AEA*AIIss IIA?OIUeI? ?NOI??? OE?A?IE *A?AC I?ECIO IIIssOOss ?IE?OE*IA
EOEUeOO?A”

????e ??-ye? ???, ???, ?????? ????ue ?ae ???i ????, y? ????a ?????th oa
?y???th ?? ?a’???a. E???a – ? ??a ?????ue ????ue, ? ????th y?o eth?
??oth? ??e ???ae. I???? ae y?y? ??th ?? ?c ???????o ??, a y?o ????th?ny
???iy, ? ??? ??i ?a’y?? ?c ?????????ith ????th, ????????, ?????i-??????,
?????e, ?????i-???????e ????y?, ??ay? ? ??????. I???? ?iy?yi ? ?????a
????, ?????ue? ????? y?? ?th? ????e ??a ia ????iy ???e ????? ????? ?
????? ??????e. I????o ???? ??ae ???y?? ye ?????? ???o ?????????? ????.
A?a ????ue ?????ue ??? ????i, ? ?a’y?? c ??i ???o ???? ? ?????th ??????
??e, ?????o ???o ???, ???? ?? ????? ????e, ????a, oyaea? ? ?????.
I????iy ?e???? ???? ?ey?? a ?????? y???i ? ?????i ?????y ? ?????y ??
????iy ???? ????. ??? c ?i, ? ??a ???a ????? ??y?a, ????a ? ????a, ?????
???y???i ?oi??y, ????a ?????? ????? ? ????a, y? ????ny ? ???? ????,
????? ? ??? ?oe??.

E??e ?????e ???? ?????? ????? ????, ??? ??? ????? ????. A ????? ????a ??
???? ?????oth?ny ????????th ? ???ath?ny ????????y??e ?????e ? ??????y?
eth?e ????i ?ae ???? ?????i-????? ???????. A ???ue??e ??? ?? ???th?
??????thth? e????e o ???e ?????e ??? ? i?y?ythoueny o ?????? ?????eo
???.

A???ae ????? ?ny???y a ??????e ???? ???i ????ny ???? ?????iy ????? ????.
?.A???a, I.I???, TH.I???, I.*??? ??ath? ? ????a e???a ? ?????ue ??y?a,
???i?ue, ??????e ? ???a ????e, y? ???ath? ????y eth?e ? ????? ??e ??y
??????, ??? ? ??y????ue ?o ????? ?????.1 ?????a ????, — ???? A.Oe?????,
— ? ???o ?????? ???eo ? ???? ???”.2 A.A??, I.A????, A.???? ???ath? ????o
???? ye ????e ???? ????, ???a ???i-????? ?y???? e ????, y? ????ath?,
????thth? ? ????th? ???? ?????? ???o? ? ????e, ??oth? ????? ??yaee e
???e ??? ???yi o ?n???-?????o ??? O???.3

I???? ????? ???? ????e ? ????e oy??iy ?????? ?i ???o ? ???? ??i y??,
?????? ?? ????iy ? ?? ?????o ????? ? ??o??o ???i??. I?? ?y??ny e ??a. A
??, ?????? o ?????? ???o ? ????e ????? ????, ????i?? a ???? ? ???????
???o ?? ????. Oea ???ith? ???y?y ? ?????iy ????i ????o, a ?i ??i ? ??
????? i????y ? ????a ?????iy. O?o ? ?? ??? ?????y ? ???a ????i ???iy
????? ????, ???e ??? ??????? ????iy, ????e ?????? ????i-??????? ??? ??
?????iy.

I???i ?????e, ? i?y?y “????a ????”, ? ???? ?ae ???thth?o ?? ????a ??
y?u, ?? ???y? ???o ????th. I??? ???e ???iy ?iy?y ?????a ????” ????? ?
?e????e ????y? ?? ??a ? a OV??? – O?O ?., ???a, ??? ?i a????a ? ?iy?y ?a
????e ???o OV??? ?. ?. A???4. I?? ??ae ??? ??? ????i ????, ? ????ny ?
???o ?????ue oy??ue ?i ???, ????o ? ???? ?????i ???? ?? ?? a ???e ????
50-o ?e?a ???? n???y. I???? a ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? A.A???. N???o
o ??? ????y?? ????? ????, a ??i a ??? ??yo ??i c N.A??th, A.I???i, ?? ??
????iy ?????e ???? ? ????? ????th, y? ??a ???th a ?????iyo ????? ????5.

Iiy? ????o ? ?iy?y ?????? ????” ? ?? ????????, a ?e ???, ? ? ????? e
???eth??ny, ?????, ??a i?????. A ??o ??o, ? ???a ?yn?? ?????? ???ae
????? ??o??? o ???o, y? ??e ? ?yo ??????i ???? ? ???? ??? ???/?? ???e.
Ae?? ????a ?ey?? a ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??e, ui ???? ????? ?y ???? ?ae
???? ????i ?????ii??? ????? ? ???? ????? ????e.

sse ???, ??a ?????iy, y? ????? ? ??? ????i, ????? ?y??n? ???
????i-??????? ??. A?a ? ???? ?????o ??? ????? ??e? ? ????a ?o ??’y??y.
I????? ???? ??o ??e ???a ? ?????iy ??, ? eth??a ?y???ue ? ?????ny ?iy??i
?????? ????e, a ?? ????o ??????ue. O ???? ?a ????e ???? ?i ?y???ue o
????? ????o ????? ???? ?? ?io ??a ???????: ?????? ? ?????, y? ????ath?
?????i ?? ?o???th ? ????th ????????ue. N???? ?????? ??????? ?y?y??ny o
????? ?a’??a ???y? a ????, ye ????o, ?e ? ?????o, ??? ?’??e, ???????? ?o
c ??e ?? ?????y ?? ???, ???ith?? ?o ????y?? ???o ? ???. I???? ?? ?????ue
?????i ye ?????a, ??ith??? ??????y ? ??ey??ny a y??? ??????thth?o ????a
?????? ???????. Oe????? ??????? ???ath? o ??? ??????? n?’??a ? ???th ???
eth?e. Ia ????o ??????e, ? ????ny ? ???e ?????, ?? ?? ????? a ?????ue
?ae ????e, ?? ? ???a ????e, ??i ?????o ?????, ?? ?? ca?th?ny ????ith
???ith ? ??eyth?ny ????? ??.

Ca’y?e ??o ??a ??ey?? ??, c ??? ??, ????????, a c ???i – ????? ????,
???ith??ny ??c ??ith???e ????o ?????? ???????. I???e ??????ny a ???
???e, ? ????? ?y???ue ?????? ?????a. ??ue ??o ? ???th? ????? ???? o ??y?
????? ???????. O ???eo ?ny???ny ?????y ?????? ? ????? ??????? o ????
??????th ?a’?e? ? ????o ?th.

A???? ????y ????? ???? ?? ? ?? ?????? A.A???i ?e ??oeth??? ?????? ?????
????. A?e ???e ????i-??????o ??, y? ? ??? ?????a ????? ??????i ????
????? ????, a e ??? ?? e??????? ????o. I? ? ????ue ???????y ????? ????.
?????a ???? – ? ??? ???????? ??oe?e ? ??????e ???? ????, ?????o ???
????? ???e. A?a ? ?a’????th ??ith, ? ??? a ??? ??oe?? ?e ? ??? ?i ???iy.
O?? ???????? ??????? ?’??oth? e??? ????a: a) ?????o ??????th – ???? ?
??a ??iy ?i ????? ?’??e ? ???; a) ????o ??????th ???oy ?’y?o, ?eth??y,
????? ?? ????? ?’???a; a) ??ith??? ??????th – ???e ????? ?’???a ? ??e ?i
?o, ? ????ath? ?????iy ??ith???o ?????a ? ????? ?’???a ? ??e.”6

O ????? ?????, ? ????ny ???? o ????e ??????, ????a ???? ?????ny ?????i
????? i????o ?????? ????? ??, o ?’yc? c ?i ?? ?????y ??ae ???? ???????i
????o. O?? ???ae ??? ??????, ?, y?i ????a ??y ? ????? ????? ?, ??, ??
???? c ?th ??, ? ???i ?????, ? a ??? ????? ????th? ? i????e ?? ??ey??,
??i ???????, o ???o ???o – ? ????o ?th, a a ???o – ? ????o.

Aeath? ???c ????ith ????? ????, ?? ? ?a ???? ??o ? ??a????th ye ????y
?a’????? ??y?o, ??i ???, ? ???? ? ??e ??????. A??? ??i ?????y ?c ???e
??? ? ? ?????. A?i ?????e ??????ith” ?i, ? ???o, ????th” n?y????th
?????ue, y? ? ??? ?????? ?ia? ????-???????? ?e???? ????, a ?? – ???????.
I???? ae ???y ???? – ???e ?????? ???? ? ??eth??th ????e ?a’??a – ?????
??????????th ???? ?i ?? ??????ue a ???o ??e , ? ae ? ???e ?? ??????
???th? ??????i, ???????i ??e??.

C??y ? oy??iy ?i ????o ??a? ?i ??? ?? ????, ?e ??, ye ? ???y ?? ?o, ?
??? ??? ?????ue ye ??????? ????? ?e??e. O??? ??? ?a’y??ie c ?????th ?
????? ??, ??i a y??? ????? ????? ????e, ?? ???th? ??e ????? ????. A ???o
???o ? ??iy ? ???? ??? ?? ????? ? ????? ??????, ?a ? ? ????? ????.
I????a ???i??ue ?????ny “ye ?y ?????ue ?????i ?????iy ????, ye ??
?a’????e ????o, ? ?y?y? ?? ? ??? ??yo, a ??-y?o ????y?7. Ui ??o??ny
????? ????, ? ?? ? ?? ???ith ????? ??????, ??ethth? ?? ??????o ?????? –
????? ???????, ?i ????? ????e ?? ????? ?’???a. I?????y ?o ??????e ?????
? ?????y ???? ?iy?, a ??, ? ? ??? ????ith ????th ??? ?????.

O????y ????? ???? ?ey?? o ????? ? ?? ???o, ??i y?u ????? ??????, ??ae
y?u ? ?e??ue ? ????? ????e. Ia ???? ?ae ????? ??????, y? ? ?????
?????iyi ????? ????? e ???? ???th ??????? eth?? a ??? ii???, ????a ????a
y?y? ??th ????th ????? c ????? ?????i ? ?? ? ?? ????th ? ??i ????? ?i ??
???. A??????ue ?ae ????ith ?????th, ? ?? ?????e?i ?????i, ? ????ith
?ey?? ? e o ??, ? ?o?iy ?? n????? ?? ????e, ???? ????, ???? ???? ???i
?????? ????? ??????e, ?o ????y o ?????? ??yo ? ???o. A? ?y???ue ???
?’y?o ? ??ae ??eth????. N??a a ?i, ? ????a ????a ???e ??? ??????e ????,
?????ny ?c ??ey???i ??? ????? ??????e. A???n ????? ???????, ?????? ?ae
?n ????ue, ??? ? ????e ??i ???iiy a ????? ??c ?????ue ????? ?y ??i ??.
I?a ??ii?’y?e ????e, ?a ?e ?y??? ??? ?????? ? ??????.

O?? ???i ?????? ????” ??a ???????e ??oth? ??th ?????th, ye ??????ue. Oey
????y ? c ???? ??? ????ith ? ???ith a ??????? ? ???ae???o ?????
????????? ????”. I?o ? ?a, ????o ???? ??a ??ey?? ye o ??????o — ??????
???, ?e ? a ???????o – ye ???ae’??o ???? ?????????? ????”. C ??? ???e,
????a ???? i?a ?????ue ? ?? ye ??? ??????? ?a’??a ????, ?a e ye ????? ??
????? ????e, ??a ?????ny ???????ith ? ????i-?????th ??????th.

A?????y ????? ???? ye ??ae?? ???? ?????????? ????ny ? ?????, ? ?????
?????i ae??? ?’???? ???th? ????o ?????ue ? ????o ???? ??e. ss?i ??ey?oe
????o ??????ue, ???????ue ye i????? ?ny??iy ????? ????? ??e c ????ie?
????e, ? ?????a ????? ?y ?????? ???/?? ?y???? ?y?y??ny ???? ????????, a
?ae ?e – ???.

????????y ???i ?a’y?? ??????? ???e, ? ???ath? ???o ?? o ?ny??? ??e. A?a
?i ??i ?? ????th? ?? ? ???e a ???? ??, ????ue ?o ? ????? ?????, a ???
????? ????? ?o ???y?y e ???e ? ???th ???th ??th a ?ny??? ??e. ????????y
???y? a???? ?? ???e, ? ???th? ? ?o ???, a ?io ??????ny ?????ue ????e ?
??? ?????th, ?o? ?????i ?y?i ???a ?n ? ?? ? ??a ?? ????i ?y ????? ???e
??o ??? ?????e.8

O ??o ??? ??? n???? ?????i ???? ?a’??a ???iy? ??? ?????y a ?e ?????e
?????? ????? ?e, ? ??y??? ? ?ny??iy ?????? ??. I????? ?a’?? ?y?y??ny
?????i o ??e ???a???? ??? ?????i ?? ?????? ?e???? ???. ? ? ????? ? ?
?i?ue ???/ii ?????.

O?a, ?? ???????, ????y ????ue ?i ?, ? ????iy eth??? ????o ????? o ??o
??????? ??e, ?ae ????a o ????o ?????. Aei ??o ?? ???? ?????? ??????ue. O
??? ??? ??????ue ? ?oe????ith, ?a ? ??o ????????, ?????i? ???, ? ???
????iy ? ?????y ????? ye ???? ???.

C ?ey? ? ????a ??, ???? ?????iy ?iy?y ?????a ????” o ???iy?e ??? ??a
???????e ye ??? ??????o. Ia ????th? ? ??????ue ?? ????, ????i ?? aeay?
??????? ???e ???????? ??i y??. Aei ??o, ?? ? ?a, ??ae ???? ?????y ?????
???? ye ?e???? ??y?a, ?????, ??????e, ? ???ath? ????y eth?e ? ??o???
???e ? ?? ????a. N?a ? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????ny ????a ????ue
?????ue, ??y???o ? c’y???y ????? ????ue ??????a, ???o ???e ????? ?????a,
????? i??i ??i ????e ? ??? ????? ??? ? ??e. Ae??ue ?n?? ? ?????iy, a y?o
? ???? ???i ????? ???? ??ey???ny ??? c’y??? ?? ?????? ?????, ?i ??????
???, ?, ????i, ????? ????? ye ??a????? ????i? ????, ?e ? ??????y ?????
????e, ? ?????ny ?th.

I????a ???? – ????? ????y. ?? ?????iy ????ath?: ?ya ????a ????e; ?’y?e
?ae ????? ? ?o ?????y; ????iy ????, a i?ao y?? ?? ???ue ??e ?o ????a ?
?’y??a.

A???th? ????o ????, y?, a ????? ????a, ? ?????iyi ????o ?????a, ?????
??’y??i ??????” ?? ???y ???? ? ?? ????o. Ia???ae, ?? ? ??ey??? ????o
???? ye ???nth??iy ???a ??????e ? ????? ?’??e ??ae ??????a ???, ?i ?????
??????? ye ??e ? ????ith ? ????? ???e ? ??? ?? ????o ? ??e ? ????ith ?
??? ?? a ????, ? ? ?/?i, ? a y??? ????a ????? ???? ???ny ???????” a
?i???? ????? ? ???i ???? ?’?e?. A?????i, ?? N.A??, ????th? ? ??iyth? ??
???? ????iy, ?????? ????o ???? ye ???o ????? ??a???, ????a ? ????e, ?i
????i ????? ? ??iy? ????? ???? ????? ????5.

E???i, ? ???? ????? ????, a ?? ????? ???????, ?th? ??i??o ???? ??????? ?
??????o ?????ue ? ???y?ny a ???o ???y????. A??e ? ??e oeth ????o, ?y?
?n???e, ???a O.?????, ???oth? ??ey? ?????e y?? ????? ????, ??i ?????? y?
???ath? ???o ?? o ????? ?????i ???o ???. Aei ?o ??????e ??ae ????;
??????? ???? ?y??o ????; ????a?? ???? ??? ????? ????; ???i??? ???? ????
????? ?y????. 9

A?????i ? ????o ?’???a ???ath?ny ???th? ??e ?o ??eiy?y ? ????? ???a??
??????e.

I?? ??a ??eth? ??????? ???? ???”, ?? ??oth?ny ? ???? ??i? ?????i ????
?y??o ?????a, ????o ??a ? ???? ?y????.

Ae?? ??a ?eth?? ?e ????e ??????e, ? ????ath? ??a ? y??th ? ???? ????y ?
????? ?’???a ? ???th? ??e: ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????a ? ???, ???e,
??a, ??? ? ??e; ????? ??? ? ?o, c ?i ????ny a????y? a ?????o ???; ????y
? ???e ??, ??i oy??iy ?i??? ?i ?, y?i ???? ?i ?? n???? o ???y???o ??? ?
? ??? ?? ?th? ??????ue ?c ???i.

Aei ???? ??e ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?y????. A?e ????th? ?i ??
???o?? e???????, y? ???? ?ae ????o ????? ??? e ?????iy ???a, ? ??
????oth?, ? ?????o ???????, ? ???? ???oy ????? ???? ? ????? ???.

?????e ?????ue, ????? ???iy?ie ???e, ???th?, ? ????? ??????? ???yi O???
??oth?ny ? ???a ????e (c ??e ?? ??????? ?o??o ?n ????? ?????e) ????e.10
O?, ? ????yi ? ??i n????o ???? ??y? ??????a ??a ???????e ye ??????? ?
?o??????; ? ????yi ? ??e ? ?i??a ?? ????iy ? ??????iy – ye ?????? ?
??????; ? ????yi ? eth?? ? ??????? ?????o ?? ?? ????y???? – ye ????? ?
??????; ? ????yi ? ?e????i e ???????i ?th???o – ye ??????? ? ?????????.

???y?? ?? ????y ???? ???o, ????e, ??e ?iy?, ?????? ? oe????? ??????
????? ????, ????i, ? ???oth? ??o ???? ???e?-??????? ???a ?? ?????iy,
??a, ye ?i ???ny, ? ????i, ?e ?????e ?????iy ?? ????o ??????e.

Ia ????iy ??a ???e, ? ????a ???? ???? O???, ?????, ? ????th ???????
??????, ? i????ny ?????y ?ae ??????o e ?????e ???o, ?????? ???o. Oea
??????ny ? ???????e, ?????e, ???????e ? ??? ???, ? ??? ????ai ??ith e
???? ?????? ????? ?????e. sse ? ??-y? eo???, ??? ?????a e ?????a ????
????o ????? ????, ??????ue ?c ??i ?????iy ?ae N??i ? C??ii,11 ??i?n
?????ue ? ?? ????th ????i ?? c ??? ???i ???? ?????i.

I?a, ?????iy ???? ?????o ????a ?? ???? ? ????e ??o??? ???? a O??? ??
?????ue /?? ??? ?????o ? ??????? ??ae c ??? ???e ???e ???th ????th O???.
C?aey? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??a ????e ?i ?????iy ?????o ????a a
O?a?? ??c ????o ??? ???yi ???e.

AeAEA?AEA OA E?OA?AOO?A

1. I?????y ???? ????y O??? / I?. ??. TH.I.I??? e A.E.A???a. – E., 1993.
– N. 13;

2. Oe????? A. I????a ???? ?????a // N????ue. – 1994. — ? 4. – N. 78;

3. A?? A.I., A???? I.O., ???? A.A. I????a ???? ???? ???. – E., 1996. –
112n;

4. A??? E. E?e i ?e??? ???e ??????. – I., 1959. – N. 403;

5. A??ae A., A?? N. A???n?y ???? e ?????? ?????//I?????a ?????ey. –
1992. — ? 4. – N. 87-90;

6. Almond G. Powell G. Comparative Politics. – P.50.;

7. I?????a ???? // I????ey. Y???????? ???ue. – I., 1993. – N. 303;

8. I???i A.E. ????e??? e ???? ??ey // ???????ue ?e ???o ?????? ?????ey.
– I., 1995. – N. 121-142;

9. Rosenbaum W.A. Political Culture. – N.Y., 1975. – P. 37-57;

10. A???a A.E., A???? E.Y., I???? A.N. Ae??????y ???? e ???? ????. Io
??????a e ?????. – E., 1992; I????? ???o Oe???. – E., 1994. — ?8; I?????
???o O???. – E., 1995. — ?11; I?????y ???? ????y O???. – E., 1993;

11. A?iye I.?. A?????a ?????ue ?yi c??? // C??? ??????i-?????? ?????a.,
— ???e – 94”. – E., 1994. — ?5. – N. 25-28.

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