?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oe?eueii? ina?oe. Iaoeia? ciaiiy

Oe?eueia ina?oa. Aeieeiaiiy oa iioe?aiiy ienaiiino? ni?eyee oaeaeeiio
?icaeoeia? ina?oe, iaoee e acaaae? eoeueoo?e ia ?on?. Iniaeeai iiceoeaii
oeae aieea iicia/eany ia i?ioeanao iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oe?eueii?
ni?aae. Na?ae/aiue i?i iioe?aiiy ina?oe ia ?on? a aeio?enoeyinuee? /ane
ie ia ia?ii. A io a?aeiiinoae i?i oa, ui o ian aoee a o? /ane ienaii?
ethaee, ia?ii iaiaei. Oea cana?ae/othoue oeeaaeai? aeiaiai?e
oe?a?inueeeo eiyc?a, ??ci? iaiene ia i?aaeiaoao iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e,
caaaeee aaoi??a a?caio?enueeeo, ?einueeeo oa ?ioeo o?ii?e. Ienueii ?
eieaeea a o? /ane ia aoee /eiinue iaaa/aiei. Eiyc? oa aeu? noaie ?on?
aeaaaee ina?oo nai?i ae?oyi ca ei?aeiiii, caeaa?eueoiai ia?aeii? iaae/ee
ina?oe caeiaoaaee naiiooaeee (iniaeeai uiaei /eoaiiy).

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa aeoea?coaaei i?ioeane iioe?aiiy ina?oe,
ni?e/eieei i?aai?caoe?th oa ?icaeoie oe?eueii? ni?aae.

Ianoaaeie oiai /ano oa iio?aae aeeooy aeiaaaee iaaiiai ciaiiy, ai
ina?/ai? ethaee aoee iio??ai? e aeey oea?eae, e aeey aea?aeaae, aeey
cai?uaiiy oea?eiaieo o?yae?a oa ??cieo iinaae aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy oe?ieeo oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a, aaaeaiiy
aaeeeeo ainiiaea?noa o aiy?nueeeo ia?oeao oa ?i.

Ao?oeeaa iaeaoei-, o?aiiaoae?aieoeoai, ui ?icai?ioeiny i?ney
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa, aeiaaaei aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo
iaeno??a-ooaeiaeiee?a aeey ?o icaeiaeaiiy, ni?aae?a aeey oea?eiaieo
a?aei?aa. Oiio ie??i caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e ia ?on? ii/aee noai?thaaoe
ie?ai? oeiee ni?ao, iaey?noaa, ??cueay?noaa, aooieoeoaa, ooaeiaeiueiai
eiaaeuenoaa oiui.

O iiaicaoaeiaai?e Nio?? Ee?anuee?e ss?ineaa ?ieo 1037 noai?th? oeieo,
yea i?iaeiaaeoth/e e?au? o?aaeeoe?? Aieiaeeie?iai? oa a?caio?enueeeo
oe?e, aoea ii noo? aaea oeieith iiaiai oeio. Oea ia?oee a?o/eciyiee
aeuee iaa/aeueiee caeeaae, yeee c’yaeany, aei ?a/?, ia noie?ooy ?ai?oa,
i?ae ia?o? aoce Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. ??aaiue ciaiue, ui ?o iaea?aeoaaee ooo
ae?oe, aoa ia ieae/ei ca a?caio?enuee? aeu? oeiee. A/eeeny o oe?e oeie?
ae?oe iaeaeui? ciao? ?on?: iaeaooi?e ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii, iinaaeieee
Ino?iie? oa ?aoeai?, eiaeeo?eaoi?e (o?, ui caiaeeee a ?aeeia oe?ea
eiaeaene “?onueei? i?aaaee”) Einiy/ei e Ieeeoi? Eeyiei, ae?oe naiiai
ss?ineaaa, c aeanyoie oeyoaoieo ?iicaioe?a – i?aoaiaeaio?a ia ei?iie
ei?ie?a. Ca aeayeeie a?aeiiinoyie, a ??ci? /ane a oeie? ss?ineaaa
iaa/aeeny ae?oe aiae?enueeiai ei?iey Aaeioiaea Cae?ciiaieiai, oai?nueeee
ei?ieaae/ Aiae??e, ianooiiee aeaonueeiai i?anoieo Aa?iai, ii?aacueeee
eiioia Aa?aeueae, nei ii?aacueeiai ei?iey Ieao oa ?io? ?iicaioe?.

sse? ae iaoee aea/aee o oe?e aenie?e oeie?? E?oiien iaceaa? ii?yae c
aiaineia’yi o?einio?th, ?eoi?eeo, a?aiaoeeo, ?noi??th, a?aoeueeo iiao,
aeneiaethaaiiy aioe/ieo aaoi??a, aaia?ao?th oa i?e?iaeie/? iaoee. C ??
no?i aeeoei aaaaoi ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

I?ney nia?o? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai oeiee noai?thaaee i?e ?ieneiinueeeo
ina?aaeeao aeey i?aeaioiaee aeoo?aieoeoaa. O ieo o/eee iaaeeai /eoaiiy,
ienaiiy, oea?eiaiiai ni?ao, iniia a??e e ii?ae?, iio??aieo aeey
nayuaiee?a. Ii ia?ao?yo, i?e oea?eaao, ?nioaaee oeiee ii/aoeiai? ina?oe
aeey ae?oae i?inoeo ethaeae.

I?ioeane iioe?aiiy ina?oe ia ?on? iaee nai? iniaeeaino?. Iaeaieiai?oith
c ieo aoea oa, ui aei ina?oe i?eeo/aeeny, iiaiiaoaaee ?? ae?oe ia eeoa
/ieia?/i? noao?.

Aaaaoi ei?eniiai o ni?aao ?icaeoeo ina?oe ai?n Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeee
iiianoe?. Aaea a O? no. ooo aeieea? oeaio? i?aeaioiaee aeuiai
aeooiaainoaa, ooaeiaeiee?a, e?ea??a, eae?a?ao?no?a, ia?aeeaaea/?a.
O?eueee aei oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeiai iaoanoy c? no?i iiianoe?y aeeoei
iiiaae 80 ?ieneii?a. Ooo c’yaeany ? iaaoa naiai ?icaeoeo oaiiiai
e?oiienaiiy. O oeueiio iiianoe?? i?aoethaaee a?aeii? e?oiienoe? Ianoi?,
Ieeii, Neeueaano?; o O?? no. aoa neeaaeaiee “Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeee iaoa?ee”
– aecia/iee oa??, ?noi?e/iee ia?a?noie Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Ie??i a?aiioe o aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa – ai?iiy /eoaoe e
ienaoe – ia ?on? aeia?a ciaee e a?eoiaoeeo. Ciaiiy ?? caeiaoaaee a oeeo
aea oeieao. E?oiien aeii?n aei ian oaeee oe?eaaee i?eeeaae:
iiaai?iaenueeee aeeyeii Ee?ee ?ieo 1136 ia/eneea, ne?eueee aei?a ieioei
a?ae noai?aiiy na?oo 29 120 652. A “?onuee?e i?aaae?” iiaeaaaeeny
ia?aooiee i?eieiaeo ooaeiae ia nioi? oeny/. Ie??i ciaiiy /ioe?ueio
i?aaee a?eoiaoeee, ia ?on? ciaee oiae? e ae?iae oa ei?enooaaeeny ieie
i?e iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ia?aooieao.

A?o/eciyi? i?ea?iaeuei? iaoeia? aeine?aee a oo ii?o ?icii/eiaeeny, ye
i?aaeei, a oaeeo ae?eyieao iaoee, yeeie A?caio?y ia oe?eaaeeany e
iiaa?oiai. Oiio iao? i?aaeee ii/aee nai? iiaeoe i?i naaa. Ni?iao oeueiai
aa/eii aaea ia ia?oeo noi??ieao ciaeaeaiiai e?oiieno. E?oiienaoeue
oe?iei caeia?oueny ?noi???th ethaenoaa a?ae noai?aiiy na?oo e aei
a?aeiiinoae, ye? a?i ii/a?iioa c A?ae?? oa a?aoeueeeo aeaea?ae, aeiaea?
na?e aeeeaae i?i iioiaeaeaiiy neia’yi, ?oith iiao, aoiia?ao?/io
i?eiaeaaei?noue, ?oith iaiae??aeo oa iieno? cae/a? ieaiai, ui iaeaaeaee
aei Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae.

Oni?oii ?icaeaaeany ?noi?e/ia iaoea. Ia c?acie ?noi?e/ieo o?ii?e
A?caio?? ?ic?iaeyeany e oiae?oiy ?noi??ia?ao?y, ui caeiaeany ?noi???th
iaoi? aea?aeaae, iaoa e?oiienaiiy.

Iaenoa??oee neia’yinueeee i?aaiaee eiaeaen O?-O?? no. – “?onueea
i?aaaea” – na?ae/eoue i?i aeiaaie?oith eiai i?aeaioiaeo e ii??aiyeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?caio?enueeiai, cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai oa aeaniiai,
aeaaiueioe?a?inueeiai, cae/a?aiai i?aaa. Oey ca??ea caeii?a eiycy
ss?ineaaa oa eiai ianooiiee?a eyaea a iniiao Eeoianueeiai noaoooo ?
caeiiiaeaanoaa aaoueiainueei? aeiae. Aiia oe?eaaa ua e nai?th iaeaea
/enoith no?aeiineia’yinueeith iiaith, aac oea?eiaiineia’yinueeeo
aeaiaio?a, i?ici?ith aoaeiaith ?a/aiue oa neiaieeii nueiaiaei? aaea ia
aaeeaaieo ne?a-oa?i?i?a.

Ie?aii a?ae ?ioeo iaoe aa?oi caaaeaoe iaaeeoeeio. Ia?oeie e?ea?yie ia
?on? aoee ai?iaeaeoe ? ciaoa??, on?eye? “a?uoie” oa “/oaeanieee” –
/ieia?ee e ae?iee. E?eoaaee caiiaeyiiyie ? caeeeiaiiyie. ?nioaaea ioaea
nai???aeia iaaeeoeeia, yea, ie??i ??cieo cae, ianoae, ii?ioe?a oiui,
ia?aaeaa/aea oaeiae aiaeie?eoaaiiy, oa?iioa?ai?th (iaa??aaiiy,
i?ia??aaiiy o?ea, eiai ioieiaeaeaiiy) oiui. Iiiaeeiie? caaaeee ia?ii i?i
o??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy aei i?aai?cio oai?iai.

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