I?i?noa?noai ina?oe oa iaoee Oe?a?ie

*a?eanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Eaoaae?a o?einio??

?aoa?ao c aeenoeeie?ie eoeueoo?ieia?y ia oaio:

«Eoeueoo?a oa ?noi??y»

*a?eane 2009

Anooi

Eoeueoo?a — oea ae?oaa i?e?iaea, ana, ui noai?eea ? noai?th? ethaeeia a
i?ioean? nai?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. sseui oeae i?ioean ?icaa?iooe a /an?
oa i?inoi??, c’yno?oueny, ui a iueiio ?niothoue o?eaae? ?noi?e/i?
a?ae??cee /ano, i?ioyaii yeeo eoeueoo?a ia?aaoaa? a a?aeiinii niie?eiiio
noai?. Iacaaii eiai aa?aaaoiei. A oeueiio aa?aaaoiiio noai? ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeaieeo ci?noiaieo ci?i. Ooo iai?ioo?oueny aiaeia?y c
yaeuaie o?ceee. Cie?aia, aiaea a iaaieo iaaeao oaiia?aoo? ia?aaoaa? a
oaa?aeiio, ??aeeiio ? aaciiiae?aiiio noai?. Oae ? eoeueoo?a: i?ioiaeyoue
noie?ooy, oeny/ie?ooy, ci?iththoueny iieie?iiy, c’yaeythoueny oe?e?
ia?iaee ? oeea?e?caoe??, a c oi/ee ci?o ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo — i?yeeo
ci?i, aea ianooia? iiiaio, «uinue» a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e ?
ia?aoiaeeoue ia o?eaaeee ia??iae a ?ioee aa?aaaoiee noai. ? ciiao ana
iiaoi?th?oueny. Oae? aa?aaaoi? noaie aecia/athoue ?noi?e/i? oeie
eoeueoo?e, oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie yeeo ? iaaiee noi?iiaaiee niin?a
noai?aiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, noaaeaiiy aei i?e?iaee, iaienai?
i?aaeea iiaaae?iee, naiina?aeii?noue ? naii ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, na?oiaeyae,
?icoi?iiy ?ioeo ia?iae?a, noni?eueia oi?ia i?aai?caoe?? ?iaeea?ae?a
oiui.

?noi??th eoeueoo?e iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia oae? aoaie:

1) Ia?a?nia eoeueoo?a

2) Eoeueoo?a noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo

3) ?noi??y aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e

4) Eoeueoo?a noa?iaeaaiueiai noiaeo

5) ?noi??y na?aaeiueia?/ii? eoeueoo?e

6) Eoeueoo?a A?ae?iaeaeaiiy

7) Eoeueoo?a Iiaiai *ano

8) Eoeueoo?a XX noie?ooy

9) A?a Iinoaooaiaa?aa (XX? no.)

Ia?a?nia eoeueoo?a

I?ae ia?a?niith eoeueoo?ith ?icoi??oueny a?oa?/ia eoeueoo?a, yea
oa?aeoa?eco? a??oaaiiy, o?aaeeoe?? ? ienoaoeoai ia?iae?a, ui aeeee
a?eueoa 30 oen. ?ie?a oiio iacaae ? aeaaii iiia?eeo, aai oeo ia?iae?a,
ye? ?niothoue nueiaiaei?, caa??aoe a iacaeiaiiio aeaeyae? ia?a?niee
iae?e aeeooy. Ia?a?nia eoeueoo?a ioiieth? ia?aaaaeii ienoaoeoai
eai’yiiai a?eo, oea aei — ? aacienaiia eoeueoo?a.

E?iiaiueeiioe? (oae iaceaaee oeo ethaeae ca i?noeai ia?oi? ciao?aeee ?o
inoaie?a — a?ioo E?i-Iaiueii ia i?aaei? O?aioe??), ui c’yaeeeny a?ae 40
aei 35 oen. ?ie?a oiio iacaae, aoee ethaeueie aenieiai c?inoo (170-180
ni), no?oieeo, i?oeii? aoaeiae o?ea. Iaeaea o anueiio aiie aoee noiaeeie
ia no/anio ethaeeio ? i?ineaaeyeeny ye a?aei?ii? ieneeaoe?. A ieo aoea
aeia?a ?icaeiaia iiaa, oiio aiie iiaee ocaiaeaeoaaoe nai? ae??. Aiie
iaenoa?ii aeaioiaeyee ??ciiiai?oio ca?ith ia ??ci? aeiaaeee aeeooy:
aino?? iaeiia/ieee aeey nien?a, eai’yi? iiae?, e?noyi? aa?ioie c
coaoeyie, ?oaeea, niee?e ? o.ae.

C iieie?iiy a iieie?iiy ia?aaeaaaeany oaoi?ea aeaioiaeaiiy ca?i? ?
aeaye? ?? nae?aoe. ?iceiiee ia i?noeyo noiyiie ethaeae aa?oiueiai
iaeaie?oo na?ae/aoue i?i ?icaeoie a ieo ia?a?nieo ieneeanueeeo a??oaaiue
? /a?iae?enoaa. C aeeie aiie e?ieee o?ao?ee aeeeeo ca???a ? i?iiecoaaee
?o ae?ioeeaie, oyaeyth/e, ui aaeaathoue ni?aaaei?o oeaeae?a. Nioi?
ae??caieo ? iaiaeueiaaieo cia?aaeaiue oaa?ei aiie caeeoaee oaeiae ia
no?iao ia/a?. A?oaieiae aeiaaee, ui iai’yoieee ienoaoeoaa c’yaeeeny
iaaaaaoi i?ci?oa, i?ae cia?yaeaey i?aoe? — iaeaea ia i?eueeii ?ie?a.

E?iiaiueeiioe? caeeoaee ia no?iao ia/a? nai? iaethiee, c?iaeai? ca
aeiiiiiaith i?e?iaeieo aa?aiee?a ? ieneae?a iaoae?a. Oa?ao aiie
iaeeaaeaee aai ?oeaie, aai ca aeiiiiiaith iaiceeea c e?noee c io/eii
oa?no? yei?nue c aeeeeo oaa?ei ia e?ioe?, a ?iiae? ? i?inoi aeaeoaaee
eieuei?iaee ii?ioie /a?ac o?oaeiiiae?aio e?noeo. A/ai? aaaaeathoue, ui
oaea ia/a?ia ienoaoeoai iaei ia o?eueee aeaei?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?.
Cia?aaeaiiy oaa?ei, iiaeeeai, ieneeanuee? ieaiaia aeei?enoiaoaaee ? aeey
cae?eniaiiy ??ciiai ?iaeo ?ae?a?eii-iaa?/ieo oea?aiii?e.

Aeey iaie?oo ? aiaie?oo ? ?aiiueiai a?iiciaiai a?eo a ?a?ii? ua a?eueo
oa?aeoa?i? iaaae?oe/i? aoae?ae? (a?ae a?. «iaaa» — aaeeeee, «e?oin» —
eai?iue). Oea a?aaionuee?, iniaeeai aeey oeo /an?a, nii?oaeaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie: aeieueiaie, e?iieaoe, eai’yi? yueee ? aaea?a?.
Noa?iaeaai? ethaee nii?oaeaeoaaee ?o c iaeiiai aai aaaaoueio aeie?a
iaia?iaeaiiai, a ?iiae? ? a?oai ia?iaeaiiai eaiaith. A a?eueoino? oe?
nii?oaee neoaoaaee aeey iioiaaiue /e aoee ca’ycai? c iioiaaeueieie
eoeueoaie, aea aeaye? c ieo, ia aeoieo a/aieo, aoee naiai ?iaeo
ano?iiii?/ieie iana?aaoi??yie. Iaaae?oe io?eiaee oe?iea
?iciianthaeaeaiiy. Iayai? ea?oe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aieiaia iieina ?o
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy i?ioyao?oueny acaeiaae ocaa?aaeaey Aoeaioeee. Ia
oe?e oa?eoi??? ciaeaeaii oeny/? iaaae?oe/ieo nii?oae. Oea a?oaieia?/i?
iai’yoee a aeieei? ?. Aiei, a oaeiae Noioioaiaeae ? Aeaaaa??.

Eoeueoo?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo

Ieoaiiy i?i ?noi??th eoeueoo?e aeaai?o oeea?e?caoe?e — aeiaie?
i?iaeaiaoe/ia. Ii-ia?oa, aiii aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c? c’ynoaaiiyi
ae?enieo aeoie?a ? iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??. O
ca’yceo c oeei iaaoaa? aino?ioe iieai?ea i?ae Noiaeii ? Caoiaeii
noiniaii i?ia?aeii? ?ie? o oeueiio i?ioean?. Ii-ae?oaa, iia? a?aee?eooy
a aaeoc? no/anii? a?oaieia??, iaeaiioieia??, iaeaiaaia?ao??,
iaeaiaioai?ee, aaieia?? oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo iaoe ia??aeei noaaeyoue i?ae
noii?a aai e a?aeaa?oi ni?inoiaothoue o?aaeeoe?ei? iiaeyaee e cae/i?
noa?aioeie, i?ecaiaeyoue aei ianiiae?aaieo aeniiae?a iecee ieoaiue i?i
?noi??th eoeueoo?e Noa?iaeaaiueiai Na?oo.

I?ae aeaai?ie oeea?e?caoe?yie ?icoi?thoue i?inoi?iai-/ania? nioe?aeuei?
ooai?aiiy, ui oa?aeoa?i? aaea aeinoaoiuei aenieei ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai,
iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, c?inoaiiyi aa?iii?eii? ?ie?
aeooiaieo /eiiee?a. A?aeiii, ui ia?o? oae? oeea?e?caoe?? aeieeaee oai,
aea aoee ni?eyoeea? ee?iaoe/i? oa aaieiai-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae, ?iaeth/?
caie?, iiooaei? aiaei? a?oa???, aaaao? e?nia? ?ano?ne oa iieeaaee
ei?enieo eiiaeei, ia?aaeon?i iaoaeaaeo ?oae oa ?i. Oea aaeee?
caiea?ianuee? oeaio?e ia oe?ieiio oa?ai? Ac??, Ao?eee e aeieieoiaiai?
Aia?eee. C-iii?ae ieo — Ianiiioai?y (aai Aeai??//y, IV oen. aei i.a.),
Na?aaeiy Ac?y oa Eaaeac ? Caeaaeaccy (IV oen. aei i.a.), Noa?iaeaaiy
?iae?y (IV oen. aei i.a.), Noa?iaeaai?e Eeoae (II oen. aei i.a.),
Noa?iaeaai?e ??ai (? oen. aei i.a.), Noa?iaeaai?e ?aeiao (VI oen. aei
i.a.), Ao?iinueea ? Eoonueea oea?noaa (aei III oen. aei i.a.). Aeey
a?eueoino? c ieo ni?eueiei aoei o?eaaea caa?aaeaiiy caeeoe?a ?iaeiaiai,
iaueiiiai eaaeo, oeaio?ae?ciaaia aeaaea, c? nae?ae?ciaaiei i?aaeoaeai,
ui ?aae?ciaoaaeany /a?ac ?icaeiaiee /eiiaieoeueeee aia?ao, iie?aeany ia
caeaaei?noue oi?iaeueii a?eueieo caiea?ia?a ? ?ai?niee?a, a oaeiae
i?aoeth ?aa?a.

Aea/aiiy noa?iaeaai?o oaeno?a ? aeaieo no/anii? a?oaieia?? aeathoue
ciiao a/aiei aenoaaoe iia?, iao?aaeeoe?ei? a?iioace. Aeine?aeieee
aiae?cothoue ieoaiiy: ca?aeee o aeaai?o ia?iae?a c’yaeeeny oae? aeeaie?
e oi/i? ciaiiy a aaeoc? iaoaiaoeee oa ano?iiii??, aeieaaee oa ia?iaee
iaoae?a, iaaeeoeeie? I?e/iio oe? ciaiiy iinoaee aac o?eaaeiai
iiia?aaeiueiai ?icaeoeo, a aioiaiio aeaeyae?. Aiie ??oioothoueny ia
?ic?aooieao, ye? a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iaaeinooii? aeey no/anii? iaoee
(caaaeaeii, cie?aia, oa?iieoe? ?aeiaonueeeo, ?iae?ainueeeo aai
eeoaenueeeo i??ai?ae). A/ai? i?aaiooue c?icoi?oe, ye eia?/ii noi?noeoe
iayai?noue oaeeo oi?eaeueieo oi/ieo ciaiue ?c i?oieia?/iei ieneaiiyi
noa?iaeaai?o ia?iae?a, ?o ia?aieie einiiaii?/ieie ? einiieia?/ieie
oyaeaiiyie, aeei?enoaiiyi a iniiaieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino? i?ei?oeaieo
cia?yaeue i?aoe?.

*eiaei ni?eueieo ?en o iaoa??aeuei?e ? aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? aeaai?o
oeea?e?caoe?e iaa?th? ia aeoieo i?i ?nioaaiiy a ieioeiio ?aeeii?
ieaiaoa?ii? oeea?e?caoe?? aai e?eueeio iaaaoeea?e?caoe?e (oae caaia
e?a?ia Io, Eaio??y, Aiiaeaaia, Aoeaioeaea oa ?i.), ye? i?eieieee
?nioaaiiy aiane?aeie i?e?iaeieo eaoaee?ci?a).

Oaeo?a, ye? a ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/oaaee i?i ?nioaaiiy a iainyaeiiio
ieioeiio aeniei?icaeiaieo iaaaoeea?e?caoe?e, iiee ui ia oae aaaaoi, aea
e ieie ia iiaeia iaoooaaoe. Iecea aeaai?o oeea?e?caoe?e aeinoaoiuei
aea/aia aeey oiai, uia neeanoe a?eueo aai iaio oe?e?nio oyao i?i ?o
iniaeeaino? oa aianie o ?icaeoie na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??. C-iii?ae ieo —
Ianiiioai?y, Aeaai?e ?aeiao, aeaai? Eeoae oa ?iae?y, oeea?e?caoe?? iaey,
aoeoae?a, ?ie?a.

Aioe/ia eoeueoo?a

Aioe/iei («aioe/iee» eao. antiquus — «aeaai?e») na?oii o?aaeeoe?eii
iaceaathoue oeea?e?caoe?? Noa?iaeaaiuei? A?aoe?? oa Noa?iaeaaiueiai
?eio. Aiioa aioe/iino? ioiieth? ia??iae c III oen. aei i.a. (/an
oi?ioaaiiy aeaaiueia?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e) aei na?aaeeie V no. i.a., eiee
ia?anoaea ?nioaaoe Cao?aeia ?einueea ?iia??y. Aioe/i? oeea?e?caoe??
A?aoe?? oa ?eio iaaeoaaee c? noa?iaeaai?ie oeea?e?caoe?yie Noiaeo —
?aeioii, O?i?e??th, Ia?n??th oa ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie, i?aeo?eioaaee c ieie
aeaaa? oi?aiaaeuei? oa eoeueoo?i? eiioaeoe.

Aioe/ia eoeueoo?a o ii/aoeiaee ia??iae naiai ?icaeoeo caiice/eea /eiaei
?aeae a?ae ?icaeiooeo o oie /an eoeueoo? Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo.
Aiaeii/an aiia noaea aeeaiei i?ea?iaeueiei yaeuai, eoeueoo?ith
aoiai?noe/iith ca nai?i ci?noii, ?ioa?aeoeaiith, ?aoe?iiae?noe/iith oa
aio?iiioeaio?e/iith, iicaaaeaiith no?aeii? o?aaeeoe?eiino?. Ia i?ioeaaao
aioe/i?e eoeueoo??, oa?aeoa?iith ?enith eoeueoo?e Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo
aoa oaioeaio?eci.

Iniiaith noni?eueiiai aeeooy a aioe/ieo aea?aeaaao aoa iie?n, oiaoi
i?noi-aea?aeaaa, ui ia’?aeioaaea i?noi ? iaaeieeoi? caie? c? naeaie.
Iie?n aoa naiino?eiith iie?oe/iith, ainiiaea?nueeith, eoeueoo?iith
iaeeieoeath, ia’?aeiaiiyi a?eueieo a?iiaaeyi. C VI no. aei i.a. o
a?eueoino? iie?n?a anoaiiaeeanue aeaiie?aoe/ia oi?ia i?aae?iiy, ui
ioi?iiyea i?aaa eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia, ?iaeea eiai aeoeaiei ? na?aeiiei
o/anieeii iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. Iaeaea an? a?iiaaeyie iie?n?a aoee
a?aiioieie. Nooi?noue iie?niiai aeeooy noaiiaeea ?aei?noue iacaeaaeieo
ethaeae a ?i’y ni?eueiiai ?nioaaiiy, aaciaee oa naiaiaee. Oe? ianoaaeie
ni?eyee aeoiaaiith a aee?i?a ? ?eieyi iao??ioecio, ?icaeiaiiai ii/oooy
aeanii? a?aeiino?, aieaethaiino?, ioaeiino?, aeiieoeeaino?, noeeueiino?
aei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai inieneaiiy na?oo.

Iiaeyae ia ethaeeio ye ia oi?eaeueia yaeua i?e?iaee, iiaaaa aei
iniaenoino? a?eueiiai a?iiaaeyieia iie?na coiiaeee oaeo oa?aeoa?io ?eno
aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e, ye aio?iiiii?o?ci — ia?aianaiiy aeanoeaeo ethaeei?
?en ia i?e?iaeo ? iaa?oue ia aia?a. Inoaii?o a?aee (a i?ci?oa ? ?eieyie)
oyaeyee o aeaeyae? ethaeae — aacnia?oieo, i?ae?anieo ? a?/ii iieiaeeo.
?aeay aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie, ?aei?noue o?ce/ii? ? aeooiaii?
e?ane ia?aaoaaea a oeaio?? aioe/ii? o?einio??, ienoaoeoaa, i?oieia??.
Ana oea coiiaeei iaieioua cia/aiiy aioe/ii? aeiae aeey ethaenoaa, eiai
eoeueoo?iiai iinooio.

Eoeueoo?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo

I?ae oa?i?iii «Noa?iaeaai?e No?ae» ?icoi?thoue oie ia??iae ?noi???, yeee
o?iiieia?/ii ? aaiaoe/ii ia?aaeoaaa aee?inoao ? o?enoeyinoao. ?noi??th
ia?iae?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo i?eeiyoi aea/aoe c iiyae ia?oeo eeaniaeo
ni?eueiio ? aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue a aeieeiao I?eo ? ?ao?aoo a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 4 oen. aei i.a. ? cae?i/oaaoe aeey Aeeaeiueiai noiaeo 30-20-ie
?ieaie 4 no. aei i.a., eiee a?aei-iaeaaeiinuee? a?enueea i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii Ieaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai caoiieee aanue Aeeaei?e No?ae,
??ainueea iaa??’y, i?aaeaiio /anoeio Na?aaeiuei? Ac?? ?
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeio /anoeio ?iae??. Ui noino?oueny Na?aaeiuei? Ac??,
?iae?? ? Aeaeueiueiai Noiaeo, oi noa?iaeaaiy ?noi??y oeeo e?a?i
aea/a?oueny aei 3-5 no. i.a. Aei oiai /ano, eiee ia ci?io
noa?iaeaaiueiio noni?euenoao ooo i?eeoei oaiaeaeueia, Oaeei /eiii,
?noi??y ia?iae?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo ia?aoiao? aeecueei 3
oeny/ie?oue. Aaeeea aaia?ao?/ia ciia, ui iaceaa?oueny Noa?iaeaai?i
Noiaeii, i?inoeea?oueny c caoiaeo ia no?ae a?ae no/aniiai Ooi?no, aei
no/aniiai Eeoath, ssiii?? oa ?iaeiiac??, a c i?aaeiy ia i?ai?/ — a?ae
no/anii? Ao?ii?? aei Eaaeacueeeo a?? ? I?aaeaiieo aa?aa?a A?aeuenueeiai
ii?y.

?icaeoie Eoeueoo?e noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo aoa ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaiee c
aaaaoueia noi?iiaie nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a Noiaeo. Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee
aniaeo no?aeiiai aeeooy aa?a?aa a naaa ?ene aeiiii?ei-iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith, ?ae?a?eieo ? o?einionueeeo oyaeaiue, iiaooiaeo o?aaeeoe?e,
i?aaiaeo oa aoi?/ieo ii?i. Eoeueoo?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai Noiaeo ae?inea ia
iniia? ia?a?nii? ? caa??aaea iaa?/ia i?ecia/aiiy. Oae naii, ye ?
noa?iaeaai? i?auo?e, ia?iaee ia?oeo no?aeieo oeea?e?caoe?e aaaaeaee, ui
iaai? ae??, ye? cae?eniththoueny iaae cia?aaeaiiy , ni?eythoue ?o
aeeiiaiith ? a?aeiia?aeii aei i?ea?iaeo.

Na?aaeiueia?/ia eoeueoo?a

I?ae eoeueoo?ith Na?aaeiueia?//y ?icoi??oueny eoeueoo?a ii?e ?aiiueiai
oaiaeae?cio. Aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth na?aaeiueia?/ii? eoeueoo?e ?
iniaeeaa ?ieue o?enoeyinueeiai a??ia/aiiy oa oea?eae a oiiaao
caaaeueiiai caiaiaaeo eoeueoo?e a?ae?aco i?ney ?iciaaeo ?einueei?
?iia??? o?eueee oea?eaa i?ioyaii aaaaoueio noie?oue caeeoaeanue ?aeeiei
nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii, caaaeueiei aeey an?o ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i,
ieaiai ? aea?aeaa. Oea?eaa cae?enithaaea aaee/aciee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
?ae?a?eiiai na?oiaeyaeo, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aea? o?enoeyinoaa,
i?iiia?aeoth/e ethaia ? i?iuaiiy ? an?o c?icoi?e? ii?ie nioe?aeueiiai
iiaooo, a??o a caaaeueia uanoy, ??ai?noue, aeia?i. A na?aaeiueia?//?
ea?oeia na?oo aacoaaeany aieiaiei /eiii ia ia?acao ? oeoia/aiiyo A?ae??.
Aeo?aeiei ioieoii iiyniaiiy na?oo aoei iiaia, aacia?a/ia i?ioenoaaeaiiy
Aiaa ? i?e?iaee, iaaa ? caie?, aeoo? ? o?ea.

A na?aeiiino? ethaeeie aiioe Na?aaeiueia?//y na?o oyaeyany ye a?aia
i?ioeai?noaa aeia?a oa cea, ye aeayea ???a?o?/ia nenoaia, a ye?e
ciaeoeinue i?noea ? Aiao, ? Aiaaeai, ? ethaeyi, ? iioiea?/iei neeai
oai?yae. I?e oeueiio na?aeii?noue ethaeeie oe??? aiioe aoea aeeaiei
iaa?/iith. Oea aoea eoeueoo?a iieeoia, eacie, i?o?a iaa?/ieo caeeeiaiue.
Cia/aiiy neiaa , caienaiiai ? iniaeeai icao/aiiai aoei iaaecae/aeii
aaeeeei. ?noi??y eoeueoo?e Na?aaeiueia?//y – oea ?noi??y ai?ioueae
oea?eae ? aea?aeaae.

Eoeueoo?a aeiae A?ae?iaeaeaiiy

?icea?o eoeueoo?e A?ae?iaeaeaiiy(?aianaino) i?eiaaea? ia OV-OVI no.. Oea
ia o?eueee iniaeeaa aiioa, aea e niaoeeo?/iee oaiiiai
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, ui ia? na?oiaa cia/aiiy.

A caaaeueiiio ?icoi?ii? A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?icoi?thoue ye iai?aaeai?noue
eoeueoo?e aei aine?an?iiy aioe/iino?. A oeueiio ca’yceo eoeueoo?a
?aianaino ?icaeyaea?oueny ye caia?a/aiiy na?aaeiueia?//y, ye aioeoaca
na?aaeiueia?/i?e noieanoeoe?.

Oaeith ? caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeiae A?ae?iaeaeaiiy:

— ?iaeea?aeoae?ci i?aeoe/iee ? oai?aoe/iee, ui icia/a?, ui a oeaio?
naiai na?oiaeyaeo ? aeeoo?ai? i?aeoeee aoea iinoaaeaia ethaenueea
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue;

— eoeueo na?onueeiai (ia oea?eiaiiai) aeeooy c i?aee?aneaiei i?aaiaiiyi
aei /ooo?aiai caaeiaieaiiy;

— na?onueeee aeoo ?ae?a?? c oaiaeaioe??th aei yce/ieoeoaa (oiaoi
caeeoath/enue ?ae?a?eieie ethaeueie, i?aaenoaaieee ?aianaino noaee
i?eae?eyoe iaioa cia/aiiy ia?yaeia?e ? eoeueoia?e noi?ii? ?ae?a?eiiai
aeeooy, cina?aaeeaoe naith oaaao ia aioo??oi?e, aeooiai?e noi?ii?);

— ca?eueiaiiy a?ae aeaaee aaoi?eoao?a, ui cia/eei ?ioa a?aeiioaiiy aei
aaoi??a ? a/aiiyi, i?eciaieo na?aaeiueia?/iith noieanoeeith;

— iniaeeaa oaaaa aei ieioeiai, noa?iaeaaiino?;

— iaaecae/aeiee niae aei ienoaoeoaa.

Eoeueoo?a Iiaiai /ano

Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? oeueiai ia??iaeo: noaiiaeaiiy oaoiiaaiii?
oeea?e?caoe??, ao?aeoacieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, noaiiaeaiiy
?aoe?iiae?noe/iiai ieneaiiy.

Ia??iae Iiaiai /ano ioiieth? aeaa ??ci? ca nai?i
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei oa?aeoa?ii aoaie:

1) Iaeaea ana XVII no. – aea?aeaaa aaniethoecio o O?aioe??, ?niai??,
ao?aeoacia ?aaiethoe?y a Aiae??, iaoeiaa ?aaiethoe?y ? oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
iaoeiai? ea?oeie na?oo ? iaoao?ce/ii? nenoaie a o?einio??.

2) Caaa?oaiiy noaae?? iaiooaeoo?iiai ?icaeoeo eai?oae?cio, ooaa?aeaeaiiy
a?eueii? eiieo?aioe?? a aeiiii?oe?, e?aa?ae?cio a iie?oeoe?, a?aee?eoa
ai?ioueaa ?c canoa??eei oaiaeaeueiei eaaeii, ai?ioueaith ca caeieaiiy
iiiiiie?? oea?eae, i?aaiaiiy aei a?eueiiai ieneaiiy ? i?ina?oeaiiy.

Ia?aeaeueii c? ci?iaie o ae?yeueiino? a?aeaoaaeenue ci?ie o noni?eueieo

noinoieao: ?ic?eaathoueny eieeoi? ca’ycee iniaenoi? caeaaeiino? ethaeeie
a?ae ethaeeie, cieea? «aaeeea n?i’y», a iaoii?noue c’yaey?oueny
a?eueiee, aaoiiiiiee ?iaeea?ae ui ? canaaeith yaeua i?ae iacaith
«ao?aeoaciee ?iaeea?aeoae?ci». Ana oea ni?e/eiy? oaeaia i?enei?aiiy
oaii?a aeeooy. C?inoaiiy ianooaa?a nioe?aeueii? aeeiai?ee.

A?aeaoaathoueny aaee/aci? ci?ie o ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai i?e?iaeiciaanoaa ?
o?einio??. Aae?eae aia?oa caa?ioa oaaao ia ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeieia?? iaoee.
Eiio iaeaaeeoue aeoiea, ui iaoea ia? nie?aoeny ia niinoa?aaeaiiy ?
aenia?eiaioe ? ei?enooaaiiy iaoaiaoe/iith iiaith. Naia ia oe?e iniia?
Iuethoii noai?ea eeane/io iaoai?eo. Aeaeaoi? o?einioe XVII no. —
O.Aaeii, O.Aian, O.Aeaea?o, A.Ni?iica, A. Eaeai?oe oa ?io? — ca?eueieee
o?einio?th a?ae noieanoeee ? iiaa?ioee ?? iaee//yi aei iaoee. Iniiaith
o?einionueeiai i?ciaiiy aeey ieo noaea ia ne?ia a??a, a ?icoi, ui
nie?a?oueny ia eia?eo ? oaeoe.

A?aeaoeenue nooo?a? c?ooaiiy ? a ?ioeo noa?ao aeooiaiiai aeeooy:

— c’yaey?oueny ienoaoeoai a eiai ?icoi?ii?, oiaoi ienoaoeoai na?onueea,
aaoiiiiia o nai?io ?icaeoeo;

— ia?iaeaeo?oueny ?iiai ye e?oa?aoo?iee aeai?, iia?a, no/aniee oaao?,
a?o?oaeoo?a ianiaeo caaoaeia, i?iieneiaa a?o?oaeoo?a;

— aeieeathoue iaoe?iiaeuei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe, c’yaeythoueny ia?o? aacaoe
oa /aniiene, o oiio /ene? ? iaoeia?, c’yaey?oueny i?nueeee o?ainii?o.

Ia?aoo? ana oea ciaeoei nai? aeyaeaiiy o iiaiio na?oiaeyae?:

— na?o oaia? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ia’?eo, ia yeee ni?yiiao?oueny
ethaenueea aeoeai?noue, a naia ethaeeia — ye noa’?eo, oiaoi aeo?aeiee
aaoiiiiiee ioieo aeoeaiino?;

— na?o iinoa? a yeino? ianeeaaeiiai iaoai?cio, oeiiaei ac??oeai yeiai
aoa iaoai?/iee aiaeeiiee;

— ethaeeia iiaeiia i?ciaoe oeae iaoai?ci oa iiaioaaoe eiai (aanei
«Ciaiiy ? neea» noa? iieaciaei o oeueiio ieai?);

i?e?iaea oaia? iiae?ey?oueny ia aeeao oa iaaeeao, aea ? oa, ? ?ioa ?
eeoa iniiaith aeey ?inoo ethaenueei? iiaooiino?;

— ia?aoo?, aaaaea?oueny, ui ethaeeia, nie?ath/enue ia na?e ?icoi,
iiaeiia ia?aoai?eoe na?aaeiaeua nai?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, c?iaeaoe eiai
iioeiaeueiei.

Eoeueoo?a OO noie?ooy

OO no. – iaeaeeiai?/i?oa a ?noi??? ethaenoaa, ui ia iiaei ia
a?aeia?aceoeny ia oa?aeoa?? eiai eoeueoo?e. Aeey iueiai oa?aeoa?iei ?
?icaeoie iaoee, ethaenueeiai ?ioaeaeoo, aiioa nioe?aeueieo aeoi??a,
iio?yn?iue, ia?aaeien?a.

A ?noi??? eoeueoo?e OO no. iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e ia??iaee:

1) ii/. OO no. – 1917 ?. (aino?a aeeiai?ea nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a, ??ciiiai?oi?noue ooaeiaei?o oi?i, noee?a, o?einionueeeo
eiioeaioe?e);

2) 20 – 30-o? ??. (ei??iia ia?aaoaeiaa, aeayea noaa?e?caoe?y eoeueoo?ii?

aeeiai?ee, ooai?aiiy iiai? oi?ie eoeueoo?e – nioe?ae?noe/ii?);

3) i?neyai?ii? ?iee 40-a? ??. – any ae?oaa iieiaeia OO no. (/an
oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?, i?aeeii iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?, aeieeiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo ?oo?a, ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie
oaoi?ee oa iaoee, iiyaa iiaeo ia?aaeiaeo oaoiieia?e, aeoeaia inai?iiy
oa?eoi??e, ceeooy iaoee c ae?iaieoeoaii, ci?ia iaoeiaeo ia?aaeeai,
oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai na?oiaeyaeo).

Aeooiaia ? iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a OO no. – oea i?iaeiaaeaiiy
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a O?O no., ui ia aei?aaaeaa niiae?aaiue
ethaenoaa ? ni?e/eiea iiao e?eco ? iio?yn?iiy: i?ioe??//y, ui
iaeiie/eeenue ana?aaeei? noni?euenoaa, ia iiaee ae??ooaaoeny a oiae?
i?e?iaeieo ?noi?e/ieo ci?i.

Iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. a?aeaoeeny iacai?ioi? ci?ie, ui noinoaaeeny iiaiai
?icoi?iiy ethaeeie, ?? noaaeaiiy aei na?oo, iiai? iiae ienoaoeoaa.
I?eeeaae oaeiai iiaiai noaaeaiiy aeaa o?aioeocueeee aeeaiien, yeee noaa
ia o?eueee aeoeaii oaiia?aiaioiei, aea iioa?aiaaiei noa’?eoeaieie
ia?aaeeaaiiyie ethaeeie: c’yaey?oueny ?ii?an?ii?ci, aieiaia iaoa yeiai –
a?aeia?aceoe ieoue aeeooy.

Eoeueoo?a a XX no. ?icaeaaeany a e?eueeio ia?aeaeueieo iai?yiao. I?e
oeueiio aeiaeia c eaa noeeueiai? aaiethoe?? ienoaoeoaa ? e?oa?aoo?e ia
ae/a?io? niaith onueiai ?o ?icaeoeo oa ia ioiieth? eiai a oe?eiio,
o?eueee o aca?iiae?? aiie oi?iothoue oe?e?nio ?noi??th eoeueoo?e XX no.

Ia ?oaaae? XIX-XX no. a?aeaoaathoueny i?eioeeiia? ci?ie: eoeueoo?a noa?
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiith, ?ioaa?oth/e aeooiai? oe?iiino? i?aeoe/ii an?o
aoi?/ieo ?aa?iiaeueieo oei?a ? a?ae oeueiai noath/e ua a?eueo
??ciiiai?oiith. Oea ??ciiiai?ooy ia iiaei ia iicia/eoeny ia ienoaoeoa?,
e?oa?aoo??, o?einio??, oiaoi ia eoeueoo?o a oe?eiio, ui a?aeia?aceee ?
eoeueoo?iee caiaiaae, ? aeaa?aaeaoe?th oaoiiaaiii? oeea?e?caoe?? ia
?oaaae? aeaio inoaii?o noie?oue II oeny/ie?ooy, ? iaoao?ce/iee i?aeo?ae
aei ae??oaiiy aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai, ni?iao ona?aeiieaiiy iiai? ?ie?
ethaeeie o na?o?. O eoeueoo?ieia??, ienoaoeoaiciaanoa? oa iaooe? oeae
eoeueoo?iee i?ioean ?oaaaeo XIX — XX no. io?eiaa iacao «aeaeaaeain», a
ienoaoeoai ? e?oa?aoo?a — aeaeaaeaionuee?. Aieiaia aeanoea?noue ?
iniaeea?noue aeaeaaeaino — ?icaoaeai?noue ia?aae na?oii, ui ??cei
ci?ieany: noni?euenoai aeyaeeiny iacaeaoiei ?aoe?iiaeueii, iaoeiai
iiynieoe ci?ie a iie?oeoe? oa aeiiii?oe?, iia? nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie,
iiao ea?oeio na?oo. Neeaeany noia?a/eeaa na?aeii?noue, ui oi?eioeany
iaeaaaeeea?oiai aeaiaioo na?oiaeyaeo, — ieoaiiy i?i caeiiii??iino? a
i?e?iaeii? oa nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?. Oiio e a?aeaoaa?oueny nieane
???aoe?iiae?cio, i?noeee, aeieeathoue iia? ?ae?a?ei? oa/??.

A?a Iinoaooaiaa?aa

Oea ? a?eii ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e (OO? no.).

Inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy OO noie?ooy a?aecia/ai? iiae?yie, ui ?noioiei /eiii
o?ainoi?ioaaee no/anio nioe?ieoeueoo?io ?aaeuei?noue. Iiaa eaea i?i
aeoeaia aoiaeaeaiiy a aeeooy noni?euenoaa iia?oi?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, ui noaeiny a ?acoeueoao? ao?oeeaiai ?icaeoeo aeaeo?ii?ee; a
oaeiae i?i oi?ioaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy iniaeeaiai oeio na?oia?ae/oooy,
eiioeaiooae?ciaaiiai a ?yae? o?einionueeeo, nioe?ieia?/ieo,
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo oa eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oai??e, ui io?eiaa oe?ieo
iiioey?i?noue i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith » iinoiiaea?i?ci «.

Ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeie 60-o ?ie?a cao?aeieie nioe?ieiaaie ?
nioe?aeueieie o?einioaie (Ae. Aaee, Ae. ??niai, I. Oiooea?, A. Oo?ai oa
?i.) aeoeaii iaaiai?th?oueny ieoaiiy i?i anooi iaea?eueo ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i a ye?nii ?ioo noaae?th nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui ioa?aeoa?eciaaia
ieie ye iino?iaeono??aeueia aai ?ioi?iaoe?eia noni?euenoai, aieiaiei
a?ae??ciyth/ei e?eoa???i yeiai ? aecia/aeueia ?ieue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e o an?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. Aea yeui a 60-?
?iee ?aea? i?i ?ioi?iaoe?eia noni?euenoai iaee oaeaeoa oa?aeoa?
oooo?ieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a, oi ?c aaeineiiaeaiiyi aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee ?
oeeo?iaeo oaoiieia?e, a?eueo?noue c ia?aaeaa/aieo oai?aoeeaie iiae?e
ciaeoee nai? ?aaeueia ao?eaiiy, ui ae?aceeiny a ao?oeeaiio ?icaeoeo
cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, iniaeeai oaeaaa/aiiy, a noai?aii? oa
oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaii? ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a, o iiaoaeia?
aeiaaeueieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ia?aae, o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e a??ooaeueii?
?aaeueiino? oa ?ioeo oaoiieia?/ieo ?iiiaaoe?yo.

O nai?e noeoiiino?, oe? aeinyaiaiiy aeiei??iii ci?ieee aeeooy
noni?euenoaa, ia o?eueee aenoioaoe ia ia?aaei?e ieai ?ioi?iaoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue, oiaoi ae?yeuei?noue, iia’ycaio c ae?iaieoeoaii,
niiaeeaaiiyi, o?aineyoe??th ? caa?aaeaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe??, a e oneeaaeieaoe
? o?ainoi?ioaaaoe na?o oae, ui inieneeoe eiai a ?aieao o?aaeeoe?eieo
i?aeoiae?a noaei aeineoue aaaeei.

Acaaae?, ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? ia iiaeia a?eueoa ?icaeyaeaoe ye
uinue, ui iaeaaeeoue aeeeth/ii aei na?oo oaoi?ee, ai aiie iano?eueee
aeeaiei i?iieeee a aeeooy ethaeae, aieaeeny a naio oeaieio ??
iianyeaeaiiino?, ui aeie?aieoe ?o ?c caaaeueiiai na?oiaeyaeiiai oa
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai eiioaenoo aaea ia oyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei. sse?niee
no?eaie a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e ?iaeono??? aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co
iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e e??cue i?ecio na?oiaeyaeieo ci?i. Ia iith aeoieo,
oe? ci?ie iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaeai? a iinoiiaea?i?nonueei?
o?einio??, caaaeaiiy yei? iieyaa? ia o?eueee a aeaeiino?oeoe?? iniiaieo
eaoaai??e iiia?aaeiuei? ?a?iiaenueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee, a e o
oi?ioaaii? iniiaieo na?oiaeyaeieo i?eioeei?a, ui aca?iiae?thoue c oeiii
na?oia?ae/oooy, ui ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio noni?euenoa?.

Aeniiaee

Na?o ia?anooiea /a?ac ii??a iiaiai oeny/ie?ooy. Ethaee a?ae/oaaee ia
nia? aieea ?noi?e/iiai aoooy i?ioyaii noie?oue ? oeny/ie?oue. O
eoeueoo?ieia?? neeaeeny ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy ethaenueei?
?noi???. Iaei? ieneeoae? aeae?eyee a ?noi??? ie?ai? oi?iaoe??, ?io? —
niaoeeo?/i? noaae??, o?ao? – i?iiiioaaee ni?aa?aeiineoe ?noi??th c?
nai???aeieie nioe?aeueieie «oaeeyie». Aeina?ae aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo
aniaeo?a ?noi??? iieacaa, ui a i?e iaia? oaoae?cio. Noni?euenoai
?icaeaa?oueny aeueoa?iaoeaii, caaaeaee ia ?icaei??aeae? /an?a ? iiaeeea?
aa??aioe ?ooo a oie /e ?ioee a?e. Ia oa?aeoa? noni?eueii? aeeiai?ee
aieeaathoue /eneaii? oaeoi?e. Eoeueoo?ieia?y i?aai?/ii aeeth/a? a naaa
?noi?e/io na?aeii?noue. Aiia anaa?/ii aea/a? ?? aaiacen, noaiiaeaiiy,
a?aeo?iee ? ia?niaeoeae.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

1. E?aa/aiei A.E. Eoeueoo?ieia?y: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee aeey AIC. — 3-?
aeae. — I.: Aeaaeai?/iee i?iaeo, 2001. n. 231-251.

2. Ao?aae/ I.N. Eoeueoo?ieia?y: I?ae?o/iee aeey AIC. – I.:I?iaeo,2003.
n. 197-198.

3. Iaaianyi A.A. Eoeueoo?ieia?y: Eiiniaeo eaeoe?e. –
I.:I??i?,2001.-n.102-103.

4. Eoeueoo?ieia?y aeey oaoi?/ieo AIC. — ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: Oai?en, 2001.

5. Iiaeieuenueea ?. A. Eoeueoo?ieia?y: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. -E.: Oeaio?
iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, 2005. – 390 n.

6. Oaiiaaeia A.O. Iniiae o?einio??: A?ae eeaneee aei no/aniino?. — I.:
Oa??-I?an, 1998. – 576 n.

7. ?i?e?i A. A. no. «Eioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? a eiioaeno?
iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? o?einio??».

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