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Культура Стародавнього Єгипту (реферат)

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Eoeueoo?a Noa?iaeaaiueiai ?aeioo

Oeea?e?caoe?y Noa?iaeaaiueiai ?aeioo ia?aoiao? iiiaae o?e oeny/? ?ie?a.
O e?ioe? ?V oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a. a I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e Ao?eoe?, o aeieei?
??ee I?e, noi?ioaaeanue ?aiiuei?aaiaeanieoeueea aea?aeaaa ?aeiao, ye?e
aeiaea ?noi?e/ia aeiey noaoe iaeiei ?c iaea?eueoeo oeaio??a na?oiai?
eoeueoo?e.

Iaeaea aeaiooeny/ie?oith ?noi??th Noa?iaeaaiueiai ?aeioo i?eeiyoi
ae?eeoe ia o?e ia??iaee: ia?oee – Noa?iaeaai?e (ae. 2800-2250 aei i.a.),
ae?oaee – Na?aaei? oea?noai (ae. 2050-1700 aei i.a.), o?ao?e – Iiaa
oea?noai (ae. 1580-1070 aei i.a.). A?aeiia?aeii aeae?eythoue ? o?e
ia??iaee a ?icaeoeo eiai eoeueoo?e.

Aaea o Noa?iaeaaiueiio oa Na?aaeiueiio Oea?noaao aoee noai?ai?
oi?eaeuei? iai’yoee eoeueoo?e – a?iaieoe? oa?aii?a Oaiina, Oao?aia oa
I?ea?eia, no?iene oa?aiia Oao?aia a A?c? ? oa?aiia Aiaiaioaoa ???,
ii?o?aoiee aea?aa’yiee ?aeue?o “Ciae/ee Oane?a” oa /eneaii? ooaeiaei?
nea?ae c a?iaieoeue Oaiaio ? Oai?. Iai?eeeaae, i??ai?aea Oaiina ca
?ici??aie ia ia? nia? ??aieo na?aae eai’yieo aoaeia onueiai na?oo:
aenioa ?? – 146 iao??a, aeiaaeeia iniiae eiaeii? c /ioe?ueio a?aiae –
230 iao??a, ?? na?aaeeia – ii noo? nooe?eueiee ianea c eai’yieo a?ee, o
yeeo c?iaeaii aocuee? i?ioiaee aei oneiaeueieoe? oa?aiia. sse
i?ae?aooaaee aeine?aeieee, aeey oiai, uia ia?aaacoe eai’yi? aeiee oe???
i??ai?aee, iio??aii aoei a 20 oeny/ oiaa?ieo ii?cae?a ii 30 aaaii?a
eiaeiee. Oea ni?aaae? iacae/aeiee iai’yoiee iaiaiaaeaii? aeaaee oa?aiia
? eaoi?aeii? i?aoe? ?aa?a. Iiiaae ni?ie noie?oue noiyoue oe? aeoai?e
ethaeeie – i??ai?aee Oaiina, Oao?aia, I?ea?eia – ia neaeynoiio
ieineia??’? ionoae? iiaeeco Ea??a, aeeeeeath/e o niinoa??aa/?a
caoiieaiiy aaee//th ethaenueei? i?aoe? oa ?icaeoie i?i a?/ia. Aei
a?iaieoeue /a?ac i?uaio ionoaeth aaaea ?aeeia aei?iaa c? Noiaeo, a?ae
ieiaeth/eo aeieei I?eo , aei?iaa, ui neiaie?co? oeyo a?ae aeeooy aei
nia?o? ? a?/iino?. Ia ii/aoeo ionoae? iaaeo ?? noa?aaea aaeaoainueeee
no?ien – eaa c iaee//yi oa?aiia Oao?aia. Niiaeyaeaiiy oeueiai aeeaa ia
oii? ia?oaiai niaeioeeaiai ii?y i?uaieo aethi, a?iaiai? oeo? e
aaciaaeaey niiy/iiai na?oea aeeeeea? o?aiao aeoo?, aeaaiaia?iiy ia?aae
aeeooyi.

Noa?iaeaai? ?aeioyie iaiaeithaaee i?e?iaeo ? caiio aeaaeo. Oaa?eie
aaaaeaeeny nayuaiieie, ?o o?eiaee i?e o?aiao, a?aeaeaaaee ?i oaio, a
i?ney nia?o? aaeuecaioaaee ? oi?iieee a na?eioaaao. Caa?aaeeny oe?e?
eeaaeiaeua nayuaiieo aee?a, aa?ai?a, e?oie, e?ieiaeee?a. Ia oioai?ci?
aaco?oueny ca??ieee?noue ?aeiaonueeeo aia?a, aa?oiaiei na?aae yeeo
oaaaeaany aia niioey ?a, yeiai ia??aeei cia?aaeoaaee nieieii aai oaeyi.
Oa?aii aaaaeaany “neiii niioey”, c oeei iia’ycai? ? ii/ano?, ye? eiio
a?aeaeaaaeenue, ? a?aeiia?aeia a?aeoai?aiiy: ia?ao?aeia ia oe?eaaeei,
oa?aii cia?aaeoaaany aaee/aaei, ca?eueiaiei a?ae aeaaee /ano ? caiii?
?aaeueiino?; o neoeueioo?ieo cia?aaeaiiyo a?i niie?eii-oieiaeiei,
iacaiiei ye ca iinoaaith, oae ? ca ae?acii iaee//y oa iiaeyaeii i/ae,
a?aeoiaeea o a?/i?noue.

O iiaiio oea?noa? ?icea?oea a?o?oaeoo?a o?ai?a. O oeae /an oe?iei
i?iaaaeeeinue aoae?aieoeoai nayoeeeu, iaea?aeii?oeie c yeeo ? o?aie
Aiiia-?a a Ea?iaoe? ? Eoeni?? iiaeeco O?a. Oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue oeeo
a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae – iana ??ciiiai?oieo eieii, ye? neiaie?coaaee e?n
(iai?eeeaae, eeoa a a?iinoeeueiiio cae? o?aio a Ea?iaoe? aoei caaaeaii
144 eieiie). Noaeth iie?eaaee oaiii-neiueith oa?aith c cieioeie c??eaie,
? neeaaeaeiny a?aaeaiiy, i?ae ethaeeia oaa/a?? a e?n? niinoa??aa? ci?yia
iaai.

Iaaecae/aeii oe?eaa? ?iciene a?iaieoeue o O?aao, ye? a?aaeathoue nai?th
ieanoeeith, ooaeiaeiueith i?ea?iaeuei?noth. Noa?iaeaai? ?aeioyie aaaee
o?aaeeoe?th cia?aaeaiiy o?ao? o oaee niin?a: aieiaa ? iiae – a i?io?eue,
a oi?n – ?icaa?iooei. Oeueiai i?eioeeio aiie aeio?eioaaeenue
iine?aeiaii, eeoa a V?? noie?oo? aei i.a. o ?aeiaonueeiio ienoaoeoa?
cieea? o?aaeeoe?y oaeiai cia?aaeaiiy (?aeue?o a Iaio?na “Ieaeaeueiee”),
aea oea aoei aaea ia noee? noa?i?aeiaonueei? eoeueoo?e, iaia?aaeiaei?
caaithaaiiy ?aeioo ia?naie.

Cia/i? aeinyaiaiiy noa?iaeaai?o ?aeioyi o aaeoc? o?ceee, o?i??,
iaaeeoeeie, o??o?a??. Aiie ei?enooaaeeny aeanyoeiaith nenoaiith
/eneaiiy, ?i aoee a?aeii? a?eoiaoe/i? ? aaiiao?e/i? i?ia?an??. Uia
aoaeoaaoe i??ai?aee, iaeaoee, a?iaieoe?, iio??ai? aoee ia o?eueee ciaiiy
c iaoaiaoeee, aea e c aaiiao???, o?aaa aoei ai?oe ia/enethaaoe ia’?ie
oeee?iae?a, i?aeoe?, i??ai?aee. Noa?iaeaai? ?aeioyie ai?ee ia?aaeaa/eoe
caoaiiaiiy Niioey, ?io? yaeua i?e?iaee, iniaeeai ia??iaee ?iceeao I?eo,
a?ae yeeo caeaaeaei aaaeaiiy c?iooaaeueii? nenoaie n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Eoeueoo?a Ianiiioai??

Ianiiioainueea oeea?e?caoe?y aeieeea ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, ia oa?eoi???
no/aniiai ??aeo, i?ae ??eaie Oea? ? ?ao?ao, o IV oeny/ie?oo? aei i.a. Ia
i?aaei? Ianiiioai??, aea oe?iei i?iaaaeeeinue ??eaaoe?eia n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai, ?icaeioeeny i?aaeaai? i?noa-aea?aeaae O?, O?oe, E?o,
A??aeo, Ea?na, I?iio?, Eaaao, Oiia oa ?i. ?icea?o oeeo i?no iaceaathoue
cieioei a?eii noa?iaeaaiuei? aea?aeaae ooia??a. Oea ni?aaaaeeeai ? a
i?yiiio, ? a iaoaoi?e/iiio ?icoi?ii?: ooo ae?iaeyeeny c cieioa i?aaeiaoe
iae??ciiiai?oi?oiai iiaooiaiai i?ecia/aiiy oa ca?iy; eoeueoo?a ooia??a
ni?aaeea aaee/aciee aieea ia iiaeaeueoee i?ia?an ia o?eueee Ianiiioai??,
a e onueiai ethaenoaa. Ooia?ai iaeaaeaoue aaaeeea? a?aee?eooy: aiie
ia?oeie iaa/eeenue aeaioiaeyoe eieuei?iaa neei oa a?iico, aeiaeoei
eieani ? eeeiiienia ienueii, noai?eee ia?oo i?ioan?eio a?i?th. Neeaee
ia?o? i?aaia? eiaeaene, aeiaeoee a?eoiaoeeo, a iniia? yei? eaaeaea
iiceoe?eia nenoaia /eneaiiy.

Na?o aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ooia??a caniiaaiee ia i?oieia??. Ethaeeia
noai?aia c aeeie, cai?oaia ia aiae?e e?ia?; ?? i?ecia/aiiy – i?aoethaaoe
ia aia?a ? ?noe oo ?aeo, yeo aiie /iionue ia niiaeeaathoue. Anana?o –
aiaeanoaaiia aea?aeaaa, a ye?e ona iiaoaeiaaia ia neooiyiino?. Oaia
neooiyiino? a n?i’?, a?iiaaenuee?e iiaaae?ioe?, aaaaea? aeine?aeiee
A.Iie?ea?iia, noaiiaeea nooue aeia?i/einoaa ? i?aaeeueiiai aeeooy
acaaae? o noa?iaeaai?e Ianiiioai??, aaeaea ethaeeia noai?aia aeey
?aanueei? iiaeiiino? e a??iiai neoae?iiy aiaai. Noa?aiiee ? neooiyiee
neoaa iiaea ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iee?noue ainiiaea?y. Ioaea, oeyo
neooiyiino?, a??ii? neoaeae oa iioaie aei noa?oeo, i?aaeoae?a ? aia?a –
oea oeyo caiiiai oni?oo, caei?ia’y e aeiaaie?ooy. Ca?aene
aeaoa?i?i?noe/ia eiioeaioe?y aeeooy ethaeeie: a?ae naiiai aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy aiii aecia/aia aiaii, ? i?/iai a iueiio ci?ieoe iaiiaeeeai,
oae naii iaiiaeeeai a?aeaa?iooe nia?oue. Nia?oue – oea eoeuei?iaoe?y
aeeooy, caaa?oaiiy oni?o?a ? ia?aiia ethaeeie o ai?iouea? ca
anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaiai ? neooiyiiai aeeooy. A eoeueoo?? ooia??a
oia?oa a ?noi??? ethaeeia c?iaeea ni?iao ii?aeueii iiaeieaoe nia?oue,
c?icoi?oe ?? ye iiiaio ia?aoiaeo o a?/i?noue. O ooia?nuee?e i?oieia??
aaea ?niothoue i?oe i?i cieioee a?e ethaenoaa oa ?aenueea aeeooy, ye?
caiaeii oa?eoee aei ?ae?a?eieo oyaeaiue ia?iae?a Ia?aaeuei? Ac??, a
i?ci?oa – a a?ae?ei? nthaeaoe.

O noa?iaeaai?i Ooia?? ii/eia?oueny ?icaeoie iaoee, yea iaiaaa?oueny
iaieiae?oe ae?eni?noth. AEa?oe? i?noa O? ?iaeee ano?iiii?/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy i?ioyaii 360 ?ie?a, ia iniia? /iai anoaiiaeee, ui
i?ioyaei?noue ?ieo – 365 aei?a, 6 aiaeei, 15 oaeeei ? 41 naeoiaea. Oea
a?aee?eooy o?eiaeiny ae?aoeyie o aeeaie?e oa?iieoe? ? aeei?enoiaoaaeiny
aeey ci?oeiaiiy aeaaee iaae ia?iaeii, neeaaeaiiy ?ae?a?eieo i?noe/ieo
?eooae?a oa i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith. AEa?oe? e iaae
aeei?enoiaoaaee ciaiiy i?i ?oo c??ie, I?nyoey ? Niioey, i?i iiaaae?ieo
oaa?ei, i?i oi?ie ?ineei aeey ai?iae?iue, ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiae?e o e?a?i?.
Aiie aoee oiieeie ineoieiaaie, ai?eeie aeno?anainaie oa a?iiioeca?aie. O
aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? ooia??a ua e aein? caeeoa?oueny aaaaoi
ia?icaaaeaiiai.

Aeine?aeieee a?aecia/athoue aeineoue aenieo ooaeiaeith eoeueoo?o
ooia??a. Ae??ciythoueny e?anith e ooaeiaeiueith aeineiiae?noth ?o
a?o?oaeoo?a oa neoeueioo?a. A O?ooe? aoa caaaeaiee eiiieaen nayuaiieo
nii?oae – ceeeo?ao?a, ye? noaee oeaio?ii aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Ca nai?th
a?o?oaeoo?ith nayoeiy O?o aoea i?ioioeiii Aaa?eiinueei? aaae?. O Ooia??
aeia?a ?icaeioeany neoeueioo?a. Noaoo? oea??a, aea?oe?a, ai?i?a
aeeiioaaeeny c aeni?an??th i?e i?i?ioi cania?a ae?aaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i aenieo iaenoa?i?noue ?oi?o oai?oe?a. Iaaoei cia/iiai ?icaeoeo
ienoaoeoai ieanoeee a iaoae?: oia?oa cieioi aeei?enoiaoaaeiny a
eiia?iaoe?? c? n??aeii, a?iicith ? e?noth. O neiaaniiio ienoaoeoa?
ooia?e ia?oeie canoinoaaee niin?a aacia?a?aii? ?iciia?ae? i?i iiae??, ui
aeaei ciiao noai?eoe ia?o? ai?/i? oai?e, iaea?aeii?oee c yeeo – ai?/ia
eaaaiaea “A?eueaaiao”.

O e?ioe? ?? oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a. ooia?e anei?ethaaeeny c aaa?eiiyiaie.
?icea?oa? noa?iaeaaiy ?aaiaeanieoeueea aea?aeaaa Aaa?eii, yea
i?i?nioaaea aei VI no. aei i.a. Aaa?eiinueea, oaeaeaenueea oa
anne??enueea oeea?e?caoe?? aeoaea aaaaoi ia?aeiyee c eoeueoo?e ooia??a.
Iaea?eueoeo oni?o?a aeinyaee aaa?eiiyie a ano?iiii??. Iaeiae iinooiiai
ao?a/a?oueny iacaeaaei?noue ?aaiaeanieoeueeeo i?no-aea?aeaa, a c
onoaiiaeaiiyi ia?neaenueeiai iaioaaiiy Aaa?eii ia?anoa? aooe noieeoeath,
eiai iaeaoee e ceeeo?aoe ia?aoai?ththoueny ia ?o?ie. O iaoa??aeuei?e oa
aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? noaee iai?aieie ?io? cae/a?, caeiie, a??oaaiiy,
?aeaieia?y. Aaa?eiinueea oeea?e?caoe?y, ii noo?, aoea inoaiiueith oacith
ooia?nueei? oeea?e?caoe?? oa eoeueoo?e.

Eoeueoo?a Eeoath

Eeoae – e?a?ia noa?iaeaaiuei? oeea?e?caoe??: ia eiai oa?eoi??? aeyaeai?
caeeoee ia?a?nii? eoeueoo?e /an?a ?aiiueiai iaeaie?oo oa a?iiciaiai
a?eo. Ia?a?nii-iaueiiee eaae ?nioaaa ooo aeiaai – aei O?V no. aei i.a.,
eiee noi?ioaaeanue ia?oa ?aaiaeanieoeueea aea?aeaaa ?iue. Naia a ?inueeo
aiioo ca?iaeeeany eoeueoo?a, yea aeaea ii/aoie eeoaenuee?e oeea?e?caoe??
a on?e ?? niaoeeo?oe? oa cia/ouino?. Aoa neeaaeaiee a iniiaieo ?enao
i?ny/iee eaeaiaea? oa aeiaeaeaia ienueii – i?iia?ac no/anii?
???iae?o?/ii? eae?a?ao??. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e a?aeaoaaany o
ia?oeo oeaio?ae?ciaaieo ?iia??yo – aeeiano?? Oe?iue (221-207 aei i.a.)
oa aeeiano?? Oaiue (206 aei i.a. – 220 i.a.).

Noa?iaeaai?e Eeoae caaaaoea na?oiao iaoeo ? eoeueoo?o cia/ieie
aeinyaiaiiyie: a?i ? aaouee?aueiith oaeeo aeiaoiae?a, ye eiiian (??? no.
aei i.a.), ni?aeiiao? (??? no. aei i.a.), naeniia?ao (?? no. i.a.),
ii?io (O no. i.a.), eieaiae?oeoaaiiy (V?-VIII no.), oa?oi? (???-Vno.). A
aaeoc? iaoaiaoeee aoa a?aee?eoee iaoiae ?ica’ycaiiy ??aiyiue ia?oiai
nooiaiy c aeaiia ? o?ueiia iaa?aeiieie, ae/eneaia a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie
eiea aei eiai ae?aiao?a – /enei ?. A aaeoc? ano?iiii?? eeoaeoe? ciaee,
ye ae?aoiaoaaoe aeaoo caoaiiaiiy Niioey, neeaee iaeei ?c ia?oeo
eaoaeia?a c??ie, aaee niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ieyiaie ia Niioe? oa ?i.

Aeineoue oe?ieiai ?icaeoeo iaaoea oi?a?aey, oeae aaaeeeaee oaeoi?
eoeueoo?e ? i?ia?ano. Eeoaeoe? aaee aeaaao oi?a?aeth c ?iae??th oa
e?a?iaie Na?aaeiuei? Ac?? Aaeeeei oiaeiaei oeyoii, a oaeiae c
a?aanueeeie e?a?iaie, Ei?a?th, ssiii??th – ii?nueeei oiaeiaei oeyoii.

Ia aanue na?o neaaeoueny eeoaenueea iaaeeoeeia, yea ia?
o?ueiooeny/ie?oith ?noi??th. A Noa?iaeaaiueiio Eeoa? aia?oa aoei
iaienaii “Oa?iaeieia?th” (Aaiue oeai), aia?oa noaee i?iaiaeeoe
o??o?a?/i? iia?aoe?? c canoinoaaiiyi ia?eioe/iiai caniao, aia?oa iienaee
? canoinoaaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aieeiaeiethaaiiyi, i?eia/aiiyi, ianaaeai.

Eeoaenuee? aoae?aie/? caeiaoee nia? neaao aeaiia nai???aeieie
iai’yoeaie. I?ioyaii aeaio oeny/ ?ie?a, ii/eiath/e c V? no. aei i.a., a
Eeoa? aoaeoaaany iaea?eueoee o na?o? Aaeeeee eaiae, yeee o O??? no.
c’?aeiaa Iae?i c Oai/aeio, – neeaaeia a?ae?ioaoi?/ia nii?oaea c
/eneaiieie i?eno?iyie, oe?eaaeie niiniaaie ia?aea/oaaiiy oa i/euaiiy
aiaee. Ae?oaa aeaeaoia nii?oaea – Aaeeea eeoaenueea no?ia.

O aeooiai?e eoeueoo?? noa?iaeaaiueiai Eeoath aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aeaa
oaiiiai aoaeaiii? na?aeiiino?, a?aeiiee a ?noi??? ye “eeoaenueei?
oea?aiii??”. Oea noai?i o?eniaai? noa?aioeie aoeei-?eooaeueieo ii?i
iiaaae?iee ? ieneaiiy, ye? neeaaeaeenue ia iniia? aeio?eioaaiiy eoeueoo
noa?iaeie. A.Iie?ea?iia cacia/a?, ui a?ia?o?io?y oeeo aoeei-?eooaeueieo
i?eioeei?a c?aooith i?ecaaea aei oiai, ui aiie cai?ieee
?ae?a?eii-i?oieia?/ia ni?eeiyooy na?oo. A aeai?oieia?caoe?y e aei iaaii?
i??e aeanae?ae?caoe?y aoeee oa ?eooaeo ni?e/eieeenue aei oi?ioaaiiy
oi?eaeueiino? eeoaeoey ye iin?y eoeueoo?e. Ianaiia?aae i?noea eoeueoo
aia?a iin?a eoeueo ?aaeueieo eeaiiaeo oa n?iaeieo i?aaee?a. C ae?oaiai
aieo, o? aiae, ye? caeeoeeeny a iioai?aeo, iicaaaeeenue iaeiaioiai
iethaeiaiiy ? noaee oieiaeieie, aano?aeoieie aiaeanoaaie-neiaieaie,
ye-io Iaai, I?aeiaaania, Aeai oiui. Oe? iiiyooy ia iathoue aiaeia?e a
?ioeo noa?iaeaai?o eoeueoo?ao, ai, neaae?ii, eeoaenueea Iaai – ia
yeeenue aia, a aeua caaaeuei?noue, oieiaeia, noai?a, aaniethoii
aaeaeoaea aei ethaeeie. Aaeeeee Aeai – oea anaioiiethth/ee,
anacaaaeueiee Caeii ? Aanietho, aacoi?iiee ? aac?iaiiee, iaaa/aiee ?
ia/oaaiee, iaaeinooiiee i?aaiai /ooo?a ethaeeie, aea anaiiaooi?e
oai?aoeue na?oo. I?ciaoe Aeai, c?icoi?oe eiai nai?i ?icoiii, ni?iaoaaoe
ceeoeny c iei – inue eeth/ia? i?eioeeie oa e?ioeaaa iaoa aeeooy
noa?iaeaaiueiai eeoaeoey. Iaeyne?aa?oa oey eiioeaioe?y iiyniaiiy na?oo
ao?eaia o o?einionueeeo nenoaiao eiioooe?ainoaa oa aeainecio.

O eeoaenueeiio ienoaoeoa? iniaeeaa i?noea iin?aeathoue eae?a?ao?y,
iiac?y oa aeeaiien. ???iae?o?/ia eiaeiaa nenoaia aeaaaea ciiao /a?ac oe?
o?e aeaee ienoaoeoaa a?aeia?aaeaoe aeeooy ethaeeie a iaeiioa?ii?oeo
ii?ooao ?? aeoo?, iaea?eueo iiaii a?aeoai?thaaoe ?? i?aaiaiiy aei ceeooy
ienoaoeoaa c ienoaoeoaii aeeooy.

Oaia 2. EOEUeOO?A NA?AAeIUeIA?**ss

Oa?i?i “na?aaei? a?ee”, oi/i?oa “na?aaei?e a?e” (a?ae eao. medius –
na?aaei?e), aeiee a ?oae?? o OV-OV? no. na?aae aoiai?no?a. Ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ii? iaoee a oea iiiyooy aeeaaeaee ??ciee ci?ino.
Aoiai?noe, i?ina?oeoae? aaaaeaee na?aaei? a?ee ia??iaeii aeeaieiai
eoeueoo?iiai caiaiaaeo ia i?ioeaaao aenieiio ceaoia? eoeueoo?e a
aioe/iiio na?o? ? a iiaee /an. Iaaaoeaii aei Na?aaeiueia?//y noaaeany
oaeiae Aaaaeue, iaceaath/e eiai nai???aeiei oeiii aa?aa?noaa. ?iiaioeee,
a oaeiae i?aaenoaaieee o?enoeyinueeiai ia?niiae?cio, aeineoue aeniei
ioe?ithaaee ?ieue Na?aaeiueia?//y a ?noi??? eoeueoo?e, aaaaeath/e oeth
aiioo iaea?eueo ieiaeioai?iei ia??iaeii aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiai
i?aeianaiiy o na?oia?e ?noi???.

Na?aaeiueia?/ia eoeueoo?a A?caio??

A ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe?? a?caio?enueea eoeueoo?a caeia?
aeaeaoia i?noea. Aeey ia? oa?aeoa?i? o?i/enoa ieoi?noue ? aioo??oiy
oeyoaoi?noue, oea nai???aeiee neioac eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e
a?aei-?einueeiai na?oo ? o?enoyinoaa, a oaeiae aee?i?noe/iiai Noiaeo.
A?caio?enueeee oei eoeueoo?e ia iiae?aiee i? ia cao?aeii?i?iiaenueeee,
i? ia no?aeiee.

A?caio?enueea ?iia??y aeieeea ia ?oaaae? aeaio aiio – caaeaae? i?ciuei?
aioe/iino? oa ia?iaeaeaiiy na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa. Noieeoeath ??
noaa Eiinoaioeiiiieue, caniiaaiee ?iia?aoi?ii Eiinoaioeiii ? o 324-330
??.

Ca oi?iith aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy A?caio?y aoea naiiaea?aeaaiith
iiia?o??th: a ?oeao ?iia?aoi?a (aaneeaana) cina?aaeaeoaaeanue
caeiiiaeaa/a, aeeiiaa/a, noaeiaa ? a?enueeiaa aeaaea; aiia aaaaeaeany
aiaeanoaaiiith, a a?i nai – iiaaeeoaeai on?o o?enoeyinueeeo ia?iae?a. ?
ana ae oey aeaaea aei iaaii? i??e aoea iaiaaeaia oaeeie onoaiiaaie, ye
naiao (neiee?o), aea?aeaaia ?aaea (eiinenoi??e) ? ae?ie (i?aai?caoe??
a?eueieo a?iiaaeyi a?ciao?enueeeo i?no).

Nai???aei?noue noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo A?caio?? ia iaio yne?aai
i?iyaeeany a aaeoc? i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei. Ooo ye o noa?? oeea?eueiiai, oae
? a noa?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae ia Caoiae? iaee
aieea ?einuee? th?eaee/i? o?aaeeoe??. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo e?a?i oiai
/ano, A?caio?y caeeoaeanue aea?aeaaith, aea caa??aaeiny ?aeeia
eiaeeo?eiaaia e iaia’yceiaa aeey anueiai ianaeaiiy ?iia??? ae?th/a
i?aai. Caaaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?aaa THno?i?aia, yea no/anieee iaceaaee
“o?aiii i?aaiai? iaoee”, neeaaeaeiny c Eiaeaeno – iniiaieo i?aaiaeo
iieiaeaiue, caiice/aieo o ?einueeeo th?eno?a, ?inoeoooe?e – ei?ioeeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey th?eni?oaeaioe?? ? Iiaae – iiaeo caeii?a, aeaeaieo
naiei THno?i?aiii. Naia caaaeyee caaaeaiith oeea?eueiiai i?aaa
THno?i?aia aeinyaiaiiy ?einueei? th?eaee/ii? iaoee noaee iaaeaaiiyi
th?eno?a Na?aaei?o a?e?a ? Iiaiai /ano.

A ?aeaieia?/iiio ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? a?caio?enueeiai
noni?euenoaa cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaea o?enoeyinueea oea?eaa, yea a ?V
no. noaea nithcieeii ? iii?ith aea?aeaae. O A?caio?? oea?eaa ia iaea
o??? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? e aeiiii?/ii? aeaaee, ui a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?.
I?aaineaai? ???a?oe ia i?aoaiaeoaaee ia aeaaainoai iaae iiaooiueith
na?onueeith aeaaeith, i?iiia?aeoaaeanue ?aeay ?aeiino? c aea?aeaaith.
?einueea ae eo??y iaooeeueii a?aenoithaaea aeieo?eio i?i i?eiao
aeooiaii? aeaaee iaae na?onueeith. No?aeio ? cao?aeio oea?eao ?icae?eyee
no?ee? nioe?aeueii-ineoieiae/ie a?aei?iiino?, ui aei?aieeenue o oe?ieeo
eieao na?aaeiueia?/iiai noni?euenoaa. Cao?aei?e ?ae?a?eiino? aoea
aeanoeaa aeeaiea aiioe?eia iai?oaeai?noue, ui iaaeoaaea c
aecaeueoaoe??th; a??oaaiiyi a?ae?a – aano?aeoia o?einionueea
?icnoaeeea?noue, i?eoeeuei?noue aei o?ainoeaiaeaioieo ?aeae.
Noaeeueiaaia oyaa eaoeiyi iino?eii ni?yiiaoaaeanue aei no?aaeaeaiue
O?enoa, no?aoieo ioe a??oiee?a o iaee?; a i?aaineaai?e oea?ea? ia ia?oee
ieai aenoaaeenue ?aae?nii ina?oeai? iiiaioe aeeooy Neia Aiaeiai, eiai
aine?an?iiy, i?aeianaiiy aeoo a??oth/eo aei aaaeanoaaiiiai na?oea, aei
ia?aiiae aeia?a iaae ceii.

Nenoaia ina?oe o A?caio?? caa?aaea niaaeei?iiee ca’ycie c aioe/i?noth.
Ae?oae o a?oe? oanoe-naie ?ie?a a?aeaeaaaee aei ii/aoeiai? oeiee, aea
aiie i?ioyaii aeaio-o?ueio ?ie?a a/eeenue ienaoe, /eoaoe ? ?aooaaoe.
Ii/aoeia? oeiee aoee i?eaaoieie, ieaoieie, a oaeiae iiaee oo?eioaaoenue
iiianoe?yie, oea?eaaie aai i?nueeeie iaueiaie, caeeoath/enue aeinooiieie
aeey an?o eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy. Aeey i?iaeiaaeaiiy ina?oe ? ?icaeoeo oe?e
a?eueo aenieeo nooiai?a ?nioaaa aeoaea aaaeeeaee noeioe: a ?iia??? c
oeaio?ae?ciaaiei oi?aae?iiyi ? ?icaaeoaeaiei ath?ie?aoe/iei aia?aoii ia
iiaeia aoei caeiyoe aenieo iinaaeo aac aeinoaoiuei? ina?oe.

O?, ui ae??oeee i?enayoeoe naaa iaooe? aai aiooaaeeny caeiyoe aenie?
aea?aeaai? iinaaee, i?iaeiaaeoaaee ina?oo, aea/ath/e ?eoi?eeo,
o?einio?th oa th?eni?oaeaioe?th. A ?aii?e ia??iae ?iia??? caa??aaeeny
noa?? oeaio?e aioe/ii? ina?/aiino? – Ao?ie, Aeaenaiae??y, Aio?io?y,
Aae?oo, Aaca. Caiaeii oe? oeaio?e caiaiaaeathoue: Aeaenaiae??enueea
a?ae?ioaea aeia a?ae iiaeaae?, a ieaoii?anueea Aeaaeai?y cae?eaa?oueny
ca iaeacii ?iia?aoi?a THno?i?aia. Aeieeathoue iia? iaoeia? ? iaa/aeuei?
oeaio?e; a Eiinoaioeiiiie? a ?V no. noai?th?oueny Iaaiaa?nueea aeua
oeiea, a a 1045 ?. – oi?aa?neoao.

C ia?aiiaith o?enoeyinoaa i?ia?aeia i?noea a nenoai? ciaiue caeiyei
aiaineia’y. Iaaecae/aeiee ?icea?o ia?aaeeaa? eia?ea, ye iniiaa iiaoaeiae
aiaineianueei? aeiaiaoe/ii? nenoaie. A?caio?enueea o?einio?y, ia
a?aei?io a?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? noieanoeee, aacoaaeanue ia aea/aii?
e eiiaiooaaii? aioe/ieo o?einionueeeo a/aiue on?o oe?e ? iai?yie?a,
iaeiae a O? no. o i?e iineeth?oueny aieea ?aeaae?noe/ii? nenoaie
Ieaoiia, yea aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aaa ia e?eoe/ia
noaaeaiiy aei oea?eiaieo aaoi?eoao?a.

?icaeoie i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, a oaeiae iaoaiaoeee e ano?iiii??
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaany iio?aaai i?aeoe/iiai aeeooy – ?aianae, ii?aieaaaiiy,
oi?a?ae?, a?enueeia?e ni?aa?. A iaoaiaoeoe? ii?yae c eiiaiooaaiiyi
i?aoeue noa?iaeaai?o aaoi??a ?icaeaaeeny ye ooiaeaiaioaeuei?, oae ?
i?eeeaaei? iai?yiee. Iniaeeai ieiaeioai?i?noth a?aecia/eany Eaa
Iaoaiaoee (?O no.), yeee caeeaa iniiae aeaaa?e, aeei?enoaa aoeaaii?
iicia/aiiy a ?ie? neiaie?a, i?ineaaeany aaaaoueia aeiaoiaeaie, cie?aia
na?oeiaiai oaeaa?aoo oa oeo?iioae?eie iaoai?ciaie, ui a?aaeaee
?iicaioe?a a ?iia?aoi?nueeiio iaeaoe?.

O einiia?ao?? e ano?iiii?? oi/eeany aino?a ai?ioueaa i?ae caoenieeaie
aioe/ieo nenoai oa i?eoeeueieeaie o?enoeyinueeiai na?oiaeyaeo. A V? no.
Einueia ?iaeeeiieaa o “O?enoeyinuee?e oiiia?ao??” iaiaaaany ia?aaeyiooe
nenoaio Ioieaiay. Eiai einiiaii?y aaco?oueny ia a?ae?eieo oyaeaiiiyo i?i
oa, ui Caiey ia? oi?io ieineiai /ioe?eeooieea, ioi/aiiai ieaaiii ?
iie?eoiai iaaaniei eoiieii.

Cia/ieie aoee aeinyaiaiiy a?caio?eoe?a o aaeoc? iaaeeoeeie ? o?i??.
Aiie ia o?eueee eiiaiooaaee i?aoe? Aaeaia ? A?iie?aoa, aea e
ocaaaeueieee i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae, oaeineiiaeeee ae?aaiinoeeo. A V?? no.
o A?caio?? aoa aeiaeaeaiee “a?aoeueeee aiaiiue” – noi?o iaooe, aaoaiiai
aaiia ? ??cieo niie, ui caaacia/oaaei oni?o o ii?nueeeo aeoaao ?
iniaeeai a ai?iouea? c a?aaaie.

A ienoaoeoa? A?caio?? iaioaaee ocaaaeueiaii-ni??eooae?noe/i? i?eioeeie,
ye? a?oioothoueny ia a?ae?ea? a?ae ?aaeueiino? ? ia?aianaii? o noa?o
aeueo, aano?aeoieo ?aeae. ?aeaaeueiee anoaoe/iee ia’?eo, yeee ia?aaoaa?
a aeooiai?e noa??, iieno?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo anoaoe/ieo
eaoaai??e, ye i?ae?ania, na?oei, eie??, ia?ac, ciae, neiaie. O
ooaeiaei?e oai?/ino? ia?aaaaeaee o?aaeeoe?iiae?ci, eaiii?/i?noue.

A?caio?enuee? iaeno?e, c iaeiiai aieo, caa?aaee neeaaeio oaoi?eo
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa, c ae?oaiai – iaiiaieee ?? iiaei neiaie?/iei
ci?noii. Noeeue ?o aeeaiieno oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ii?aeiaiiyi ieineeo
neeoao?a c ieaaiith ?eoi?eith e?i?e oa aeaai?iaeiith aaiith oa?a, aea
ia?aaaaeaee io?io?i?, e?eia?, nei?, ieeaeiai-caeai? e cieio? oiie. A
IV-VI no. o a?ciao?enueeiio aeeaiien? ua iaioaaee aioe/i? o?aaeeoe??, ui
ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iica?oe? Aaeeeiai ?iia?aoinueeiai iaeaoeo a
Eiinoaioeiiiie?; caiaeii, o ?O-O no., oi?io?oueny no?iaee ?eiiia?ao?/iee
eaiii, neeaaea?oueny oe?e?nia nenoaia aeaei?o o?aio, iaaiee ii?yaeie
?icoaooaaiiy a?ae?eieo noeai ia eiai no?iao ? eoiieao. Iaeia c aa?oeo
ienoaoeoaa oeueiai /ano – iica?ea o?aio na.Nio?? o Eiinoaioeiiiie?.

Ia e?iaoeue O??? e na?aaeeio O?V co. i?eiaaea? ua iaeei ia??iae
?icea?oo a?caio?enueeiai aeeaiieno, ca’ycaiee c iioe?aiiyi aoiai?noe/ieo
oaiaeaioe?e o eoeueoo??. AEeaiienoe? iaiaaathoueny aeeoe ca ?aiee
anoaiiaeaieo eaiii?a oea?eiaiiai ienoaoeoaa, caa?oathoueny aei
cia?aaeaiiy ia aano?aeoii?, a aeeai? ethaeeie. I?ae?anieie iai’yoeaie
oeueiai /ano ? iica?ea ? o?anee iiianoe?y Oi?e. Iaeiae a?caio?enueea
ienoaoeoai ia ciiaei i?aeiyoeny aei ?aae?cio ?oae?enueeiai ?aianaino ?
iaaeae? caeeoaeinue o oi?iao noa?i? eaiii?ciaaii? ?eiiia?ao??.

Cia/iee aeeaae A?caio?? a ?icaeoie na?aaeiueia?/ii? a?o?oaeoo?e.
A?caio?enuee? ciae/? noai?ththoue iiae i?eioeeie caaoaeiae i?no: o
oeaio?? ?icoaoiao?oueny aieiaia ieiua c niai?ii, a?ae ia?, aeia?eueii
ia?aie?oath/enue, ?icoiaeyoueny aoeeoe?. I?ae?aniei c?aceii oea?eiaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ? o?ai na.Nio?? a Eiinoaioeiiiie?, nii?oaeaeaiee o 532-537
??. ca iaeacii THno?i?aia.

Na?aaeiueia?/ia eoeueoo?a Cao?aeii? ?a?iie

O ia??iae Na?aaeiueia?//y caeeaaeathoueny iniiae ?a?iiaenueei?
oeea?e?caoe??, ine?eueee a noa?iaeaai? /ane ia aoei ?a?iie o ?icoi?ii?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe. Iiceoeaiee aeeaae Na?aaeiueia?//y a
?noi??th eoeueoo?e ethaenoaa aaee/aciee, i?iyaeany a?i a on?o ?? aaeocyo
– a ina?o?, o?einio??, eiie?aoieo iaoeiaeo ciaiiyo, ienoaoeoa?.

Aeey aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy ci?noo ? iai?yie?a eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano
Na?aaeiueia?//y iaiao?aeii c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei
oeueiai ia??iaeo.

E?ao Cao?aeii? ?einueei? ?iia??? iciaiaioaaa ii/aoie iiai? aiioe –
na?aaei?o a?e?a, iniiaiei ci?noii yeeo aoei oi?ioaaiiy oaiaeaeueieo
a?aeiinei, ianaiia?aae o noa?? caieaaieiae?iiy. ?icaeiooa oi?ia
oaiaeaeueii? aeaniino? yaeyea niaith niaaeei?iio caiaeueio aeani?noue
i?aaenoaaieea iai?aii? aa?o?aee, ca yeo a?i ionea a?aeaoaaoe a?enueeiao
/e ?ioo neoaeao o naiueei?a. Iie?oe/ia nenoaia oaiaeaeueiiai
noni?euenoaa a?aecia/aeany ia?o ca ana oei, ui aeaaea aoea
aaciina?aaeiuei ca’ycaia c caiaeueiith aeani?noth, aenooiaea ??
ao?eaooii. sse ia aeeaii, aea a /ane Na?aaeiueia?//y iaa?aee ?aaeueiino?
ia?o? oi?ie aeaiie?ao?? a oe?oiio canoinoaaiiy, i?ae, iai?eeeaae, a
aioe/iiio ?aaiaeanieoeueeiio noni?euenoa?.

A O?-O??? no. noaei ooaa?aeaeoaaoenue i?nueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy. sseui
i?noi iiai?noth ca?eueiyeiny a?ae aeaaee naiueei?a-oaiaeaea, aiii
io?eioaaei noaoon eiioie. Eiioiaeueiee oei naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?a
ia?aoai?thaaoeny a i?noi-aea?aeaao c ?anioae?eainueeith oi?iith
i?aae?iiy. I?nuee? ?anioae?ee iaee aeanio aeai?io aaei?i?no?aoe?th, nai?
noaee, iie?oe?th e a?i?th, /aeaieee iiiaoo. Oaeee oei naiia?yaeoaaiiy
iaaoa iioe?aiiy a ?oae?enueeeo i?noao Aaiaoe??, Oei?aioe??, Aaio?. Ia
/ie? eiioie noiyea i?nueea ?aaea, yea cae?enithaaea ea??aieoeoai
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth, aeaeaaaea
caaaeueiiiaia’yceia? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy. ?aaeith ea?oaaee aeai?i? iniae:
ia? (O?aioe?y, Aiae?y), ao?aii?no? (I?ia//eia), eiinoe (?oae?y). I?nueea
iaueia aoea iaiaeii??aeiith ca nioe?aeueiei neeaaeii, aeeth/aea ??ci?
ei?ii?aoe?? ? noaie. Oi?aiaa ianaeaiiy ia’?aeioaaeinue o a?eueae??, a
?ai?nieee – a oeaoe. Oeao oaeiae aoa iie?oe/ii ni?yiiaaiith
i?aai?caoe??th, i/iethaaiith aeai?iei iaa?no?ii.

A OV no. oaiaeaeueia aea?aeaaa nyaa? iaeaeuiai nooiaiy oeaio?ae?caoe??
/a?ac aaniethoio iiia?o?th, iiceoeaia cia/aiiy yei? iieyaaei a oiio, ui,
ci?oeithth/e aeiiii?/io ? eoeueoo?io ?aei?noue ia?iae?a, aiia ni?eyea
oi?ioaaiith ?a?iiaenueei? iaoe??. Iaeiae aiia ae noai?eea ? aaee/aciee
aia?ao ianeeuenoaa, yeee, ia/a aaeeoainueeee ni?oo, aeooea noni?euenoai.

A aiioo Na?aaeiueia?//y ?a?iia noaea aieiaiei iin??i eoeueoo?e
eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, iiaooi?noue yei? iino?eii c?inoaea. Aaea o
O??-O??? no. ?einuee? iaie aeaeaaaee caaaeueiiiaia’yceia? aeoe (aoeee),
aieiae?ee aeeeth/iei i?aaii neeeeaoe niai?e ? naieoe?iioaaoe ?o
iinoaiiae. Iaia aoa aeuith noaeiaith ?inoaioe??th ye o oea?eiaieo
ni?aaao, oae ? a ni?aaao na?onueei? aeaaee. I?e ?iieaio?? ???
(1160-1216) aaaaoi ?a?iiaenueeeo iiia?o?a aeciaee naaa eiai aanaeaie. A
ai?iouea? c iaiie??ieie iaie aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ioa?aeeeo – caai?iio
a?aei?aa on?o aiaineoae?iue ? ?ae?a?eieo ia?yae?a ia oa?eoi??? o??? /e
?ioi? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae a?aeeo/aiiy iiia?o?a a?ae oea?eae, ca?eueiaiiy
i?aeaeaieo a?ae i?enyae ei?ieth.

A aiioo Na?aaeiueia?//y aeinyaea aenieiai ??aiy oe?eueia ?
oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa. Aeey iaa/aiiy ee??ee?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
?ieneiinuee? e iiiano?enuee? oeiee, o yeeo Aiaoe??i ? O.Eann?aei?ii
(487-578) aoei aaaaeaii iiae?e “naie a?eueieo ienoaoeoa” ia aea?
/anoeie: o?ea?oi (o?e oeyoe ciaiiy: a?aiaoeea, ?eoi?eea ? ae?aeaeoeea)
oa eaaae??oi (/ioe?e oeyoe ciaiiy: aaiiao??y, a?eoiaoeea, ano?iiii?y ?
ioceea). O O??-O??? no. ia aac? oaeeo oe?e aeieeee oi?aa?neoaoe. A 1200
?. o O?aioe?? caniiaaii Ia?ecueeee oi?aa?neoao; a ?oae?? aoee oae?
a?aeii? oeiee, ye Aieiinueea th?eaee/ia oa Niea?inueea iaaee/ia.
Ia?ecueeee oi?aa?neoao iaa /ioe?e oaeoeueoaoe: “iieiaeoee”, aai
a?oenoe/iee, ia yeiio aea/aeeny “n?i a?eueieo ienoaoeoa”, ? o?e
“noa?oeo” – iaaee/iee, th?eaee/iee oa aiaineianueeee, aea iiaeia aoei
iaa/aoeny i?ney cae?i/aiiy a?oenoe/iiai.

O O??? no. c’yaeeenue e ?io? oi?aa?neoaoe: Ienoi?aenueeee oa
Eaia??aeaenueeee a Aiae??, Naeaiainueeee a ?niai??, Iaaiieuenueeee a
?oae??. A ianooiiiio noie?ooy caniiaai? I?acueeee, E?ae?anueeee,
Aaeaeaeueaa?cueeee, Eaeueinueeee ? A?oo?onueeee. Iai?ee?ioe? OV no. a
Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? iae?/oaaeiny 65 oi?aa?neoao?a, o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
caniiaaieo c naieoe?? ?einueei? eo???.

Iaoea a na?aaei? a?ee aoea a iniiaiiio eieaeiith ni?aaith. Aiia
iie?aeanue aieiaiei /eiii ia aano?aeoia ieneaiiy ? eeo iacia/iith i??ith
ia aenia?eiaio, ine?eueee ua ia noaaeea ia?aae niaith i?aaiaoe/ii? iaoe,
ia ao?o/aeanue o i?e?iaeiee o?ae iiae?e, a iaiaaaeany c?icoi?oe na?o o
i?ioean? niiaeyaeaiiy. A iaooe? aeae?eyee /ioe?e iai?yiee. Ia?oee –
o?ceei-einiieia?/iee, yae?ii yeiai aoei a/aiiy i?i ?oo ia iniia?
iaoo?o?einio?? a??noioae?cio; a?i ia’?aeioaaa noeoii?noue o?ce/ieo,
ano?iiii?/ieo ? iaoaiaoe/ieo ciaiue, ui i?aeaiooaaee a?oio aeey ?icaeoeo
iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee Iiaiai /ano. Ae?oaee – a/aiiy i?i na?oei; iioeea o
aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? aoea /anoeiith caaaeueii? aeieo?eie – “iaoao?ceee
na?oea”, ui aeieeaaei ?c canaae iaiieaoii?cio. O?ao?e – iaoea i?i aeeaa;
oeae iai?yiie ioiiethaaa eiiieaen ieoaiue i?i aeooo, ye aeaea?aei
?ineeiiiai, oaa?eiiiai ? ethaenueeiai aeeooy, a aeon? a??noioae?cio.
*aoaa?oee iai?yiie noinoaaany ano?ieiai-iaaee/ieo ciaiue, o oiio /ene?
aeo?i??. Nai???aei?noue aeo?i?? iieyaaea a oiio, ui aiia ia’?aeioaaea a
iaaio oe?e?nio nenoaio iaoeia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? oaioac?th, ?aoe?iiaeueio
eia?eo ? i?oieia?th, aoaeo/e iaea?eueoa iia’ycaia c iniaeeainoyie
na?aaeiueia?/iiai ieneaiiy.

E?oa?aoo?a O??-O??? no. iaea ia?aaaaeii aee?eaaeueia ni?yioaaiiy uiaei
?nioth/eo ii?yaee?a. Iniaeeaa i?noea caeiaea iiac?y aaaaio?a (a?ae i?i.
vagants – a?iaey/? ethaee), ye? c’yaeeenue o I?ia//ei? ? O?aioe??.
Oai?/?noue aaaaio?a aoea a?eueiiaeoiia, aaoeaoia, aeoaea aeaeaea a?ae
aneaoe/ieo ?aeaae?a Na?aaeiueia?//y – aiia ini?aoaaea aacoo?aioi?
aanaeiu?, a?eueia aeeooy, aee?eaaea caaea?eea?noue eaoieeoeueeiai
aeooiaainoaa.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e na?aaeiueia?/ia ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai, o?aaa
i?aee?aneeoe eiai noeeueia? iniaeeaino?, ye? iaea?eueoa i?iyaeeenue o
oea?eiai?e a?o?oaeoo?? ? neoeueioo??. C /an?a Ea?ea Aaeeeiai
ae?iaey?oueny oae caaiee ?iiainueeee noeeue: iiianoe?nuee? oea?eae
iaaaaeothoue oi?oaoe? c iaeeie ? aocueeeie a?eiaie, i?ecaieaieie
eieiiaie, ianeaieie aaaeaie. Ana aaaaonoai neoeueioo?ieo cia?aaeaiue
cina?aaeaeaii ia aieiaiiio oanaae? ? a na?aaeei? a?aoa?y, yeee
?icoaoiaaiee ia i?aeaeuaii?. Ana oea, ?acii ocyoa, aeaiiino?oaaei
oea?eiaio iiaooi?noue, aaee/ aeooiaiiai ee??o ? ii?iaeaeoaaei a ethaeei?
ona?aeiieaiiy aeaniiai aacneeey.

A ae?oa?e iieiaiei? O?? no. ia Caoiae?, ia?o ca ana o i?ai?/i?e
O?aioe??, c’yaey?oueny ?ioee a?o?oaeoo?iee noeeue – aioe/iee. Aeey
iueiai oa?aeoa?ia ono?aie?iiy nii?oaee aai?o ca ?aooiie aino?eo
no??e/aoeo oiee?a. O no?iao iiyaeythoueny aaee/aci? a?eia c eieuei?iaei,
iaeueiaie/i?icienaiei neeii. *eneaii? aino?ieiioni? a?ee, aaaaonoai
neoeueioo?, icaeia – ona oea iaaeaaaei aioe/iei niai?ai aeeiai?/iino?,
i?iaoaeaeoaaei ?ae?a?eii-i?noe/i? ii/oooy. Aioe/iee noeeue
aeei?enoiaoaaany ? a na?onueeeo aoaeiaao.

Oaeei /eiii, o iaae?ao Na?aaeiueia?//y aoea iaa?iiaaeaeaia aaee/acia
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?ia aia?a?y, yea ni?eyea yne?aaiio niaeaoia?
ethaenueeiai aai?y a /ane A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?aoi?iaoe??.

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