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Aeuea?aoo Aeth?a? (1471-1528), i?iaoeueeee aeeaiienaoeue, iaethaaeueiee
? a?aaa?, iaeei c iaea?eueoeo iaeno??a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai
ienoaoeoaa.

Aeth?a? aoa i?iieeeeaei aeine?aeieeii i?e?iaee e aa?y/ei i?eoeeueieeii
?oae?enueei? (?aianainii?) oai??? ienoaoeoaa, iaeiae o eiai oai?/ino?
aeyaeeeny aaaaoi ?en na?aaeiueia?/iiai i?noeoeecio. Aeth?a? ?c
caoiieaiiyi ?iciia?aeaa i?i nai? aeeooy, iiaeeeai, niiioeoaaiee
ia?iineaanoaii; a?i iienoaaa ??ci? ?? aniaeoe a n?iaei?e o?ii?oe?, o
uiaeaiieeo, i?enay/aiiio ii?caeoe? a I?aea?eaiaee, ? a aeae?eueeio
eenoao iniaenoiai oa?aeoa?o. Aaoiii?o?aoe Aeth?a?a, ua a?eueo, i?ae eiai
aeani? neiaa, aeyaeythoue iino?eia i?aaiaiiy aei naiii?ciaiiy e
oi?ioaaiiy aeanii? iniaenoino?. Ia?oee aaoiii?o?ao ooaeiaeiee noai?ea o
a?oe? o?eiaaeoeyoe ?ie?a. Ia oeueiio iaethieo n??aiei ie?aoeai a?i
c’yaey?oueny oiieei /ooeeaei thiaeii. O oaeiio ae eeth/? Aeth?a?
cia?acea naaa ia aeoaea eaia?iiio ii oa?aeoa?? “Aaoiii?o?ao? ?c
aaicaeeeith” (1493, Eoa?). Ooo eiio aeaaaeoeyoue aeaa ?iee. Aeoii/aiei ?
caeaenoei eiioo?ai eiai o?aio?anueeiai iaeyao aoi?youe oaeeyno? e?i??
aeiaaeo na?oeeo aieinue. Ia iaae?eaenueeiio “Aaoiii?o?ao?” (1498,
I?aaei) Aeth?a? c’yaey?oueny i?ioea?oath/ith ethaeeiith. Eiai ?oee
nii/eaathoue ia ia?aiao?, ca nieiith a?aee?eaa?oueny aeae c a?eia. Ooo
a?i oaea iieacaiee c ai?iaeith, iaeyaiaiei o ieaooy aaaaoiai ath?aa?a. O
oeueiio ii?o?ao? ciaeoia a?aeaeooy ?aianainiee i?aeo?ae aei o?aeooaaiiy
iniaenoino? ooaeiaeieea, ui a?aeoaia? iiaeiai ?icaeyaeaoeny ia ye
ne?iiiee ?ai?niee, a ye iniaeno?noue, ui aieiae?? aenieei
?ioaeaeooaeueiei ? i?ioan?eiei noaoonii. A 1500 ?ioe? oe? oaiaeaioe??
aeinyaathoue eoeuei?iaoe?? a “Aaoiii?o?ao? a ia?ac? O?enoa” (Ithioai,
Noa?a I?iaeioaea). Ooo naiicaieeoaaiiy iaeno?a, iii?oia a eiai a?eueoa
?aii?o aaoiii?o?aoao, ia?ai?iy?oueny oaa?acith i?yiioith. O?ao?a no?iai
o?iioaeueia, iea i?eeiaothoue oaaaa, oiie ea?iaoeee aeiiiaiai?
??ciiiai?oieie a?aeo?ieaie ei?e/iaaiai, oei oaiiee. O oeueiio aeiaooeo
Aeth?a?, iaaooue, i?aaioa ia?aaeaoe aeoiea, ui ooaeiaeiee, iiae?aii
Aiaia?, ? oai?oeai.

Aeth?a? ia?iaeeany 21 o?aaiy 1471 o Ith?iaa?aa, aieiaiiio oeaio??
i?iaoeueeiai aoiai?cio. Eiai ooaeiaei? aea?oaaiiy, ae?eia? yeino? e
na?oiaeyae oi?ioaaeeny i?ae aieeaii o?ueio ethaeae, ui c?a?aee iaea?eueo
aaaeeeao ?ieue o eiai aeeoo?: aaoueea, oai?nueeiai thaae??a; o?auaiiai
Eiaa?aa?a, ui caeeoea thaae??ia ienoaoeoai e caeiyeiny aeaeaaie/o
ni?aao; ? iaeaeeae/iai ae?oaa Aeth?a?a, Aeeeaaeueaea Ie?eoaeia?a –
aeaeaoiiai aoiai?noa, ui iiciaeiiea iieiaeiai ooaeiaeieea c iiaeie
?aianainieie ?aeayie e aeiaooeaie ?oae?enueeeo iaeno??a.

Aeth?a? inai?a iniiae aeeaiieno e eneeia?ao?? a iaenoa?i? ooaeiaeieea
Ieoayey Aieueaaiooa. I?ney aeae?eueeio ?ie?a iaa/aiiy a?i a 1490 ?ioe?
ii?oaa o Eieueia?, uia iiciaeiieoeny c aaeeeei a?aaa?ii Ia?o?iii
Oiiaaoy?ii, aea ia canoaa eiai a aeea?. 1492-1494 ?iee a?i i?ia?a o
Aacae?, iaea?eueoiio oeaio?? ae?iaieoeoaa ?ethno?iaaieo eiea. Ooo
iieiaeee ooaeiaeiee caoiieany eneeia?ao??th e a?aath?ith ia i?ae?;
iaeiae ?c /eneaiieo a?aath?, i?eienoaaieo oeueiio ia??iaeo oai?/ino?
Aeth?a?a, eiai aeiaooeii iiaea aaaaeaoeny o?eueee o?iioenien aei
aeaeaiiy iineaiue na. ???ii?ia 1492 ?ieo.

A 1494 ?ioe?, i?ney a?aea?aeoaaiiy No?anao?aa, Aeth?a? iiaa?ioany ia
aaouee?aueio, aea iacaaa?ii a?aei?aaeany o Aaiaoe?th. Ii aei?ic? iaenoa?
aeeiiaa e?eueea /oaeiaeo aeaa?aeueieo iaecaae?a, ye? ? iaeieie c ia?oeo
aeiaooe?a oeueiai aeai?o a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio ienoaoeoa?.

Iiaa?ioaoenue o Ith?iaa?a a 1495 ?ioe?, ooaeiaeiee a?aee?ea aeanio
iaenoa?ith e noaa ?iaeoe iaethiee, ii yeeo eiai o/i? aeaioiaeyee
eneeia?ao??. Ae?oeoth/e cia/io e?euee?noue a?aeaeoe?a, Aeth?a? c 1497
?ieo ii/aa i?ea?aaoe aei iineoa aaaio?a, ui i?iaeaaaea eiai a?aath?e ii
an?e ?a?ii?. Oaeei /eiii, a?i noaa ia o?eueee ooaeiaeieeii, aea e
aeaeaaoeai; eiai neaao onoaeeei aeaeaiiy a 1498 ?ioe? na??? a?aath? ia
aea?aa? “Aiieae?inen”. O a?aath?? “*ioe?e aa?oieee Aiieae?inena” eii?
eaoyoue iaae o?eaie oiaeeo ethaeae. Aiioe?eia iai?oaeai?noue
aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?ioenoaaeaiiy oaiiiai aonoiai
ia?aeaeueiiai oo?eooaaiiy, a?eueoeo ieyi /enoiai a?eiai iaia?o e
i?noeue, aea oi?ie eaaeue iicia/ai? oiieeie e?i?yie; oae noai?th?oueny
aeeaiee neoeueioo?iee aoaeo. O oeae /an neaaa Aeth?a?a, yeiio c 1496
?ieo caoeuaa eo?oth?no Naeniinueeee O??ae??o, iioe?eeany ii an?e ?a?ii?.

A 1503-1504 ?ieao Aeth?a? noai?th? /oaeia? aeaa?aeuei? aothaee oaa?ei ?
?ineei, c yeeo iaea?eueo ciaiaieoee “Aaeeeee oiaoie aea?io” (1503,
A?aeaiue, Ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iee iocae). Iaienai? ??cieie a?aeo?ieaie
caeaiiai, ?ineeie cia?aaeai? c iaia?aaa?oaiith noa?aii?noth e oi/i?noth.

Aeeiiaia a 1504 ?ioe? a?aath?a “Aaeai e Aaa” a?ae??ciy?oueny
iiioiaioaeuei?noth e eeane/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie. Iaeaea? o?ao?e – ie?ae
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iii?oe?e ethaenueeiai o?ea, ui caeiaee Aeth?a?a
i?ioyaii anueiai . aeeooy Oaia? ooaeiaeiee caa?ioany aei a?aath?e ia
iaoae?, ui aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue iia?oaaoe a?eueoa oiieeie e aio/eeie
e?i?yie, /ei o?, ye? iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? a oaoi?eo eneeia?ao??.

A 1506 ?ioe?, iiaeeeai, ?yooth/enue a?ae /oie, Aeth?a? ciiao i?e?oaa o
Aaiaoe?th. A?aeiioaiiy Aeth?a?a aei Aaiaoe?? aoei aeai?noei. Aeey iueiai
oea i?noi aoei iaeii/anii e eoaeii oao?a?a ? ceiae??a, ? i?noeai “aea y
– iai, o oie /an ye oaeiia – onueiai eeoa ia?aceo”. O a?aoa?iiio ia?ac?
aeey i?iaoeueei? oea?eae a ?eaeueoi “Nayoi /?oea” (1506, I?aaa,
Iaoe?iiaeueia aaea?ay) Aeth?a? aeei?enoaa o?aaeeoe?eio ?oae?enueeo
?eiiia?ao?th sacra conversazione (Iaaeiiia ia o?ii? c iaeaooi?ie ?e
nayoeie ii noi?iiao). Ia oe?e ea?oei? Iaaeiii? c Aeeoeiith
iieeiiythoueny ?iia?aoi? ? iaia ?einueeee, a ca ieie – th?aa ia?iaeo, o
ye?e Aeth?a? cia?acea aaaaoueio nai?o no/aniee?a.

Iiaa?ioaoenue o Ith?iaa?a, Aeth?a? i?iaeiaaeoaaa caeiaoeny a?aath?ith,
iaeiae na?aae eiai aeiaooe?a 1507-1511 ?ie?a a?eueoa aaaeeeaa i?noea
caeiathoue ea?oeie. Aeth?a?a, i/aaeaeii, ia caeo/aa oe?iea iioe?aiiy a
oe? ?iee i?eeii nooiaoi (i?y/ia i’ye?noue ia?en?a o aeeaiien?), ? a?i
i?iaeiaaeoaaa ienaoe o oaa?aeiio e?iaa?iiio noee?. Aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo
oa?aeoa?i? oae? ea?oeie, ye “Aaeai e ?aa” (1507, I?aaei). Aio/e? o?ea
iiaeiaaeaieo i?iii?oe?e c? iciaeaie i?aeeiae, iii?uai? ia oaiiiio oe?,
a?eueoa a?aoe?ici?, /ei Aaeai e ?aa ia a?aath?? 1504 ?ieo. A 1508 ?ioe?
aeey aeii?i?eainueei? oea?eae o O?aieoo?o? Aeth?a? iaienaa aaeeeee ia?ac
“Oniaiea Aiaiiaoa??” (ia caa??any e a?aeiiee eeoa ii eii?yo). O eiai
eiiiiceoe?? a?aeaeany aieea ?oae?enueeeo aeaio’y?onieo cia?aaeaiue
I?aeianaiiy Aiaiiaoa??. Caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith oe??? noaie iaeno?ia?
aaeaeiny aeinyaoe ?acth/i? iiioiaioaeueiino? ia?aca. A 1511 ?ioe? ca
caiiaeaiiyi eoioey Iaooaona Eaiaeaoa?a Aeth?a? iaienaa “Iieeii?iiy
O??eoe?” (A?aeaiue, Ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iee iocae). Oea – iaea?eueo
aia?oe?eia ?c an?o aeiaooe?a ooaeiaeieea. O??eoey cia?aaeaia ia
oeaio?aeuei?e in? (Nayoee Aeoo o aeaeyae? aieoaey/e, Aia Aaoueei,
oa?i/aiee ei?iiith, ? ?ici’yoee O?enoin); iaaeiei – aeeiiyth/e
Aiaeanoaaiiiio I?anoieo nayo?, ooai?thth/? /ioe?e a?oie: oai?? e?ai?o/ –
io/aieee ia /ie? c Aiaiiao??’th; i?aai?o/ – i?i?iee, i?i?i/eoe? e nea?ee
i?ae i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii ?iaiia O?anoeoaey; oieco e?ai?o/ – ae?y/?
oea?eae, aaaeai? aeaiia iaiaie, a i?aai?o/ – ie?yie ia /ie? c
?iia?aoi?ii ? ei?ieai. Aae oieco cia?aaeaiee iaecaae c ica?ii, ia aa?ac?
yeiai iieacaia naiioiy o?ao?a naiiai Aeth?a?a a aeioee c iaienii.
AEeaiien oaa?aei? e nooa, aeeneath/i? oa?ae caeathoueny iaeaea
iaoaeaaeie, oaa?ae? e u?euei? oi?ie eiio?anoothoue ?c i’ye?noth iaecaaeo
e oia?.

sseui a 1507-1511 ?ieao Aeth?a? a iniiaiiio caeiaany aeeaiienii, oi
1511-1514 ?iee aoee i?enay/ai? ia?aaaaeii a?aath??. A?i aeionoea ae?oaa
aeaeaiiy “Aiieae?inena”, oeeee ?c aeaaaeoeyoe a?aath? ia aea?aa? “AEeooy
Ia???”, aeaaiaaeoeyoue a?aath? na??? “A?eueo? No?ano?” ? o?eaeoeyoue n?i
a?aath? ia oie aea nthaeao – “Iae? No?ano?”. O oeae ia??iae eiai noeeue
noa? a?eueoa aiaaiaiei, eiio?anoe na?oea e o?i? neeuei?oa, ye,
iai?eeeaae, o a?aath?ao “Ocyooy O?enoa i?ae aa?oo” (na??y “A?eueo?
no?ano?”) ? “*ioe?e aa?oieee Aiieae?inena”. A 1512 ?ioe? Aeth?a?
aeionoea o?aoth na??th a?aath? “No?ano? aeooeaieo ? aeoii/aieo ii
aeeiiaiith”. A 1513-1514 ?ieao a?i noai?ea o?e naieo ciaiaieoeo nai?o
a?eoo?: “Eeoea?, nia?oue ? aeeyaie”; “Na. ???ii?i o eae??” e “Iaeaioie?y
I”. Ia ia?oiio c ieo eeoea?-o?enoeyiei ?aea ii ai?eno?e i?noeaaino?,
noi?iaiaeaeoaaiee Nia?oth c i?neiaeie aiaeeiieeaie e aeeyaieii. Ia?ac
eeoea?y aeiee, iiaeeeai, i?ae aieeaii o?aeoaoo A?acia ?iooa?aeaineiai
“Ea??aieoeoai o?enoeyinueeiai ai?ia” (1504). Eeoea? – aeaai??y aeoeaiiai
aeeooy; a?i ?iaeoue nai? iiaeaeae a ai?iouea? c? nia?oth. A?eoo “Na.
???ii?i o eae??”, iaai?ioe, ? aeaai?e/iei cia?aaeaiiyi niiaeyaeaeueiiai
niiniao aeeooy. Noa?ee neaeeoue o ithi?o?a a aeeaei? eae??; ia
ia?aaeiueiio ieai? ?icoyany eaa. E??cue a?eia a oea ie?ia caoeoia aeeoei
ee?oueny na?oei, iaeiae ? nthaee aoi?aathoueny neiaiee, ui iaaaaeothoue
i?i nia?o?: /a?ai ? i?neia? aiaeeiieee. Ia a?aath?? “Iaeaioie?y I”
cia?aaeaia e?eeaoa ae?ii/a o?ao?a, ui neaeeoue na?aae ?iceeaeaieo
aaceaaeii i?eeaae?a e ?ino?oiaio?a.

A 1514 ?ioe? Aeth?a? noaa i?eaeai?iei ooaeiaeieeii ?iia?aoi?a
Iaenei?e?aia I. ?acii c? nai?ie iii?/ieeaie a?i noai?ea a?aath?o (3o3,5
i), ui cia?aaeo? o??oioaeueio a?eo e o?i/enoo i?ioean?th. Eiiiiceoe?y
aoea iieeeeaia i?ineaaeoe ?noi??th ?iia?aoi?nueei? aeeiano?? e iiaeaeae
?iia?aoi?a ? eiai i?aaee?a. Aeth?a? i?iaeiaaeoaaa ienaoe e ea?oeie,
noai?eaoe /oaeiaee “Ii?o?ao ?iia?aoi?a Iaenei?e?aia” (A?aeaiue,
Ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iee iocae) ? ia?ac “Aiaiiao?? c Aeeoeiith e na.
Aaiiith” (1519-1520, Iao?iiie?oai). Inoaii?e yaey? niaith eiiiiceoe?th,
ui neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio u?eueii ca?oiiaaieo o?ao?. Na. Aaiia a
caieneaiino? iionoeea ?oeo ia iea/a thii? Aiaiiaoa??, ui iieeiiy?oueny
Aeeoei? O?enoo.

A 1519 ?ioe? Iaenei?e?ai oia?, ? o?ii ia?aeoia aei Ea?ea V. A 1520 ?ioe?
Aeth?a? a?aei?aaeany aei aeai?o iiaiai ?iia?aoi?a. Ii?caeea
ia?aoai?eeany a o?eaaeo iiaei?iae ii I?aea?eaiaeai, aeieeaaeii iienaia
Aeth?a?ii o oeyoiaiio uiaeaiieeo. Ooaeiaeieea ne??cue cono??/aee c
ii/anoyie, ii oeyoo a?i aa/ea nai? ??ci? oai?e ienoaoeoaa, a?ae
Aaioneiai a?aoa?y aai Yeea aei c?ace?a ienoaoeoaa aia?eeainueeeo
?iae?aioe?a, i?eaacaieo c Iaeneee noiooieeaie Ei?oana. Iiaa?ioaoenue o
I?ia//eio, a?i i?enooieany aei oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy nai?o
niinoa?aaeaiue ? iaienaa o?aeoaoe i?i i?iii?oe?? ethaenueeiai o?ea e i?i
ia?niaeoeao – i?iaeaiao, ui caeiaee eiai ua ?c /an?a ia?oi? ii?caeee a
?oae?th.

Ieoaiiy i?i ?ae?a?ei? iiaeaiiy Aeth?a?a caeeoa?oueny aac a?aeiia?ae?. O
nthaeaoao eiai ea?oei iiaeia ciaeoe e eaoieeoeuee?, ? i?ioanoaionuee?
a?aeo?iee. A?i neiiaoecoaaa Ethoa?o, c yeei, iaeiae, ia aoa ciaeii. A
1526 ?ioe? Aeth?a? noai?ea “Ii?o?ao Y?acia ?iooa?aeaineiai” (a?aath?a ia
i?ae?), /e? iii??i? ?ae?a?ei? iiaeyaee, i/aaeaeii, ca?aaeeny c eiai
aeanieie. Aeeioeo “*ioe?e aiinoiee” (1526, Ithioai, Noa?a I?iaeioaea)
aoa iiaea?iaaiee Aeth?a?ii i?nuee?e ?aae? Ith?iaa?aa. Iiaeeeai, /ioe?e
o?ao?e aiinoie?a o ??no aoee iaienai? i?ae aieeaii ia?ac?a a?aoa?y
Aeaeiaaiie Aaeeeie c aaiaoe?ainueei? oea?eae O?a?e (1488). Ia e?a?e
nooeoe? iano?eueee oethaeaiee Ethoa?ii ?iaii Aiaineia iii?uaiee ia?aae
Iao?ii – eaiaiai oaa?aeaeaiiy eaoieeoeecio; ia i?aa?e nooeoe? Iaaei,
aiinoie ?aoi?iaoe??, eiooo? nia?aaeo Ia?ea. Iiaeeeai, oeae aeiaooie aoa
noai?aiee niaoe?aeueii aeey i?ioanoaionueeei i?noa, ui iaaeaaii noaei;
iaeiae iaien oieco iiaeia ?icoe?ithaaoe ? ye canoa?aaeaiiy i?ioe
aoaeue-yeiai i?iyao ?ae?a?eiiai oaiaoecio.

Aia? Aeth?a? o Ith?iaa?c? 6 ea?oiy 1528.

Aeuea?aoo Aeth?a? (Durer) (1471, Ith?iaa?a – 1528, oai aea), ui
aeaea?oueny i?iaoeueeee ooaeiaeiee ? oai?aoee ienoaoeoaa aiioe
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

A?ia?ao?y. Nei n??aieo ni?aa iaeno?e, aeo?aeoey c Oai?ueie. O/eany
nii/aoeo a aaoueea, iio?i o ith?iaa?cueeiai aeeaiienoey e a?aaa?a
Ieoayey Aieueaaiooa (1486-1490). Iaia’yceia? aeey iaea?aeaiiy caaiiy
iaeno?e “?iee iaiae??aie” (1490-1494) i?ia?a o i?noao Aa?oiueiai ?aeio
(Aacaeue, Eieueia?, No?anao?a), aea aa?eoia o eiei aoiai?no?a ?
eieaiae?oeoaaeueiee?a. O Eieueia??, ia canoaa o aeea? I. Oiiaaoy?a, o
yeiai iaa iai?? oaeineiiaethaaoeny a oaoi?eo a?aath?e ia iaoae?, aea/aa
eiai ?iaioe, ni?eeoth/enue ?c eiai neiaie, oaeiae ooaeiaeieeaie.
Iiaa?ioaoenue a 1494 ?ioe? a Ith?iaa?a, aeaieany ia Aaiana O?ae ?
a?aee?ea aeanio iaenoa?ith. Iacaaa?ii a?aei?aaeany a iiao iiaei?iae,
oeueiai ?aco a I?ai?/io ?oae?th (1494-1495; Aaiaoe?y e Iaaeoy). A
1505-1507 ?ieao ciiao aoa o Aaiaoe??. Iiciaeiieaoenue a 1512 ?ioe? c
?iia?aoi?ii Iaenei?e?aiii I, aeaeeii, oiae? ae ii/aa ia iueiai
i?aoethaaoe (aae aei eiai nia?o? a 1519 ?ioe?). A 1520-1521 ?ieao
a?aea?aeaa I?aea?eaiaee (Aioaa?iai, A?thnnaeue, A?thaaa, Aaio, Iaeei e
?io? i?noa). I?aoethaaa o Ith?iaa?c?.

Oai?/?noue. Aeth?a? e ?oae?y. Oai?/ee oeyo Aeth?a?a ca?any c
eoeuei?iaoe??th i?iaoeueeiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, neeaaeiee, aaaaoi a /iio
aeenaa?iii?eiee oa?aeoa? yeiai iaeeaa a?aeaeoie ia ana eiai ienoaoeoai.
Aiii aeoioeth? a nia? aaaaonoai e nai???aei?noue i?iaoeueeeo ooaeiaei?o
o?aaeeoe?e, ui iino?eii i?iyaeythoueny o aeaeyae? ia?niiaae?a Aeth?a?a,
aeaeaeiio a?ae eeane/iiai ?aeaaeo e?ane, o ia?aaac? ino?ioa?aeoa?iiai, a
oaac? aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeaoaeae. O oie aea /an aaee/acia cia/aiiy
aeey Aeth?a?a noeeaeiny c ?oae?enueeei ienoaoeoaii, oa?iieoeth aa?iii??
e aeineiiaeino? yeiai a?i iaiaaaany inyaoe. A?i – ?aeeiee iaenoa?
i?ai?/iiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ui ii ni?yiiaaiino? e aaaaoia?aiiino? nai?o
?ioa?an?a, i?aaiaiith iiaioaaoe caeiiaie ienoaoeoaa, ?ic?iaoe? c?iaeaieo
i?iii?oe?e ethaenueei? o?ao?e e i?aaee ia?niaeoeaii? iiaoaeiae iiaea
aooe c?noaaeaiee c iaea?eueoeie iaeno?aie ?oae?enueeiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Iaethiee. Aeth?a? aoa aei??aith? iaaea?iaaiee ye aeeaiienaoeue, a?aaa? ?
iaethaaeueiee; iaethiie ? a?aath?a caeiathoue o iueiai aaeeea, ui /anii
iaa?oue aaaea i?noea. Niaaeueia Aeth?a?a-iaethaaeueueea, ui ia?aoiao?
a?eueoa 900 a?eoo?a, ii i?inoi?ino? e ??ciiiai?ooth iiaea aooe
c?noaaeaii o?eueee c? niaaeueiith Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e. Iaethaaiiy aoei,
aeaeeii, /anoeiith uiaeaiiiai aeeooy iaeno?e. A?i aeeneo/a aieiae?a
an?ia a?aeiieie oiae? a?ao?/ieie oaoi?eaie – a?ae n??aiiai ooeooa e
i/a?aoyiiai ia?a aei ?oae?enueeiai ie?aoey, aoa?eey, aeaa?ae?. sse ?
aeey iaeno??a ?oae??, iaethiie noaa aeey iueiai iaeaaaeeea?oei aoaiii
?iaioe iaae eiiiiceoe??th, ui aeeth/a? a naaa ane?ce, oooaeee aie?a,
?oe, i?a, ae?ai??oaaiue. Oea ?ino?oiaio aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?ieo oei?a –
naeyi, ioaoieo eaaaea??a, ith?iaa?cueeeo iiaeieoeue. Eiai i?ineaaeai?
aeaa?ae? “Oiaoie aea?io” e “Ca?oeue” (Aeueaa?oeia, A?aeaiue) aeeiiai? c
oaeith ieeuei?noth e oieiaeioaaoi? a?aenoi?iiaii?noth, ui iiaee a
?ethno?oaaoe iaoeia? eiaeaene.

Oai?/a c??e?noue. AEeaiien 1494-1514 ?ie?a. Ia?oa cia/ia ?iaioa Aeth?a?a
– na??y iaecaae?a (aeaa?aeue ?c aoaooth, 1494-1495), aeeiiaieo i?ae /an
iiaei?iae? a ?oae?th. Oe? i?iaeoiai?, ?aoaeueii caaeainiaai? eiiiiceoe??
?c i?inoi?iaeie ieaiaie, ui ieaaii /a?aothoueny, – ia?o? “/eno?”
iaecaae? a ?noi??? ?a?iiaenueeiai ienoaoeoaa. ??aiee, yniee iano??e,
i?aaiaiiy aei aa?iii?eii? ??aiiaaae oi?i ? ?eoi?a aecia/athoue oa?aeoa?
iaeueiaie/eo ?ia?o Aeth?a?a e?ioey 15 noie?ooy – ii/aoeo 2-ai
aeanyoee?ooy 16 noie?ooy; oae? iaaaeeeee a?aoa? “??caeai” (“A?aoa?
Iaoiaa?oia?ia”, aeecueei 1498, Noa?a i?iaeioaea, Ithioai), “Iieeii?iiy
aieoa?a” (aeecueei 1504, Oooeoee), aea Aeth?a? ii?aeio? a?oio, ui
neeaaea?oueny c Iaaeiiie e o?ueio aieoa?a, niie?eiei e?oaiaei ?eoiii,
ieaai?noth neeoao?a, i?aee?aneaii? iioeaii a?ee, ui aaaaoi?aciai
iiaoi?th?oueny a a?o?oaeoo?i?e aeaei?aoe??. Iaei??? c aieiaieo oai
oai?/ino? Aeth?a?a a 1500-o ?ieao noa? iiooe ?aeaaeueieo i?iii?oe?e
ethaenueeiai o?ea, nae?aoe yeeo a?i ooea?, iaethth/e iaieai? /ieia?/? e
ae?ii/? o?ao?e (Aeth?a? ia?oei o I?ia//ei? caa?ioany aei aea/aiiy
iaieaii? iaoo?e), i?aenoiiaoth/e ?o o a?aath?? ia i?ae? “Aaeai e ?aa ”
(1504) ? iaeiieiaiiiio aaeeeiio iaeueiaie/iio aeeioeoo (aeecueei 1507,
I?aaei). Aei ?ie?a oai?/i? c??eino? Aeth?a?a noaaeyoueny eiai nai?
neeaaei?, aa?iii?/ii aii?yaeeiaai? aaaaoio?ao?i? iaeueiaie/? eiiiiceoe??
– aeeiiaiee aeey iaei??? c aaiaoe?ainueeeo oea?eia “Nayoi /?oea” (1506,
Iaoe?iiaeueia aaea?ay, I?aaa) ? “Iieeii?iiy nayoee O??eoe?” (1511, Iocae
?noi??? ienoaoeoa, A?aeaiue). “Nayoi /?oea” (oi/i?oa – “Nayoi a?ie?a c
?ic”) – iaeia ?c naieo a?eueoeo (161,5o192 aeea) ? iaea?eueo iaaei?ia ii
?ioiiaoe?? iaeueiaie/a ?iaioa Aeth?a?a; aiia iaea?eueo aeecueea
?oae?enueeiio ienoaoeoao ia o?eueee iioeaaie, aea e aeeoo?aith neeith,
iiaiie?ia’yi ia?ac?a (caeaa?eueoiai ii?o?aoieo), oa?a, oe?ioith eenoa,
??aiiaaaith eiiiiceoe??. O iaaaeee?e a?aoa?i?e ea?oei? “Iieeii?iiy
nayoee O??eoe?” niii nayoeo, aaouee?a Oea?eae, aiaae?a, ui oe?ythoue o
iaaanao, ii?aeiothoue, ye a “Aeenioo?” ?aoaaey, ?eoi?/i? i?ae?oae, ui
ia?aaoeothoueny c a?eiaei caaa?oaiiyi a?aoa?y.

Ii?o?aoe e aaoiii?o?aoe. Iaeaaaeeea?oa i?noea a iaeueiaie/?e niaaeuei?
Aeth?a?a caeia? ii?o?ao. Oaea a ?aiiueiio ii?o?ao? Inaaeueaea E?aey
(aeecueei 1499, Noa?a i?iaeioaea, Ithioai) Aeth?a? c’yaey?oueny ye
noi?iiaaiee iaenoa?, ui aeeneo/a ia?aaea? nai???aei?noue oa?aeoa?o,
aioo??oith aia?a?th iiaeae?. Oi?eaeuei?noue Aeth?a?a e o o?i, ui
i?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae eiai ?aii?o ii?o?ao?a caeia? aaoiii?o?ao. Oyaa
aei naiii?ciaiiy, ui aiaeeea ?oeith 13-e?oiueiai oeii/eea
(“Aaoiii?o?ao”, 1484, iaethiie n??aiei ooeooii, Aeueaa?oeia, A?aeaiue)
iaea?aeo? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o o?ueio ia?oeo iaeueiaie/eo
aaoiii?o?aoao (1493, Eoa?; 1498, I?aaei; 1500, Noa?a i?iaeioaea,
Ithioai), i?e/iio a inoaiiueiio c ieo iaenoa? cia?aaeaiee no?iai o oan,
? eiai i?aaeeueia iniaa, ia?aieaia aeiaaeie aieinnyi e iaaaeeeith
ai??aeeith, iaaaaeo? i?i cia?aaeaiiy O?enoa-Iaioie?aoi?a. A?aath?e
Aeth?a? iaeiaeiai oni?oii i?aoethaaa e a iaeano? eneeia?ao?? (a?aath?a
ia aea?aa?), ? a iaeano? ?acoeiai? a?aath?e ia i?ae?. Aeieeaath/e ca
Oiiaaoa?ii, a?i ia?aoai?ea a?aath?o a iaeei ?c i?ia?aeieo aeae?a
ienoaoeoaa. O eiai a?aath?ao iaea?aeaa ae?aaeaiiy ianiie?eiee,
aaioaaeiee aeoo eiai oai?/i? iaoo?e, ui oaeethaaee eiai ae?aiaoe/i?
ii?aeuei? eie?c??. ??ceei eiio?anoii ?aii?i, niie?eiei e yniei
iaeueiaie/ei ?iaioai noaea aaea eiai ia?oa a?eueoa a?ao?/ia na??y – 15
a?aath? ia aea?aa? ia oaie aiieae?inena (1498). O nai?o a?aath?ao
Aeth?a? o iaaaaaoi a?eueo?e ia??, /ei o iaeueiaie/eo ?iaioao,
iie?a?oueny ia /enoi i?iaoeuee? o?aaeeoe??, ui i?iyaeythoueny a
iaaei??i?e aeni?an?? ia?ac?a, iai?oaeaiino? ??ceeo, eooanoeo ?oo?a,
?eoi? eaieeo neeaaeie, no??ieeo, ui eeoaeyoueny e?i?e. A?iciee oa?aeoa?
iineoue ia?ac Oi?ooie ia iaei?e ?c e?aueo eiai ?acoeiaeo a?aath?, ui
aa?eoea a ?noi??th ienoaoeoa ca iacaith “Iaiaceaea” (ii/aoie 1500-o
?ie?a). Oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?iaoeueei? ooaeiaeiuei? o?aaeeoe?? aeinoaoie
iiae?iaeoeue, ?ioa?an aei aeai?iaeo aeaoaeae iii?oi? a naiiio niie?eiiio
? yniiio ii iano?i? a?ao?/iiio oeeee? Aeth?a?a “AEeooy Ia???” (aeecueei
1502-1505, eneeia?ao??). Ae?aiaoe/iith aeni?an??th a?ae??ciythoueny aeaa
a?eueoeo a?ao?/ieo oeeeee, i?enay/aieo no?anoyi O?enoa, o.ca. “A?eueo?
no?ano?” (eneeia?ao??, aeecueei 1498-1510) ? aea? na??? “Iaeeo no?anoae”
(a?aath?e ia i?ae?, 1507-1513 e 1509-1511); aiie iaea?aeaee iaea?eueoo
iiioey?i?noue o no/aniee?a. Iaeaaaeeea?oa i?noea o oai?/?e niaaeuei?
Aeth?a?a caeiathoue a?aath?e “Eeoea?, Nia?oue ? Aeeyaie” (1513), “Nayoee
???ii?i o eae??” (1514), “Iaeaioie?y”(1514), ui ooai?youe nai???aeiee
o?eioeo. Aeeiiai? c a??ooiciith oiie?noth a oaoi?eo ?acoeiaie a?aath?e
ia i?ae?, ui a?ae??ciythoueny eaeii?ciii ? ??aeeith ia?aciith
cina?aaeaeai?noth, aiie, aeaeeii, ia aoee caaeoiai? ye ?aeeiee oeeee,
iaeiae ?o ii?aeio? neeaaeiee ii?aeueii-o?einionueeee i?aeoaeno,
oeoia/aiith yeiai i?enay/aia aaeeea e?oa?aoo?a. Ia?ac noai?iai e?oiueiai
ai?ia, ui ?ooa?oueny aei iaa?aeiii? iaoe ia oe? aeeeiai neaeynoiai
iaecaaeo, iacaaaeath/e ia iia?ice Nia?o? e ianooiiiai ii eiai i’yoao
Aeeyaiea, iaa?yiee, i/aaeaeii, o?aeoaoii Y?acia ?iooa?aeaineiai
“Ea??aieoeoai o?enoeyinueeiai ai?ia”. Nayoee ???ii?i, ui iiaeeaeany a
o/ai? caiyooy, c’yaey?oueny ye oiniaeaiiy aeooiaii? naiicaaeeaeaiino? e
niiaeyaeaeueiiai aeeooy. Aaee/ia, caio?aia a iioio?a i??eoaaiiy e?eeaoa
Iaeaioie?y, ioi/aia oaioe/iei iaeiie/aiiyi cia?yaeue ?aianea, neiaie?a
iaoe ? nei?iieio/iai /ano, o?aeoo?oueny cae/aeii ye oiniaeaiiy
aaioaaeiiai oai?/iai aeooo ethaeeie (aoiai?noe aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aa/eee a ethaeyo iaeaioie?eiiai oaiia?aiaioo ao?eaiiy oai?/iai ii/aoeo,
“aiaeanoaaiii? iaea?aeeiino?” aai?y).

I?ci? ?iaioe. I?aoethth/e i?ney 1514 ?ieo i?e aeai?? ?iia?aoi?a
Iaenei?e?aia I, Aeth?a? aoa caaaioaaeaiee io?oe?eieie caiiaeaiiyie,
naiei o?oaeii?noeei c yeeo aoei noai?aiiy eieinaeueii?, aeae?oeoaaii? ia
192 aeioeao ?icoa?aiaaii? e?oia?ao?? “A?ea Iaenei?e?aia I” (o ?iaio?
iaae iath, e??i Aeth?a?a, a?aea o/anoue a?eueoa a?oia ooaeiaeiee?a).
Ii/aoie iiaiai oai?/iai i?aeeiio iia’ycaia c ii?caeeith Aeth?a?a a
I?aea?eaiaee (1520-1521), aea a?i, e??i /eneaiieo oaeaeeeo caiaeueiaie,
c?iaea ?yae /oaeiaeo a?ao?/ieo ii?o?ao?a (“A?aci ?iooa?aeaineee”,
aoa?eey, 1520, Eoa?; “Eoea Eaeaeainueeee”, n??aiee ie?aaoeue, Iocae
ia?acioai?/eo ienoaoeoa, E?eeue; “Aaian Aeth?a?”, iaoaeaaee ie?aaoeue,
1521, A?aath?iee eaa?iao, Aa?e?i, ? ?i.). A 1520-? ?iee ii?o?ao noa?
i?ia?aeiei aeai?ii o oai?/ino? Aeth?a?a e o a?aath?? ia i?ae? (ii?o?aoe
iaea?eueoeo aoiai?no?a eiai /ano – Ieeeia Iaeaiooiia, 1526,
Aeeeeaaeueaea Ie?eoaeia?a, 1524, Y?acia ?iooa?aeaineiai, 1526), ? a
aeeaiien? (“Ii?o?ao ia?oaea”, 1521, Ea?oeiia aaea?ay, Ae?acaeai;
“*ieia?/ee ii?o?ao”, 1524, I?aaei; “???ii?i Oieueoeooy?”, 1526, Ea?oeiia
aaea?ay, Aa?e?iii-Aeaeai, ? ?i.). Oe? iaaaeee? ii?o?aoe a?ae??ciythoueny
eeane/ii? caaa?oai?noth, aacaeiaaiiith eiiiiceoe??th, ea?aiaai?noth
neeoao?a, aoaeoii oneeaaeiaieo ia?enaie e?eneaoeo eaiaetho?a aai
aaee/acieo ienaieoiaeo aa?ao?a. Eiiiiceoe?eiei oeaio?ii o ieo ? aeaia
aaeeeei ieaiii iniaa, aee?ieaia oiieeie ia?aoiaeaie na?oea e o?iae. O
eaaei?, o?eueee-ii iii?oi?e i?i?oe?, ia?enao iai?aa?ae/eiaieo aai eaaeaa
aeaiooeo o iini?ooe? aoa, iiaeyae? oe?iei ?ice?eoeo i/ae, ?on?
iaoio?aieo a??a, aia?a?eiiio iaethieo aeeeoeue i?inooia? a?aeaeene
iai?oaeaiiai aeooiaiiai aeeooy. Neea aeooo, a?aee?eoa Aeth?a?ii o eiai
no/anieeao, ciaoiaeeoue iiaee ianooaa o eiai inoaii?e iaeueiaie/?e
?iaio? – aaeeeiio aeeioeoo “*ioe?e aiinoiee” (1526, Noa?a i?iaeioaea,
Ithioai), iaienaiiio aeey ith?iaa?cueei? ?aooo?. Aaee/aci? o?ao?e
aiinoie?a ?iaiia, Iao?a e Iaaea, ?aaiaae?noa Ia?ea, ui ia?nii?o?eothoue,
ca na?ae/aiiyi aeayeeo no/aniee?a Aeth?a?a, /ioe?e oaiia?aiaioe,
o?aeoothoueny c oaeith iiioiaioaeuei?noth, ui iiaeooue aooe c?noaaeai?
o?eueee c ia?acaie iaeno??a ?oae?enueeiai Aenieiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy. A
inoaii? ?iee aeeooy Aeth?a? aeaeaa nai? oai?aoe/i? i?aoe?: “Ea??aieoeoai
aei aei??o oee?eoeai ? e?i?eeith” (1525), “Ianoaaeyiiy aei ci?oeiaiiy
i?no, caie?a ? oi?oaoeue” (1527), “*ioe?e eieae i?i i?iii?oe?? ethaeeie”
(1528). Aeth?a? aieeioa ia ?icaeoie i?iaoeueeiai ienoaoeoaa 1-e iieiaeie
16 noie?ooy. A ?oae?? a?aath?e Aeth?a?a ei?enooaaeeny oaeei oni?oii, ui
iaa?oue aeioneaeeny ?oi? i?ae?iaee; i?yiee aieea eiai a?aath?
aei?iaoaaee aaaaoi ?oae?enueeeo ooaeiaeiee?a, o oiio /ene? Iiioi?ii ?
Ii?aeaiiia.

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