Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a OO no.

Ieai

1. Iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy aeiae a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? (1917-1920 ??.).

2. ?aaeyinueeee aoai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e (1921-1991??.).

3. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e a aeiao ?icaoaeiae
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie (1991–? aei iaoiai /ano).

Iniiai? oa?i?ie oaie: iiaea?i?ci, noeeue, neiaie, o?aai?caoe?y,
aaaiaa?aeeci, a?aath?a, ooieoe?iiae?ci, ooaeiaeiy iiaa, ianiaa
eoeueoo?a, iiaea?i, e?o/, a?ao?ea, aeeaeoeci, aeai?, ?aae?ci,
e?iiienoaoeoai.

I?iaeaiia neooaoe?y.

OO noie?ooy ye iia?oi?e ia??iae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a, eiaeai ?c ieo iaa nai?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo, i?aeeiie ? niaaee. A oeae /an oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a ?icaeaaeany a neeaaeieo oiiaao, ?? iinooi iaa caeaa?eueoiai
noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?. ?iia?nuee? oa oioae?oa?i? ?aaeeie aeiiii?/ii,
nioe?aeueii, ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii ni?eyee iioe?aiith eiiieaeno
eoeueoo?ii? iaiiaiioe?iiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? aai aaciina?aaeiuei
?oeioaaee ?? eoeueoo?i? no?oeoo?e. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a, aeeea ? ?icaeaaeanue, ioaei?ea ? caaaa/oaaeanue, canaithaaea
iaaooee eoeueoo? ?ioeo ia?iae?a, iiaiith i??ith ae?aaeath/e aeaniee
aeooiaiee na?o, caeiaooee oe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a o OO no. o aaeoc?
e?oa?aoo?e, ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa, aeinyaiaiiy a/aieo ? aaaiieie ?
i?ea?iaeueieie.

Ui caaacia/eei i?oei?noue, o?eae?noue, neeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a
oiiaao oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio? sse? oaiaeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? iaee i?noea o OO
noie?oo?, cie?aia o 20-30-o? ??, 50-60-o? ??, 70-80-o? ??.? sse iiaeia
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe no/aniee noai eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i??

1. Iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy aeiae a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? (1917-1920 ??.).

A oeae ia??iae iinooi oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a?aeaoaaany a ia??iae
aino?iai a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue, a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie, i?ioa a oeae /an aoei noai?aii
i?eioeeiiai iia? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e.

Ii/aoie OO noie?ooy a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeoea?caoe??th
?aaiethoe?eiiai i?ioeano. A Oe?a?io oe?ieei iioieii aoiaeeee ia?aaeia?
?aea? iaoeiai? ? o?einionueei? aeoiee. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?aea? ana aeeaoa
i?iieeathoue o ia?iaei? iane, ?oeioth/e no?io, yea aei oiai ?icae?eyea
?ioae?aaio?a-iao??io?a ? ia?iae. A aaeoc? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e oea
ia??iae ie?aeiiai ?icaeoeo iaoee, ina?oe, e?oa?aoo?e, ienoaoeoaa,
ia??iae ae?yeueiino? oaeeo ei?eoa?a, ye ?. O?aiei, I.A?ooaanueeee, A.
Aa?iaaenueeee oa ?i.

?aaiethoe?y 1905 ?ieo a ?in?? i?aeooiaoioea iie?oe/iee ?oo: c
?aaiethoe?eii? oe?a?inueei? ia?o?? aeae?eeeenue Oe?a?inueea
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y, ui aeiiaaaeanue aaoiiii?? ?c naeiii o
Ee?a?, oa Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeia ia?o?y. Oiae? ae ooai?eeanue Oe?a?inueea
?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y. O Aeoi? noi?ioaaeanue oe?a?inueea
ia?eaiaionueea a?iiaaea, aenoaaeenue i?iaeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoiiii??,
naiia?yaeoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? oeiee oa noaeo. Iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue
oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y aaaaeaea iioe?aiiy ina?oe oe?a?inueeith
iiaith. Ia no?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo eeoa ?aaiethoe?y 1905 ?ieo
oi?iaeueii ciyea an? caai?iie ia oe?a?inueea neiai. Oiae? e aeieea?
oe?a?inueea i?ana – “Oe?ai?ia” A. Oaiaoa, “A?iiaaenueea aeoiea”, caiaeii
“?aaea” N. ?o?aiiaa o Ee?a?. Ii/aee a?eueii ae?oeoaaoe oe?a?inuee?
eieaeee. C’yaeythoueny aeaeaaieoeoaa “*an”, “?aiie”, “Aeca?i” oa ?i.
Aeieeee eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa, na?aae ieo – “I?ina?oa”.

I?ioa iineaaeaiiy, ui aoee c?iaeai? oea?nueeei o?yaeii i?ney 1905-1907
??., i?ci?oa aoei e?ea?aeiaaii: cae?eoi I?ina?oe, i?eieiaii aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, /eoaiiy eaeoe?e oe?a?inueeith iiaith,
iinoaiiaeo oaao?aeueieo aenoaa. C ii/aoeii ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie
oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?ia aeeooy ? acaaae? caaie?a? (I.A?ooaanueeiai
caa?aooiaothoue ? aeaicyoue o Neia??nuee, Oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai
?i.. O.A.Oaa/aiea i?eieiy? nai? aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeith iiaith).

Ia?aiiaa Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. a ?in?? a?aee?eea iaai? ?aaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? aeey a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. I?ioa ni?aaaei?i
ae?acieeii ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa noaea Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea — i?aaenoaaieoeueeee iie?oe/iee i?aai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
ooai?aiee 7 aa?aciy 1917 ?. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea iae?aco ae i?iaieineea
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi nai?? iie?oeee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ??aeii? iiae ? oeiee.
Anueiai o 1917 ?. a Oe?a?i? aoei a?aee?eoi 39 oe?a?inueeeo a?iiac?e.
Cia/io oaaao Aaia?aeueiee nae?aoa??ao ia?iaeii? ina?oe i?eae?eya
i?iaeaiai aeui? oeiee. 5 aeiaoiy 1917 ?. a?aeaoeiny o?i/enoa a?aee?eooy
ia?oiai Oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a Ee?a?. 22 eenoiiaaea
1917 ?. aoei a?aee?eoi Aeaaeai?th ienoaoeoaa – ia?oo aeuo ooaeiaeith
oeieo a Oe?a?i?. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi Aeaaeai?? ?? i?aai?caoi?e aaaaeaee
i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa aei na?oiaiai ??aiy, aeoiaaiiy
iieie?iiy ieooe?a, ye? ciiaeooue cae?enieoe oea caaaeaiiy.

Ni?aao Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee o aaeoc? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
i?iaeiaaeea o?yae Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae aaoueiaia I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai,
yeee i?eeoia aei aeaaee 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?. I?ioyaii e?oa 1918 ?. aoei
a?aee?eoi 54 oe?a?inuee? a?iiac?? ia o?eueee a i?noao , aea e ii aeayeeo
naeao, a iai?ee?ioe? aaoueiainueei? aeiae ?o aoei a Oe?a?i? aeecueei
150. 6 aeiaoiy 1918 ?. o?i/enoi a?aee?eoi o Ee?a? ia?oee Aea?aeaaiee
oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao, a 22 aeiaoiy – ae?oaee Oe?a?inueeee
oi?aa?neoao o Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio.

A oeae aea ia??iae caniiaaii: Aea?aeaaiee oe?a?inueeee a?o?a, o yeiio
iaee aooe cina?aaeaeai? aeieoiaioe ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ia?aaacai? c a?o?a?a
Iineae oa Iao?ia?aaeo, Iaoe?iiaeueio aaea?ath ienoaoeoaa, Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?e/iee iocae oa Oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio a?ae?ioaeo, oiiae yei?
oaeaeei c?inoaa. O e?ioe? 1918 ?. a i?e aoei aaea iiiaae 1 iei. eiea,
na?aae yeeo aaaaoi oi?eaeueieo. Ca e?euee?noth oa ye?noth eiea
Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea iiaea eiieo?oaaoe c e?aueie
a?ae?ioaeaie ?a?iie.

Aaeeeith caneoaith aaoueiainueeiai o?yaeo ne?ae aaaaeaoe canioaaiiy 24
eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe, iio?aaa a ye?e aoea
iaaaeueiith. Aeaaeai?y iaea o?e a?aeae?ee: ?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iee,
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iee oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee. Ia?oei i?aceaeaioii
i?ecia/aii aoei aeaeaoiiai a/aiiai ?c na?oiaei ?i‘yi, 55-??/iiai
i?ioani?a o?i?? Aieiaeeie?a Aa?iaaenueeiai. Iaeacii aaoueiaia I.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoei i?ecia/aii ia?oeo ae?enieo /eai?a OAI. O a?aeae?e?
?noi?eei-o?eieia?/ieo iaoe ae?enieie /eaiaie noaee caneoaeaiee i?ioani?
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo Ae. Aaaae?e, i?aeeia?iee i?ioani? Ee?anueeiai
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo A. E?einueeee, caneoaeaiee
i?ioani? Ee?anueei? aeooiaii? aeaaeai?? I. Iao?ia, i?ioani?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeieoi? N. Niaeue-Noioeueeee. O a?aeae?e?
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe – aeaaeai?e ?in?enueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe A.
Aa?iaaenueeee, i?ioani? Ee?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo N.
Oeiioaiei, caneoaeaiee i?aeeia?iee i?ioani? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.
Oooeianueeee. Aei a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueieo iaoe i?ecia/aii i?ioani?a
Ee?anueeiai oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.
Ooaai-Aa?aiianueeiai, i?ioani?a Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo O.
Oa?aiianueeiai.

Aei aeinyaiaiue o aaeoc? eoeueoo?e ca aaoueiainueei? aeiae o?aaa ua
aeiaeaoe canioaaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o ae?aie oa iia?e, Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaaii? eaiaee, Aea?aeaaiiai neioii?/iiai i?eano?o oiui.

Aecia/ieie ? caeiaooee oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e o ienoaoeuee?e noa??. Ia
ii/aoeo OO no. a Oe?a?i? iioe?ththoueny ?aeaei? oa ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/i?
oa/??, yeeie aeeea ?a?iia. Ii?yae c ?aae?ciii ooaa?aeaeo?oueny
iiaea?i?ci, yeee ooea? iia? caniae ienoaoeueeiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy na?oo.
I?eoeeueieee iiaea?i?cio ??cei aenooieee i?ioe caoiieaiiy ieooe?a noa?i?
aaia?aoe?? aoi?/ii-iiaooiaeie aeai?aie, aeaoae?caoe??th, n?euenueeith
oaiaoeeith oa “iao??ioe/ieie aeaoeaie” ? aeneiaeeenue ca aiie?oeci,
/enoa ienoaoeoai. A e?oa?aoo?o aiie i?eianee ineoieia?ci,
cina?aaeaeai?noue ia aioo??oi?o ia?aaeeaaiiyo ? noa’?eoeaieo a?aaeaiiyo
aa?iy i?e i?i?ioi? ae?e oa caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oea iiae?e (I.
Eioethaeinueeee, A.Noaoaiee, E.Oe?a?iea, A. Aeiie/aiei). A iiac??
ii/eiathoue ia?aaaaeaoe ineoieia?/i? iioeae e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ii/oooy
(I.Ai?iiee, I.Ieanue, I. Ea?iainueeee, I.Eooeueeee, A.Ia/ianueeee ), o
i?ic? a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa iiaae?. Iiaea?i?ci ii?iaeaeo? iia? noee? –
?ii?an?ii?ci, neiaie?ci, iai?iiaioeci, oooo?eci oa ?i.

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i? ii/aoeo noie?ooy aoa
oaao?. Oai?oeyie iiaea?iiai oaao?o aaaaeathoue Eanth Oe?a?ieo,
A.Aeiie/aiea, I. Ieany. Naia aiie noai?eee iiao oe?a?inueeo
ae?aiaoo?a?th.

A a?o?oaeoo?? ii/aoeo OO no. oaeiae ooaa?aeaeothoueny ?aea? iiaea?i?cio,
iia’ycai? c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ienoaoeueeeo
oi?i (cae?cie/i? aiecaee Eueaiaa, AEia?eiee oa Oa?eiaa), a ii?yae c iei
– iaieeaneoeecio (Iaaeaaia?/iee iocae o Ee?a?, A?iiaaenueea a?ae?ioaea o
Oa?eia?). ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo noeioethaaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai noeeth – cae/aeii, ia iia?e iniia?. Oe?a?inuee?
a?o?oaeoi?e caa?oathoueny aei aea/aiiy iai’yoie aeaai?o /an?a oa
ia?iaeii? aea?aa’yii? a?o?oaeoo?e, ioae?eothoue ?ica?aeee i?i ieo o
/aniienao. Ia oe?e iniia? oai?youe euea?anuee? aoae?aie/? A.Iaa??iee,
aaoi? /eneaiieo oea?eia o Aaee/ei?, oa ?.Eaaeinueeee, yeiio iaeaaeaoue
i?iaeoe aoaeeie?a oiaa?enoaa “Aei?noa?”, aioaeth AEi?aea oa
Aeaaeai?/iiai aeiio o Eueaia?. E?auei aeoai?ii o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oe?a?inueeiio noee? ? aoaeeiie iieoaanueeiai cainoaa (1901-1908),
ni?iaeoiaaiee A.E?e/aanueeei.

Oe?a?inueea neoeueioo?a iiiiaith?oueny iaaooeaie i?eoeeueiee?a
?ii?an?ii?cio, ye? noi?ioaaee na?e oaeaio o ienoaoeueeeo oeieao ?a?iie.
Na?aae ieo aeae?eythoueny O.Aaa?eeei, aaoi? iia?oaeaey O.Oaa/aiea;
I.Ia?auoe, yeiio iaeaaeaoue neoeueioo?i? ii?o?aoe ?.O?aiea, A.Noaoaieea,
N.Ethaeeaae/a, a oaeiae iai’yoiee A.I?oeeaae/o o Eueaia?, aeeiiaiee
ni?eueii c A.Iiiaeai; I.A?eoiae/, yeee cae?eniea neoeueioo?ia ioi?ieaiiy
oanaaeo oa ?ioa?’??o Euea?anueeiai iia?iiai oaao?o.

?ii?an?ii?noe/iee iai?yi o iaey?noa? caii/aoeiao? I.Aaoee?oeaaa, iaeiae
aiia iaoeaea a iniiaiiio o O?aioe?? oa ?oae?? e ia iiaea ia?aianoe eiai
ia oe?a?inueeee a?oio. Ia Oe?a?i? oe? ?aea? i?i?eaathoueny o oai?ao
ooaeiaeiee?a-?aae?no?a A.Aeyae/aiea, A.Eo?iaeae?, O.E?aneoeueeiai, a
iniaeeai I.Io?aoea – iaeno?a ineoieia?/iiai ii?o?aoa, aaoi?a a?aeiii?
ea?oeie “Iioi?ii eioiaiai”. Ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo aieeae
?ii?an?ii?cio ua a?eueo iii?oi?: oai?oeyie ?ii?an?ii?noe/iiai iaecaaeo
noaee ?.O?oo oa I.Ao?a/ae; ?icea?oa? oaeaio I.Iiaae?anueeiai, yeee
iaeth? o aeon? neiaie?/iiai ?ii?an?ii?cio. Caniiaieeii oe?ei? oeiee
iiioiaioae?no?a ? aaee/aiei I.Aie/oe. Iniiaiiieiaeieeii iiai?
oe?a?inueei? a?ao?ee aoa A.Ia?aoo. A?i oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaa oe?a?inueeo
oaiaoeeo, ocaaaeueiea ? o?ainoi?ioaaa ?? /a?ac e?au? aeinyaiaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aa?aeueaeeee oa eieaeeiaiai ienoaoeoaa. Iiaa?ioaoenue a
Oe?a?io i?ney 1917 ?., a?i noaa caniiaieeii, ia?oei ?aeoi?ii ?
i?ioani?ii Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa – ia?oi? aeui? ooaeiaeiuei?
oeiee Oe?a?ie. O oe?eiio a oe?a?inueeiio aeeaiien? oeueiai ia??iaeo
ae?acii i?inooia? oaiaeaioe?y aei oai?aiiy iiaiai, “aaeeeiai noeeth”,
aei iiioiaioae?caoe??, o?einionueeiai iiaeeaeaiiy e iiaoecaoe?? ia?ac?a,
ana a?eueoo ?ieue ii/eiathoue a?ae?a?aaaoe neiaiee, iaoaoi?a.

Ii/aoie OO no. i?ei?n cia/ia iiaeaaaeaiiy a oe?a?inueea ioce/ia aeeooy.
Ia?iaeaeo?oueny iiaa i?ioan?eia ioceea, /anoi niiaiaia oa?aeoa?ieo aeey
oe??? aiioe ?aaiethoe?eieo iioea?a. C’yaey?oueny ieayaea oaeaiiaeoeo
eiiiiceoi??a – ss.Noaiiaee, E.Noaoeaiei, I.Eaiioiae/, N.Ethaeeaae/.
I?iaeiaaeothoue ae?yoe ??ci? ioce/i? oiaa?enoaa, ao?oee, oi?ia? eaiaee,
noaaey/e ioce/i? i’?ne, iia?aoe, iia?e. Na?aae ieo iniaeeaith
aeoeai?noth a?aecia/aeenue ee?anueea e?oa?aoo?ii-a?oenoe/ia oiaa?enoai,
“Oe?a?inueeee eeoa”, Ioce/ia oiaa?enoai ?i. I. Eenaiea o Eueaia?, i?e
yeiio a 1905 ?. i?aai?ciaaii Aeuee ioce/iee ?inoeooo ?i. I.Eenaiea.
Cia/iee aeeaae o iiioey?ecaoe?th oe?a?inueei? ioceee c?iaea ia?oee ia
Oe?a?i? noaoe?iia?iee ioce/ii-ae?aiaoe/iee oaao?, caniiaaiee 1907 ?.
I.Naaeianueeei o Ee?a?, aea e??i ae?aiaoe/ieo aenoaa noaaeoenue iia?e e
iia?aoe.

Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia iaeiia??ii oyaee? oi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ai?oo, ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ? caai?iie, iicaaaeaiiy nai?? ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
iniiae – iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee c ??aeiith iiaith iaa/aiiy, eoeueoo?ia
aeeooy a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo OO no. cia/ii aeoea?co?oueny. Aeieeathoue
ooaeiaei? ioca?, a?o?ae, a?ae?ioaee, ae?thoue caniiaai? ia iiaeo
canaaeao ienoaoeuee? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, iineeththoueny ca’ycee ?c
ca?oa?aeieie ooaeiaei?ie oeaio?aie. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia
?aaiethoe?y ? caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? (OI?.
COI?), iacaaaeath/e ia ?o ii?aceo a?ae a?eueoiaee?a o 1919-1920 ??.,
aeaee iiooaeiee ?noi?e/iee ?iioeuen aeey iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
aoae?aieoeoaa iaa?oue ca oiia iaiaaeaii? ? caoeniooi? ?aaeyinueei?
aea?aeaaiino? 20-o ?ie?a.

2. ?aaeyinueeee aoai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e (1921-1991??.).

Oeae ia??iae aeeth/a? a naaa ? aeiao ceaoo 20-o ??. iieie?iiy
”?icno??eyiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”, yea aaea a 30-o? ??. caciaei oioaeueieo
?ai?an?e ia o?eueee i?ioe ieooe?a, i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?e, aea e
cae/aeieo ?? iin??a, ? aeiao “a?aeeeae” c ?ooii oae caaieo
“o?noaeanyoiee?a”, ? ia??iae iiaeaeueoi? ?oneo?eaoe?? oa ooene?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

20-o? ??. a Oe?a?i? noaee ia??iaeii iaaoaaeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai-eoeueoo?iiai i?aeianaiiy. Oea ni?aaae? yne?aaee oaiiiai
a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Eiai ei??iiy – a iao?eaaeiio, aea
aaaeeeaiio ia??iae? a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? 1917-1920
??. Oey aeiaa aeaea oaeee neeueiee ?iioeuen iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui
eiai ia ciiaee coieieoe ai? a?aoiaaea/a a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia, ai? ianiaa
ai?a?aoe?y oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, ai? oene oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae.
Oea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ioiieei ??ci? noa?e aeeooy, ? ia?aae on?i – ina?oo,
iaoeo, e?oa?aoo?o, ienoaoeoai.

Naia a oeae /an a ina?oi?e noa?? aoei e?ea?aeiaaii iaienueiaii?noue
ianaeaiiy. O 1921?. aoei i?eeiyoi iinoaiiao ?aaeia?eiio ON??, o ye?e
i?aee?anethaaeiny, ui ana ianaeaiiy a?eii a?ae 8 aei 50 ?ie?a, yea ia
ai?? /eoaoe e ienaoe, ciaia‘ycaia iaa/aoeny a?aiio? ?in?enueeith aai
??aeiith iiaith ca aaaeaiiyi. I?ioyaii 20-o ??. e?euee?noue
iaienueiaiieo nei?ioeeany c 76% aei 46% aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy. Aea?aeaaa
iaaeaaaea iaai? i?eueae oei, ooi iaa/aany. Oi?aa?neoaoe ?ai?aai?ciaoaaee
a ?inoeoooe ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Iaa/aiiy aoei ieaoiei, aea ae?oe a?aeieo
?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi ca?eueiyeenue a?ae iieaoe. O 1925 ?. ae?yei aeecueei
18 oen. oe?e, 145 oaoi?eoi?a, 35 ?inoeooo?a ? 30 ?ia?ooae?a. Aaaaoi
c?iaeee aeey ?icaeoeo ina?oe ia?eiie (i?i?no?e) ina?oe I.Ooinueeee ?
I.Ne?eiiee.

Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a 20-o? ?iee cina?aaeaeoaaeeny a iniiaiiio a
Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? iaoe, yeo a 1921 ?. ia?aeiaioaaee o
Anaoe?a?inueeo aeaaeai?th iaoe (AOAI). Ooo aoei o?e a?aeae?ee:
?noi?eei-o?einionueeee, o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iee ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee.
Iaeaoaeoeai?oa i?aoethaaea ia?oa naeoe?y, i/iethaaia I.A?ooaanueeei,
yeee 1924?. iiaa?ioany c-ca ei?aeiio ? aoa ia?aiee aeaaeai?eii. O
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiio a?aeae?e? AOAI i?aoethaaea iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
aeaaeai?/ieo eaoaae? – 30. Ia na?oiaiio ??ai? i?iaiaeeeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee (I.E?eeia), aenia?eiaioaeueii?
ciieia?? (?.Oiaeueaaocai). Aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie
caii/aoeoaaa Einoyioei Aiaeee, aoei a?aee?eoi ia?oee o na?o?
Aeaiia?ao?/iee ?inoeooo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii I.Ioooe. Ie?aeii i?aoethaaee
o oe? ?iee ?noi?ee i?aaa Ieeiea Aaneeaiei, noiaeiciaaaoeue Aaaoaiaae
E?einueeee oa ?io? iaoeiaoe?. A oeae /an ?icaeaaeenue oaeiae iaaee/ia oa
a?ieia?/ia iaoee. Ae. Caaieioiee I. Aiaiiieaoeue, A. Ai?iaeia, I.
Ei?/ae-*aio?e?anueeee, I. Iaeeaae?i, I. No?aaeanei, A. O?eaoia caaaaoeee
iaaeeoeeio iiaeie oai?aoe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. Aaeeeei i?aeoe/iei
aeinyaiaiiyi a Oe?a?i? noaei oa, ui aaea ia na?aaeeio 20-o ?ie?a aoei
e?ea?aeiaaii oiea?o, a?nio, /oio.

O 30-o? ?iee iacaaaeath/e ia iaaecae/aeii oyaee? oiiae ?icaeoie iaoee ia
i?eieieany. A Oe?a?i? aaee aeine?aeieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue iaoeia?
eieaeoeae. Aaeeeeo oni?o?a aeinyaee a/ai? a?aee?eoiai 1928 ?. o Oa?eia?
Oe?a?inueeiai o?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo (OOO?). O 1931-1932 ??. o
iueiio i?aoethaaa ?. Eo?/aoia, ooo E. Eaiaeao iaienaa eeane/io i?aoeth c
e?iaoe/ii? oai??? ieacie; a?oia a/aieo 1932 ?. o neeaae? E.
Neiaeueieeiaa, I. Eaeioinueeiai, A. Aaeueoa?a ? A. Eaoeoaaa aia?oa
cae?enieea ooo/ia ?icuaieaiiy yae?a aoiia e?o?th oaeaeeeie i?ioiiaie.
?oi? i?aoe? cana?ae/eee ia?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? oeaio?o oai?aoe/ii?
o?ceee na?oiaiai ??aiy.

O Aaee/ei? any oe?a?inueea iaoea cina?aaeaeoaaeanue o Iaoeiaiio
Oiaa?enoa? ?i. O. Oaa/aiea. O 30-o? ?iee ca’ycee Oiaa?enoaa c Ee?aii
i?eieieeeny. E??i oiai, o?iainiaa e?eca cioneea nei?ioeoe
aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ia?niiae ? aiii?a?e iaoeiaoeyi. Aea i?ia?aei? a/ai? I.
Aiciye – ?noi?ee e?oa?aoo?e, ?. Cae?inueeee – iiaiciaaaoeue, ss.
Ianoa?iae – a?oaieia, ?. Aeoaiiae/ – aeiiii?no, O. Eieanna –
ioceeiciaaaoeue, A. Eaaeoeueeee – iaoaiaoee, A. Eoa?eiae/ ? TH.
Iieyinueeee – aaia?aoe, A. Noa?inaeuenueeee – i?aaiciaaaoeue, I.
Iai/eoei – iaaeee oa ?io? i?iaeiaaeoaaee i?aoethaaoe.

Aiaeii/an o oeae /an iaooe? iai?oeeeny iaai? aoeueaa?ecaoe?ei?
oaiaeaioe??, ui ?icaeaaeeny i?ae aieeaii iie?oecaoe?? iaoee oa iaaii?
?aeaieia?/ii? aeoi??? “eiioi?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa”, yea ioiieea oe?ie?
aa?noae oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa o oeae ia??iae. Iaoiaeieia??th iaoee
iinooiiai noathoue “ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoa??ae?ci” c aeanoeaei eiio
“eeaniaei i?aeoiaeii” aei an?o noa? aeeooy, aeeth/ath/e e aeeooy
iaoeiaa. O 20-o? ??. oea aoea eeoa naiai ?iaeo “iiaea”, ni?yiiaaia ia
iaaio “iiioey?ecaoe?th” iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue, c yeith aeiaiaeeeiny
?aooaaoenue ? na?eiciei aeine?aeieeai.

Iniaeea?noth e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano oeueiai /ano aoei ?icia?ooy
e?oa?aoo?ieo iai?yi?a oa ?aeaieia?/ia ai?ioueaa i?ae ieie.
Iiaea?i?noe/iee iai?yi o e?oa?aoo?? ?ai?acaiooaaee iaieeaneee Ieeiea
Ca?ia, Iaenei ?eeuenueeee, Aeieo?i Oaeuee?anueeee, TH??e Iaaeaiei oa
?i.), “eaie?aoe?” A. I?aeiiaeeueiee, A.Aioiiaiei-Aeaaeaeiae/, A.Eineiea,
O.Inueia/ea, ?aaeeeaeueia ca ?aeaeiei ni?yioaaiiyi a?oia iaioooo?eno?a
I. Naiaiea. I?ioa ?aaeyinueea aeaaea iaea?eueo i?eycii noaaeeany aei
ienueiaiieoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue oeio “I?ieaoeoeueoo”, “Aa?oo”, “Ieoao”,
ye? aeeiioaaee ?? ?aeaieia?/ia caiiaeaiiy.

O aaeoc? ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa ?icaeaaeeny oae? aeai?e, ye ia?iaea
eiiiiceoi?aie ia?iaeieo ? ?aaiethoe?eieo i?naiue, ?aaeyinueea ianiaa
i?niy. O oeueiio iai?yieo ie?aeii i?aoethaaee eiiiiceoi?e A.Aa?ueiaea,
I.Eiceoeueeee, E.?aaooeueeee. Iaeiei c e?aueo oi?iaeo eieaeoea?a e?a?ie
noaea eaiaea “Aeoiea” (noai?aia o 1920 ?.). Ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? iaeiei
c iaeoaeaiiaeo?oeo eiiiiceoi??a, ioceeiciaaoe?a oa iiioey?ecaoi??a
oe?a?inueeiai ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa aoa I.Eieanna. I?ioyaii 1923-1928 ??.
ae?yei ?anioae?eainueea Ioce/ia oiaa?enoai ?i.I.Eaiioiae/a, iaaeiei
yeiai ao?ooaaeeny eiiiiceoi?e-iiaaoi?e, ye? i???iooaaeeny ia ii?aeiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e ? aeinyaiaiue ?a?iiaenueei? ioce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. O?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ioce/iiai aaaiaa?aeo caii/aoeoaaa
A.Eyoioeinueeee (1894-1968). A?i ?ai?acaiooaaa iai?yi iiaea?i?cio a
oe?a?inuee?e ioceoe?, noai?ea iia?o “Cieioee ia?o/” (1930).

Ie?aeii ?icaeaaeinue oaao?aeueia ienoaoeoai. Aoaiiei o ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o noaa 1918 ?., eiee o Ee?a? ooai?eeeny o?e oaao?e:
Aea?aeaaiee ae?aiaoe/iee (o aa?aci? 1919?. ia?aeiaiiaaiee o Ia?oee
Oe?a?inueeee oaao? ?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee ?i.O.Oaa/aiea), Aea?aeaaiee
ia?iaeiee (c 1922 ?. – Oe?a?inueeee ae?aiaoe/iee oaao?
?i.I.Caiueeiaaoeueei?) oa “Iieiaeee oaao?” (c 1922 ?. – iiaea?iee
oe?a?inueeee oaao? “Aa?ac?eue”). Ia e?iaoeue 1925 ?. a Oe?a?i?
iae?/oaaeiny aaea 45, a a 1940 ?. – 140 iino?eieo aea?aeaaieo ? iiiaae
40 ?ia?oie/i-eieainiieo oaao??a. Iniiao ?aia?ooa?o oaao?o noaiiaeea
eeane/ia ae?aiaoo?a?y. Aea c‘yaeeeny ? oe?eeii iia? ca aeooii ? oi?iith
ae?aiaoe/i? oai?e: “Oay a??eiai iaaaeaeth” ?.Ei/a?ae; “Aei o?ao?o
i?ai?a” ss.Iaiiioiaa; “97”, “Ia?iaeiee Iaeao?e”, “Ieia Iacaeei”,
“Iaoaoe/ia niiaoa” oa ?io? ae?aie I.Eoe?oa. Iniaeeai aaeeeith
iiioey?i?noth ei?enooaaeeny ae?aiaoe/iee oaao? ?i.?.O?aiea ia /ie? c
A.TH?ith ? oaao? “Aa?ac?eue” ia /ie? c Eanai Eo?aanii. C c?inea oe?ea
ieayaea oaeaiiaeoeo aeoi??a: A.Ao/ia, I.Oaea?e, TH.Ooinueeee, I.Iyoei oa
?i.

A oeae /an a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai e?iiienoaoeoaa. C
1922?. ii/aeiny ae?iaieoeoai ooaeiaei?o o?euei?a. Ia?aeiiiee aoai o
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai e?iiienoaoeoaa iia‘ycaiee c
oai?/?noth I.Aeiaaeaiea, yeee a 1926 ?. i?aoethaaa e?ii?aaeena?ii ia
Iaeanuee?e e?iinooae??. A ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai oa na?oiaiai
e?iiienoaoeoaa ii/ania i?noea iin?aeathoue eiai o?eueie “Caaieai?a”,
“A?naiae”, “Caiey”. A 1958 ?. ia anana?oi?e aenoaaoe? a A?thnnae? eiai
o?euei “Caiey” aoei aeeth/aii aei ii/aniiai nieneo aeaaiaaeoeyoe e?aueo
o?euei?a na?oo an?o /an?a ? ia?iae?a. Ia?oei caoeiaei o?eueiii a Oe?a?i?
aoea aeieoiaioaeueia no??/ea “Neioii?y Aeiiaano” Ae.Aa?oiaa (1930), a
na?aae ooaeiaei?o – “O?iio” I.Nieiaeiaa (1931). Oaeaiiaeoei oe?a?inueeei
?aaeena?ii noaa ? aeaeaoiee neoeueioi? ?.Eaaaea??aeca, ui ni?iaoaaa naaa
o e?ii iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ??.

A ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa? ie?aeii i?aoethaaee i?aaenoaaieee
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iai?yio: iaenoa? aaoaeueiiai aeai?o I.Naiieeo (“A‘?cae
A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai aei Ee?aa”, “A?e ?aaia Aiaoia c iieuenueeei iaaiaoii
*a?iaoeueeei”), I.Ao?a/ae (“Aei?i?i ? e?o/?”), A.Na?oeeoeue eee
(“I?ny/ia i?/”).

I?aaenoaaieeaie iiaiai ienoaoeueeiai iai?yio – eoaioooo?ecio – aoee I.
Aiaiiacia, E.Iaeaae/, I.Aenoa?, A.Iao?eoeueeee. Ooaeiaeiee I. Aiaiiacia
– iiao ca na?oia?ae/oooyi ? aiae?oee ca neeaaeii ieneaiiy – aaea o
1913-1914 ??. noai?ea aeanyoee ea?oei, aeaa?aeae oa ?enoie?a, a yeeo
iiaeia iii?oeoe iiaeeo ??cieo oa/?e ii/aoeo noie?ooy – aeni?an?ii?cio,
iaii?ei?oea?cio, aano?aeoe?ii?cio (“Iioya”, “Aaca?”, “Ee?a.
Aii/a?ea”).Oe?a?inuee? ooaeiaeieee i?aaioee ianeoeoe na?o eoa?cio
aa?aeno?noth, ii/a?iiooith c ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?: ea?ai?ee, eoae?a,
?eii, aeoeaaiie, eyeueie, eeeei?a, ienaiie, aea caa?aaeany aeecuee?noue
aei oa?iie/eo noeo?e aeeooy. Ooo ia aoei i?yieo noee?caoe?e, i?ioa aoea
ynia, ?eoi?/ia iiaa eieuei??a, ye? cao/aee aeca?iei, eieaeueii, aoee
iaae?eai? neeith.

ssne?aaith ooaeiaeiueith iniaeno?noth aoa E.Iaeaae/, oai?aoeue
noi?aiaoecio. A?i oi/ ? aeea cia/io /anoeio aeeooy iica Oe?a?iith, aea,
oe?a?iaoeue ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, i?eiee ia ii?eaaa ca’yce?a c iath.
Aaaeath/e ae?aceoe “/enoa”, iacaeaaeia a?ae iaoa??? aeooiaia aoooy, ia
eiai ia?aeiiaiiy, ooaeiaeiee iaa a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae caiieo “i???ioe??a” ?
iiaeeaeoenue ia iaaeieeoi? ?a/? ia/a c einiino. Oiio o aaci?aaeiaoieo
ea?oeiao E. Iaeaae/a cieeei oyaeaiiy i?i caii? “aa?o” ? “iec”, “e?aa” ?
“i?aaa” — an? iai?yiee aoee ??aiii?aaieie, ye o Anana?o?, aea ia aoei
caiiiai oyae?iiy.

Aaaaoi ooi c oeeo ooaeiaeiee?a o 20-o ?ieao oaeiae ie?aeii i?aoethaaa o
oaao?aeueii-aeaei?aoe?eiiio aeeaiien? (noeaiia?ao??). ?i iiaeiaaeiny
a?aeoai?thaaoe aoiinoa?o iaaii? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe. Aiie oi ienaee noeaie
aeeooy ye oaao?ae?ciaaii? aenoaae, oi oeoia/eee ae?eni?noue ye
nooe?eueiee oaao?, aea iaioaaea ia iianyeaeaii?noue, a ?aaeuei?noue
aeuiai aaooieo. Aeeneo/a aeyaea naaa o noeaiia?ao?? oaeaio
niiaeaeaeieoe? I. Aiaiiaciaa – I.Aenoa?. Aiia oneaaeeany nai?ie
ea?oeiaie, ane?caie, einothiaie, aeaei?aoe?yie, a yeeo iieacaea
i?ioenoiyiiy o?aa?/ieo ia?ica’ycaieo noia?a/iinoae, aioe/ia a?ae/oooy
iaiiaeeeaino? oii?yaeeoaaiiy na?oo, o?aiao ia?aae iane?i/aiiei oainii
i?eno?anoae ? ai?iaoth/eo nee. I?ioenoiyiiy o ?? ea?oeiao i?aee?aneaii
eieuei?ii: ai?eciioaeueia nenoaia — /a?aiia, aa?oeeaeuei? a?ee — /i?i?,
?c cieioei eiioo?ii. I?yeeo a?aeo?ie?a, ia?aoiae?a, aeiaeia c oai ia
aoea ae?oai?yaeiith. Aaeeei? aiioe?eii? neee ?? oai?ai iaaea? /anoa
ii?aeiaiiy /i?iiai ? /a?aiiiai — o?aaeeoe?eia aeey oe?a?inueei?
eieuei?iai? aaie, yea, ca A.Eaiaeeinueeei, icia/a? iaeaeuo iai?oao
ethaenueeeo nee, o?aa?ci aeeooy.

Iaa i?yia a?aeiioaiiy aei noeaiia?ao?? ? ooaeiaeiee A. Iao?eoeueeee. A?i
aeeiiaa a?aaeath/? ca ia?aci?noth ? aaciiieeeiaei a?ae/oooyi aiioe
oaao?aeuei? aeaei?aoe?? aeey eo?aan?anueeiai “Iieiaeiai oaao?o”, aeey
Ioce/ii? ae?aie. Oaioac?y, iaeueiaie/?noue, aeooeai?noue eiei?eoo
a?aecia/aee an? eiai ?iaioe. Oneaaeany A. Iao?eoeueeee ? ea?oeiaie, a
aieiaia – ii?o?aoaie ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Oe?ea aeanyoe??//y
(a?ae 1922 ?.) a?i ii?o?aooaaa ienueiaiiee?a, eiiiiceoi??a, ?aaeena??a,
iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a. Oey ii?o?aoia aaea?ay oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??
iicia/aia a?oenoeciii, aeeiai?/iith iai?oaeai?noth aa?i?a, aino?ith
caaa?aeai?noth ia?aco. O an?o ii?o?aoao – iaia’yceiaee
iaoaoi?e/ii-anioe?aoeaiee eeth/ aei ia?aco.

Oeiea iiioiaioaeueiiai oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa o 20-o? ?iee aoea
i?aaenoaaeaia oai?/?noth Ieoaeea Aie/oea ? eiai o/i?a. Aiia iaaeeoaeany
oi?iaie a?caio?enueeeo ?eii, ?ae?a?eiiai ?aianaino, aeeaiieniiai
i?ei?oea?cio aac?iaiieo oe?a?inueeeo iaey??a ieioeeo aiio. A iniia?
anoaoeee oiai/aniiai iiioiaioaeueiiai aeeaiieno aoea aeiiaa oieeiaiiy
caeaeo aeaoaeae, aeiaaeeiaeo, iaoa?aeoa?ieo ?aeo?n?a; noaiaoecaoe?y,
i?inoioa, neea ? aaee/; caa?iai?noue aei iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?eei oa
aaaiaa?aei?noue ooaeiaeiuei? iiae, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe eiino?oeoea?ciii.
Oai?e “aie/oe?no?a” a 20-30 ?iee, cie?aia ?iciene *a?aiiia?i?enueeeo
eooeueeeo eaca?i, ioi?ieaiiy Ee?anueeiai iia?iiai oaao?o, Ee?anueeiai
eiiia?aoeaiiai ?inoeoooo – ia?o? a onueiio ?aaeyinueeiio ienoaoeoa?
cia/i? iiioiaioaeuei? ainaiae?. O oeeo ?icienao aaaaoi ieaeaoiino?,
iii?oi? neeuei? aieeae o?aaeeoe?e ?eiie, eoaea, ia?iaeieo ea?oei,
a?ao?ee e ?iiaioe/ieo iaae?e /ano. Aei iaoeo /an?a caeeoeeeny o?eueee
oeaiee aei?iaeo I. Aie/oea. ?acii c ae?oaeeiith eiai aoei ?ai?aniaaii ca
“?eiiiieniee” oi?iae?ci ? “ao?aeoaciee iaoe?iiae?ci”.

Oe?a?inueeee aeeaiieniee aaaiaa?ae, ye eiaeiee aaeeeee noeeue, iaa
iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Iaeiae oae? eiai ?ene, ye eiei?enoe/ia
aaaaonoai, ye noiae?noue o oa?aao, o oi?iao c aeaiaioaie
na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?eiie (/a?aoaaiiy eoo?a ? iaae?a, ye? iaee nayuaiia
neiaie?/ia cia/aiiy), a oaeiae c eiei?eoii ee?anueeeo iica?e (c ?o
oeyoaoieie ?oa?iiaeie, nia?aaaeiaeie, cieioenoeie aaiaie, ui
ia?a?eaaeeny oaiieie caonoeaie oa?a) ?, ia?aoo?, aeaei?aoeai?noue
(caiice/aia c oe?a?inueeiai naeyinueeiai iiaooo oaoe-iacaiee) any
a?oaeueia neea naeyinueeiai ienoaoeoaa iaaeathoue eiio iaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee.

A 30-o? ?iee a oe?a?inueea ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai i?eeoee iieiae?
ieooe?, aeioneieee Aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa oa ooaeiaei?o ?inoeooo?a,
iniaeeai iiioey?iith aoea oaiaoe/ia ea?oeia. ?? aa?iyie aoee no/anieee
ooaeiaeiee?a. Iaeiii?oi?oeie noaee iieioia «Ia?aiiaeoe? A?aiaaey» O.
E?e/aanueeiai, «Eaae?e Aei?i?iaoaeo» E. O?ioeiaiea, «Aoae?aieoeoai
aeiiie ? C» I. Oiaeoiaiea, «Aei?iaa a eieaini» I. Ao?a/aea oa ?i. Aaaaoi
c?iaeee ooaeiaeieee Oe?a?ie aei a?aecia/aiiy 125-??//y c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy O. Oaa/aiea. Oea a?ao?/i? oai?e A. Ean?yia («Oaa/aiei ia
Oe?a?i?», «Oaa/aiei na?aae naeyi»), I. Aea?aaona («Eaoa?eia» ? na??y
«Aei?iaaie Oe?a?ie»). Oeeee ?ethno?aoe?e aei tha?eaeiiai aeaeaiiy
«Eiaca?y» noai?ea ?. ?aeaeaae/.

Ia??iae 30-o – /an iniaeeai aei?noieiai oioae?oa?ecio. “Oe?a?i?caoe?th”
aoei iiai?noth cai?iooi, a iaeiii?oi?oeo ae?y/?a iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e ?icno??eyii aai oa’yciaii aei oaai??a. “Aeeeoaoo?a
i?ieaoa??aoo “ae?iaeaeoaaeany a iniaenoo aeeeoaoo?o aiaeaey, a
aaeaoainueea aea?aeaaa “?icaeiaiiai nioe?ae?cio” ia?aoai?thaaeany ia
no?iaao ??cieo aeiiii?/ieo oi?iaoe?e – ?aaiaeanieoeoai o “ciiao”,
n?euenueeee oaiaeae?ci, i?nueeee aea?aeaaii-iiiiiie?noe/iee eai?oae?ci;
a iaeia oe?ea ?o ?aeiaa aaeaoainueeee ath?ie?aoe/iee aia?ao c iiooaeiei
?aeaieia?/iei caaacia/aiiyi aeey iai?ioethaaiiy
eiioi?noe/ii-nioe?ae?noe/ieie aaneaie. Oeo, ooi ia a??ea a?eueoa aaneai,
aa/ea onth ?o iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ae?eniino?, iaieiooaaee “ai?iaii
ia?iaeo”, oae? ethaee ia??aeei cae?i/oaaee aeeooy naiiaoanoaii
(I.Oaeeueiaee, I.Ne?eiiee).

I?eioniaa eieaeoea?caoe?y ? iia‘ycaiee c ?? iaoni?oii ooo/iee aieiaeiii?
1933 ?. – iaeia c iaeo?aa?/i?oeo noi??iie oe?a?inueei? ?noi???,
a?aeaa?oee cei/ei i?ioe o?aaeeoe?eii? naeyinueei? eoeueoo?e aeeooy ?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ia ca‘yceao c yeith ?icaeaaeany ony iiia?aaeiy
iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?ia o?aaeeoe?y. Eieainiia aeeooy neeueii ci?ieei
nai? i?aeaaeeie n?euenueeiai aeeooy, ia?aoai?eaoe i?aoeueiaeoiai eieenue
naeyieia ia aac?i?oe?aoeaiiai, aea ceiae?eeoaaoiai eieainiieea, aeiaaee
/an oaeoe/ii iicaaaeaiiai a?iiaaeyinoaa ? a?ioiai? aeiaai?iaee ca naith
iaeaaeo i?aoeth. Iaaeania cae??ia/aiiy naeyi o eieainiieo oi?iao
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ?aeaieia?/iith i?iiaaaiaeith “nioe?ae?noe/ieo
oe?iiinoae”, i?euaieoe ye? ia aaeaeiny, iaeiae iaoa??aeuei? e aeooiai?
i?aeaaeeie n?euenueeiai aoooy aoei iaeaea iiai?noth c?oeiiaaii.

O oeae /an oeo ieooe?a, a/aieo, ina?oyi, e?oa?aoi??a, /e? iiaeyaee /e
oai?/?noue ia aienoaaeenue o “i?ie?onoiaa eiaea” noae?i?cio, ii/aee
ia?ane?aeoaaoe, a Oe?a?i? ianaaeaeoaaany ?aeaieia?/iee iiiiiie?ci,
eoeueoeaoaaeenue iniaeno? niaee Noae?ia. Ae?yeuei?noue ieooe?a ?
ienueiaiiee?a noaea iano?eueee ?aaeaiaioiaaiith, ui ii/aea ao?a/aoe
iciaee oai?/ino?. Iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy iaea ?o a?ae??aai?noue a?ae
caeiaooe?a ca?oa?aeieo iaeno??a. O ae?aiaoo?a?? ia i?ia?aei? iiceoe??
aeeoia I.Ei?i?e/oe, i‘?ne yeiai “Caaeaaeue aneaae?e”, “A noaiao Oe?a?ie”
noaaeeeny a aaaaoueio oaao?ao. I?iaeiaaeoaaee ienaoe a??o? I.Oe/eia,
I.Aaaeai, aea naiaiaee oai?/ino? aiie ia iaee. Ianoaaeie aeeooy
cioooaaee ?o i?ineaaeyoe Noae?ia, eiiia?o?th. O 1934 ?. ??ciiiai?oi?
e?oa?aoo?i? ia‘?aeiaiiy aoee i?eioniai cae?eo?, a iio?i ceeo? o Ni?eeo
ienueiaiiee?a Oe?a?ie. Ca ienueiaiieeaie ia‘?aeiaeeny e ?io? i?aoe?aieee
ienoaoeoaa. Oae aea?aeaai?e ia?o?? eaaoa aoei ea?oaaoe “eoeueoo?iei
o?iioii”. Eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane oi?o?eoaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith anainyaeiiai
iaoiaeo “nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio”, yeee ia?aaeaa/ea, ia?o ca ana,
ini?aoaaiiy aeinyaiaiue nioe?ae?cio. I?ae /an noae?iueie aoei
?ai?aniaaii aeecueei 500 iaea?eueo oaeaiiaeoeo ienueiaiiee?a ? iiao?a,
ye? aei oiai ie?aeii i?aoethaaee a Oe?a?i?. Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy 20-o ??. aoei aei?noiei i?eaeooaia noae?i?ciii ? oa?eoei
a ?noi??th ye “?icno??eyia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”.

O 1934 ?. noieeoeth ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie aoei ia?aianaii aei Ee?aa. C
oe??th aaaeeeaith iiae??th, ia aeaeue, iia‘ycai? ia e?au? niiaaaee aeey
?noi?ee?a eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee naia o ca‘yceo c ia?aianaiiyi noieeoe?
?oeiaoe?? aoei i?aeaeaii ieceo a?o?oaeoo?ieo oaaeaa??a aeaaiueiai
a?o/eciyiiai ciae/anoaa. Na?aae ieo Ieoaee?anueeee Cieioiaa?oee iiianoe?
(aoe?e?ee eeoa aeaye? iica?/i? eiiiiceoe??, iini?oii aeaacai? aei
Iineae), A?enueeiai-Iee?euenueeee niai?, Oea?eaa ??caeaa Aiai?iaeeoe?
Ie?iaiu? oa aaaaoi ?i. Iaoii?noue caiaeeeeny ?io? aoae?ae?, ui iii?oii
a?ae??ciyeeny ? a?ae oa?aeoa?ieo aeey 20-o ??. Oaia? oi?io?oueny
iniaeeaee a?o?oaeoo?iee eaiii ?aaeyinueeiai aoae?aieoeoaa, yeee iiaeia
iaceaaoe ii-??ciiio, aea nueiaiaei? iae/ano?oa ei?enoothoueny oa?i?iii
“?aaeyinueeee inaaaeieeaneoeeci”. Oea aoa aaaaoi a /iio aeeaeoe/iee
noeeue ia?aaaaeii io?oe?eieo onoaiia, caaaeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
o?aaeeoe?e aaaaoueio a?o?oaeoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e ieioeiai c aeoeaiei
canoinoaaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? neiaie?ee o ciai?oiueiio oa aioo??oiueiio
ioi?ieaii?. Iaei??th c ia?oeo ? iaea?eueo iieaciaeo o oeueiio ?yaeo
nii?oae ? aoaeeiie no/anii? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, caaaeaiee i?ioyaii
1935-1936 ??.

O ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? oa Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a ia?aaeeaaea aeaeaei ia e?au? nai? /ane, iaa?oue i?e?aeiaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei O?N? iaei oaoaeuei? aeey ?icaeoeo
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a oiio /ene? e aeey noaio eoeueoo?e ia oeeo caieyo,
iane?aeee. A ?iee i?iaoeueei? ieoiaoe?? noae?inuee? ?ai?an?? ye ia
Caoiae?, oae ? ia Noiae? Oe?a?ie ci?ieeeny a?oea??anueeeie. Aaee/acieo
?ici???a iaa?aei iia?aaoaaiiy i?iaoeueeeie ieoiaioaie ienoaoeueeeo oa
?noi?e/ieo oe?iiinoae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Ca iaae? Oe?a?ie aoei
aeaacaii iiiaae 40 oen. iaeoe?ii?oeo iocaeieo aeniiiao?a.

Iaeiae a oeae /an ?aaeyinueea aeaaea c?icoi?ea, ui a?eio c ?iicaiieie
caaa?aieeaie ia iiaeia aanoe, ia nie?ath/enue ia iao??ioe/i?,
iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy ia?iaeo. Ii/eiathoue ae?oeoaaoeny noaoo? ?noi?ee?a
oa ienueiaiiee?a, i?enay/ai? aa?i?/iei noi??ieai ieioeiai, ia?aaeon?i
ai?iouea? c ?iicaiieie iiiaaiethaa/aie. Aena?oeththoueny iiae??, aea
aeoeaieie o/anieeaie aoee ss?ineaa Ioae?ee, Aeaieei Aaeeoeueeee, Iao?i
Eiiaoaae/-Naaaeaea/iee, Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee. C‘yaeythoueny
aenieiooaeiaei? ? aenieiiao??ioe/i? a??oiaai? oai?e, aea c aaeeeith
neeith iieacaia ethaia aei A?o/ecie (I.?eeuenueeiai “Neiai i?i ??aeio
iao??”, I.Oe/eie “Aiein iaoa??”, A.Ninth?e “Etha?oue Oe?a?io”).

Aeeaieiai iao??ioecio aoei niiaiaia e?iiienoaoeoai. Iaee?aueie
ooaeiaei?ie o?eueiaie oeueiai ia??iaeo aoee “Ieaenaiae? Ia?oiiaiei”
?aaeena?a E.Eoeiaa, “sse aa?ooaaeanue noaeue” I. Aeiinueeiaith. Iaeaeuei
aeinyaiaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai e?iiienoaoeoaa a oeae /an iiaeia aaaaeaoe
o?euei “?aeaeoaa” I. Aeiinueeiai ca noeaia???i Aaiaee Aaneeaanueei?. A
ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa? ciiao, ye ? a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie,
cia/i? aeinyaiaiiy aoee a a?ao?oe?. E?eueea na??e iaethie?a ia oaie
a?eie aeeiiaa A. Ean?yi (“O oaoenonuee?e iaaie? “, “Oe?a?inueea
ai?ioueaa”, “A?aeiinoe!”).

O ia?o? i?neyai?ii? ?iee a Oe?a?i? ianoaea iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ia
?aaeoe?y, yea ca ?i‘yi nae?aoa?y OeE AEI(a), yeee ea?oaaa ?aeaieia?/iith
?iaioith a e?a?i?, io?eiaea iacao “aeaeai?aueia”. A?ooaeuei?e e?eoeoe?
oa iaaeioaa/aiiyi a “ia?ae?o/aiiyo ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o” aoei i?aeaeaii ?iaioe ?noi?ee?a Oe?a?ie “Ei?ioeee eo?n
?noi??? Oe?a?ie”, “Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”. ?icii/aeiny oeueeoaaiiy I.
?eeuenueeiai ca oeiai aeiiia?aeue “Ee?a a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”, “??/ieoey
Oaa/aiea”, iiaoe/i? oai?e “Ee?anuee? ieoaae”. Ieu?ai?e e?eoeoe? aoei
i?aeaeaii o i?an? a??o A. Ninth?e “Etha?oue Oe?a?io”. Aino?? iaiaaeee
aoee ni?yiiaai? oaeiae ia oe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ca aeei?enoaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieo oe?a?inueeeo oai, cie?aia iia?o E. Aeaiueeaae/a “Aiaaeai
Oiaeueieoeueeee” e?eoeeoaaee ca oa, ui ?in?yiai o i?e a?aeaaaeaia
iaaeinoaoiuei iii?oia i?noea.

O a?ieia?/i?e iaooe? iioe?eeany “eenaie?aueia” (ca ?i‘yi i?aceaeaioa
Ananithcii? Aeaaeai?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe O.Eenaiea), yeee
caeiaa ?aaeoe?ei? iiceoe?? uiaei aaiaoeee. I?ney na?iiaai? nan?? AANAI?E
1948?., eiee ia?aiiao caeiaoee i?eoeeueieee Eenaiea, ii/aeany /enoea
na?aae iaoeiaoe?a.

I?ney nia?o? Noae?ia (1953?.) ii/aeany /anoeiaa e?aa?ae?caoe?y
?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio, yea io?eiaea iacao “a?aeeeaa”. Oea ?noioii
iie?aueei oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio. E?aa?ae?caoe?y ?
aeanoae?i?caoe?y noai?eee ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo e?oa?aoo?e.
Cia/iei aeinyaiaiiyi oe?a?inueei? i?ice noaa oeeee ?iiai?a I.Noaeueiaoa
“Aaeeea ??aeiy”, “E?ia ethaenueea – ia aiaeeoey”, “Oe?a ? n?eue”.
Iniaeeao iiioey?i?noue o iiai?ii? ?iee caeiaoea oai?/?noue I.Aii/a?a,
aaoi?a o?eeia?? “I?aii?iiinoe?”. ?iiaiii “Ae?” iacaaaeaee aienaa a
?noi??th oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e nai? ?i‘y A.Othothiiee. Aeaeaoiei
yaeuai a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? noaea iioae?eiaaia a 1956 ?.
e?iiiia?noue I.Aeiaaeaiea “Iiaia i?i ii?a”. Caaaa/oaaee iiac?th ? i?ico
oai?e A.Iaeeoea, I.Caa?aaaeueiiai, TH.Niiee/a, TH.Caaiaoeueeiai oa ?io?
oaeaiiaeo? e?oa?aoi?e.

I?ia?aeieie oaao?aie aoee ?i. ?.O?aiea a Ee?a?, ?i.O.Oaa/aiea a Oa?eia?,
?i.I.Caiueeiaaoeueei? o Eueaia?, ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee o Ee?a?, Ee?anueeee
oaao? iia?e oa aaeaoo. A ieo i?aoethaaea oe?ea ieayaea oaeaiiaeoeo
iaeno??a noeaie: I.Eonaiei, I.Eoiai/aiei, A.Aaoeinueeee, A.?iaiaoeaaa,
A.Nooiea oa ?i. Ie?aeii i?aoethaaee ae?aiaoo?ae I.Ca?oaeiee, A.Ieiei.
Aaeeeo iiioey?i?noue caeiaoea i‘?na I.Eieii?eoey “Oa?aiie”.

Ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ia a?iiaaenueea aeeooy a Oe?a?i?
nooo?ai aieeioea iiaa aaia?aoe?y oaeaiiaeoeo ieooe?a, ye? iaea?aeaee
iacao “o?noaeanyoiee?a”. Oea aoa ?oo oai?/i? iieiae?, yea ?ic?iaeyea
i?ea?iaeueio oaiaoeeo, aeaeaaaea iia? aeoiee, a?aei?ii? a?ae io?oe?eieo,
? noaea yae?ii aeooiaii? iiiceoe?? a Oe?a?i?. Na?aae ?? e?aea??a aoee
iiaoe A.Neiiiaiei, E.Einoaiei, A.Noon, ?.Na?oee/iee, Ae.Iaaee/ei,
?.Ae?a/, ?.Naa?nothe, A.Ie?eiee, e?eoee ?.Aecthaa, ioae?oeeno
A.*i?iia?e.

I?ioean ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ioceee a 50-60-o? ?iee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
oaeineiiaeaiiyi on?o ?? aeai??a, noai?aiiyi iiaeo iia?, iia?ao, aaeao?a,
neioii?e oa i?naiue. A Oe?a?i? c‘yaey?oueny aeeneo/a noc??‘y /oaeiaeo
iia?ieo ni?aae?a ? ni?aa/ie: Ae.Aiaothe, A.Nieia‘yiaiei, ?.I??ioie/aiei,
A.Iie?aiei, I.Eiiae?aothe, Ae.Iao?eiaiei. A oeae /an oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ioceea ia? cia/i? aeinyaiaiiy o aaeoc? ianiai? i?naiii?
oai?/ino?. Iiioey?ieie a ia?iae? noaee “I?niy i?i ?ooiee” ia a??o?
A.Iaeeoea, “Aiaee ?ine ia iieine”, “Aeaa eieuei?e” ia neiaa Ae.Iaaee/ea,
“Ia??/ea” I.Oea/a, “*i?iia?eaoe?” I.Neiaa?anueeiai, iaeiae??
I.Iaeai?iaee, I.A?eaoa, ?.Oaii. Caeiaooee iaei ? e?iiienoaoeoai Oe?a?ie.

O /ane “a?aeeeae” Ee?anueea nooae?y ui??/ii aeioneaea aeecueei 20
ea?oei. Iiioey?i?noue caeiaoee o?eueie “Aaaethea” A.?a/aiea,
e?iieiiaae?y “Ei?ieaaa aaicieieiiee”, “Eeth/? a?ae iaaa”. Iaecia/i?oei
aeinyaiaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai e?ii noaa o?euei N.Ia?aaeaeaiiaa “O?i?
caaooeo i?aaee?a” iinoaaeaia ca iia?noth I.Eioethaeinueeiai, yeee
a?aaeaa iaaecae/aeiith neeith ooaeiaeiuei-iiaoe/iiai i?iieeiaiiy a
aeeaeie ia?iaeiiai aeeooy, eiai ae?aiaoe/i? e o?aa?/i? aniaeoe. Oea /an
noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iiaoe/iiai e?ii: TH.?ee?iei, E.Ineea, I.
Iauaiei.

Iniiaiith oaiith ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa a i?neyai?ii? ?iee aoa
aa?i?ci, iiaeaeae ai?i?a, ia?oecai?a, o?oae?aiee?a oeeo a ia??iae
Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie. Na?aae ieo ea?oeie N.Aan?ae?ia “Aecaieaiiy
Ee?aa”, A.Einoaoeueeiai “Iiaa?iaiiy”. Aaeeei? iiioey?iino? iaaoea
ea?oeia O.ssaeiinueei? “Oe?a”, aea iieacaii aeeoo?a? ia?ace o?oae?aiee?a
iiai?iiiai naea.

Nooo?a? ci?ie noaeeny a ina?oi?e noa??. O 1953 ?. cae?eniaii ia?ao?ae
aei iaia‘yceiai? naie??/ii? ina?oe. O ea?oi? 1959 ?. Aa?oiaia ?aaea O?N?
i?eeiyea caeii i?i ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?eueii? ina?oe. Cai?noue naie??/ii?
iaia‘yceiai? aoei i?aai?ciaaii ainueie??/io oeieo, yea aeaaaea o/iyi
caaaeueiiina?oi? oa oaoi?/i? ciaiiy. Oeae caeii iaaeaaaa oaeiae i?aai
aaoueeai aeae?aoe nai?i ae?oyi iiao iaa/aiiy ? oaeoe/ii eiai aoei
aeei?enoaii aeey ?oneo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa. Iai?ee?ioe?
50-o ??. ii/aeany i?aai?caoe?y oe?e-?ioa?iao?a, aea iaa/aeeny ne?ioe,
ae?oe ?iaae?ae?a, iaeicaaacia/aieo aaouee?a oa iaeeiieeo iaoa??a.
Aecia/iei iaaeaaiaii ? a?iiaaenueeei ae?y/ai oeueiai /ano aoa aee?aeoi?
Iaaeeonueei? na?aaeiuei? oeiee ia E??iaia?aaeuei?, caneoaeaiee a/eoaeue
O?N?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
A.I.Nooiieeinueeee. Iniiaio oaaao a?i caa?oaa ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
aeoiaaiiy, a?aooaaiiy iniaenoino? o/iy.

O iaoeia? noa?? a oeae /an ?icoe?eeany ia?aaea iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
onoaiia (c 267 o 1945 ?. aei 462 o 1950 ?.). Iaea?eueoei iaoeiaei
oeaio?ii ?anioae?ee caeeoaeany Aeaaeai?y iaoe O?N?, yeo c 1962 ?.
i/ieth? A.?.Iaoii. Oe?a?inuee? a/ai? /eiaei c?iaeee aeey ?icaeoeo
?aeaoii? oaoi?ee, einiiiaaoeee, aeei?enoaiiy aoiiii? aia?a?? a ie?ieo
oe?eyo. O 1956 ?. aaia?aeueiei eiino?oeoi?ii aoae?aieoeoaa eini?/ieo
ei?aae?a noaa aeoiaeaoeue c AEeoiie?ueie N.Ei?ieueia. Oe?iea aeciaiiy ye
eiino?oeoi? oo?ai?aaeoeaieo aeaeaoi?a caeiaoa aeaaeai?e A.Etheueea.
Iaeiei c oai?oe?a aoiiii? aiiae aoa aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio I.Aeooia. ?icaeoeo
e?aa?iaoeee a Oe?a?i? ni?eyea i?aai?caoe?y a 1957 ?. Ia/enethaaeueiiai
oeaio?o AI O?N?, ia?aoai?aiiai caiaeii ia ?inoeooo e?aa?iaoeee. Eiai
aeinyaiaiiy iia‘ycai? c ?iaiai A.Aeooeiaa, ia?oiai ? aacci?iiiai
ai?iaeiaae 20 ?ie?a (c 1962 ?.) aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo. Na?aae i?iia??a
einiiiaaoeee aoa TH. A. Eiiae?aothe. Eiai ?aea? aoei iieeaaeaii a iniiao
i?iaeoo iieueioo ethaeeie ia i?nyoeue. I?ioa ?iaioo TH. A. Eiiae?aothea
ia aoei aeciaii a e?a?i?. Eiai e?eueea ?ac?a caa?aooiaoaaee, a?i eeoa
aeeaii ia iio?aiea i?ae noae, ana aeeooy ia?aoiaoaaany i?ae /oaeei
?iaiai. A oeae /an o iaoeia?e noa?? i?iyaeyany cano?e, iaee i?noea
oiouai? iiaeeeaino?, iaeiie/eeiny /eiaei iaae??oaieo i?iaeai,
iaaeie?e?a, ye? i?ecaiaeeee aei oiia?eueiaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
?ic?iaie, ao?aoe ia?aaeiaeo iiceoe?e o na?oia?e iaooe?.

Iaaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoei aeinyaiooi e?oa?aoo?iciaaoeyie, iiaiciaaoeyie,
aoiia?aoaie, ienoaoeoaiciaaoeyie, aeiiii?noaie, o?einioaie,
i?aaiciaaoeyie. ?iaioa inoaii?o cina?aaeaeoaaeanue o iiainoai?aiiio 1946
?. ?inoeooo? o?einio?? oa naeoi?? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa. O 1949 ?. aoei
?icii/aoi aeaeaiiy 20-oiiiiai c?a?aiiy oai??a ?. O?aiea, ia ii/aoeo 50-o
?ie?a aeaeaii iiaia c?a?aiiy oai??a 1. Eioey?aanueeiai, i?aeaioiaeaii
5-oiiia aeaeaiiy oai??a Ean? Oe?a?iee. Aoei aeiouaii oaeiae Oe?a?inueeo
?aaeyinueeo Aioeeeeiiaae?th a 17 oiiao, yea iacaaaeath/e ia iaaio ieceo
?aeaieiaai, ai?uoaaea cia/io e?euee?noue aeaaaeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iiaei yaeuai eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noaei oaeaaa/aiiy. Ia?oa ia?aaea/a
?anioae?eainueeiai oaeaaa/aiiy a?aeaoeany 5 eenoiiaaea 1951 ?. ??
aeeaeeeny a 150 eaa?oe?ao eeyie ii /i?ii-a?eeo iaeaiueeeo oaeai?eeia/ao.

A /ane i?aae?iiy E.?. A?aaei?aa (c 1964 ?.) ii/aany iiai?io aei
iainoae?i?cio, a?i noi?iaiaeaeoaaany ?ai?an?yie, ooeneaie oa
ia?ane?aeoaaiiyie aaaaoueio aeaeaoieo iaeno??a eoeueoo?e.
?ioaineo?eoaaany i?ioean ?oneo?eaoe??, ui iaa?oiooaaeiny oai???th
“caeeaeaiiy iaoe?e” ? ia?aoai?aiiy ?o ia iiao ?noi?e/io ni?euei?noue –
?aaeyinueeee ia?iae. Iniaeeai oe? i?ioeane iineeeeeny, eiee ea??aieeii
?anioae?ee noaa A.Ua?aeoeueeee (1972-1989 ??.). Aea/aiiy ?in?enueei?
iiae noaei iaia‘yceiaei, a oe?a?inueea aea/aeany ca aaaeaiiyi. ??cei
ciaioeeany e?euee?noue e?oa?aoo?e, ui aeaeaaaeany oe?a?inueeith iiaith.
O 1970 ?. ca iacaaie e?euee?noue eieaeie ? a?ioo?, aeaeaieo
oe?a?inueeith iiaith, neeaea eeoa 38,2%. ?aia?ooa? e?iioaao??a ia 99%
aoa ?in?enueeiiiaiei.

Oi/a c 1966 ?. ii/aeiny ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueiiiaia‘yceiai?
aeanyoe??/ii? ina?oe, ?icoe?thaaeany ia?aaea aoc?a, o oeae aea /an
iineethaaeany ?aeaieia?caoe?y oeiee, oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? noaee oi?o?eaoe?y, ?aeaieia?caoe?y, aei?noeee ia?o?eiee
eiio?ieue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ?aii?oaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaeoi?o.

?aeaieia?coaaeeny on? aeaee ienoaoeoaa. Ieooe?a i?ea/aee ieneeoe ia
no?eueee ooaeiaei?ie ia?acaie, ne?eueee iie?oe/ieie eaoaai??yie.
Iani?aaaaeeea?e aei?noe?e e?eoeoe? aoa i?aeaeaiee eeanee oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e I.Aii/a? ca ?iiai “Niai?” (1968), i?enay/aiee oai?
caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeooiaii? niaaeueie. Aei ii/aoeo
ia?aaoaeia/eo i?ioean?a oeae ?iiai aoei aeeo/aii c e?oa?aoo?iiai
i?ioeano. Aaoi? aee?ea ii?i/io i?aeoeeo aa?aa?nueeiai noaaeaiiy aei
eoeueoo?e ? i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a no/ani?e eiio Oe?a?i?, a?aeaa?oi
ciaeueiaaii i?e/eie ? iane?aeee ianiaiai ae?caeo iieiae? c n?e,
aeieia?/i? iane?aeee ooai?aiiy ooo/ieo “ii??a”, caneeey aacaeoiiiai
ea?‘??ecio oa aiethioa?ecio,

O 1962-1963 ??. ieooe?a-o?noaeanyoiee?a i?aeaeaee e?eoeoe?, oai?e
aaaaoueio c ieo ia?anoaee ae?oeoaaoe. O 1965 ?. i?ieioeeany ia?oa oaeey
a?aoo?a oe?a?inueeeo o?noaeanyoiee?a, cie?aia aoei caa?aooiaaii
N.Ia?aaeaeaiiaa, A.*i?iia?ea, a?ao?a I. oa I. Ai?ei?a, o 1972 ?. –
ae?oaa oaeey (caa?aooiaaii A.Noona, ?.Na?oee/iiai, ?.Naa?nothea).
Ni?eeai eeioa aeeeee oioae?oa?iee nenoai? e?eoee ?.Aecthaa nai?th
eieaith “?ioa?iaoe?iiae?ci /e ?oneo?eaoe?y?”(1972). Oaeoe/ii oe?
i?ioeane aoee ?aai?iaoe??th “aeaeai?aueie”, ai?ioueae c “oe?a?inueeei
ao?aeoaciei iaoe?iiae?ciii”. *a?ac iani?eeiyooy aeiaiaoe/iiai ieneaiiy o
1980 ?. aaeaany aei naiiaoanoaa oaeaiiaeoee ienueiaiiee A?eai??e
Othothiiee, o 1981 ?. – A.Aeeciaoeue. ?c ni?eee ienueiaiiee?a Oe?a?ie
i?ae /an /enoee aoei aeeeth/aii ?.Aecthao, A.*e/eaaa?ia, aeneaii ca
ei?aeii A.Iae?aniaa.

?ai?an?e caciaee ? i?aaenoaaieee ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa, cie?aia
ooiaeaoi?e oieueeei?iiai iai?yieo a oe?a?inueeiio iaey?noa? A.Ai?nueea,
A.Ca?aoeueeee, I.Caeeaaoa, E.Naiee?ia, eiiiiceoi?e I.Nei?ee oa
A.?aanthe.

I?ney i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee I.N.Ai?aa/iaa ii/aeiny iiaa iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ia?ic?eaii iia‘ycaia c ?aea?th caeiaoooy
aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?. O 1989 ?., i?ney ia?oeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
aeai??a aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N?, iath c aaee/acieie oneeaaeiaiiyie aoei
i?eeiyoi Caeii O?N? “I?i iiae a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?”, ni?yiiaaiee ia caoeno
iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae, caaacia/aiiy ?? anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a on?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy. A?aeiia?aeii aei
Caeiio, oe?a?inueeo iiao a ?anioae?oe? i?iaieioaii aea?aeaaith. I?e
oeueiio ?aae?caoe?y Caeiio iaooiaoioeany ia oneeaaeiaiiy, iia’ycai? c
iaaaaeaiiyi ci?ithaaoe iiao ae?eiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy a?eueo?noth onoaiia.
Oe?a?inueea iiaa ii ?ia?oe?? ni?eeiaeany ua ye i?ia?ioe?eia oa
naeyinueea, neaaei ?icaeiaia ? acaaae? iai?enoeaeia.

?ieue aaaiaa?aeo a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, e?ea?aeaoe?? “a?eeo
ieyi ?noi???” a?ae?a?aea Ni?eea ienueiaiiee?a Oe?a?ie oa ??
oeaio?aeueiee i?aai – aacaoa “E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia”. Ioae?oeenoenea
caeiyea i?ia?aei? iiceoe??: oe?ieee ?aciiain iaee aenooie I.Aii/a?a,
A.Ie?eieea, A.ssai??anueeiai. Ii/aee ae?oeoaaoe caai?iiai? ?ai?oa oai?e
A.Aeiie/aiea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, I.Ca?iaa, I.Oaeeueiaiai, ?ioeo
?ai?aniaaieo iiao?a ? ienueiaiiee?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e. Iinooiiai ci?ieeeny aeoeaioe a ieoaiiyo a??iaeciaiiy,
i?iaieioaii caaacia/aiiy i?aaa naiaiaee nia?no?, ii/aeany a?aeaoaeiaa
aaaaoueio caiono?eeo, aeei?enoiaoaaieo ye ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee ?
i?inoi iaaei?oeiiaaieo i?ioyaii 20-80-o ??. oea?eiaieo i?ei?uaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, ?aaeyinueeee aoai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
(1921-1991??.) iicia/aiee o eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie aino?eie
noia?a/iinoyie, o?aa?/ieie iiae?yie. Iaoa eoeueoo?a caciaea aaee/acieo
ao?ao, caaeioee nioi? oaeaiiaeoeo ?? iaeno??a. Aeaaea iaeeaaeaea oyaeeee
i?an ia iaoeiao aeoieo, i?ei?oecoaaa ??, a aaeoc? e?oa?aoo?e oa
ienoaoeoaa a?a aei caaaeueiiai cieaeaiiy anoaoe/iiai ??aiy, i?ae
oaeueoeaeie aaneaie “iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino?” oa “?aeeii? caaaeueii
?aaeyinueei? ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e” iineethaaeeny i?ioeane
oe?eani?yiiaaii? aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. I?ioa ana
oea ia iiaei iinoaaeoe ia?aaeiao oe?a?inueeo ?ioae?aaioe?th ia iiceoe??
niiaeyaeaeueiiai, i?eie?ainueeiai oa?aeoa?o. E?aua ?? /anoeia ai?ieany
ca aeaiie?aoe/i? i?aaa e naiaiaee (o oiio /ene? e naiaiaeo oai?/ino?),
ca ni?eyoeea? oiiae ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a aeaeeea anoia?a/ an?i ooeneai ? yaeea na?oo aaeee? iaaooee o
aaaaoueio noa?ao eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, ianaiia?aae iaooe?, e?oa?aoo??,
ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa?, ioceoe?.

3. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e a aeiao ?icaoaeiae
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie (1991-? aei iaoiai /ano).

I?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie (24 na?iiy 1991?.) ? ?icaoaeiaa
naiino?eii? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ia noai?eee i?eioeeiiai iia?, oi?iaeueii
oe?eeii ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e. 19 ethoiai 1992 ?.
Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie ooaaeeea “Iniiae caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i eoeueoo?o”,
yeeie ia?aaeaa/ai? caoiaee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. O oeueiio ae ?ioe? aoea ?ic?iaeaia Aea?aeaaia
iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Oe?a?inueea ina?oa a OO? no.”, a Aa?oiaiith
?aaeith i?eeiyoi “Caeii i?i ina?oo”. A oeeo aeieoiaioao ia?aaeaa/aia
aeaiie?aoecaoe?y ina?oe, iineeaiiy oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy oe?e,
aeaeaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a, noai?aiiy oi?aa?neoaonueeeo eiiieaen?a, ia?aae?
e?oea?a.

O 1992 ?. aoei a?aeiiaeaii ae?yeuei?noue Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? Aeaaeai?? –
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo iiaiai oeio, aea aeeeaaeaiiy ? iaa/aiiy aaaeaoueny
oe?a?inueeith ? aiae?enueeith iiaaie. Cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae ia
o?enooiaiaao i?aeaioiaeo: aaeaeaa?, niaoe?ae?no, iaa?no?. Aoce noathoue
a?eueo aaoiiiiieie. O nenoai? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie
noai?aii aeae?eueea iiaeo iaoeiaeo ?inoeooo?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao??, ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa.
Iaeiae iecueeee ??aaiue o?iainoaaiiy i?eca?a aei oiai, ui iaoeia?
onoaiiae ao?aoeee aei 50% naiai neeaaeo. Aaea i?ioyaii oe?eiai
aeanyoee?ooy niinoa??aa?oueny “a?aeieea” /anoeie ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe
o e?a?ie c a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie oiiaaie aeeooy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeiiii?/io ?eco oa ?io? iaaa?acaee, cia/ieo oni?o?a ca
?iee iacaeaaeiino? aeinyaee oe?a?inuee? nii?oniaie. O oeueiio iiaeia
aa/eoe i?iaeiaaeaiiy e?aueo o?aaeeoe?e iiia?aaeiueiai /ano ( c 639
ie?ii?enueeeo iaaeaeae, caaieiaaieo ?aaeyinueeeie nii?oniaiaie, ia
?aooieo oe?a?inueeeo – 444, a oiio /ene? 196 cieioeo).

Ne?iii?oeie ? oni?oe no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai e?iiienoaoeoaa. Aeeoei
aaaaoi aeieoiaioaeueieo o?euei?a, i?enay/aieo a iniiaiiio, ?noi?e/iiio
ieioeiio Oe?a?ie. Noai?aii aeae?eueea aaaaoina??eieo o?euei?a, na?aae
ieo “Naae Aaoneiainueeee” ca iioeaaie oai??a ?.Aaa?yiiai, “Ianoea” (ca
?. O?aieii), oaeana??ae “?ienieaia” oa ?i. Ia 34 e?iioanoeaae? a
Nai-?aii oe?a?inueeiio o?eueio “?caie” (ca iioeaaie iia?no? A.Ae?ia?iaa,
?aaeena? A.Naaaeue?a, i?iaethna? A.A?aoia?, O?I) i?enoaeaeaii A?ai-i??.

I?iaeiaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo no/aniiai oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i?
iia‘ycaia ia?aaeon?i c ae?yeuei?noth oaeeo yne?aaeo ?aaeena??a, ye
?.A?eothe, A.AEieaeae, N.Aeii/aiei, A.Oa?aa?ei, oa aeoi??a A. Nooiee,
A.Oino?ei?aa, A.Aaithea, I. oa I.Noinueeeo.

Iiceoeaiei iiiaioii o ?iaio? aea?aeaaiiai oaeaaa/aiiy noaea o?aineyoe?y
ooaeiaei?o o?euei?a ? oaeana??ae?a oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Nooo?ai ci?ieei
ci?no nai?o i?ia?ai Oe?a?inueea ?aae?i. Aiie noaee i?ioan?iiaeueieie,
iaoe?iiaeueii ni?yiiaaieie. I?ioa c?inoa? eiia?oe?ae?caoe?y cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? – aacao, eaiae?a oaeaaa/aiiy, ?aae?inoaioe?e, na?aae
yeeo cia/ia /anoeia i???ioothoueny ia iaeiaeaaaeeaiai ?
aeaci???ioiaaiiai /eoa/a, aeyaea/a, neooa/a, iioe?thth/e iecueeii?iaio e
ia??aeei i?inoi aaca?aeiia?aeaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th oa no?iaaoi? ae?iae
ianeoeueo?anueeiai oe?iio?aao.

Iaiaeiicia/iei ? ?icaeoie e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano. I?iaeiaaeothoue
oai?eoe ienueiaiieee e iiaoe noa?oiai iieie?iiy: ?.Ae?a/, ?.?aaie/oe,
I.Caa?aaaeueiee, E.Einoaiei, TH.Iooeaoee, A.Ie?eiee, Ae.Iaaee/ei. I?ioa
e?oa?aoo?a a?ae/oaa? ia nia? oene ?eieo, aiia ciooaia eoe ca /eoa/ai
(iieoioeai). Oey oaiaeaioe?y ni?ey? ?icaeoeo ianiai? oa iiioey?ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ia?aaaaeii ?in?enueeiiiaii?. ?icea?oathoue oae? aeai?e, ye
oaioanoeea, aeaoaeoea, ethaiaii-aaaioth?iee ?iiai. A?aeiieie aeaeaei ca
iaaeaie Oe?a?ie ienueiaiieeaie-oaioanoaie ? Aai?? Eaeii Ieae?
(eieaeoeaiee inaaaeii?i Ae.A?iiiaa oa I.Eaaeeaeeinueeiai), A.Aaeaioeiia,
I. oa N.Aey/aiee, iaeno?ii ethaiaii-aaaioth?iiai aeai?o aaaaea?oueny
Neiiia A?ea? (I.Aaa?eeaiei).

Iiee ui iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe neooi?noue aeoiee aecia/iiai oe?a?inueeiai
eiina?aaoi?a ii/aoeo OO no. A.Eeieinueeiai, yeee a “Eenoao aei a?ao?a –
oe?ai?ia?a” ciaethaaa ea?oeio i?iaeaiaoe/iino? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iii?
iaoe?? ia oa?eoi???, ui caeiaoea iacaeaaei?noue ia oeyoii i?eioeeiiai?
aecaieueii? ai?ioueae, a aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo iao?iiie??. Iaeiae
inoaii?ie ?ieaie ?ia?oe?ei?noue ieneaiiy ? ?oaeeiaioe noa?iai aeeooy ona
aeae? a?aeoiaeyoue a ieioea, a a no/aniiio eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie
iiaeia a?aecia/eoe iaiaae?eeea? iiceoeai? oaiaeaioe??, ye?
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea /eiiee?a, ui aieeaaoeiooue ia iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, a naia: 1) iiaeeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiii?ciaiiy oa naiiona?aeiieaiiy; 2) noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?nioaaiiy,
?icaeoeo, ni?ai?aoe? oa ciaaaiiy ?icia?oeo o?einionueeeo, ?ae?a?eieo,
e?oa?aoo?ieo, ia?acioai?/eo, ioce/ieo oa/?e, iai?yi?a, oe?e, oiaoi
ae?enia noaa?aeaeaiiy naiaiaee aeooiaii? oai?/ino?; 3) a?aooaaiiy
na?oiaiai eoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo, ona?aeiieaiiy aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e ye eaiee na?oiaiai eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano, ni?ao/anoue o
na?oiaiio eoeueoo?iiio iai?i? ca oiia aeciaiiy i??i?eoaoo
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae oa ona?aeiieaiiy caie? ye ni?eueiiai
aeiio onueiai ethaenoaa; 4) anaa?/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?aca?a?a
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, iiaeeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioaeueiino?, i???ioaoe?y ia noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueieo eoeueoo?ieo
oe?iiinoae, ui iathoue ia eeoa iaoe?iiaeueia, aea e caaaeueiiethaenueea,
na?oiaa cia/aiiy, aaeaea inoaii? ? ? e?eoa???i c??eino? eoeueoo?e.

Ca?ac iiee ui aaaeei ia?aaeaa/eoe eiie?aoi? oi?ie, yeeo iaaoaea
eoeueoo?a a oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aea
i?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th, iaaooue, aoaea ?ice??ia/aiiy oai?/ino?,
caaaa/aiiy ienoaoeueeiai a?naiaeo, iineeaiiy iiaaoi?nueeeo oaiaeaioe?e ?
aiaeii/an caa?oaiiy aei aeaea?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? o?aaeeoe?? ye aei oeiee
ooaeiaeiueiai ieneaiiy.

Iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai ia nueiaiaei? ? aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. I?iaeoiaia nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio noiniaii oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, yea a ia
ii?oooaaea ?ioa?ane ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ina?aaee?a Oe?a?ie ? ia
noia?a/eea caaaeueiiethaenueeei i?eioeeiai, aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea
eoeueoo? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei – inue iaeei c iaiao?aeieo iai?yi?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoi? aea?aeaae. Iniaeeai? oaaae
iio?aao? oe?a?i?caoe?y ??cieo oi?i ianiai? eoeueoo?e, no/anii?
?iaeono??? ?icaaa, a oaeiae oeo iia?oi?o aeae?a oa aeai??a eoeueoo?e,
ye? c ??cieo i?e/ei ia ?icaeaathoueny a Oe?a?i? aai ao?aoeee
iaoe?iiaeueio aecia/ai?noue (oaeaa?c?ei? aeai?e, iia?aoa, ??ci? oi?ie
a?aeaieoeueoo?e).

Ocaaaeueiaiiy

Oaeei /eiii, i?ioyaii OO no. oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a ?icaeaaeany a
neeaaeieo oiiaao, ?? iinooi iaa caeaa?eueoiai noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?.
I?ioa aiia cana?ae/eea naith i?oei?noue. Oai?/? neee ia?iaeo ia
ae/a?iaeeny, ? nueiaiaei? ie ? na?aeeaie iaiaae?eeeaeo i?ioean?a.
Nueiaiaei? oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a – oea aacia?a?aiee ?oo iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae. A?i a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ??cieie nioe?oiaie,
noni?eueieie aa?noaaie oa iieie?iiyie ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeooiaiei
i?aeianaiiyi aai ae aeooiaiei ceaiii, ui o nai?e noia?a/iino? ?
na?ae/eoue i?i iiaiie?iai?noue aeeooy iaoe??.

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