Oee?e (eao. circus) — aeaeyae aeaeiaeuiiai ienoaoeoaa, ca caeiiaie yeiai
aoaeo?oueny ?icaaaeaeueia aenoaaa, ye i?aaeei, ia a?ai? niaoe?aeueii?
aoae?ae? (e?oaei? oi?ie c aenieei eoiieii). Iniiaith oee?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa aaaaea?oueny aeaiiino?aoe?y iacae/aeiiai (aenoeaio?eea) ?
ni?oiiai; oa?aeoa?iith i?eiaeaaei?noth no/aniiai oee?eo ? aeaiiino?aoe?y
oieon?a, iaioii?ie, eeioiaaee, aeiyoeiaeo cae?aiinoae, /anoi iia’ycaieo
c ?eceeii (oiaaiaeioai??, iaiaaeioai??, o?ce/ia neea, ae?iaaoeea,
aea?e?a?enoeea, no?eaee) ae?ane?iaaieo oaa?ei. Oee?eiaa o?oia iiaea
iino?eii aacoaaoeny a i?no? ? iaoe iaaio aoae?aeth, aaeeeo ?ieue a
?noi??? aeai?o a?aa a?iaey/ee oee?e.

Ia «oee?ea/?», a «oee?eia?». Ia «oee?ea/?a» ia?acyoueny – oea ia?aca,
i?eaeecii ye «aeeaee, oioee». Oiio ui oee?eia? – iniaeeaa
iaoe?iiaeuei?noue, iaeaiueeee ia?iae /enaeuei?noth ii?yaeeo i’youe
oeny/. Oee?eia? iae?oaeothoueny iaeei ia iaeiiio, ia?iaeaeothoue
oee?eiaeo ae?oae ? caeeoathoueny a oee?eo aei e?ioey aeeooy – eane?aie,
a?eaoa?aie, aaei?i?no?aoi?aie, a?oenoaie. An? aiie iin?? ae?aaiueiai
ciaiiy, ui neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio ?ie?a o?aioaaiiy ? i?eueeiia
nae?ao?a, ui ia?aaeathoueny c iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy. Aeaye? oee?eia?
aeeiano?? oyaiooueny c aei?aaiethoe?eieo /an?a. Iaeaea an? oee?ee a
?in?? ye ? ? ?ai?oa a?iaey/?, Aei Ee?aa i?e?aeaeaeaee ia eeoa ie?ai?
iaoe?iiaeuei? iiia?e, a oe?e? iaoe?iiaeuei? oee?eia? eieaeoeae. ae?oe
an? oae naii c?inoathoue ia oe?n? ? c iieieii iaoa??, aae?athoue uinue
oaea, ui aeicaiey? oee?eiaei aeaeeaaoe a aoaeue-yeeo ianoaaeiao, aei
noa?ino? oiaeeoe ii eaiaoo, niaoe o aaaii/eeao, ea?oaaoe aeeeeie
oaa?eiaie. Oee?eiaa aeeooy, ie oea iai’yoa?ii c aeeoeinoaa ? c eiea,
ioi/aia oa?iieoeyie – iiaeeeai, oyaieie.

?noi??y ee?anueeiai oee?eo

Aei 1875 a Ee?a? ia aoei noaoe?iia?iiai oee?eo, ?nioaaee eeoa oei/ania?
aea?aa’yi? aai a?acaioia? oee?ee, ye? i?aoethaaee anueiai aeae?eueea
i?nyoe?a, i?ney /iai ?o ?icae?aee. O 1868 ?ioe? o?aioeoc Iathno
Aa?aiiuea eoiea a oeaio?? Ee?aa caiaeueio ae?eyieo ? caa?ioany aei
I?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy ca aeicaieii iiaoaeoaaoe ia oe?e oa?eoi???
noaoe?iia?iee eai’yiee oee?e, ia ui iacaaa?ii io?eiaa aeica?e. A?i
ciaoiaeeany oai, aea ca?ac ?icoaoiaaiee oaao? ?in?enueei? ae?aie ?i.
Ean? Oe?a?iee. A?aee?eooy «Oee?ea Aa?aiiuea» a?aeaoeiny a 1875 ?ioe?. O
i?i aenooiaee ae?ane?oaaeueiee eiiae. Aea /a?ac o?e ?iee ieaie aeanieea
iii?iyeeny: cai?noue oee?eo cai?aoethaaa ae?aiaoe/iee oaao?, yeee aae
aei ?aaiethoe?? iinea ?i’y Aa?aiiuea. O Ee?a? i?aoethaaee ? ?io? oee?ee
— cie?aia a 1903 aoa iiaoaeiaaiee oee?e, aea aenooiaa E?oo?eia c
ae?ane?iaaieie e?iueie. Ia ?ic? aoeeoeue Naenaaainueei? ? Aaeeeith
Aaneeuee?anueei? i?ney a?eie i?aoethaaa oee?e a yeiio aenooiaee oae?
aeaeaoi? iaeno?e oee?eiaiai aeai?o ye Aeo?ia, Cieei, Eei. Iniaeeai
a?aeiiee aoa eeioi ? ae?ane?oaaeueiee Ieoaeei Cieei — naiai /ano naia
eiio oea? Ieeiea II, a?aaeaiee aenooiii a?oenoa, iiaea?oaaa na?e cieioee
aiaeeiiee ia eaioethaeeo. O Ieoaeea Cieei aoea naiy oee?eiaa o?oia ?
ca??eiaoeue a yeiio i?noeeiny aeecueei 200 oaa?ei.

No/ania aoae?aey Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oee?eo Oe?a?ie ?ic?aoiaaia ia 2100
i?noeue, Ee?anueeee oee?e aoa a?aee?eoee a 1961 ?ioe?. Aoae?aey oee?eo –
iaea?eueoa eoiieueia aoae?aey a i?no?. I?iaeo aoae?ae? oee?eo noai?ea
a?o?oaeoi? AEoeia?. O 1968 ?ioe? a Ee?a? ia iaiaae? oee?eo
aeaiiino?oaaeany i?aeia?iaeia oee?eiaa i?ia?aia. O i?e a?aee o/anoue
a?oenoe c? an?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i ? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco

O 1998 ?ioe? Ee?anueeee oee?e io?eiaa noaoon Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oee?eo
Oe?a?ie, ui aeaei eiio i?aai iaceaaoeny aieiaiei oee?eii Oe?a?ie.

Oa?e?anueeee oee?e — iaenoa??oee a Oe?a?i?. Caniiaaiee a 1886 ?., a?i
?ici?uoaaany a niaoe?aeueii iiaoaeiaai?e aoae?ae?, ui caa?aaeany ?
iiiei? ia ie. *a?aiiiai I?e?oe?iia?a Ia ii/aoeo OO no a Oa?eia? aoee
iaa?oue aeaa oee?ee, ae?oaa aoae?aey aoea iiaoaeiaaia oaao?aeueiei
i?aei?e?ioeai a?aeii ?. Ionno??.

Oeae oaeo aeoaea aeeaoaaa i?e?aeaeaeeo — aia?eeaioe?a, ?oae?eoe?a,
i?ioe?a, o?aioeoc?a: «Aeaa oee?ee a Oa?eia??! Ia/oaaia ?ice?o!» O
iei?oi? i?ei?uaiiy (ie. ??eie Aoa??iiai?, 1), ui ai?ua? a?eueoa aeaio
oeny/ aeyaea/?a, iaeaaeiaia eiiaeeoe?iia?aie, niaoe?aeueieie e?ooaie ?
?i., oee?e ia?a?oaa a 1977 ?ioe?. Ia noaiaeao aenoaaee, ?icai?iooi? o
oie?, — ?iaia i?ineaaeaieo iaeno??a iaiaaea/e, ye? ii/eiaee naith oai?/o
aei?iao a Oa?eia?.

Oee?e — oea ienoaoeoai i?yiiai ao??o. ? oai i?aoeththoue aeea? ethaee, ?
aeaye? i?ae ?ioei aoee iai?eeeaae i?ia?aeieie a?iianoaie ?in?enueeiai
nii?oo. O NOA a?eueo?noue oee?eiaeo — oea ?in?yie. Oee?e – oea ia nii?o.
Ia ciaaaiiyo aeineoue i?aeiyoe ?aei?aeio aaao, a a oee?eo oea iiaeiii
aooe i?eaieiioeeaei aeaeiaeuai.

Ae?ane?oaaeueieee caoiiethaaee aeyaea/?a ia eeoa aoaeoieie o?theaie, ye?
aeeiioaaee eiai aeoiaaioe?, aea ? aacno?aoi?noth naiiai
ae?ane?oaaeueieea. aeia??a aei oaa?ei, oiaaiai?noue, neea aeooo, oi?iiy
aieiae?oe niaith. Aiie aeaiiino?oaaee ae?ane?iaaieo iaai, neii?a, iii?,
aaia?ae?a, aaaeiaae?a, eiiae.

Ioce/i? ae?iaaoe. Aiie aeeiioaaee iiioey?i? iaeiae?? ia ioce/ieo
?ino?oiaioao a iaeiaeiia??i?oeo iieiaeaiiyo: iai?eeeaae a no?eoe?
“eiioooaei” — “aieiaa a aieiao” a?aee ia o?oaao. I?e oeueiio iio??aii
aoei ia eeoa caa??aaoe aaeain, aea ? i?aaeeueii aeeoaoe, uia ia
noaeueneo?eoaaoe! Aeeiioaaee aiie iaeiae?th ? oiae?, eiee iaeei c ieo
ciaoiaeeany a no?eoe? ia ?ooe? ia aieia? ieaeiueiai

Iia?o?yi? ae?iaaoe aeeiioaaee ae?iaaoe/i? o?thee, ye? aeeiiothoue
a?oenoe ia iaiaae?, aeaiiino?oaaee aeniei i?ae eoiieii oee?eo.

Ooaeiaeiuei-ae?iaaoe/i? a?oie, ui neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio a?oeno?a,
a?oenoe a einothiao, i?ee?aoaieo iaoe?iiaeueiei i?iaiaioii, ia
i’?aeanoae?, ui na?oeoueny, aeaoaeiaoaaee aeea? i??ai?aee,
aeaiiino?oaaee neeaaeio ae?iaaoe/io i?aeo?eieo. Oai ana nueiaiaeaiiy,
ni?aaaei? o?thee, ae?iaaoe ia no?eaathoue i?ae «oaia?o», ni?aaaei?
ia?aeiie, aeaeoe…

Aaeio?ao?enoe aiie aeaiiino?oaaee a??ooicio o?theiao ?caeo ia
aaeineiaaeao: ?caeeee noiy/e ia neae?ii?, ia ?ai? aaeineiaaea,
iaoiaeeeeny aac ea?ia. Ia iea/ao a?oenoa, ui ?aea ia aaeineiaae?,
aeoeeiaoaaeeny aeea? eieiie, i??ai?aee — iaeei a?oeno a?c o?noueio
ia?oia??a.

Aea?e?a?enoe ? aeiiaea?e a?oenoe cae?enithaaee ia ae?io? caiaii?i/eea?
no?eaee, i?aei?iaeeny ii noiaeao, ui noiyoue ia eaiao?, ? i?iyaeyth/e
i?e oeueiio /oaeana ??aiiaaae, oaioethaaee. Ia iaiaae? aiie aeiiaethaaee
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeie ? iaa?oue aecioe/ieie i?aaeiaoaie — nooiaie,
/aoeaie, oa??eeaie ? iaeeoeyie, aeaiiino?oth aeaiaioe iaoe?iiaeueieo
ia?iaeieo ia?yaeiaeo ?ai?.

Eeioi — a?oeno, i?aeiyaoenue ia i??ai?aeo c aeae?eueeio eioooie, an?ia
niiniaaie iaiaaa?oueny oo?eiaoe ??aiiaaao — eiai eii?/i? ni?iae
aeeeeeathoue iini?oee aeyaea/a.

Oieonieee iieacothoue ia?aaeuei? ia?aoai?aiiy.

ss ethaeth oee?e, oiio ui oea i?ae?ania ienoaoeoai. Oe i?eoiaeeo a oee?e
? aeeaeony aeeao ni?aaaeith aenoaao . Ui naia caoiieth?, ui ia iaiaae?
iiaeia oai?eoe aeeaa a i?yiiio ? ia?aiiniiio nain?, i? ia iaei?e ?ioiio
iaeaeai/eeo iaiiaeeeai noai?thaaoe oae? oio ye a oee?eo. Iaa?oue yeui
ooinue c ano?aaeieo aeeiiaaoe?a noi/ooue c?iaeoe uinue a?aiae?icia, oae
aiie eaeooue a oee?e, aa?ooue o/anoue a ??cieo iiia?ao. Ca ?aooiie oaeeo
iiia??a a oee?eo aiie i?ae?eiathoue nia? ?aeoeiae na?aae ?ioeo
ano?aaeieo aeeiiaaoe?a. Ia?ii aeaye? aaaaeathoue oee?e aanaeee eeoa aeey
ae?oae, ca?ac a?eueoa ooee ia iieiae?aeio ioae?eo.

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