iiaie “A?aiae”(1864). A?aiae — ianoi?, ui caaeoiaa
aeoiaaoe ?aeaaeueieo ethaeae. A?i ai?aoueny ca oa, uia ethaee i?oee c
iei o ai?e, a eiee aeinyaa? oeueiai, ?icoi??, ui ia cia? ni?aaaeiuei?
iaoe. Oei /anii iii?uee iiaa?oa? iaiaiii on?o iacaae. C “A?aiaeii” aei
?anaia i?eoiaeeoue aeciaiiy. A 60-o? ?iee ?anai iaiaaa?oueny i?iieeiooe
a aeooo no/anieea, oae ia?iaeaeo?oueny ?aeay ae?aiaoe/ii? iiaie “Ia?
Athio” (1867). O 1879 ?ioe? aoei iaienaii “Eyeueeiaee ae?i” — ia?oa
?a?iiaenueea nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ae?aia, aea ae?thoue neeuei?
oa?aeoa?e ? aaeee? ?aea?, naio iniiao yei? noaiiaeoue noia?a/ea i?i
iniiai? i?iaeaie /ano. Oeth e?i?th ?icaeaathoue “I?eaeaee” (1881). O
i’?n? “Ai?ia ia?iaeo” aa?ie iieacaiee o ai?iouea? c noni?euenoaii. Aa?i?
ae?aie “Aeeea ea/ea” — ieoe? ethaee, ui oiaathoueny ca aenieeie
?aeaaeaie. ?aeay ia?aaeoiaaiiy ethaeae aeieea? a ae?ai? “?inia?noieuei”.
Ia?aoo?, a 1899 ?ioe? i?ney ?yaeo ae?ai c aeaeaaeaionueeei ooeeii ?anai
oai?eoue inoaiith — “Eiee ie, ia?oa?, i?iaoaeaeo?iiny”, ui ia?
i?aecaaieiaie “ae?aiaoe/iee ai?eia”. AEeooy oaeaiiaeoiai neoeueioi?a
?oaaea, yeee i?aaia ?aeaaeo, aea aeeooy cieuo? eiai. I?ney oe??? i’?ne
?anai i?/iai ia ienaa. Ia aaouee?aueio ?anai iiaa?ioany o?eueee a 1891
?ioe? ae?aiaoo?aii c ?a?iiaenueeith neaaith.

E?oa?aoo?a I?ia//eie (caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea). A i?iaoeuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? no/ania ?noi??y ia a?aeia?aaeaeany a on?e iiaiio? ?
eiie?aoiino? — aeey aeooiaiiai aeeooy i?iaoeueeeo ?ioae?aaio?a aoea
oa?aeoa?ia a?aenoi?iiai?noue a?ae no/aniino?. A?eueoinue? i?iaoeueeeo
ienueaiiiee?a ae?eni?noue /anoi aeaaaea eeoa iiooiao aeey o?einionueeeo
oa aoe/ieo aeeneon?e. Aaaaoi oai??a a?aecia/athoueny oneeaaeiai?noth
oi?i. Aieea aeaeaaeaino, iii?ith yeiai aoea o?einio?y I?oeoa. A
I?ia//ei? a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeea /a?aoaaiiy iaoo?ae?cio, neiaie?cio oa
aeni?an?ii?cio. Iine?aeiaieie i?iiaaaiaeenoaie iaoo?ae?cio aoee A?ii
Aieueoe oa Eiaaiian Oeao. I?ae inaaaeii?iii Aieueinai aiie iioae?eoaaee
ni?eueio ca??eo “Oaoi Aaieao”. I?iaoeueeee neiaie?ci aeiee ye a?aeaoe ia
o?aioeocueeo neiaie?nueonueeo iiac?th. Noaoai Aai?aa oa Aoai oii
Aioiainoaeue, iiaoe-neiaie?noe, aoee nii??aeiai? c iai?iiaioeeith.
Aiie noaa?aeaeoaaee aeooiaiee a?enoie?aoeci, ciaaaao aei iiaooo,
i?oeoaainoai. ?aeia? Ia??y ??eueea (1875-1926) aeecueeee aei neiaie?cio
nai?i i?aaiaiiyi aeneiaeoe iaaeneiaethaaia, iaioa?noe/i?noue,
??aoe?iiae?ci ii/oooa ? aeoiie. O ia?oeo iiaoe/ieo ca??eao “AEa?oae
ea?ai” oa “A?i/aiee c iaie” (1896) a?ae/ooi? aieeae e??eee Aueioa oa
?aiiueiai Aaeia. “*anine?a”(1905) — oeaio?aeueia iiaoe/ia eieaa ??eueea,
iaae yeith a?i i?aoethaaa iaeaea aeanyoee?ooy. ?ae?a?ei? iioeae.
Aeni?an?ii?ci a i?iaoeuee?e e?oa?aoo?? caii/aoeoaaea ae?aia Aaeueoa?a
Oacaieeaaa?a “Nei” (1913), ui iaea ia iao? “ia?a?iaeoe na?o”. ?io?
aeni?an?ii?noe — Eaiiaa?ae O?aie, Eiaaiian Aaooa?, Aai?a Eaeca?.
Ii/eiathoue o oeae ia??iae oai?eoe a?aoe Oiian ? Aai??o Iaiie. Iaeiei c
iaee?oii?oeo ae?aiaoo?a?a I?ia//eie ? iaeaeaeaoi?oei e?oa?aoi?ii oeueiai
ia??iaeo ? Aa?aa?o Aaoioiai (1862-1946)(… ).

Oai?/ee oeyo Aaoioiaia. Aaoioiai aoa iiaoii, ae?aiaoo?aii, a oaeiae
aaoi?ii aeae?eueeio aeineoue a?aeiieo ?iiai?a oa iia?noae. Oeyo eiai aoa
neeaaeiee. Ia?iaeeany a eo?i?oiiio i?noa/eo Caeueoea?oiia a ?iaeei?
aeanieea aioaeth. A/eany a oi?aa?neoao?, iaiaaaany iaieiae?oe
neoeueioo?ith, oe?eaaeany oaao?ii, iaoo?ae?noe/iei iai?yiii o
e?oa?aoo??. A 1887-88 ?ieao aoee iaienai? ia?o? oai?e: iiaaee
“Ianieoey” oa “Cae?cie/iee noi?iae O?eue” a oeiiai iaoo?ae?noe/iiio
aeon?. A 1889 ?ioe? aeey oaao?aeueiiai oiaa?enoaa “A?eueia noeaia”
iaienaa i’?no “Ia?aae na?oaiiyi”, aea i?aaioa ia?aaeaoe nai? aeeoo?a?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ? ?acii c oei nai? ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae.
Ae?oaa ae?aia — “Nayoi caie?aiiy” (1889) — ? ?noi???th ?iciaaeo
ao?aeoacii-?ioae?aaioii? ?iaeeie. A?eueo aeeaieee ? ??ciiiai?oiee ci?no
— o ae?ai? “Naiioi?” (1890), aea cia?aaeaia aeiey ?ioae?aaioa-a/aiiai
Eiaaiiana Oiea?aoa, ui noi?oue aeua ca ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua, ia
caaeiaieaiee i?uainueeei aeooii nai?? ?iaeeie, ? no?aaeaea? a?ae
aeooiaii? naiioiino?. Iaeii/anii Aaoioiai oai?eoue ae?aio i?i iianoaiiy
neeacueeeo oea/?a 1844 ?ieo, na?aeeii yeiai aoa eiai ae?ae — “Oea/?”.
Aeoaea nai???aeiith ? i’?na i?i ceeaeaii?noue ia?iaeiiai aeeooy
“Cianaiiy Aaiiaea”: ae?a/eiea, ui aie?a? i?ney ni?iae aoiieoeny o
noaaeo /a?ac aei?noie?noue aaoueea, ia?aaeeaa? aeooiaia i/euaiiy. Oaia
ia?iaeiiai iianoaiiy a?ae?iaeeeany o o?aaaae?? c /an?a Naeyinueei? a?eie
1525 ?ieo “Oei??ai Aaea?”, yea, ao?i, ia iaea oni?oo. “Aia?iaa
ooaa”(1893) — iiaooiaa eiiaae?y c aeeooy iaeaiueeiai i?noa/ea, aea
aa?i?iy, i?aey, e?aaea aia?iao ooao, oei /anii iie?oe?y oi/a aa/eoe
cei/eioey ia a i?e, a a “aeaiie?ao?” ?ioae?aaio? Oeaeoa??. E?eoe/ia
cia?aaeaiiy i?iaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa i?iaeiaaeo?oueny o o?aa?eiiaae??
“*a?aiiee i?aaiue” (1901), aea aieiaia aa?i?iy i?aeiaeth? aoaeeiie, uia
io?eiaoe no?aoiaeo. “Iioiieaiee aeca?i” (1896) aoa ia?aoiaeii aei
neiaie?cio, i?ney /iai Aaoioiai noai?th? oe?eee ?yae i’?n aai
neiaie?nonueeeo, aai ?iiaioe/ieo c ?noi?e/iei nthaeaoii. Ia??iaee/ii
aeieeathoue ?aae?noe/i? ae?aie — “A?ciee Aaioaeue” (1898), “?ica
Aa?iae”(1903) oiui. Cia/ia i?noea a oai?/ino? Aaoioiaia caeiathoue
?iiaie. Ia?oee ?iiai “TH?iaeeaee ai O?eno? Aiaioaeue Ea?io” (1910)
?ethno?o? e?eco o?enoeyinoaa, ?iceaae i?ae eiai ii?aeeth oa ae?eni?noth.
E?eoe/iei ci?noii i?eaaaeth? ?iiai “Aoeaioeaea” (1912), iaienaiee i?ae
a?aaeaiiyi a?ae ii?caeee aei NOA. A nthaeao? aeei?enoaiee iioea caaeaae?
“Oeoai?ea” — ei?aaey, ia yeiio ?aea aa?ie, i?ioioeiii yeiai ? nai aaoi?.
Iia?noue “??aoee c Niaie” (1914) ciaeueiao? iieiaeiai eaoieeoeueeiai
nayuaiieea, ui iieioaa ae?ieo ? aeeooy ? a?aeiiaeany a?ae naio. I?ae /an
ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie Aaoioiai caeiaa iaoe?iiae?noe/i? ? i?e?oa?enoe/i?
iiceoe??.

Aiae?enueea e?oa?aoo?a (caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea).

Oai?/ee oeyo Oaeeaea. Nai? aeeooy Oaeeae i?enayoea iiooeai ?noeie oa
e?ane, ui noaiiaeee aeey iueiai ?aeeia iiiyooy. Ia?iaeeany a ?iaeei?
??eaiaenueeiai o??o?aa, yeiio aoa iaaeaiee oeooe aa?iiaoa, a 1854 ?ioe?
a Aeoae?i?.Ciaeeo i?ae aieeaii iaoa?? caoiieany aioe/iei ienoaoeoaii, o
1874-78 ?? a/eoueny a Ienoi?ae?.A?i noai?th? aeanio o?einio?th, a ye?e
/?eueio ?ieue caeia? iaiaeiaiiy ienoaoeoaa, ? aeeeaaea? oeth
eiioeaioe?th a eiec? «Iaicaeue, ia?i ? io?ooa» (1891).Ia yeeenue ia??iae
i?enayoeaoe nai? aeeooy ianieiae? ? aiiinaenoae?cio, Oaeeae iiieaoeany:
aoa canoaeaeaiee o 1895 ?ioe? ia 2 ?iee eaoi?ae ? caoaa?iaaiee
noni?euenoaii.I?ney a?aeaoooy no?ieo ionea caeeoeoe Aiae?th ? iiia? o
Ia?eae? a 1900 ?ioe? o ceeaeiyo.Ii/aoeii eiai oai?/ino? aoea iiyaa a
1881 ?ioe? ca??ee «A??o?» a ?ii?an?ii?nonueeiio aeon?. Aei 1887 ?ieo a?i
noai?th? ?yae iiia?aeaiue, c yeeo iaea?aeii?oa — «Eaioa?a?euenueeee
i?eaeae».Eacee, ye? a?i ii/aa ienaoe ii oiio, ?ice?eee eiai a iia?e
yeino?: ca??ee «Uaneeaee i?eioe»(1888) oa «A?aiaoiaee aoaeeii/ie» (1891)
a?aecia/athoueny iaeiia??iith oaioac??th,aoiai?noe/iei iano?i?i ?
aiaeii/an ??ii?/iith iaia?ith iiia?ae?. ?iiai «Ii?o?ao Aei??aia A?ay»
c*yaey?oueny a 1891 ?ioe?.Aei o??? ae oaie, ui a «Ii?o?ao?», a?i
caa?oa?oueny a iaeiiaeoi?e ae?ai? «Naeiiay», caai?iiai?e a Aiae?? ?
iinoaaeai?a o 1893 ?ioe? a Ia?eae?.I?eno?anoue ?oaeaenueeith oea??aie
anooia? o aeaia?e c aneaoeciii i?i?iea Eieaiaia.Ia?aoo? aiia
aeiaeaa?oueny eiai o nia?o? — oaioeth? ca aieiao Eieaiaia.Iioe?eoaaaoe
ia?oa? aonoa, Naeiiay caaeaa?.Oea aa?o aeaeaaeaionoaa o oai?/ino?
Oaeeaea. A 1894-95 ?? a?i noai?th? eiiaae?? «A?yei eaae? O?iaea?i??»,
«AE?iea, ui ia aa?oa oaaae», «?aeaaeueiee /ieia?e»,»sse aaaeeeai aooe
na?eiciei».O a*ycieoe? a aeoo? Oaeeaea a?aeaoaa?oueny ceai.A?i ieoa
«Aaeaaeo ?aae?iaoiinueei? a*ycieoe?» — o?einionueeee a??oiaaiee oa??,ui
a?aaeaa nai?i o?aa?ciii. Oea aoa inoaii?e iiaoe/iee ce?o Oaeeaea.

E?oa?aoo?a NOA. A e?oa?aoo?? NOA ii/aoeo iaoiai ia??iaeo iaioaaea
«ainoiinueea oeiea», ui noaaeea caaea/o a?aeaie?eaoe /eoa/a a?ae
?aaeueiino?,?ic?iaeyea iaoiaee ?iiaioee?a.Ia?oei, ooi aenooiea i?ioe ??
i?aaenoaaiee?a, aoa Aai?? Aeaeaein (1843-1916), yeee, ao?i, ia aeo?eiaa
iaeaeii? eiio aia?eeainueei? ae?eniino? ? a 1875 ?ioe? iieeioa
Aia?eeo.Iniiaia oaia eiai oai??a «Iinee» (1901),»E?eea
aieoaee»(1902),»Cieioa aaca» (1904) iiia?aeathoue i?i aeeooy
aia?eeaioe?a o ?a?ii?.A ia/ae? 70-o O?eueyi Oioaen (1837-1920) aenooia?
i?ioe oiiaiinoae, eoeueoo aeeeth/iino? aia?eeaioe?a oiui.?aaaeea
Oa?ae?ia-Aeaea?n (1831-1910) a ?aae?noe/iiio ieai? iieacaea aeeooy
aia?eeainueeiai i?ieaoa??aoo a iia?no? «AEeooy ia eeaa?ieo
caaiaeao»(1861),»Ia?aa?ao Oion» (1862) oiui.O 80-o? ?iee iinoa? oa/?y
iai?iiaioecio, c yeith iaiaaathoueny ai?ioeny ?aae?noe Oaie?i Aa?eaiae
(1860-1940), Aai?? Ooeea? (1857-1929),No?aai E?aei (1871-1900), O?aie
Ii???n (1870-1902).Ia ?oaaae? O?O oa OO noie?oue aeieeathoue iia? ?ooe,
a oiio /ene? «?iceiioaa/?a a?oaeo» — ienueiaiieee oa aeo?iae?noe
aeii/eee ia iiaa?oith iaea?oaei?o? ? iaeceeaeaii?o? aiee aeeooy. Ii/aoie
oeueiio ?ooo iieeaa Aeaeaeeia ???n (1849-1914), aeo?iae?no.
Iaea?aeii?oei i?aaenoaaieeii ?ooo aoa E?ieiei Noaooain (1866-1930). A
?aae?noe/iiio oaai?? aenooiathoue ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy Aeaeae Eiiaeii
, Oaiaei? Ae?aeca?. Oaeaiiaeoee iiaae?no I.Aai?? (O?eueyi N?aeiae
Ii?oa?, 1862-1910) noai?ea aeecueei 280 iiaae, ui aeeoee i?ioyaii
ia?oiai aeanyoee?ooy OO noie?ooy. Eiai oai?/?noue ?icaeaaeany a ?one?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo oa aoiai?noe/ieo o?aaeeoe?e aia?eeainueei? e?oa?aoo?e.
A?i noai?ea aaeeeo aaea?ath ia?ac?a no/anieo aia?eeaioe?a.Aa?ie
a?eueoino? eiai iiia?aeaiue — «iaeaiueea ethaeeia», ui aeeaa aaeeeei
aeeooyi.Iieiaeee ienueiaiiee Aioii N?ieea? (1878-1968) i?enayoea na?e
ia?oee ?iiai «Aeaeoiae?» (1906) aeeooth oa ai?iouea? aia?eeainueeieo
?ia?oiee?a. A oeaio?? ?iiaio oeyo ?i?a?aioa-?ia?oieea TH?a?na, ui
i?iaeany aei e?ioiai aeeooy. Caiaeii a?i «?aea» ia nioe?ae?ci?,
i?iiaaoth/e eiai ye iiao ?ae?a?th a ?iiaiao «Naiuethae-ooea/» (1910) oa
«N?euea?y» (1913). (ia caaoaeueoa i?i Ia?ea Oaaia!! :)) Aecia/iei
ae?y/ai aia?eeainueeiai e?eoe/iiai ?aae?cio aoa Oaiaei? Ae?aeca?
(1871-1945), yeee i?ney aeiaaeo iaiae??aie oa aeo?iae?nonueei? i?aoe?,
caoiiethth/enue o?einio??th Niaina?a, ii/aa noai?thaaoe ?iiaie i?i
aia?eeainueeo ae?eni?noue: «Nano?a Ea???» (1900), «Aeaeaii? Aa?oa?aeo»
(1911),»O?eeia?y aaaeaiiy» («O?iaineno», «Oeoai»,»Noi?e»),»Aai?e»(1915)
.

Oai?/ee oeyo Ia?ea Oaaia. Naithae Eeaiain (1835-1910) ia?iaeeany a nae?
Aaii?aae o ooao? I?nno?? a a?aei?e ?iaeei?. A?i ?aii ii/aa i?aoethaaoe,
noaa o/iai o ae?oea?i?, canai?a oeth i?ioan?th ? iaiae?oaaa i?noaie
no?aeiiai ocaa?aaeaey a iiooeao ?iaioe. O 22 ?iee a?i iaieiae?a
i?ioan??th eioeiaia ? ii/aa aiaeeoe ei?aae? ii ??/oe? I?n?n?i?.Oe? 4
?iee iaaecae/aeii caaaaoeee eiai aeina?ae, ooo ia?iaeeany eiai
inaaaeii?i «Ia?e Oaai».*a?ac a?iiaaeyinueeo a?eio a?i oei/aniai
a?aei?aaey?oueny ia Cao?ae, a caoei noa? aeo?iae?noii, ? a na?aaeei?
60-o aeoiaeyoue eiai ia?o? aoii?enoe/i? iiia?aeaiiy. A 1868 ?ioe? a?i
a?aei?aaey?oueny aei ?a?iie a yeino? ei?aniiiaeaioa. ?acoeueoaoii oe???
ii?caeee noaea eieaa «I?inoaee ca ei?aeiiii» (1869), caaaeyee ye?e a?i
noaa a?aeiiei.Naoe?e/ia inieneaiiy aia?eeainueeiai iaioae?oaoo iaei
oni?o ? a NOA, ? a ?a?ii?.Ia?e Oaai ao?eth? a nai? oai?e iniiae
aia?eeainueeiai ia?iaeiiai aoii?o, aiaeii/an iaiiaithth/e ?o aeeaieith
nioe?aeueiith i?iaeaiaoeeith.Ia?oa ca??ea iiia?aeaiue — «Neaaiica?nia
no?eaath/a aeaaa c Eaeaaa?ana oa ?io? iiia?aeaiiy» (1867) — aoa
aeo?eiaiee o aeon? aia?eeainueeeo ia?iaeieo onieo iiia?aeaiue.Aecia/ieie
? iiaooia? aoii?anee Oaaia.?yae iiia?aeaiue i?enay/aia aeni?thaaiith
aia?eeainueei? aeo?iae?noeee. Iiia?aeaiiy «sse iaia iae?aee a
aoaa?iaoi?e», «sse y ?aaeaaoaaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo aacaoo», «sse y
neoaeea nae?aoa?ai» aee?eaathoue aaaee noni?euenoaa.Iiaa?ioaoeny c
?a?iie, Oaai iae?oaeo?oueny c aei/eith aoaeai?iieneiaoey Ai?e??th
Eaiaaeii, aoaeo? nia? a Oa?ooi?ae?, Eiiiaeoeeoo, aaeeeee aoaeeiie, ui
noa? nai???aeiei e?oa?aoo?iei oeaio?ii Aia?eee.Ooo a?i noai?th? ?iiai
«Iiciei/aiee a?e» (1873), ?yae naoe?e/ieo iiia?aeaiue. O 1876 ?ioe?
iinoa? ?iiai «I?eaiaee Oiia Nie??a», a a 1882 ?ioe? — ia?oee ?noi?e/iee
?iiai «I?eioe ? aeaa?ae», ui cia?aaeo? Aiae?th 16 noie?ooy.Aa?oeiith
oai?/ino? Ia?ea Oaaia aaaaea?oueny ?iiai «I?eaiaee Aaeeaa??? O?iia»
(1884).1889 ??e — ?iiai «ssie? i?e aeai?? ei?iey A?oo?a». Caaeeaeaoeny a
nioe?aeueio oaiaoeeo, Oaai ieoa aeaa neaaeeo ?iiaie — «Aia?eeainueeee
i?aoaiaeaio» (1862) oa «A?enii-i?inoae» (1894).Iiooee iiceoeaiiai aa?iy
i?eaiaeyoue eiai aei iaienaiiy ?iiaio «AEaiia
ae*A?e»(1895).?niaii-Aia?eeainueea a?eia e?ioey noie?ooy aeeeeea? a
iueiai ?yae iaioeao?a, o oiio /ene? iaee?aua naoe?e/ia iiia?aeaiiy
«Ethaeeia, ui caaaeea Aaaee?aa?a» (1898).?yae iaioeao?a aee?eaa?
aia?eeainueeee ?aneci.

Oai?/ee oeyo Aeaeaea Eiiaeiia. Ia?iaeeany o Nai-O?aioeenei, aeea o
?iaeei? naiai a?o/eia, oa?ia?a Aeaeiia Eiiaeiia, aeoaea a?aeii.Ua
oeiey?ii a?i ii/eia? nai ca?iaeyoe ia aeeooy. Cae?i/eaoe oeieo, a?i noa?
?ia?oieeii ia eiina?ai?e oaa?eoe?,iio?i caeia?oueny caai?iiaiei
i?iieneii ono?eoeue, caoei iaeia?oueny iao?inii.I?aoethth/e, Eiiaeii
aeaae?aii /eoa?, a oiio /ene? caoiieth?oueny o?einio??th I?oeoa.A 1893
?ioe? a?i ieoa iiia?aeaiiy «Oaeooi eiei aa?aa?a ssiii??», ui ia?aiaaa? a
eiieo?n? ia iaee?aua iieniaa iiia?aeaiiy.Caa/anii iiiaae?yaoeny ia
e?oa?aoo?iee oni?o, a?i eeaea? ?iaioo, ? noa? aac?ia?oiei.Acyaoe o/anoue
o «aieiaeiiio iioiae?» ia Aaoeiaoii, a?i caiaeii noa? aieioethaith ?
iaiae?o? Aia?eeith, iio?aiey? a Eaiaaeo ? oai eiai naaeyoue aei
a*ycieoe?.Ia?aoo?, iiaa?ioaoeny ia aaouee?aueio, anooia? aei
oi?aa?neoaoa, caoei ae?ooa? ia Aeyneo a iiooeao cieioa. Naia a?aaeaiiy
a?ae oaioaoiueiai aeeooy niiioea? eiai a 1899 ?ioe? acyoeny aei
iaienaiiy «I?ai?/ieo iiia?aeaiue».Oe? oai?e iaeaaei aeinyaee
aeciaiiy.Noai?eaoe e?eueea ca??ie iiia?aeaiue, Eiiaeii ae?ooa? aei
I?aaeaiii? Ao?eee, aea iio?aiey? aei Eiiaeiia, aea noai?th? eieaeeo
«Ethaee aaciaei?» (1902) i?i iaeiia??i? ceeaei? iaoeaioe?a ?no-Naeaeo.A
ia??iae i?ae 1905 oa 1910 ?ieii, caoiieaoeny nioe?ae?noe/ieie ?aeayie,
Eiiaeii ieoa ?aaiethoe?ei? noaoo?, a oaeiae nioe?aeuei? ?iiaie «Cae?cia
i*yoa» oa «Ia?o?i ?aeai» (1909). Caoei a?i iinooiiai a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae
iie?oeee, i?iiaaoth/e aoa/o aei i?e?iaee («I?ny/ia aeieeia»
(1913)).C*yaeythoueny aiie?oe/i? ?iiaie — «Iaeaiueea oacyeea aaeeeiai
aoaeeiea» (1915) oiui.Eiiaeii i?aaia ?icaaaao?oe, uia noaoe iacaeaaeiei
? ienaoe «ni?aaaei?» ?a/?. I?ioa oea ia cae?enieeiny : ienueiaiiee
caoai??a, ? a 1916 ?ioe? a?ae ia?aaeicoaaiiy e?e?a iiie?a?.

Nai???aei?noue nthaeaoo ? eiiiiceoe?? o ?iiai? Oeiaa?a “Iaaeai Aiaa??”.

Nai???aei?noue aa?iy a ?iiai? Iiiannaia “Ethaee ae?oa”. Ae?oaee ?iiai
Iiiannaia “Ethaee ae?oa” (1885) a?aecia/a?oueny aino?ith nioe?aeueiith
oaiaoeeith. Aaoi? ao?eea ooo ona nai? ciaiiy caeoe?nieo aie?a
aeo?iae?noeee. A?aenoaaiee io?oea? Aeth?oa i?eaoaa? aei Ia?eaea ?
i?ioiaeeoue oeyo, iiae?aiee aei aaeuecaeiaiai ?ano?iueyea. A?i
i?iaiaeeoue aa?iy /a?ac ??ci? noiaeeiee noni?eueii? ae?aaeie. Iiiannai
aea? aa?iy ?iiaia a ?aeiino? eiai aioo?ooi?o ? ciai?oi?o ?en, iicaye
ineoieia?/ii Aeth?oa oaeee naiee ianeeaaeiee, ye ? eiai ii?o?ao.
Aeth?oa — ia a?enoie?ao, a?i ia ia? ca’yce?a, ia ia? i?aeo?eiee,
i?e?iaea ia iaae?eeea eiai aeeneo/eie cae?aiinoyie. ?aeeia eiai
ia?aaaaa — i?eaaaeeaa ciai?oi?noue. Oa, ui oaea ethaeeia oaeaeei
i?inoaa?oueny aai?o, aei i?i?noa?nueeiai e??nea, naii niaith
oa?aeoa?eco? aiioo. Aeth?oa aeinyaa? anueiai a aeeoo?, ?iaeoue ea?’??o
oiio, ui ai?? eiaeoe iiiaio.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio Iiiannaia “AEeooy”. Ai?a?aoii aei ?iiaio
“AEeooy” (1883)? neiaa “Aacoeo??nia i?aaaea”. Iiianai i?aaioa aei
oe?eaaino?, iacae/iino? nthaeaoo, aea aeaaaa ?noi??th cae/aeiiai
ethaenueeiai aeeooy. ?iiai ia? a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy “Ui oaea aeeooy?
ssea aiii?”. Aeey oeueiai aaoi? i?inoaaeo? aeeooy AEaiie aea Ai,
iia’ycaia c iinooiiaei ?iciaaeii oa caiaiaaeii ?? ?iaeeie. Aeoiaaiiy
AEaiie caaeoiaia a aeon? I?ina?oieoeoaa, aaoueee iieeaaeathoue ia ia?
aaee/aci? iaae??. C iiianoe?y aiia aeoiaeeoue uaneeaith, aaaaoith,
iiaiith nee, e?aneaith, ?icoiiith. Iiiannai iaeth? ioi/oth/ee na?o
oaeei, yeee a?i ? a i/ao AEaiie, ui aeiiiiaaa? eiio iieacaoe, ye
i?ioyaii ethaenueeiai aeeooy i?iy?oueny oeae iiaeyae. AEaiia i??? i?i
iae?oaeaiiy, aea, aeeoiaoe cai?ae ca a?eiioa aea Eaia?a, aiia
noeea?oueny c eiai ni?aaaei?ie yeinoyie ? ao?a/a? iaae?th.
Iaiaaath/enue ciaeoe i?aeo?eieo a aaouee?a, aiia ?ic/a?iao?oueny ? a
ieo. Iaa?oue ethaia aei neia i?eiineoue ?e a?eueoa no?aaeaeaiue, i?ae
?aaeino?. Iieue oai?iaeeaee a aeeoeinoa?, a iiaei?ine?oaaoe, caaoaa?
iao?? ca?aaee eioaiee, cae?ca? a ai?ae, ?ici?th? AEaiio. AEaiia noa?
iauaniith, na?o noa? ia oaeei i?ae?aniei aeey ia?. Oaia ao?aoe ?ethc?e
ae??oaia ia o?eueee a ineoieia?/iiio ieai?, a e o nioe?aeueiiio:
iieacaia caaeaaeue aeai?yinueeiai na?oo, ui cieuo?oueny i?ae iaoeneii
eai?oae?cio. Iiiannai aino?i a?ae/oaa? iiac?th aoooy ia eii? i?e?iaee,
? ana ae oaee ia iiaea ia iieacaoe, ui /an aeai?yinoaa i?oia. A?eiio
aea Eaia?, eiai nei Iieue — ?ethno?aoe?? ii?aeueiiai caiaiaaeo
aeai?yinueaa. Aonoaie ?icae?, neoaeaiee, Iiiannai a?aeiia?aea? ia
ieoaiiy, yea ? aeeooy: “Ia oaea iiaaia, aea e ia oaea aeia?a, ye
aeoia?oueny”.

AEai?iaa ?icia?o?noue iiaae Iiiannaia. Iiiannai aa?eoia a ?noi??th
e?oa?aoo?e ianaiia?aae ye iiaae?no, iaienaaoe 16 ca??ie iiaae: “Caeeaae
Oaeue?”, “Iaaeaioacaeue O?o?”, “Iiia?aeaiiy Aaeueaeoiaia”, “I?ny/ia
na?oei”, “I?n Aa???ao” oiui. Iaei??th c i?ia?aeieo oai a?ae ii/aoeo aoea
ethaia (“Caeeaae Oaeue?,””Niaaeie”, “Oey naeiy Ii?ai”). Na?eiciith aoea
i?iaeaia a?eie oa ana eiei iia’ycaieo c iath ieoaiue. I?i
o?aiei-i?onueeo a?eio iaienaii aeecueei 20 iiaae. Ia?oa c??ea iiaaea
“Ieoea” iana aeoieo i?i oa, ui a?eie iiaei a ? ia aooe. “Ieoea” —
/anoeia ca??ee “Iaaeainuee? aa/i?e”. Naiia?aeaeai?noue i?aei?ia? aei
aa?i?a iaeia?an?/i?oeo ethaeae: aeai? i?eyoae?a, ui eiaeyoue ?eao ia
i?eei?aeiii?e e?i??, iio?aieythoue a ?oee aei i?onae?a, ye?
i?iiiiothoue ?i aeeooy ca ia?ieue. Oei ? a aieiao ia i?eoiaeeoue
aeaeaoe ia?ieue, ?o ?icno??eththoue (iiaaea “Aeaa oiaa?eo?”).
A?aaeathoue ea?oeie naeyinueeiai iii?o (“Noa?a Niaaae”). Oaia iia??
i?aaenoaaeaia oe?iei, oae naii ye ? oaia ethaia? aei a?ioae ye o
ca’yceo c ethaiaiith, oae ? aac iueiai. … (? oae aeae?, ei?iooa y ia
ciath oi ienaoe LLLL).

Nai???aei?noue aa?iy a ?iiai? Ciey “AEa?i?iaeue”. I?iia?acii iiae?e o
?iiai? ? no?aee oaooa??a o aa?aci? 1884 ?ieo.A ?iiai? noai?th?oueny
oe?e?nia ea?oeia aeeooy i?ai?/iio?aioeocueeeo oaooa?nueeeo naeeu.?
oeueiio i?iieneiaiio e?a? aeeaooue aeeiano?? ?ia?oiee?a, na?aae ieo —
?iaeeia Iaa, yea aaea i?ioyaii 106 ?ie?a ? 6 iieie?iue i?aoeth? ia
iaeiiai ainiiaea?y.Ia?oee c oe??? aeeiano?e a 15 ?ie?a a?aee?ea ooo
iayai?noue aoa?eey, aea a?i io?eio? o?eueee «/anoue» — ia eiai ?i*y
iaceaa?oueny oaooa.?noi??y Iaa — e?eaaaa aeoaa ethaeeie c i?e?iaeith
ca?aaee eai?oaeo.Nei ia?oiai Iaa, eiai a?aoe oa o?i? nei?a neeaee aieiae
a oaoue?, iaenoa?oee c oaia??oi?o Iaa ia? 56 ?ie?a ? caaoueny
Aacnia?oiei. A?i na?aeiia ethaeeia, ia i*?, oe?eaaeoueny iie?oeeith.
Ciey aeyaey? aaeeea ni?a/oooy aei Iaa oa eiai ?iaeeie. Aoa?eueia
eiiiai?y ieoa?oueny oiiaaie, ui aiia noai?eea aeey iaoeaioe?a naeeua
Aeaionio Ni?iea, oi/a iani?aaae? oe? oiiae aeaoeea?: ? aeeoeia?, ? oiiae
oa?/oaaiiy, oiio ae?oaeeia Iaa a 30 ?ie?a aaea noa?a, cio/aia, a a
iieiaeoeo a?ae/ooi? iciaee ae?iaeaeaiiy.A oaoo? i?aoeth? 5 /eai?a
?iaeeie, iao?? aeiiiieoue, aea a?ioae a?aeo?.Naia ceeaei? ooiaoathoue
?ia?oiee?a ia iianoaiiy.A iueiai aoyao?oueny iaoai?e Aoue?i Eaioue?, ui
i?e?oaa aei naeeua iaeiaoeny ia ?iaioo a oaooo — aieiaiee aa?ie.Ciey
aeeaeoueny ia an? iiae?? eiai i/eia.A?i i?aoeth? a a?eaaae? Iaa ?
caeioaiee a eiai aei/eo Eao??i, c iei iia*ycaia aeieeiaiiy aoioo. Aea
noeo?ei?noue iianoaiiy i?eoiaeeoue aei ii?acee, ?ia?oieee iiaa?oathoueny
aei oaooe, Iaa caaeaa?. Ia Aoue?ia aeeeaa?oueny i?ace?noai ethaeae, oea
?oeio? ?oi? eioaiiy c Eao??i, ? aiia noa? eioaieith oaooa?y Oaaaey.
Aoue?i caeeaeo?oueny c caeioaiith a iueiai oianooieith Ioeaooith. ?
o?eueee caaaeai? a oaoo?, Eao??i ? Eaioue? a?aee?eaathoueny iaeia
iaeiiio.Aoue?i — iauaaeie Iaeea??a, ? a iueiio i?iyaey?oueny ?oiy
niaaeeia?noue o yeino? iaiaae?a ai?ao, i?ae /an iaeiiai c yeeo a?i
aaeaa? naiai noia?ieea Oaaaey.Oi?iaeueii Aoue?i ? i?iaiaee?ai iianoaiiy,
a oaeoe/ii — eiai cia?yaeaey. O aeaiai? na?aeiiiai oa ?inoeieoeaiiai a
?iiai? ia?aiaaa? ?inoeieo.Aaoi? ciaaaaea? iie?oe/io ai?ioueao, ??ii?/ii
iaeth? aiaeae?a ??cieo ia?o?e. Iaoiai iana iaoin ai?ioueae
ni?aaaaeeeaiai iianoaiiy, ia?aaea? a?aenoooy aaee/acii? neee, ? Ciey
ciooo? ieeoaaoeny iei ? aiyoeny eiai.Oaai?ia? «/a?aiieo» a ?iiai?
i?ioenoi?oue oaa?? «aeaeeoieo» — ao?aeoac??. ?iaeeia A?aaoa??a, ?iaeeia
aee?aeoi?a oaooe Aiai, eiai ieai?iiee Iaa?aeue — oiniaeaiiy i?aaaee
?ioiai aeeooy, ai?ae aeeooy oaooa??a. Oea aeeooy oaae ia? nai? oo?aioe,
aea aiie ni?oi? a ii??aiyii? c? ceeaeiyie oaooa??a. ?iiai «AEa?i?iaeue»
noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i iaiiaeeea?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy noa?iai aeeooy. ?iiai
iieyaa? o iao?aii? ?ia?oiee?a, ye? caaaeathoue oaea?
noni?euenoao.»AEa?i?iaeue» — ?i*y aaniyiiai i?nyoey, eiee
i?ae?eiathoueny ia?o? ia?inoee, ? a?i ia? i?ia?uaoe iaeaooi?.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio Ciey “Aeainueea uanoy”.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio O?aina “Ino??a i?iaa?i?a”. O 1908 ?ioe?
O?ain aeionea? ?iiai «Ino??a i?iaa?i?a», ia?iaeaeaiee c aacaoii? naoe?e
ia eaoieeoeueeo oea?eao.I?eiee ?ai?oa o O?aina ia aoei oaeiai
?aaeac?ainueeiai ?iciaoo, oaei? aino?i? naoe?e. Eiaeai ?yaeie i?iiecaiee
ni?oii, eiaeia neiai ia? i?aeoaeno. Eieaa ia? an? a?aeo?iee ??ii??,
a?ia?aie, ia?niiaae? oa iiae?? ?ic?inoathoueny aei a?ioaneieo ?ici???a,
iio?i ciiao ae??ai?oathoue.Aeeaiaeaeia oaioac?y O?aina ii?iaeaeo? ?
ni?oi?, ? aeaoeea? ia?ace.?iiai iaienaiee o oi?i? ia?iae?? ia i?ae?o/iee
o?aioeocueei? ?noi???, aea, aeania, ia?iae?th?oueny ia o?eueee ?noi??y
O?aioe??, a e anueiai ethaenoaa.Iaea?eueoa ae?noa?oueny oea?ea?, cie?aia
o noeai? o?auaiiy i?iaa?i?a, yeeo noa?ee Iaaeue i?eeiya ca ethaeae, aai
noeaia ae?eiai? ia?aaee, neeeeaii? ainiiaeii ia iaa?, aea ae??oo?oueny
ieoaiiy i?i oa, ui ?iaeoe c io?auaieie i?iaa?iaie. O?ain i?iyaey? naaa
ye aeeneo/ee noee?no, oiieee,aeoaea /ooeeaee iaenoa? neiaa, a c?oeiaiiy
«aiaeanoaaiieo iiiyoue» c iiaooiaeie ieanoaie iiaeaiiy aeeeeea? /oaeiaee
naoe?e/iee aoaeo.O?ain aoaeo? ethaenueeo ooi?noue, ia?iineaanoai,
aeaae?ai?noue, aai?ci.I?iaa?ie noathoue ethaeueie ? i?ioiaeyoue on?
noaae?? ?icaeoeo ethaeae,iaaoaath/e iinooiiai an?o ?oi?o iaaaoeaieo
yeinoae.A «?noi???» i?iaa?i?a O?ain iionea? an? aa?i?/i? iiiaioe, ?
iniaeeai aeaoaeueii coieiy?oueny ia ?noi??? O?O noie?ooy, a oaeiae ia
«Iia?e Aoeaioeae?» — aiaeia NOA.Aoeaioe — ia?iae?y ia
aia?eeaioe?a.Ia?aoo?, i?iaa?iy/a noni?euenoai aoei i?ae??aaia
aia?o?noaie, ? ?noi??y ii/aeany ciiao. ?iiai — aioeooii?y,iiia?aaeaeaiiy
i?i oa, ui ca caaino?aiiy noia?a/iinoae ethaenoai
ae?iaeeoueny.Ienueiaiiee aoaeeoue aeoieo, iaooiaoo? ethaeae ia na?aeiio
o/anoue a ?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?.

Niaoeeo?ea aeai?o ?iiaio aea Einoa?a “Eaaaiaea i?i O?ey Oeaioi?aaey”.

I?iaeaiaoeea oa aeai? ae?aie Iaoa?e?iea “Nei?e ioao”. “Nei?e ioao”
(1908) — iaee?aua i’?na Iaoa?e?iea, a ye?e, ye ? a ?aii?o i’?nao, a?i
aeei?enoaa oi?io ia?iaeii? eacee. Oeii/ee O?eueo?eue oa eiai nano?a
I?o?eue, ae?oe a?aeiiai e?ni?oaa, a i?/ i?ae ??caeai ca iaeacii oa?
ae?ooathoue ia iiooee Neiueiai Ioaoa. Iaei? ?a/? noathoue ?oi?ie
ae?ocyie, ?io? — ai?iaaie: ca ieo Aeooa Na?oo, Oe?a, Oeoei?, Aiaiiue,
E?o oa Ian. Ian — iaea??i?oee ae?oa, E?o noeey?oueny aei oiai, uia
c?aaeeoe ae?oae ?oiueiio ai?iao — Ii/?. Ae?oe a?aea?aeothoue ??ci?
/a??ai? e?a? — e?a?io niiaaae?a, e?a?io iaia?iaeaeaieo ae?oae, iaeaoe
Ii/?, e?n, aea iaeeee aea?aaa. Neiueiai ioaoa iaeaea iaiiaeeeai
i?eiaoe. Nei?e ioao — iaoaoi?a uanoy, a?i, iieiyth/enue a ?oeao o
ae?oae, oi iiie?a?, oi i?iy? eie??. Oei /anii cae/aeiee n??aiueeee
ioao c ee?oee oeii/eea iinei?a, eiee oie ae??oea iio?oeoe non?aenueeo
ae?a/eieo. Ioaea, iniiaia ?aeay — iiooe uanoy. A i’?n? iayai?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey Iaoa?e?iea neiaiee oa noeai?/i? ao?eaiiy ia?aae/ooo?a,
ni?a oa i??e. Eaceiaa oa???y iaeeeeo ?a/ae, /e? aeoo? ii/eiathoue
oaioethaaoe. A ia?iaei?e eacoe? iaia? oaeiai iiae?eo ia aioo??oith
nooi?noue oa ciai?oith iaieiieo ?a/?. Ioaea, “Nei?e ioao” — oaeaiiaeoa
neiaie?nonueea noee?caoe?y ia?iaeii? eacee. Aanue oii i’?ne, ia?aiee ?
i?inoee, c?iaea i’?no Iaoa?e?iea iaei??th c oethaeaieo aeeoy/eo i’?n.

Nai???aei?noue aa?iy a ae?ai? ?anaia “Ia? Athio”. Oey ae?aiaoe/ia iiaia
c’yaeeany a 1867 ?ioe?. Aieiaiith ae?eiaith iniaith ?, ca neiaaie
aaoi?a, “iai?ai?o?/iee, iai?aeaceiaee aa?ie iaeiia?oiai /ano”. Oi/a
i?yii? iieai?ee a iiai? ia aeyaeeiny, a naoe?e/i? i?noey aoee
aeinoaoiuei ?cieueiaai?, eieaeea ia?iaeea aaaaoi ooio, ai no/ani?
?anaio ii?aaaeoe? ai?ciaaaee a aa?i? naaa. Ia? Athio — iaeiiai?oa
ao?eaiiy ii?aacueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iiaiee nee, a?i ia
cia?, yeee oeyo ia?aoe a aeeoo?, /ei naaa caeiyoe. Ia ii/aoeo iiaie
oea “e?aiaciee naeyinueeee oeiiaoeue ?ie?a 20”, /ee aaoueei aeaaii
?ici?eany ? aia?, a Ia? aeeaa c iao??’th. Ia? — aaeaeoi, ia?iaa,
oaioaca?, eiai i?ooi ia ethaeoue, ? ca naith cooaae?noue a?i
iaieioaiee iica caeiiii ? ioneoue o?eaoe a ai?e, aea iio?aiey? aei
o?iee?a. Ooo a?i ioneoue caaeoiaoeny iaae nai?i aeeooyi. Ia? ethaeoue
iaee?auo c ae?a/ao — “na?oeo” Nieueaaea, ? a?aeeoue a?ae ia?. O?iee?
aeiaaathoue i?eeiyoe ?oith oi?ioeo aeeooy — “aoaeue caaeiaieaiee naiei
niaith”. O?iee? — o?aaeeoe?eia ii?aacueea ao?eaiiy iieiaei/anoino?,
naiiaaeiaieaiino?. Ia? Athio ao?ea? a?ae ieo ? cono??/a?oueny c ?ioei
neiaie?/iei ia?acii — Aaeeeith e?eaith, ui ?aaeeoue ona iaoiaeeoe. A?i
aioiaee aeoeny c iath, i?ioa aiia ia?aiaaa? aac aith, a ?acii c oei ?
?? ?aeay — iao?aeieo oeyo?a. A Aia?eoe?, eoaee Ia? ai?a?oaaa, eiio
iiuanoeei: a?i noa? eiia?naioii, i?iaea? iaa??a oa noaooaoee ? aaaao??.
Iaoiaeea ana noi?iiith ? aoa nai niaith caaeiaieaiee, ao?aoea on? nai?
iiceoeai? yeino?. sse iniaeno?noue Ia? ia?anoa? ?nioaaoe, neoaea/e
aeaniiio aeaao, oiio a ionoae? a?i aeaea? naaa ca i?i?iea, a a
aoaeeieo aiaeaa?eueieo eiai i?iaieioothoue oea?ai. I?ney aeiaaeo
iiiaa??yiue Ia? iiaa?oa?oueny aeiaeiio noa?ith oai?ith ethaeeiith, ?
cono??/a?oueny c? nai?th nia?oth: oea Aoaeceea?, ui oiaeeoue c
ieia’yiith eiaeeith ? cae?a? a ia? ethaeae ia ia?aieaaeo, iicaye
oe?euei? iniae oaia? ia?aaaeeny, ? eeoa c aaaaoueio iiaeia nieaaeoe
ni?aaaeith ethaeeio. Ia? aaaaea?, ui a?i oe?ea aeeooy aoa niaith,
aaaaea?, ui a?i — uinue oe?eueia. Oiae? a?i aa/eoue iaiiaeoiai? aeoiee,
iaaeieaeai? neueice oiui. Oiae? Ia? ioneoue ciaeoe Aoaeceea?aa? na?aeea
oiai, ui a?i aoa iniaeno?noth. Oaeeo ia ciaoiaeeoueny: eiai ia
aeciathoue ca naiai o?iee?, ia aa?ooue ? a iaeei. Ia a??y/e a
ii?yooiie, a?i cono??/a? Nieueaaea: aiia ne?ia, ia caeioaa/o? eiai i?
a /iio ? i?eeia? eiai iacaae, ?yooth/e. I?ioa oea ia iiaiee ii?yooiie —
c Aoaeceea?ai aiie ua cono??iooueny. Ia?niiaae? “Ia?a Athioa” —
neiaie?/i?. ?anai ia?aoo? ci?a i?iieeiooe a aeooo naiai no/anieea.

Na????aei?noue oai?/iai iaoiaeo a ae?ai? ?inoaia “N??aii aea Aa?aea?ae”.
Aaeiii ?inoai (1868-1918) c? nai?th i*?nith «N??aii aea Aa?aea?ae»
(1897) iiaa?oaa ae?aiaoo?a?th aei ?iiaioe/iiai ?aeaaeo, ao?ethth/e
aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe??. A?i ii-nai?io ia?ainieneea ia?ac ienueiaiieea
17 noie?ooy ? c?iaea eiai aioo??oiuei i?eaaaeeaei, aeeaiei oeyoaoiei,
ieney/ei ? caeaoiei a?aenoithaaoe nai? ia?aeiiaiiy.Ne?aii — neeueia
iniaeno?noue, ui eiio?anoo? ye c ?aeaaeii aeaeaaeaino, oae ? c
i?oeoaainueeith iaaeethaeeiith, aeaiie?ao ca ia?aeiiaiiyie, ai?aoeue ca
naiaiaeo aeey naaa ? aeey an?o. A?i ao?eth? aeoo aieaethaiino?.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ae?aie ?anaia “Eyeueeiaee ae?i”. Oea ae?aia
iiaiai oeio, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia. Iniiaiee ?ioa?an o i?e
noaiiaeoue ia oa, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a ian ia i/ao, a noaaeaiiy aa?i?a
aei oiai, ui a?aeaoeiny a ieioeiio, ? a oaia??oiueiio, ui c ieioeiai
aeo?ea?. Ie aa/eii iane?aeee iiae?e, ? aiae?c oeeo iane?aee?a. ?anai
aaiaeeoue i?aeoaeno. I’?na aiai?eoue i?i iani?aaaaeeea?noue noni?euenoaa
ii a?aeiioaiith aei ae?iee, nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue. Ae?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?iaeei? aaeaieaoa Oaeueia?a, /aniiai, ?icoiiiai,
ethaey/iai /ieia?ea. Ae?oaeeia Ii?a — aeia?a iao??. I?ioa aiia i??? i?i
oa, uia o i?e oe?ioaaee ethaeeio, a ia ae?ieo. Uia o?yooaaoe
Oaeueia?a, Ii?a i?ae?iaey? i?aeien naiai aaoueea ia aaenae?. Oea —
ia?aae?noi??y, yea o ae?ai? iinooiiai ?ice?eaa?oueny. Ae?y ii/eia?oueny
c oiai, eiee e?aaeeoi? E?ianoaae aeiaaa? o Ii?e, uia ?? /ieia?e
a?aeiiaea eiai ia ?iaio? a aaieo, oaioaaeoth/e ??. Aiia c? caeeaoaaiiyi
ae?cia?oueny, ui cae?enieea cei/ei, caiaeii ?? /ieia?e ae??oo? acyoe
i?iaeio ia naaa. A?i caeioaa/o? Ii?o oae naii, ye ? noni?euenoai, a
iio?i “i?iua?”, i?ioa aaea nai aaciaae?eii iaaea? a ?? i/ao. Ii?aeue
Oaeueia?a i?aaeeueia c oi/ee ci?o noni?euenoaa, aea caaaaea? ?ooo aei
e?auiai iaeaooiueiai. Aioo??oi?e eiioe?eo iieyaa? o oiio, ui ethaeeio a
Ii?? i?ooi ia oio?a iii?/aoe, a aiia ia oi/a aooe “eyeueeith ?
eyeueeiaiio aoaeeieo”. A ?acoeueoao? Ii?a eaea c ?iaeeie, uia nai?e
c’ynoaaoe, ooi aiia ?.

Niaoeeo?ea aa?iy a ae?ai? ?anaia “Ai?ia ia?iaeo”. Ooo aa?ie iieacaiee o
ai?iouea? c noni?euenoaii. Iaia? ai? neeaaeii? ia?aae?noi??, ai?
oa?iieoe?, c iath iia’ycaii?. Aaaeeea? o?eueee ae??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny
ia noeai?. Noieiai, eo?i?oiee e?ea? i?eii?nueeiai i?noa/ea, ae?ciaany
i?i ca?aaeaiiy aiaee, /a?ac ye? oai?? iaaoaathoue iiaeo oai?ia. Ia eiai
/anoue iaoeaioe? i?noa, ui iaieioothoue eiai “ae?oaii ia?iaeo”,
aeaooiaothoue aeaiiino?aoe?th c? niieineeiaie. I?ioa, eiee aiie
ae?ciathoueny, ui i?noi i?iaiaeeoeia ia?aaoaeiao aiaeiaiio ca ?oi?e
?aooiie, oi iaieioothoue eiai “ai?iaii ia?iaeo”. Ca?aaeai? aeaea?aea —
oea neiaie ca?aaeaiino? noni?euenoaa, ui aeyaey?oueny ai?iaeei aei
i?aaaee. Noieiai /eoa? ethaeyi eaeoe?th i?i iiae?e noni?euenoaa ia
“ioaeae?a” (a?enoie?ao?th, iaee?aueo ethaeae, e?aea??a) oa “i?inoeo
in?a” — iaoiai, ui ia caeaoiee ieneeoe. Iiae?e oeae ia nioe?aeueiee, a
aeooiaiee. A?i aaaaea?, ui in?a o?aaa aai aeieueoe, aai ia?aaeoiaaoe.
O iueiai caeeoa?oueny cian?i iaei i?ea?/iee?a. “Iaeneeuei?oa ethaeeia a
na?o? — oa, ui iaea?eueo naiioiy” — oea eiai aeniiaie.

Niaoeeo?ea iaoiaeo a ae?ai? ?anaia “Aeeea ea/ea”.O oe?e i’?n? aaoi?
i?aaia cia?aceoe ieoeeo ethaeae, ieoe? ?ioa?ane, ui oiaathoueny ca
iaoinieie ?a/aie. Ae?aiaoo?a aee?eaa? A?aiaeiaa “ana — aai i?/iai”, ui
iiaea c?oeioaaoe noa?a, aea i?/iai ia aea? iiaiai. Aa?i? i’?ne, noa?ee
Aeaeaeue, eieeoi?e a?enueeiaee oa ieneeaaoeue, oa eiai nei sseia?,
oioia?ao, yeee a?aoa an?i i?i na?e aai?aeueiee aeiao?ae, ao?aoeee
i???iooaaiiy a aeeoo?: ?i iaeaeia i?aoey, ? iianyeaeaiia aeeooy aiie
iaiaaathoueny cai?ieoe a?ith. Ia ai?eu? aiie iathoue “e?n” c? c?oaaieo
yeeiie, oai aeeaooue eo?e oa aeeea ea/ea, ui aoea ii?aiaia ? ia iiaea
e?oaoe. Ooaee aiie oiaeyoue ia “iiethaaiiy”. An? ni?aae a oioia?ao?? ca
sseia?a ?iaeoue ae?oaeeia. Eiee eiai aei/ea /eoa? i?i “ii?nueeo
io/eio”, a ia? aeieeathoue anioe?aoe?? c ai?euai. Eiee A?aaa?n Aa?ea —
ea?eeaoo?ia iiaeiaa A?aiaea — aeiaaa? a?ae sseia?a i/enoeoe eiai aeeooy,
oea i?eaiaeeoue o?eueee aei no?aaeaeaiue. ?noeia ia iiaea aeaoe uanoy
oaeei ethaeyi. ?aeeia ethaeeia, ua ia c?iniaaia i?uainoaii — oea
ae?a/eiea Oaaea?a. Aiia aaeaa? naaa, uia aeiaanoe aaoueeia? ethaia aei
iueiai. I’?na aeeaiei ianei?noe/ia, ethaee a i?e aeaetha?aei?, ?
iaae?e ia i?iaoaeaeaiiy iaia?. Neiaieenee o i’?n? — naia ea/ea, ui
neiaie?co? aeooiaiee ?iciaae aa?i?a, aaaaoi ?oi?o a/eie?a.

Niaoeeo?ea ineoieia?cio Aainoia a ?iiai? “Iai”. Aieiaiee aa?ie —
eaeoaiaio Aeai.Aeeiai?ea nthaeaoo i?eaeecii oaea: 1)Aa?ie ?iciia?aea?
i?i nai? a?aeethaeaey 2 ?iee oiio c niaaeith Aciiii ia i?ai?/iiio
ii?aacueeiio ocaa?aaeae?; 2)Aei inae? aa?iy iio?aieythoue eiia?naio iai
Iae oa eiai aei/ea Aaeaa?aea; aieiaio ?ieue a iien? a?athoue
ineoieia?/i? aeaoae? ia?aaeeaaiue ? ni?eeiyooy aa?iy.3)Iien iiethaaiiy,
?iiaioe/ii? noeo?? ii?y, neiaie — ae?a/eia,aei/ea eiaaey, a a?e?e
oonooe?; 4)Ciiao iien iiethaaiiy, i?e?iaee, aecenoaioe?eiino? /ano,
ieiioiaeii aa?ie ciiao cono??/a? Aaeaa?aeo ?acii c aeieoi?ii i?ae /an
iiethaaiiy; 5)A iaeei ?aiie Aaeaa?aea c aeieoi?ii i?eoiaeyoue aeiaeiio
aei aa?iy, a nai?e cono??/? iaia? i?/iai iniaeeaiai, aea aiia caeeoa? a
aa?i? aeiaaee ne?ae ?icaeoi?a, niiaaae?a ? a?aaeaiue; 6)I?ney o?eaeaiii?
ia?a?ae aa?ie ciiao ?aea ia iiethaaiiy, ciiao noa*?eoeaiee iien e?no oa
i?e?iaee, a ?acoeueoao? a?aaeaiue a?ae yei? oa ?icaeoi?a a?i ae?ooa? aei
N???eoiie aei iaia Iaea; 7)Aa?ie i?iaiaeeoue aa/?? ca a?noii o Iaea;
ineoieia?/iee iien i?enooi?o; 8)Aei aa?iy aeiaeiio i?eoiaeeoue
ae?a/eia-ianoooea Aai???ooa, a?i ia?eia? ??, oi/a aei e?ioey i?/iai ia
ynii — ana ae?aaea?oueny a iai?aoiiao ? ia?aaeeaaiiyo; 9)?iciiaa c
Aaeaa?aeith, a ye?e ci?no aaaeeoue iaaaaaoi iaioa, i?ae ?aia?ee, iien; a
oaeiio aeon? ? oaii? oa?? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ? aeae?.O Aeaia caa*yco?oueny
?iiai c Aaeaa?aeith, aaoi? iaeth? ?iiaioe/i? ea?oeie i?/ieo
iiaa/aiue.Aea iinooiiai ii/oooy Aaeaa?aee oieiia, aiia aaaea c Aeaiii
yeonue a?o, a a iueiai ?aioiai ii/eia?oueny ca*ycie c aei/eith eiaaey
?aith,a?ae yei? a?i ia i?eoiao? naiai caoiieaiiy Aaeaa?aeith.*a?ac
?aaiiu? Aeai i?ino??eth? nia? iiao. Aoaeo/e oai?ei, a?i a?aee?eaa? iia?,
a??o? noi?iie iniaenoino? Aaeaa?aee.A iienao i?iaoeyiie ii e?no
?aaeuei?noue ia?aie?oa?oueny c eaceiaei na?oii, aea ae?thoue aa?i?
Ae?aea??e oa ?cae?ia. Aeai iaiaaa?oueny ii?aaoe c Aaeaa?aeith, aei yei?
caeeoey?oueny o?inueeee aa?ii.?iceo/ath/enue c iath, ae?cia?oueny, ui
?aa ia aei/ea, a ae?oaeeia eiaaey. Aaaaoi oaaae i?enay/aii iieno
neeaaeieo aca?iei Aeaia ? ?ae i?ney oeueiai.Iae ? eiai aei/ea
iaiaaathoueny ?iceo/eoe ?o, c?aooith Iae i?aeiaeth? eiai noi?iaeeo.Aeai
aeaooiao? aeaoo ia neae?, ? eaiaiai aeiaaeeiai aaeaa? ?ao.?? nia?oue
aeeeeea? a aa?iy aeeaieo aeai?an?th.Ia?aoo? a?i ae??oo? ?oaoe; i?ae /an
i?iuaiiy Aaeaa?aea i?ineoue a Aeaia eeoeoe ?e Aciia — iaeaei?iae/a, ui a
iueiai ?, ? a?i aaeaa? eiai ? ia?aaea? ?e o?oi.Neiaie?/ia noeaia
a?ae*?caeo.O nai???aei?e i?neyiia? «Nia?oue Aeaia» iia?aeiiey?oueny, ui
Oiian Aeai iiia? a?ae aeiaaeeiai? eoe? ia iiethaaii? a ?iae??.

Nai???aei?noue aa?i?a oa eiioe?eoo a ae?ai? Aaoioiaia “Oea/?”. I?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??aeo aeey ae?aie Aaoioiai, ui ae??n a i?noeyo, aea
a?aeaoaaeiny iianoaiiy, ?aoaeueii aea/ea ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae,
aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, ui noinoaaany iianoaiiy. O ae?ai? a?aaea?
iaaecae/aeia a cia?aaeaeueiino?. C aace?/? iiae?iaeoeue neeaaea?oueny
ea?oeia iaethaenueei? aenieoaoaoe?? oea/?a. Oaa?eeaio a?oaee c ieie, ?o
iino?eii iaiaiththoue, cieaeothoue ?icoe?iee. Iianoaiiy iiaeia iacaaoe
noeo?eiei, aea ia ? aeiaaeeiaei. Oea/? aa/aoue ?aaeueio ae?eni?noue,
aea oea?eaa ? iie?oe?y ia?aaoaathoue ia neoaea? o aaaao??a. Na?aae
oea/?a ciaoiaeyoueny na?aeii? ethaee, ui caeaoi? aeneiaeoe a?aeiia?aei?
?aea? ? caeeeeaoe oiaa?eo?a aei ae??: oea/ Aaeea? oa ?aa?, ui iiaa?ioany
aei naea c nieaea//eie. “e?ioa aia?oe, i?ae aeeoe ii-noa?iio”. Oea/?
iathoue aa?oaoe?eio i?nith “E?eaaaa ?ici?aaa”, ui aee?eaa? oaa?eeaio?a,
ye? a?nyoueny, /oth/e a i?e nai? ?iaia. Oea/?, iii?e an? iaiaaaiiy
caniiei?oe ?o, ca?eueiythoue ?aa?a, ?oeiothoue aoaeeiie oaa?eeaioa
Ae?aeneaa?a ? ae?ooathoue cao?thaaoe ?io? naea. Neiiao?? Aaoioiaia
iiai?noth ia aioe? ?ia?oiee?a, a?i iieaco? ?oith ai?ioueao ye
ni?aaaaeeeao. Ooaeiaeia oaiaeaioe?y ae?aie iniaeeai a?aeaeaa?oueny a
ai?ciae? c? noa?ei A?eueea, yeee oi/a eeoeoeny inoi?iiue ai?ioueae,
i?iiia?aeo? iiei?o oa o?enoeyinueea oa?i?iiy. Oei /anii c aoeeoe?
aeiaaeeiaa eoey aaeaa? oeueiai i?iiia?aeieea, a oea/? i?iaaiythoue
nieaeao?a. Oea e?iaoeue ae?aie. Aiia iaienaia ia neeacueeiio ae?aeaeo?,
aeaeaeiio a?ae e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, a caoei ia?a?iaeaia. Oea/?
iaiaeii?aciai aoee caai?iiai? i?iaoeueeith oeaico?ith.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ae?aie Aaoioiaia “Iioiieaiee aeca?i”.
Ae?aiaoe/ia eacea a a??oao “Iioiieaiee aeca?i”, iaienaia a 1896 ?ioe?,
aaeaei aeei?enoiao? ia?ace ia?iaeii? iiac??: ooo ae?thoue aiiie oa
aeueoe, e?niaeee oa aiaeyieee, noa?a /aeeoiea A?ooeoa oa thia
i?ae?ania oay ?aooaiaeaeaei. Oea na?o i?e?iaee, a yeiio ana i?e?iaeii ?
a?eueii. A ai?e, aea iaia? caeii?a o?enoeyinueeiai aneaoecio, ethaee
oyaiooue aaaeeee aeca?i, yeee ia? caeeeeaoe aei iiei?e. Aea a??nuee?
aeoce neeaeothoue aeca?i aiec, a ica?i, a iaenoa?-eeaa? Aai??o
c??aaany o i???ao. ?aooaiaeaeaei, ui iiaa/eea ? iiethaeea eiai,
iiaa?oa? iaeno?ia? neee oa iioya aei oai?/ino?. A?i ?icoi??, ui
aecaiie, ui a?i ?iaea ?ai?oa, cao/aee o?eueee a aeieeiao, ? i???
iiaoaeoaaoe o?ai o ai?ao, noai?eoe aeeaio a?o aecaii?a, ui
oneaaethaaee a ia?iaeaeaiiy aeiy ? niioea. Aea Aai??o ia ci?a aei
e?ioey aeio?eiaoeny aenieeo i?aaiaiue, eiio a?aeo? i?oeiino? aeooo: a?i
i?ieeeia? oath, eeaea?oueny iacaae o aeieeio. Eiai ae?oaeeia oiieoueny
a ica??, ae?oe eeoathoueny ne?ioaie, a caoe aecaiio, ui iioiioa a
ica??, a?aaea? eiai noie?iiy. Aai??o iiie?a?. I’?na a?aecia/a?oueny
aenieeie iiaoe/ieie yeinoyie, ?? eiiiiceoe?y /?oea, caniiao?oueny ia
aioeoacao. A oeaio?? ?? — noia?a/ea Aai??oa c ianoi?ii c ieoaiue
na?oiaeyaeo. A??o aeiyoeiai iaeiae?eiee. A noeaiao, ui ciaeueiaothoue
eaceiaee na?o i?e?iaee, aaoi?ii aaeaei aeiaeaeai? oa?aeoa?i?
caoeiiane?aeoaaiiy. Oea neiaie?nonueeee oa?? , eiai ci?no aeaai?e/iee,
aaoi? i?aaia aei oe?ieeo o?einionueeeo ocaaaeueiaiue, noaaeoue i?iaeaio
a?aeiinei i?ae ooaeiaeieeii oa noni?euenoaii. A ia?ac? Aai?eoa cao/eoue
inoae i?oeoaainueei? “iaaeethaeeie”. Aai??o — ethaeeia aeaeaaeaino, a?i
iicaaaeaiee aeooaaii? yniino?, ia caeaoiee neoaeeoe ethaenoao, aea e
na?o ethaeae, i?ioenoaaeaiee Aai??oia?, a?aeooiaoo? nai?th
aocuee?noth, i?uainueeei canoi?i.

Oai?/ee iaoiae O. Aa?ae? a ?iiai? “Oann c ?iaeo ae’A?aa?a?e?a”. A
oeueiio ?iiai? Aa?ae? aeinya aeiyoeiaeo aenio e?eoe/ii? aeoiee.O yeino?
iiceoeaii? aa?i?i? a?i iae?a? i?inoo naeyieo, ui ca??oeea aei
iae?oaeaiiy, iaea iicaoethaio aeeoeio, a?aeiiaeea iicaoethai? noinoiee,
aaeea naiai eioaioey ? aoea no?a/aia ca oea. I?e oeueiio a?i iaceaa? ??
«/enoith ae?ieith».Oea aoa aeeeee on?i iniiaai a?eoi??ainueei? ii?ae?.
Aa?ae? ne?oioeueicii aeine?aeaeo? an? ianoaaeie aeie? Oann, caaaeo? an?
i?e/eie,ia*?eoeai? ? noa*?eoeai?, iioeae ?? a/eie?a,?ice?eaa? aeooo
aa?i?i?, ? noa? ynii, ui aiia, iii?e inoae c aieo noni?euenoaa, ?
/enoith ? aenieiii?aeueiith ethaeeiith,ui ? aeieacii ia ia ei?enoue
noni?euenoaa.Oann ii aaoueeia? iaeaaeeoue aei eieenue iiaooiueiai
?iaeo,aea ?iaeeia ?? aeeaa a aeaoeeaeo ceeaeiyo.Oiio aiia ioneoue
neoaeeoe a aaaao?e ?iaeei?, ui eoieea ?i*y ?? ?iaeo, a?aeaeaoeny oacy?io
Aeaeo. Aoaeo/e caaaeaiith, aiia eaeae c aeiio Aeaea ? ciiao i?aoeth? ia
oa?i?, i?ioa aaiueaa ino? aeeooy ?? n?i*?.Ethaia aei aeaeaioeueiaia —
neia nayuaiieea Aiaeaeaea Eea?a noa? aeey ia? aeaea?aeii
no?aaeaeaiue.Aaaaeath/e nai?i iaia*yceii aooe /aniith c Aiaeaeaeii, aiia
c?cia?oueny eiio, ? a?i, oi/ ? ieoa?oueny nai?i «aieueiiaeoinoaii», ia
iiaea iiai?ioe caaiaiie ? eeaea? Oann.Aieiaeia, an?ia iieeiooa, aiia ana
iaeii ethaeoue Aiaeaeaea ? ia aaaaea? naaa a i?aa? aeeoe ia eiai
a?io?.Oiae? a ?? aeeoo? ciiao c*yaey?oueny Aeae. An? ianoaaeie
noeeythoue ?? aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ca*yceo c iei,? i?ney nia?o? aaoueea aiia
ioneoue i?oe ia oea.Eiee Aiaeaeae iiaa?oa?oueny, aaea cai?cii. Aaeanoai
Aeaena aoei i?iaeeeoiaaia ia i?inoi aaaeaiiyi iiinoeoeny ethaeei?, ui
aea?/? niaiethaeea ?? aeeooy, aai aaaeaiiyi iieacaoe Aiaeaeaeo i??o
naiai eioaiiy, oea i?ioano aea?oae i?ioe iino?eiiai ciouaiiy.A oeueiio
a/eieo ae?aaea?oueny aaaeaiiy Oann iiinoeoeny noni?euenoao ca iino?eia
ianeeuenoai iaae niaith.

I?iaeaiaoeea ? iiaoeea ?iiaio Oaeeaea “Ii?o?ao Aei??aia A?ay”. Oeae
?iiai (1891) aoa caaeoiaiee, ca neiaaie aaoi?a, ye aiioaic ienoaoeoaa,
ui noi?oue iaae aeeooyi, ye a?ii aaaeii?cio.A ia?aaeiia? Oaeeae
aeeeaaea? naith eiioeaioe?th: «ooaeiaeiee — oie, ooi noai?th?
i?ae?ania», «ienoaoeoai — aeca?eaei,ui a?aeaeaa? oiai, ooi a iueiai
aeeaeoeny, a ia aeeooy».Aei??ai A?ae aea?oao? aeooo ca?aaee a?/ii?
iieiaeino? ? e?ane.Cae?enith?oueny eiai i??y: cai?noue iueiai noa???
ii?o?ao, a a?i, iia??eaoe i?iiia?aeyi oeei?ea ei?aea Aai?? i?i
ananeeuei?noue e?ane, a?aeaea?oueny ianieiaeai, iaaeath/e a aaciaeith
?icionoe oa cei/ei?a.Ca aaaaoi ?ie?a a?i ia i?iy?oueny, i?ioa ia
ii?o?ao? a?aeaeaa?oueny eiai a?oaeia a?aoeeaa aeooa.Aei??ai cano?iieth?
a ii?o?ao oie naiee i?ae, yeei a?i oaea ooaeiaeieea Aac?ea, eiai
aaoi?a.? ia i?aeeic? caeeoa?oueny iioai?iee o?oi, a yeiio aaaeei
ai?ciaoe Aei??aia, a ia ii?o?ao? a?i noa? thiei ? i?ae?aniei.?iiai ia ?
?aae?noe/iei, aaoi? ia iaiaaaany noai?eoe aaaaoia?aii? oa?aeoa?e, eiaeai
eiai aa?ie — ao?eaiiy iaei??? ?aea? : Aei??ai — i?aaiaiiy aei a?/ii?
thiino?, ei?ae Aai?? — eoeueo o?einio?? ianieiaee,Aac?e — a?aeaeai?noue
ienoaoeoao.Iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ia ae?yi, a oiie?e a?? ?icoio
ei?aea Aai??, a /e?o ni?eeaeo ia?aaeienao ao?eai? aeoiee naiiai aaoi?a,
? yea a?aaea? oyao Aei??aia. Neiaa aeey Oaeeaea iaaaaaoi aaaeeea?o? ca
oaeoe.Iiaee aaaeii?ci ei?aea Aa?? aeecueeee aei o?einio?? I?oeoa.I?ooi,
e??i Aac?ea, ia iaiaaa?oueny ni?inooaaoe eiai,ia iaaaaeo?oueny ciaaaoeny
c eiai oiieei eieaonoaii ?icoio.A?i an??th aeooath i?ioe
naiiiaiaaeaiiy.Ia?aoai?eaoe Aei??aia ia ia*?eo niinoa?aaeaiiy, a?i
?iaeoue aenia?eiaioe iaae eiai aeooath, iiai?noth i?aeei?thth/e
nia?.Ethaia Aei??aia aei Nea?eee Aaei na?ae/eoue i?i iani?iiiaei?noue
oe??? o?einio??.Aei??ai aeyaeany iacaeaoiei ia cae/aeia ethaenueea
ii/oooy, caeiooth/enue ia a ae?a/eio, a a ienoaoeoai, yeiio aiia
a?aeaeaaaeany,ethaey/e a i?e ?? ?ie?.? a?aeooiaoo? ??, eiee aiia,
noaa?aeaeoth/e, ui ethaia aeua ca ienoaoeoai, noa? c aeo?ene i?inoi
ethaey/ith ae?ieith ? ia?anoa? caeiaoe eiai oyao.Aei??ai aaaaea?, ui
iiaia naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie iiaeeeaa o?eueee a ienoaoeoa?. Nai? aeeooy
a?i i??? ia?aoai?eoe ia iaea?eueoa ienoaoeoai, ethaeoue naaa iiiaae ona
? ia i?eeo?oueny i?i ?ioeo.Nea?eea — ia?oa aea?oaa, aiia e?i/a? aeeooy
naiiaoanoaii, ui a?i aaaaea? aai?noe/iei a/eieii. Ae?oaeaa c Aei??aiii
aeyaey?oueny caoaiith,a?i ca?aaeo? an?o aeaaeiaith ianieiaee, ? ethaee
aai e?i/athoue aeeooy naiiaoanoaii, aai nei/othoueny ia aeii. A?i ciooo?
nia?noue caiiaeiooe, aeey iueiai ieoe?noue oa cei/eie — eeoa
iine?aeiai?noue aeeaiaeaeieo ia?aaeeaaiue, i?ney yeeo a?i caio?th?oueny
a aoiinoa?o ienoaoeoaa. Aaeaoe Aac?ea, a?i a?aeaea?oueny /eoaiith
a??o?a.Ii/a?aiai a?i a?aeaea?oueny ??ciei aeaeai ienoaoeoaa, aeaaiyth/e
c iueiai ana ethaenueea.Oaeeae oio?a oneaaeoe aa?iy, ui i?ei?n aeooo a
aea?oao e?an? oa ienoaoeoao, aea ooaeiaeiy i?aaaea aeyaeeany
neeuei?oith.A?i iieacaa, ui Aei??ai caa?oieany, ui e?ana, iicaaaeaia
ethaeyiino? , noa? iioai?i?noth.Iaiaaath/enue oaeoe naith i?eno?anoue,
a?i aaeaa? naaa.A eiai aeie? ?ice?eoa o?aaaae?y ?aaeueii? noia?a/iino?:
ianieiaea, ui noaea naiioe?eeth,ii?iaeaeo? ia ?aae?noue, a ioee.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ae?aie Oio “I?ioan?y i?n?n Oi??ai”. Oey i*?na
aoea caai?iiaia oeaico?ith ye «aioeii?aeueia».Aa?i?iy — i?n?n Oi??ai,
eieeoiy i?inoeoooea, noaea oacyeeith ioae?/ieo aoaeeie?a a iaea?eueoeo
i?noao ?a?iie.I?i oa, yeei /eiii aiia ca?iaeea a?io?, iaei ooi cia?, a
aaaaonoai aea? ?e iiaeeea?noue noaoe oaiiaaiith a aiae?enueeiio
noni?euenoa?.I?e/eie ?? eieeoiueiai iaae?iiy — iaaaaeaiiy iiaoi?eoe
aeeoo?aee oeyo nai?? ceeaeaiii? ?iaeeie — ?ice?eaathoueny Oio ye oe?eeii
ii?iaeuei? a oiiaao ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa.Ni?eea?noue aee?eooy
iieyaa? ia o?eueee a oiio, ui aa?i?iath ? oaea ethaeeia: an??th eia?eith
?icaeoeo ae?? oa oa?aeoa??a ae?eiaeo in?a a?i aeiaiaeeoue aeoieo i?i oa,
ui aiia i?/ei ia a??oa ca ?aooo /eai?a noni?euenoaa. ? yeui ?? iiaeia
aei?aaaeaoe, oi ?ioeo — ?? eiiiaiueeiia E?ioona c ?aeaieia??th
?aaioi?aiaoey, O?aiea Aa?aea?iaa, ui aaaea ia?aceoe/iee niin?a aeeooy,
a?o?oaeoi?a I?aaea, aaeaeoaeiai aei anueiai a na?o?, e??i naiai
ienoaoeoaa, ianoi?a Aa?aeiaia, oi ia?ii iaiaaa?oueny aeeeeeaoe a on?o
iiaaao — aae i?ye.C oeei?/iith a?aeaa?o?noth i?i aeaea?aea i?eaooe?a
ao?aeoac?? aiai?eoue E?ioon, a?enoie?ao ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, ui aeeaa ia
i?eaooee c ai?aeae?a. Iniiaiee eiioe?eo i*?ne iieyaa? a c?oeiaii? i?n?n
Oi??ai, ?? iiaeyae?a ia aeeooy, c iiaeyaeaie ?? aei/ee A?a?, yea
io?eiaea aeoiaaiiy a cae?eoiio iain?ii? ? iinaeeeany a aeii? iaoa??. ?e
noa? a?aeiia ?? oa?iieoey, ? aiia, /ania ? i?yiie?i?eia, ia iiaea
ie?eoeny c oeei a?oaeii, ae??oo? ia iaoe i?/iai ni?eueiiai c iao??*th.
Eeioaoe ae?i, aiia ii/eia? naiino?eia aeeooy, i?aoethth/e a eiioi??,
a?aee?eo?e ia aeani? eiooe. Ia?ac A?a? — ia?oa ni?iaa Oio noai?eoe
ia?ac iiceoeaiiai aa?iy, ui i?ioenoi?oue ?icioniiio na?oo ?ic?aooieo oa
iaaeeae.?? oaa?acee i?aeoe/iee ?icoi oa aia?a?y ooeathoue canoinoaaiiy a
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio Oaeena “Iaoeia /ano”. I?iaeaia
iaaeineiiaeino? na?oiono?ith iinoaaeaia a ia?oiio ?iiai? Oaeena «Iaoeia
/ano». Oeae oa?? i?ei?n aaoi?ia? ieoo?aee ooiiee oni?o, ui iiynith?oueny
ia o?eueee nai???aei?noth eiai oi?ie, a ia?aaeon?i aeooaeuei?noth
ci?noo. ?iiai i?noeoue aeooaeuei? aeaiaioe aiioe, iaaaaeo? i?i e?e/ou?
noia?a/iino? ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa.*an ae?? ?iiaio a?aeianaiee a
aeaeaea iaeaooi? — a aeaa*yoa oeny/ie?ooy iaoi? a?e. Aa?ie, a?ae iniae
yeiai aaaeaoueny iiia?aeue, cae?enith? iacae/aeio i?eaiaeo — iie?o o
/an?: a?i ia?ai?uo?oueny c oaia??oiueiai a iaeaooi?. I?ae /an iieueioo
a?i iaeth? o i??yo ea?oeie aeeooy ethaeae oeueiai aeaeaeiai
iaeaooiueiai.I?ioa iiaa/ea a?i cian?i ?ioo ea?oeio. Ethaee iaeaooiueiai
?icae?eai? ia aeaa oaai?e, ui ai?iaothoue. Ia iiaa?oi? caie? aeeaooue
iaeaiuee?, eaae?, a?aoe?ei? ?noioe — aei?, aiie aaaeooue aacaeoiia
?nioaaiiy, ia caeiath/enue i?/ie. Aei? ei?enoothoueny an?ia aeaaaie
aeeooy. A a oeae /anee /an aeeaiei i?ae caieath i?aoeththoue
iaaiiiiae?ai? ?noioe — ia?eiee. Aiie aaaeaeathoue na? nai? neee aeiyi,
caaacia/oth/e ?oi?e eiioi?o, a ieioeiio aiie oaae aeeee ia caie? ? aoee
neoaaie aei?a, a oaia? ?o aeo?nieee i?ae caieth.Oai aiie i?iaeiaaeothoue
o?oaeeoeny, ao?aoeaoe noiae?noue ?c ethaeueie, ao?aoeaoe ?icoi ?
c??.Aei? oaeiae ia ? iiae?aieie ia ethaeae, caeaaea/e a?ae ia?eie?a,
ye?, aee?cath/e ii ii/ao c ae??, oa?/othoueny e?ia*th aei?a.A?aeiineie
?oi? — oi aeiaaaeai? aei iaae? nioe?aeuei? noia?a/iino? i?ae
aenieoaoaoi?aie oa aenieoaoiaaieie. I?i iaiao?aei?noue nioe?aeueii?
ai?ioueae ia eaeaoueny.Ui ae /aea? ethaenoai a iaeaooiueiio? Iaaaea naia
aeiyie ? ia?eieaie eiio noaeeoueny noaoe? Oaeen aaaaea?, ui oae. ?iiai
ia i?noeoue aeiaeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, a?i
ianei?noe/iee.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio Ia?ea Oaaia “ssie? i?e aeai?? ei?iey
A?oo?a”. Ia?e Oaai ae?acea o nai?e oai?/ino? ye neeuei?, oae ? neaae?
noi?iie na?aeiiino? naiai ia?iaeo: eiai ?aaiethoe?eio aia?a?th oa
oai?aoe/io aaciii?/i?noue, eiai aeaaeiao ?ioiai aeeooy oa ?ethc??
a?aeiinii aia?eeainueei? aeaiie?ao??, a oaeiae ?ethc?? uiaei ia?aaaa
Aia?eee ia?aae ?a?iiith. Oea ana iieacaia a ?noi?eei-oaioanoe/iiio
?iiai? «ssie? i?e aeai?? ei?iey A?oo?a» (1889)Oea ?iiai i?aeoi ia ia?
i?/iai ni?eueiiai c ae?eni?noth. Aa?ie — iaenoa?-ca?iy? O?O noie?ooy a
a?eoe? io?eio? oaea? ii aieia?, a i?eoiaeeoue aei oyie a Aiae?? 6
noie?ooy ? iio?aiey? aei aeai?o ei?iey A?oo?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
iai?iiaioee?a, ui ?aeaae?coaaee na?aaeiueia?//y, Oaai caeioaa/o?
oaiaeae?ci, 6 noie?ooy iinoa? a ?iiai? ye iaioaaiiy aei?noieeo
oaiaeae?a, oea?eiaiee?a, aiioa aeaoeeai? aenieoaoaoe??. ssie? /aniee oa
aacei?eneeaee, ica?i?iee ciaiiyie ethaeeie O?O noie?ooy, a?i eeaea?
aeeeee na?aaeiueia?//th, a?aeaeath/e an? ciaiiy oaoi?/iiio oa
eoeueoo?iiio i?ia?ano e?a?ie. Aeaea? aacaoe,aoaeo? oaa?eee, i?iaiaeeoue
oaeaoii, ciooo? iaiae??aieo ?eoea??a ?aeeaioaaoe ieei oa aaeineiaaee.
Iaeiie/eaoe neee, cao?ooaaaoe iieiaeue, a?i cieuo? oaiaeae?a, aea a
ai?iouea? c oea?eaith cacia? ii?acee: /a??aiee Ia?e?i caio?th? eiai o
nii ia 13 noie?oue. Ia?e Oaai ciiao aenoaa? i?iaeaio iiceoeaiiai aa?iy,
oi/ ? a oaioanoe/i?e oi?i?. A ?iiai? i?ioyaiooa ieoea a?ae Aiae?? aei
no/anii? Aia?eee, oi/a aia?eeainueea ae?eni?noue io?eio? eeoa iia?/ia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy.Iaoye ia oa, ui aia?eeainueea ?anioae?ea canoa??ea, ui
aia?eeainueea eiiaoeoooe?y aaea ia ? oaeith aeaiie?aoe/iith.

AEai?iaa nai???aei?noue ?iiaio Ia?ea Oaaia “I?eaiaee Aaeeaa??? O?iia”.
?iiai «I?eaiaee Aaeeaa??? O?iia» (1884) aaaaea?oueny iaee?auei oai?ii
ienueiaiieea. O iueiio Oaai iiaa?oa?oueny a ieioea, aei 50-o ?ie?a,
naaoi aeiai?iiiai ia??iaeo, aea aeiai?iia Aia?eea aaea ia ia?
?aeee?/ieo, ye o «Oii? Nie???», ea?oei, i?iy?oueny oaiaoeea ? aa?i?.Ia
ci?io aeeoy/ei caaaaai i?eoiaeeoue ni?aaaei? aeeooy.Aa?i?i noa? ne?ioa,
oeii/ee c aoeeoe? Aae O?ii.sseae a?i caeeoaany a aeii? aaeiae Aeoaean,
a?i ia noaa ae aoee/iei aieioethaith, caoa ia noaa ae ? ethaeeiith.A?i
ia?iaeaeaiee aeey a?eueiiai aeeooy, ia aeo?eio? i?uainueeiai
?nioaaiiy.Aae iieieany ia ieioo c ao?ea/ai-?aaii Aeaeeiii.Aaoi? aeeaiei
? i?aaaeeai ?ice?eaa? aioo??oith ai?ioueao, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a Aaeo ye
ni?aaaeiueiio iaoeaioeth i?aaeaiieo ooao?a. ?ae?a?y oa caaiaiie
iaeacothoue Aaeo aeaeaoe Aeaeeia, aea ia?aiaaa? aioo??oiy oeyoaoi?noue,
i?e?iaeia aeia?ioa, ? a?i noa? caoenieeii ?aaa.A?i ?yoo? Aeaeeia,
?eceeoth/e ao?aoeoe naith naiaiaeo.I?ioyaii eieae a?ae/ooia aeooiaia
aeeiai?ea ia?aco, eiai c?inoaiiy.Ia?ac Aaea iiiaeoee aeeaieith
ethaeyi?noth, a?i aeia?ee, i?inoiaeooiee, aacei?eneeaee.Oae? nai? yeino?
iayai? a iaa?a Aeaeeia, aeii?ioth/ith ?enith yeiai ? ethaia aei
aie?.Noioth/e ca ?iaeeiith, Aeaeei aia?oi i?iae?a?ueny aei a?eueieo
ooao?a.?aanoai ia aaeei a iueiio iaee?auec ethaenueeeo ii/ooo?a, a?i
caa??a ethaenueeo a?aei?noue ? oi/a aooe aeey Aaea oiaa?eoai.?ieiee a?i
iaa?oue i?aei?ia?oueny iaae Aaeii, a/eoue eiai. Ia?ace Aeaeeia ? Aaea
aca?iii aeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeiiai, aiaeii/an ?oiy ae?oaeaa — neiaie
?aeiaiiy a?eiai ? /i?iiai.Oe? ethaee aeic??ee aei oaeiai nithco, ai
caaoee i?i nai? aeani? ?ioa?ane ca?aaee ni?eueiiai.A ?iiai? Aae o?eueee
anooia? a aeeooy.Ca aeai?iaeie iniaeeainoyie «Aae O?ii» ? ?iiaiii i?i
iiaei?iae.Aa?i? ieeaooue aaeeeith ??eith I?nn?n?i?, ? oea aeiacaiey?
iieacaoe anth Aia?eeo c ?? aaiaei i?ia?ioe?eiei aeeooyi, aei?noieeie
ii?aeueieie i?aaeeaie. Oaai noai?th? ia?ac i?ia?ioe?eiiai i?noa,
iiaa/aiee i/eia Aaea. Na?o, ui ioi/o? aa?i?a, a?aeiee,a?oaee,
aei?noieee, ae?oc? i?aea ia iiaeooue ciaeoe ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ? o?eueee
ia nai?io ieioo aiie ii/oaathoueny a?eueieie ? uaneeaeie. Ia ie?o
iio?aieythoue aeai? aaaioth?eno?a, «ei?ieue» ? «aa?oeia» — iaea??o?
iin?? aia?eeainueei? ii?ae?, ? iaa?oue ooo Aae ? Aeaeei ionyoue
ai?ioeny. Neiaie?/ieie ? iiooee Ea??a, ui oiniaeth? a?eueia aeeooy —
aiie oae ? ia ciaoiaeyoue eiai, a?i eeoa?oueny a ooiai?. E??i aeeaieiai
ineoieia?cio, iaenoa?iino? o ?ice?eoo? oa?aeoa??a ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
/oaeiao eiiiiceoe?eio iiaoaeiao ?iiaio.A?i iaienaiee a?ae ia?oi? iniae,
ui aeicaiey? aeeaiei cace?iooe a aeooo i?aee?oea, ia?aaeaoe ia?ai?noue,
a?aeaa?o?noue aeeoy/i? aeoo?.

Nai???aei?noue ineoieia?cio a ?iiai? A. Aeaeaeina “Aeaec? I?eea?”.
Aieiaiee aa?ie — aia?eeaiaoeue O?ioa?ai?i, ui i?e?aeaeaea? aei
iaeaiueeiai i?noa/ea Aaaa a Oaaeoea??? c AEaiaae, aea aeeaa aaaaoi
?ie?a, uia iiaa/eoe naith o?oeo. Ooo a?i aeiaaeeiai ciaeiieoueny c
oeii/eeii ?aiaeieoii I?eea?ii oa eiai nano?ith, e?anoiath Aeaec?.Aiia
iaaecae/aeii aeoeaia ? eiioi?eaaaeueia, ? oea, iii?e anth neiiao?th ?
iioya aei ia?, ciooo? O?ioa?ai?ia caaeoiaoeny. Aiie caeeaeothoueny, ?
a?i ciaeiieoue Aeaec? c? nai?th o?oeith i?n?n Einoaeei, yea canoaeaeo?
ae?a/eio ca ?? iaia?e. Aiia ciaeiieoue eiai c iao??*th, aiie aaaaoi /ano
i?iaiaeyoue ?acii.Caiaeii aiie cono??/athoueny ciiao aaea i?ae /an
ii?caeee Aeaec? aei ?eio, ? Aeaec? aaea aac oyie caeioaia a ?oae?eoey
Aeaeiaaiaee?.A?i ? eiai ciaeiia i?n?n Oiea? aeoiathoue, ye ae
ia?aoeiaeeoe oeueiio ca*yceo.Oea, a oaeiae niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
?icai?oaiiyi ?iiaio Aeaec? ? Aeaeiaaiaee?, caeia? ana eiai aeeooy.I?ae
/an i?/ii? i?iaoeyiee aiie noeeathoueny an? ao?ueio eiei Eie?cath, ?
i?ney oiai Aeaec? caiaaeoaeo?. Iaaaeiac? aiia iiie?a?; Aeaeiaaiaee? a?ae
ii/aoeo ?? oai?iae ia?anoa? ?? a?aea?aeoaaoe.O?eueee i?ney ?? nia?o?
O?ioa?ai?i ae?cia?oueny, ui aiia iani?aaae? ethaeea eiai. AEeooy
iiaa?oa?oueny a nai? ??/eua aac iniaeeaeo ci?i. A /iio ineoieia?ci, ia
oyaeyth (i?ney i?i/eoaiiy).

Nai???aei?noue aa?iy a ?iiai? Aeaeaea Eiiaeiia “Ia?o?i ?aeai”.

“I?ai?/i? iiia?aeaiiy” Aeaeaea Eiiaeiia. Ii/aoie oai?/iai oeyoo Eiiaeiia
iia’ycaiee c ?iiaioeeith I?aii/? a eiai ca??eao “i?ai?/ieo iiia?aeaiue”
— “Nei aiaea” (1900), “Aia eiai aaouee?a” (1901), “Ae?oe ii?ica”(1902)
oiui. AEeooy ca iiey?iei eieii, aea ethaee oe?ioaaeeny ca ioaei?noue,
aacei?eneea?noue, a?aeaeai?noue o ae?oaea?, a??i?noue noai?thaaei
oaeeo aa?i?a, ye Iacii, Iaeei’tho E?ae, N?oea *a?e?, Iannoe oiui. A
iiia?aeaii? “A?ea aaciia’y” neeuei? aeooii, oeyoaoi? ethaee iieacai? ia
oii? noai?i? aaee/? I?aii/?, ? a iaeo?aa?/i?oee iiiaio ae?thoue ye
/ieia?ee: Iaeei’tho E?ae aeiaeaa? naiai ae?oaa, a?ae/oaath/e
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca eiai ae?oaeeio, ? ?yoo?oueny nai. Eiiaeii
aenooia? ye /oaeiaee iaenoa? iaecaaeo, ni?aaaei?e iiao I?aii/?. Aea
ethaeeia a Eiiaeiia — i?eai?eoaa/ I?aii/?, ? ethaia aei ethaeeie,
ai?ae?noue ca ia? — eaeoiioea eiai iiia?aeaiue “Ethaia aei aeeooy”,
“Ioaei?noue ae?iee”. A iiia?aeaii? “?noi??y Aeaeen-Oe” a?eee /ieia?e
iae?a? i?ae aia?eeaieith oa ?iae?yieith, ui ii?yooaaea eiio aeeooy.
Iiaa?ioaoeny aei Aia?eee, I?ee Aiiia? noa? i?uaieiii, eiai ciiao
i?aeei?th? noni?euenoai, ? a?i a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae aeaai?iaeii?
ae?iee, ui eiai a?yooaaea. ? a Eiiaeiia ? aa?i?, yeeo aeaia ia I?ai?/
aeaaeiaa a?ioae — aiie ia?aaaaeii caciathoue ii?acee ? caaeaathoue.
Iiaoecaoe?y neeueii? ? iacaeaaeii? iniaenoino? i?ecaiaeeoue aaoi?a aei
?aeaae?caoe?? aaaioth?eno?a-ae?ee?a. A oeueiio i?iyaey?oueny aieea
i?oeoaainoaa.

Aiae?c iiia?aeaiiy Ia?ea Oaaia (ca aeaniei aeai?ii).

Aiae?c iiia?aeaiiy E?ie?iaa (ca aeai?ii).

Aiae?c a??oa E?ie?iaa “Aaeaaea i?i Cao?ae ? No?ae”.

Aiae?c a??o?a Aa?oa?ia “Noa?iaeii? iaeno?e” oa “*enea”.

Aiae?c a??oa ?aiai “I’yiee ei?aaaeue”.

Aiae?c a??o?a Aa?eaia “In?iiy i?niy” oa “Ienoaoeoai iiac??”.

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