?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e»

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e

Eoeueoo?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?icaeaaeany ia ?cieueiaaii a?ae eoeueoo?
?ioeo ia?iae?a, a ia?aaoaaea, caeiiii??ii, a eiioaeno? na?oiaiai
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Oe?a?ioe? a?eaie oai?eee aeanio naiiaooith
eoeueoo?o, oniaaeeiaoth/e eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino? nai?o i?aaee?a,
ia?aeiath/e ? oai?/i inienethth/e iaaeaaiiy ?ioeo ia?iae?a. Oeei naiei
aiie ?icaeaaee ia eeoa iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?o, aea e c?iaeee aaaiiee
aianie o nea?aieoeth na?oiai?. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e ? ?? a?aee?eo?noue ? noaa?euei?noue, caeaoi?noue ni?eeiaoe e
oe?a?i?ciaoaaoe ??ci? eoeueoo?ieia?/i? aieeae. Caaaeyee oeueiio
oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a i?ioyaii nai?? ?noi??? aea?/? ciiaea
a?ae?iaeeoenue ? caa?aaoe aeooiaiee aaiioiiae iaoe?? a oiiaao
eieii?aeueiiai ai?oo.

Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a noie?ooyie ?icaeaaeanue a eii? eeoianueei?,
iieuenueei?, ?in?enueei?. Oiio aiia ioe?ithaaeanue ie?aieie
aeine?aeieeaie ye iio?aeia oa «i?ia?ioe?eia». Ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e iaaaoeaii aieeaaea a?aenooi?noue aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?,
?aeeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e. A oiiaao
eieii?aeueii? caeaaeiino? neiaoaaany oai?/ee aeoo ? naiiaooi?noue
iaoe??, aaeueioaaeenue aai noaaaee iaiiaeeeaeie eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane.

Caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?, ?icaoaeiaa naiino?eii? aea?aeaae,
c?inoaiiy naiina?aeiiino? iaoe?? ? neeaaeiee i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aei
iiaiai noni?euenoaa ia ceai? aiio aeiaaathoue iiaiai aena?oeaiiy
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo i?iaeai, a?aee?eaathoue iia? ia??? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Ana oea coiiaeei c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei ?noi???
oa i?iaeai oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, yeee, ia aeaeue, caaeiaieueiy?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei, ine?eueee a iaoeiaiio ieai? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e aeine?aeaeai? o?aaiaioa?ia.

?ice?eoe nooi?noue ? iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e
iiaeia ia iniia? no/anii? oai??? eoeueoo?e, yeo i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe
eoeueoo?ieia??th. Oea ii??aiyii iieiaea iaoea, oi/a nai?ie aeoieaie aiia
nyaa? aae aei aioe/iiai na?oo. Na?aae ia?oeo aeine?aeiee?a, ye?
ei?enooaaeenue oa?i?iii «eoeueoo?ieia?y» i?e aiae?c? i?iaeai eoeueoo?e,
aoa aia?eeainueeee aio?iiieia Eane? Oaeo (1900—1975 ??.). Oeae oa?i?i
aeeoia ca aeaaeai?/i? iaae? e iaaoa cia/iiai iioe?aiiy i?ney ioae?eaoe??
i?aoeue E. Oaeoa, a yeeo aoea aeeeaaeaia caaaeueia oai??y eoeueoo?e ?
ia??oioiaaia ?? ia’?eoeai?noue.

I?iaeaia nenoaiaoecaoe?? eoeueoo?e ? ?ice?eooy ?? no?oeoo?e ? aeineoue
neeaaeiith. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui ethaenoai iaa?iiaaeeei aaee/aci?
iaoa??aeuei? e aeooiai? oe?iiino?, noai?ai? a ??ci? aiioe ??cieie
ia?iaeaie, eio?? oaia? noaee caaaeueiiethaenueeei eoeueoo?iei nieaaii.
E??i oiai, eoeueoo?iee i?ioean — oea aeeaa ethaenueea ae?yeuei?noue, ui
iie?a?oueny ia eoeueoo?io niaaeueio 1200 iieie?iue ethaenueeiai ?iaeo,
ye? caaaaoeee eoeueoo?o nai?ie ciaiiyie, oai?/?noth, iiaeie
a?aee?eooyie, aeina?aeii, iaae/eaie ? ai?iiyie. *a?ac iai?i oe?iiinoyie
eoeueoo?e ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no eoeueoo?iiai i?ia?ano.

No/ani?e iaooe? aaea?oueny aeyaeoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe no?oeoo?i? /anoeie
eoeueoo?e. Aeey oeueiai aaaeeeai ciaeoe ia??oioiaaiee e?eoa??e oaeiai
iiae?eo. No?oeoo?i? /anoeie eoeueoo?e a iao /an i?eeiyoi aeae?eyoe ia
iniia? ?? iin??a. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? a eoeueoo?? i?aaii??ii aeae?eyoe
na?oiao ? iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?e. Na?oiaa eoeueoo?a — oea neioac e?aueo
c?ace?a iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo? ??cieo ia?iae?a, ui noaee
caaaeueiiethaenueeei iaaeaaiiyi. Iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a ? neioacii
oe?iiinoae, noai?aieo ??cieie nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie ethaeae ? eeanaie
aeaiiai noni?euenoaa. Nai???aei?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ??
iaiiaoi?i?noue oa i?ea?iaeuei?noue aeyaeythoueny a aeooiai?e noa??, ia?o
ca ana a iia?, e?oa?aoo??, ioceoe?, aeeaiien?, o?einio??, o?aaeeoe?yo,
?ae?a??. Iaoa??aeueio noa?o iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e neeaaeathoue eaae
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, o?aaeeoe?? i?aoe? e ae?iaieoeoaa, eoeueoo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oiui.

Ca eiie?aoieie iin?yie aeae?ey?oueny eoeueoo?a i?nueea ? n?euenueea,
eeaniaa ? aoi?/ia, i?ioan?eia ? iieiae?aeia, eoeueoo?a n?i’? /e ie?aii?
ethaeeie. Caaaeueiiaeciaiei ? aeae?eaiiy iai?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e, yeo
?iiae? iaceaathoue ia?iaeiith oai?/?noth. A?aeiiee ?in?enueeee a/aiee
I.I. Einnueeee i?aee?anethaaa, ui «iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a noa?
a?aeiiith a oe?eiio na?o? eeoa oiae?, eiee oe?iiino?, ?icaeioo? a i?e,
noathoue aeinyaiaiiyi anueiai ethaenoaa». Ia?o ca ana na?oiaa cia/aiiy
iaea eoeueoo?a Noa?iaeaaiuei? A?aoe?? ? Noa?iaeaaiueiai ?eio. A iao /an
oaea cia/aiiy i?eoaiaiia eoeueoo?ai Aiae??, O?aioe??, I?ia//eie,
Aia?eee. Na?oiaiai cao/aiiy iinooiiai iaaoaa? e oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a.

I?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai, ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?
eeaniaiai a eoeueoo?? — aeooaeueia ? aeineoue neeaaeia i?iaeaia
no/aniino?. I?e ?icaeyae? oeueiai ieoaiiy aaaeeeai iaoe /?oe? e?eoa??? ?
ia’?eoeaii ?noi?e/iee iiaeyae ia eoeueoo?o, iicaaaeaiee ?aeaieia?caoe??
oa iie?oe/ieo i?eno?anoae. Aaniethoecaoe?y i?eioeeio eeaniaiai
i?aeoiaeo, ui iaioaaea a N?N?, aaaea aei ia?ae?o/aiue ? i?aaethaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai o ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e. I?ioenoaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiio, caaaeueiiethaenueeiio, i?eaiaeeoue aei
naii?cieyoe?? eoeueoo?e ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo aei ?? aeaa?aaeaoe??.

Ia iniia? ??ciiaeaeiinoae ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? no/ania iaoea
aeae?ey? aea? oi?ie eoeueoo?e: iaoa??aeueia ? aeooiaia. C?icoi?ei, ui
oeae iiae?e aeiaie? oiiaiee, ine?eueee a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo? oe? oi?ie
eoeueoo?e aca?iiiia’ycai?.

Aei iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iaeaaeaoue oae? ?? ??ciiaeaee: eoeueoo?a
i?aoe? e iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa; eoeueoo?a iiaooo; eoeueoo?a
?aa?iio ? i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy; iniaenoa eoeueoo?a; o?ce/ia eoeueoo?a.
Iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a ia ??aiicia/ia iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoao. Aiia
oa?aeoa?eco? iaoa??aeueio ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae c oi/ee ci?o ?? aieeao
ia ?icaeoie iniae ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?aae?caoe?? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
oa iaaea?oaaiue ethaeeie.

Aeooiaia eoeueoo?a ooai?th? aeineoue neeaaeio nenoaio, ui aeeth/a?
i?ciaaaeueio eoeueoo?o (iaoeo, ina?oo, o?einio?th), ii?aeueio,
ooaeiaeith, i?aaiao, iaaeaaia?/io oa ?ae?a?eio eoeueoo?e.

Ia aeoieo aaaaoueio oao?aoe?a, ?nio? /eiaei ??ciiaeae?a eoeueoo?e, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny ? aei iaoa??aeueii?, ? aei aeooiaii? noa?e. Aiie ii
aa?oeeae? i?iiecothoue anth nenoaio aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Aei oaeeo
??ciiaeae?a a?aeiinyoue iie?oe/io, aeiiii?/io, aeieia?/io oa anoaoe/io
eoeueoo?e.

Iiaeeeaa aeae?eaiiy ?ioeo aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?e. Ca iciaeith aeooaeueiino?
iiaeia ae??cieoe noa?o eoeueoo?e, ui ? iaea?eueo iiioey?iith ? ia?
ianiaa iioe?aiiy. Eiaeia aiioa noai?th? i?eoaiaiio ?e aeooaeueio
eoeueoo?o. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth iiaee ia eeoa a iaeyc?,
aea e uiaei eoeueoo?e. Aeooaeuei?noue eoeueoo?e — oea aaciina?aaei?e,
aeeaee i?ioean, a yeiio uinue ia?iaeaeo?oueny, iaae?a? neee, ?icea?oa?,
a iio?i caaie?a? /e cieea? acaaae?.

Aeaye? a/ai? a no?oeoo?o eoeueoo?e aeeth/athoue noanoaioe?iiaeuei? ?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?noue eoeueoo?e. Oae,
caaaeaiee aia?eeainueeee a/aiee E. Oaeo o no?oeoo?? eoeueoo?e aeae?ey?
o?e i?aenenoaie: oaoiieia?/io, aei yei? iaeaaeaoue cia?yaeaey i?aoe? ?
oaoi?ea ?o aeei?enoaiiy (cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, ne?iaeia, oaoiieia?y
ae?iaieoeoaa, caniae iaiaaeo ? caoenoo); nioe?aeueio, yea aeeth/a?
noinoiee i?ae ethaeueie ? a?aeiia?aei? oeie iiaaae?iee (aeiiii?/ia,
iie?oe/ia, ii?aeueia, a?enueeiaa ? i?ioan?eia eoeueoo?e); ?aeaieia?/io,
aei yei? aoiaeyoue ciaiiy, ?aea?, o?einio?y, iaoea, ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a,
i?oieia?y, cae/a? ? o?aaeeoe??, ?ae?a?y. Aecia/aeueiith, ia aeoieo
a/aiiai, ? oaoiieia?/ia nenoaia, ine?eueee a?ae ia? caeaaeeoue any
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae.

A?aeiiee ?in?enueeee eoeueoo?ieia E.I. Eiaai aeae?ey? aeaa aeiee a
nenoai? eoeueoo?e: noanoaioe?iiaeueiee ? ooieoe?iiaeueiee.
Noanoaioe?iiaeueiee aeie aeeth/a? oe?iiino? eoeueoo?e, oiaoi ?a/? ?
oai?e, ui ii?aaeia/othoue eoeueoo?o aeaii? aiioe, a oaeiae ii?ie
eoeueoo?e ? aeiiae, ye? i?aae’yaeythoueny aei eiaeiiai /eaia
noni?euenoaa. Nthaee ae aoiaeyoue ii?ie i?aaa, ii?ae?, ?ae?a??, ii?ie
iianyeaeaiii? iiaaae?iee oa ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeae (aoeeao). Eeoa
iaooeeueia aeeiiaiiy iacaaieo ii?i ? aeiia aea? i?aai ethaeei?
i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia caaiiy eoeueoo?ii?. Noanoaioe?iiaeueiee aeie neeaaea?
iniiao eoeueoo?e.

Aei ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeieo aoiaeyoue o?aaeeoe??, ia?yaee, cae/a?, ??ci?
caai?iie (oaao), ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy eoeueoo?e. Oe? caniae
ia ocaeiiai? i?aaiaeie ii?iaie ? a ia?iaei?e eoeueoo?? aaaaeaeeny
aieiaieie. C iiyaith i?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e aeieeathoue niaoe?aeuei?
?inoeoooe, ui caaacia/othoue a?aeoai?aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy, ia?aaea/o ?
niiaeeaaiiy eoeueoo?e. Aeacai? aeiee eoeueoo?e aca?iica’ycai? i?ae
niaith.

Ioaea, no?oeoo?a eoeueoo?e ? aeineoue neeaaeiei ? aaaaoia?aiiei yaeuai.
An? neeaaeia? ?? aeaiaioe aca?iiae?thoue i?ae niaith, ooai?thth/e ?aeeio
nenoaio eoeueoo?e. O oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? eoeueoo?a — oea ooo/ia yaeua,
noai?aia ethaeeiith. Naia /a?ac eoeueoo?o i?cia?oueny ethaeeia ye
noni?eueia ?noioa ? nioe?aeueii-ae?yeueia iniaa, ?aae?co?oueny
ethaenueea «ss»Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeicaieythoue ?ice?eoe nooi?noue
oa iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Aiia ioiieth? nenoaio
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, na?aae yeeo — aaia?ao?/i?,
ainiiaea?nuee?, iiaooia?, ?aeaieia?/i?, aea?aeaaii-i?aaia?, ?ae?a?ei?
/eiieee. Aiie caaacia/othoue caa?aaeaiiy e a?aeoai?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai oa
ii?aeueii-aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo iaoe??, oi?iothoue ii/oooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ?ioaa?othoue eoeueoo?o iaoe?? o na?oiao
eoeueoo?io ni?aae?oaei?noue. O no?oeoo?? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e
aeae?eythoueny oae? neeaaeia?, ye iaoa??aeueia, iiaooiaa, iie?oe/ia ?
i?aaiaa eoeueoo?a, ye iaoea, ina?oa e o?einio?y. Iniaeea?noue
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia oa?aeoa?eco?
?ioaa?aeuei? iiiaioe iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, ye? neeaaeathoue iniiao
iaoe?? ? caaacia/othoue iiaeaeueoee iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee i?ioean.
Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny iiaa, cae/a?, o?aaeeoe?? ia?iaeo, ?ae?a?y,
ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a, iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, iaoe?iiaeueia
naiina?aeii?noue, ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueii? a?aeiino?.

No/ania oai??y eoeueoo?e aeoiaeeoue c oe?ieiai ?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e ye iaaii? noi?iie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noni?euenoaa a on?o ??
noa?ao — ia o?eueee a aeooiaiiio, aea e o iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino?, iiaoo?. Eoeueoo?a c oe??? oi/ee ci?o
aenooia? ye i?ioean ?icaeoeo nooi?nieo nee ethaeeie oa ?o i?aeoe/iiai
aeyao a on?o noa?ao, a ?acii c oei ye nenoaia iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo
oe?iiinoae, noai?aieo ethaeueie e canoiniaaieo a ?o ae?yeueiino?, ii?i
?? ?aaoethaaiiy, niinia?a i?aai?caoe?? iiaaae?iee oa ni?eeoaaiiy
ethaeae.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e eiie?aoiee ci?no oe??? nenoaie, iaoiiaeaiee oei /e ?ioei
niiniaii iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oai??y eoeueoo?e aeyaey? ??
aeaiaioe, aca?iica’ycie i?ae ieie, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueeiai
? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai, iaoe?iiaeueiiai e ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai o
eiaeiiio c oeeo aeaiaio?a. Aiia c’yniao?, yeith i??ith eoeueoo?iee
??aaiue ?iaeea?ae?a a?aeiia?aea? aeooiaiiio aaaaonoao noni?euenoaa,
iane?eueee iiaii ao?eththoueny aeooiai? oe?iiino?, iaa?iiaaeaeai?
noni?euenoaii.

Iinooiaeueiee ?icaeoie ethaenoaa aeiaaa?, c iaeiiai aieo, aeeaieiai
inai?iiy eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie, ?icoe?aiiy iai?io iainyaeieie
eoeueoo?ieie oe?iiinoyie i?ae ia?iaeaie, a c ?ioiai — ai?iiy aeeoe ca
iaae? cae/ieo, i?aeo?eioaaieo eiina?aaoeaiith neeith o?aaeeoe??, aea
aaea canoa??eeo oyaeaiue. O ae??oaii? oeeo i?iaeai iii?oio ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue ciaiiy e aaeaeaaoia no/aniino? ?icoi?iiy ?noi??? na?oiai?
? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeeiai?ea eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae ?ice?eaa?oueny o i?ioean? c?noaaeaiiy
?o o ieioeiio e no/aniino?. Aeeaeia nioe?aeueiiai caieoo ia
aca?iii?iieeiaiiy ?noi?e/ieo /an?a iano?eueee aaeeea, ui onoaeaia
oi?ioea «ieioea-no/aniiio» eaaei o?ainoi?io?oueny. Naia iaa?oath/enue o
oae?e oe?ii?ni?e aeai???aeiino?, no/ania ethaeeia a?aeooeo? nai?
«ai?eciioe iai’yo?», naith aei??aeeo a?ae noo? aei nooiino?.

A?aeiii, ui a ?noi??? ia??aeei aeieea? iiaea ia noa?iaeio. Iaeiae
nueiaiaei?oi?e iiai?io aei oe?iiinoae eoeueoo?e ieioeiai aae i?ye ia
aeaieia iiae?, a neiioii aeeaieeo nioe?aeueieo ia?ai?i, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o na?o?. Niinoa??aa?ii e?eoe/iee iiiaio
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, ine?eueee aaea ia ie?ai? e?a?ie, a
ethaenoai caaaeii ii/oaa?oueny ia e?ath aoiiii? aaciaei? oa aeieia?/ii?
eaoano?ioe. O oaeeo oiiaao iaieio/a c?inoa? anaethaenueea iio?aaa
ieeueii aaeeaeoeny a ieioea, uia ni?iaeooaaoe eiai aeina?ae ia no/ania
oa iaeaooi?.

?aae?? na?oo, ui neeaeeny iei?, i?eaaee aei ceaio a na?aeiiino?
ethaeeie, ?? iiaeyaee ?icoe?eeeny aei oo?aioe i?i aeieth anueiai
ethaenoaa. Caeiiii??iith oaiaeaioe??th noa? ona?aeiieaiiy naaa a
eiioaeno? ?noi?e/iiai /ano, a i???ioaoe?? ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?
?aeaaee oa iiaeeeaino? ?o ?aae?caoe?? a aniaeo? ?icoe?aiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
ca’yce?a. Cia/i? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? ci?ie, ui noinothoueny i?aeoe/ii an?o
aniaeo?a a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy ??cieo e?a?i ? ia?iae?a, c iniaeeaith
aino?ioith noaaeyoue ieoaiiy i?i i?aeia?iaeio aca?iiae?th, ?? ?ieue a
aaiethoe?? aoi?/ieo eoeueoo? oa ?icaeoeia? caaaeueiina?oiai? eoeueoo?e.

Eoeueoo?ieia?y aeine?aeaeo? caeiiii??iino? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano e iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e c aeiiiiiaith iaoeiaeo
iiiyoue, eaoaai??e. I?aai?/iee ca’ycie eoeueoo?ieia?? c ?ioeie
aoiai?oa?ieie iaoeaie aeyaey?oueny, cie?aia, o oiio, ui aiia
aeei?enoiao? ?yae eaoaai??e, ae?iaeaieo oeeie iaoeaie. C?icoi?ei, ui
eoeueoo?ieia?y ia iiaea ?icaeaaoenue aac oaeeo eaoaai??e, ui aeaaii
oa?eoee aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao, ye «eoeueoo?a», «oai?/a ae?yeuei?noue»,
«ienoaoeoai» ? o. ?i. Aea, caiice/oth/e oe? eaoaai??? o o?einio??,
ineoieia?? oa ?aooe aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, oai??y e ?noi??y eoeueoo?e
?icaeyaea? ?o /a?ac i?ecio aeaniiai i?aaeiaoa. Aiaeii/an aiia ?ic?iaey?
?yae niaoeeo?/ieo Eaoaai??e: «noa’?eo eoeueoo?e», «eoeueoo?i?
oe?iiino?», «eoeueoo?ia naiiaooi?noue», «eoeueoo?iee i?ia?an»,
«iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a» oiui. I?aaeiaoii eoeueoo?ieia?? ? aea/aiiy
?noi??? ? nooiino? eoeueoo?e, caeiiii??iinoae ?? ?icaeoeo a
??ciiiai?oieo aeyaao. ?nio? aaaaoi aecia/aiue eoeueoo?e. Iaei? i?ae
eoeueoo?ith ?icoi?thoue oe?iiino? aeooiaiiai aeeooy, ?io?, caoaeoth/e
oea iiiyooy, a?aeiinyoue aei eoeueoo?e eeoa ?aeaieia?th, yea iieeeeaia
ianeoaiaoaaoe noa?o ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeaye? eoeueoo?ieiae aaaaeathoue, ui
ia nueiaiaei? ?nio? iiiaae 500 aecia/aiue eoeueoo?e. Oea iiynith?oueny
aaaaoia?aii?noth oaiiiaia ? oe?ieei aaeeaaiiyi oa?i?ia «eoeueoo?a» a
eiie?aoieo aeenoeeie?iao. O aaeoc? ?noi?e/ieo, o?einionueeeo,
aoiia?ao?/ieo, nioe?ieia?/ieo, o?eieia?/ieo oa ?ioeo aeine?aeaeaiue
cono??/athoueny ??ciiiai?oi? oyaeaiiy i?i eoeueoo?o. Eiaeia aeenoeeie?ia
i?aeoiaeeoue aei c’ynoaaiiy iiiyooy c aeanieie aeiiaaie ? caaaeaiiyie.
I?ioa oai?aoe/ia neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie ia ae/a?io?oueny ?icia?o?noth
aecia/aiue. A?aeiiee aeine?aeiee eoeueoo?e A.I. Iaaeo?a ienaa, ui
«ooiaeaiaioaeueia oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue (? neeaaei?noue) iiiyooy
«eoeueoo?a» aeey no/anii? iaoee iaoiiaeaia aeiaaeuei?noth e
aaaaoia?aii?noth naii? i?iaeaie eoeueoo?e a neooaoe?yo ? ianoaaeiao XX
noie?ooy».

Eoeueoo?a iinoa? ia?aae iaie ye aaaaoia?aiia i?iaeaia ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo. Iacaaaeath/e ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue aecia/aiue eoeueoo?e, a ieo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe neioacoth/a yae?i, ui ia’?aeio? ??ci? oi/ee ci?o. Oaeei
yae?ii aenooia? naia neiai «eoeueoo?a», ui iioiaeeoue a?ae eaoeinueeiai
ne??eaa ? a ia?aeeaae? icia/a? ia?ia?oie, ae?iuoaaiiy, aeiaeyae.
Ia?a?nii oea noinoaaeiny caiea?ianueei? i?aoe?. Caiaeii oa?i?i ii/aa
oaeeaaoeny a oe?oiio cia/aii?. Aaea Oe?oea?ii o «Oonooeainueeeo
aan?aeao» (45 ?. aei i.a.) iaceaa? o?einio?th «eoeueoo?ith aeoo?». A?ae
ni?aaaeiueiai o?einioa, ia eiai aeoieo, aeiaaa?oueny iaiieaaeeaa aaein:
eiiaeaiiy aeanieo ?icoiiaeo cae?aiinoae. Naia a eoeueoo?? i,eneai-iy
Oe?oea?ii aaa/aa oeyo aei ?icoe?aiiy aeooiaiiai na?oo ethaeeie. A oaeiio
?icoi?ii? oa?i?i «eoeueoo?a» aa?eoia aei an?o ?a?iiaenueeeo iia, o oiio
/ene? e aei*oe?a?inueei?.

Oa?i?i «eoeueoo?a» o ii/aoeiaiio eiai oeoia/aii? ia iicia/aa yeiainue
iniaeeaiai i?aaeiaoa, noaio aai ci?noo. A?i aoa iia’ycaiee c oyaeaiiyi
i?i ae?th, coneeey, ni?yiiaai? ia ci?io /iainue ? oiio aaeeaaany c
iaaiei aeiiiaiaiiyi, iicia/ath/e caaaeaee eoeueoo?o /iainue: eoeueoo?o
aeooo, eoeueoo?o ?icoio oiui. I?ci?oa eoeueoo?o noaee ?icoi?oe ye
«ethaeyi?noue», ui aeae?ey? ethaeeio c i?e?iaee, aa?aa?nueeiai noaio.
Eoeueoo?a noaea i??ith oiai, ui a?ae??ciy? ?eieyieia a?ae aa?aa?a,
oeea?e?ciaaio ethaeeio a?ae aeeeoia, i?e?iaeia a?ae iai?e?iaeiiai (oiaoi
ooo/iiai).

Na?o eoeueoo?e, aoaeue-yeee ?? i?aaeiao aai yaeua ni?eeiathoueny ye
?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ni?yiiaaii? ia ia?iaeo, ia?aoai?aiiy
oiai, ui aeaii aaciina?aaeiuei i?e?iaeith. A oaeiio ?icoi?ii? eoeueoo?a
aenooia? ye i??a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?iaeiiai ? iicai?e?iaeiiai
(noai?aiiai ooo/ii), a?aeaeaeaiiy ethaeeie a?ae i?e?iaee. Iiae?aia
?icoi?iiy eoeueoo?e ?icaeaaeinue a ieioe? a?ee, iniaeeai a aiioo
I?ina?oieoeoaa XVII—XVIII no. O?einio?y oeueiai /ano, caniiaaia ia ?aea?
anacaaaeueiino? ethaenueeiai ?icoio oa eiai caeii?a, i?e?iaeiei /eiii
iia’ycaea eoeueoo?o c oeie ia?aaaaaie ? aeaaaie, ye? ianooue ethaeei?
aaeineiiaeaiiy e canoinoaaiiy ?icoio. ? ine?eueee ?icoi aoa aeciaiee
?iaiaioiith aeanoea?noth ethaeeie, oi ??cieoey i?ae ethaeueie, ?o
ni?eueiioaie ? ia?iaeaie ia oe?e iniia? ae?aaeaeanue o?eueee i??ith
?icoiiino?, e?euee?noth oeo i?e?iuaiue, ye? iana c niaith aaeineiiaeaiiy
?icoio. Ca?aene aoa c?iaeaiee ?yae aeniiae?a i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy.
Ii-ia?oa, ethaee ? ia?iaee ia a?ae??ciythoueny iayai?noth aai
a?aenooi?noth eoeueoo?e, a o?eueee ??aiai eoeueoo?iino?; ii-ae?oaa,
eoeueoo?a ia? ?aeeia aeaea?aei ? caaaeueiiethaenueeee oa?aeoa?;
ii-o?ao?, onye? eoeueoo?i? a?aei?iiino? i?ae ethaeueie e ia?iaeaie —
iane?aeie ?oiuei? ??ciia?aeaeaeaiino? a?ae ia?a?niiai i?e?iaeiiai na?oo
e iathoue nooi aei??iee, a ia nooi?niee oa?aeoa?. O oeeo aeniiaeao
i?noyoueny aaea e i?eiaeii? o?e aaaeeea? na?oiaeyaei? ?aea? — ?aeay
iaea?/ii? ?aeiino? onueiai ethaenueeiai ?iaeo, ?aeay ?noi?ecio ye ?ooo
noni?euenoaa oeyoii i?ina?oe oa ?aeay i?ia?ano, iia’ycaia c?
niaaeei?iiei ?icaeoeii ?noi???, c oniaaeeoaaiiyi oa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi
ethaenueeiai aeina?aeo.

?aeaieia?/ii aiooth/e ia?aiiao ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa iaae
oaiaeaeueiei, o?aioeocuee? i?ina?oeoae? XVIII no. aaaaeaee, ui aei
ni?aaaaeeeaeo, ?icoiieo nioe?aeueieo ii?yaee?a i?eaaaea ?icaeoie ?icoio
e ii?aeueiino? ethaeae. Iiiyooy eoeueoo?e iaaoaa?
na?oiaeyaeii-ii?aeueiiai ci?noo. I?ioa ?aaiethoe?y o O?aioe?? (1789—1794
??.) ?ic/a?oaaea oeo, ooi a??ea o ?icoii?noue oa ni?aaaaeeea?noue
ao?aeoacieo a?aeiinei, iiae?eya iaoo?ae?noe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo
ethaeeie.

Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui iniiaiiieiaeiee i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii? o?einio??
?iaio?e Eaio (1724—1804) aa/ea iniiao eoeueoo?e ia a nai?e i?e?iae?
ethaeeie, a a noa?? ?? ii?aeueiiai ?nioaaiiy. I?e oeueiio a?i aaaaeaa,
ui i?eioeeiiai iaiiaeeeai i?eie?eoe oeth noa?o c aii??e/iith noa?ith
?nioaaiiy ethaeeie. A eaio?anueeiio ?icoi?ii? eoeueoo?a — oea
caeaoi?noue ?iaeea?aea i?aeianoenue a?ae iaoiiaeaiiai eiai oaa?eiiith
i?e?iaeith aii??e/iiai, /ooo?aiai ?nioaaiiy, i?e yeiio iaoa eiai
iiaaae?iee aecia/a?oueny ciai?oi?i na?oii, aei ii?aeueiiai ?nioaaiiy,
yea Aeicaiey? eiio a?eueii ae?yoe a ?i’y oe?eae, ye? a?i nai ia?aae
niaith aenoaa?, caaaeath/e ia aae?iiy ii?aeueiiai iaia’yceo Nai???aeio
ni?iao ?ica’ycaoe eaio?anueeo noia?a/i?noue i?ae i?e?iaeiei oa
ii?aeueiei, i?ae /ooo?aith ianieiaeith ? ii?aeueiei iaia’yceii c?iaea
aaeeeee i?iaoeueeee iiao ? ae?aiaoo?a O??ae??o O?eea? (1759—1805).
Caaaeaiiy eoeueoo?e, ia aeoieo O?eea?a, iieyaa? a aa?iii?eiiio
i?eie?aii? o?ce/ii? ? ii?aeueii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie, /ooo?aiai ?
?icoiiaiai, ianieiaee e iaia’yceo. «Eoeueoo?a, — ienaa a?i, -iiaeiia
a?aeaeaoe ni?aaaaeeea?noue ia o?eueee ?icoii?e niiiooe? ia i?ioeaaao
/ooo?aiio, aea e inoaiiueiio ia i?ioeaaao ia?o?e. Oaeei /eiii, caaaeaiiy
eoeueoo?e aeaiyea: ii-ia?oa, ioi?iia /ooo?aino? a?ae iinyaaiue naiaiaee,
ii-ae?oaa, ioi?iia iniaenoino? a?ae neee a?ae/ooo?a. Ia?oiai aiia
aeinyaa? ?icaeoeii caeaoiino? ii/oaaoe, ae?oaiai ae — ?icaeoeii ?icoio».

I?ioa O?eea? ona?aeiiethaaa, ui oaea ?icoi?iiy caaaeaiue eoeueoo?e ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?? ?aaeueiiio noaiia? a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?. A?i aeaa
aeeneo/ee aiae?c noia?a/iinoae oe??? eoeueoo?e, yea a?ae??aaea ethaeeio
a?ae i?e?iaee ? iaaeaea ?? ?icaeoeo iaiaaeaiiai, iaeiia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.
A?aeiiaeoe oe?e?ni?noue ethaeeie, iicaaaeoe ?? naoea a?ae aeanoeaeo eiio
noia?a/iinoae ? oei naiei cae?enieoe aieiaia caaaeaiiy eoeueoo?e iiaea
ienoaoeoai, oiaoi «oea?noai i?ae?anii? aeaeeiino?». Ia aeoieo O?eea?a,
naia o ienoaoeoa? i?eie?ththoueny oa caeaaeaeothoueny i?ioeeaaeiino?
o?ce/iiai e ii?aeueiiai aeeooy ethaenoaa.

?aeay /enoi anoaoe/iiai iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae ae?eniino? ye aieiaiiai
caaaeaiiy eoeueoo?e ciaoiaeeoue na?e caaa?oaiee aeya a ?aeaieia??
i?iaoeueeiai ?iiaioecio. A?aoe Oeaaae? (O??ae??o (1772—1829) ? Aaaono
A?eueaaeuei (1767—1845)), Iiaae?n (1772—1801), Ethaea?a O?e (1773—1853)
oa ?io? i?aaenoaaieee oeueiai iai?yieo caia?a/oaaee ao?aeoacio
oeea?e?caoe?th ye noni?eueiee noai, ai?iaeee ethaeei?. I?ioenoaaeyth/e
naiaiaeo oai?/ino? noni?eueiei aeiiaai, O. Oeaaaeue ienaa, ui oai?/a
naiiae?aaeaiiy iiaoa ia iiaeiia i?aeei?yoeny i?yeiio caeiiia?. ?aeeiith
noa?ith, eio?a aeicaiey? ethaeei? i?aeianoenue iaae noia?a/iinoyie
ae?eniino? ? caa?aaoe naith ?iaeea?aeoaeueio oe?e?ni?noue, ?iiaioeee
aaaaeaee ienoaoeoai, a yeiio i?aeoi ciaoiaeyoue nai? ao?eaiiy aeu?
???aoe?iiaeuei? aeyae ethaenueei? aeoo?. «I?e?iaei?e ethaeei?»
i?ina?oeoae?a, yea ocaiaeaeoaaea nai? a/eiee c aeiiaaie i?e?iaee,
?iiaioeee i?ioenoaaeee noa’?eoeaio iiaooi?noue aai?y, aaciaaeio neeo
ooaeiaeiueiai oyaeaiiy, eio?a oai?eoue na?o ca aeanieie caeiiaie

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