?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

«Oe?a?inuee? caie? o neeaae? Eeoae ? Iieueu? (O1O – ia?oa iieiaeia OOI)»

Aeeiiaea:

o/aieoey 11 eeano

Eieii??oeue A. A.

Ieai:

1. Oe?a?inuee? caie? o neeaae? Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai

2. A?ae Eeoianueei-?onueei? aei Iieuenueei-Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae

3. Ethae?inueea oi?y oa ?? iane?aeee.

1. Oe?a?inuee? caie? o neeaae? Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai

Eeoianueea eiyc?anoai ooai?eeiny a XIII no. O XIV no., ca eiycy
Aaaeei?ia (1316-1341 ??.) oa eiai nei?a Ethaa?oa ? Ieueaa?aea (1345-1377
??.) Eeoaa caeiaoea a?eueoo /anoeio a?ei?onueeeo, oe?a?inueeeo, /anoeio
?in?enueeeo caiaeue. Oae ooai?eeiny Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea, o
neeaae? yeiai ?onuee? caie? noaiiaeee 9/]0 oa?eoi???.

Oaea no??iea c?inoaiiy Eeoae ca ?aooiie no?aeiineia’yinueeeo caiaeue
caea?oueny ia?aaeienaeueiei ?, aacoiiaii, iio?aao? iiyniaiiy. Oi ae
?icaeyiaii i?e/eie oeueiai yaeua.

I?e/eie oaeaeeiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Eeoaith ?onueeeo caiaeue

?onuee? caie? aoee ineaaeai? cieioii?aeeinueeei ?aii, ui iieeaei ii/aoie
i?inoaaiith eeoiaoe?a ia ?onue ? ni?eyei ?o oni?oo. Ianaeaiiy ?onueeeo
caiaeue a?aeaeaaaei ia?aaaao Eeoa? ia?aae I?aeith, o i?ioenoiyii? i?ae
oeeie aea?aeaaaie aenooiaei ia aioe? Eeoae. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
i?noeaa? eiyc? ? aiy?noai aeia?ia?eueii aeciaaaee aeaaeo Eeoae.
(Aeia?ia?eueii aeciaa aeaaeo Ieueaa?aea ? ee?anueeee eiycue Oaae?? o
1362 ?.). ?noi?eee eaae?o?eothoue i?inoaaiiy Eeoae a ?onuee? caie? ia ye
caaithaaiiy, a ye «ie?ia i?e?aeiaiiy «, ye «oeoo aeniain?th «. Oni?oiei
ae?yi Eeoae ni?eyei ineaaeaiiy I?aee ? ?? ?iceie ia ai?iaoth/? /anoeie
aiane?aeie oaiaeaeueieo oniaeoeue 1360-1370-o ??.

Iaeiae, Cieioa I?aea ia oie /an caeeoaeany ua aeineoue neeueiith, ? aac
aeinyaiaiiy iie?oe/iiai eiii?ii?no c iath Eeoaa iaa?yae /e ciiaea a
cae??ieoeny ia caieyo I?aaeaiii? ?on?. A ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??
aeneiaeaii a?iioaco i?i iiaeeea?noue oaiaee i?ae Ieueaa?aeii ? oaoa?aie
o na?. 60-o ??. XIV no. i?i cae?aiiy aeaieie c ieoiiaaieo Eeoaith
oa?eoi??e oaoa?aie. Naia aeciaiiy oe??? caeaaeiino? aeaei iiaeeea?noue
Eeoa? aeoaea oaeaeei i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe nia? caie? ?on?.

Iie?oeea Eeoae a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo

Eeoianuee? eiyc?, uia caaacia/eoe oi?aae?iiy aaee/acieie caaieiaaieie
oa?eoi??yie, iaeaea ia ao?o/aeeny o aeeooy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.
«Noa?iai ia ci?ith?ii, a iiaiai ia cai?iaaaeaeo?ii » — oaeei aoa
i?eioeei ?o i?aae?iiy.

Ono??e oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue

Eeoaa ia ci?ieea aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ono?ith oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue. Ia /ie? oae?eueieo eiyc?anoa cai?noue ?th?eeiae/?a aoee
iinoaaeai? ia?aaaaeii i?aaenoaaieee eeoianueei? aeeiano?? Aaaeei?iiae/?a
(neie ? ieai?iieee Ieueaa?aea).

Oae, neio Ieueaa?aea Aieiaeeie?o ae?noaeiny Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai oa
Ia?ayneaaueia, ae?oaiio neio Aeieo?o-Ei?eaooo — *a?i?a?anueea e
Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueea eiyc?anoai, noa?oiio neio Aeieo?o-A?yinueea e
O?oa/aanueea, ieai?iieeo Iao?ee?th Ia?eioiiae/o-Noa?iyoanueea.
Ieai?iieee Ieueaa?aea TH??e, Ieaenaiae?, Oaae?? ? Einoyioei Ei??aoiae/?
aieiyaeeeeny ia Iiae?ee?.

O iaaaeeeeo eiyc?anoaao aeaaea iaeaaeaea i?noeaaei oe?a?inueeei eiycyi.
Oae?euei? eiyc? ia?aaoaaee o aanaeuei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae aaeeeiai
eeoianueeiai eiycy, ianee a?enueeiao neoaeao, niea/oaaee aeaieio.
Iiaiiaaaeaiiy oae?eueieo eiyc?a ia i?noeyo aoee aeineoue aaeeeeie,
oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa yaeyee niaith ni?aaaei? aaoiiiii? ooai?aiiy.

Eeoaa iio?aieea i?ae aaeeeee eoeueoo?iee aieea nai?o neia’yinueeeo
i?aeaeaieo — eeoianuee? eiyc? i?eeiyee i?aaineaaio a??o, aaeeaaee
noa?i?onueeo iiao, neeaaeaee caeiie ia iniia? «?onueei? i?aaaee»‘.
Eeoianuee? ?iaee ceeaaeeny c ?onueeith ciaooth. O?yae Aaeeeiai
eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai ia ia?aoeiaeaeaa i?noeaaiio ianaeaiith o
caa?aaeaii? ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae. O ca’yceo c oeei
aaaaoi ?noi?ee?a iaceaathoue Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea
eeoianueei-?onueeei (I.?o?iaiei, A.Aioiiiae/, I.A?ae/aanueeee oa ?i.).

Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai

C i?eoiaeii Eeoae i?ia?aeio ?ieue a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo ii/aei
a?ae?a?aaaoe Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai. C iaeiiai aieo, aeaaea a Ee?a?
ia?aeoea a?ae ?th?eeiae/?a aei eeoianueei? aeeiano?? Aaaeei?iiae/?a.
Aea, c ?ioiai aieo, a Ee?anueeiio eiyc?anoa? caa?aaeeny o?aaeeoe??
?onueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ee?anuee? eiyc? eeoianueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
nie?ath/enue ia ?onueeo ciaoue, iaiieaaeeai i?aaioee aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy
aaoiiii?? nai?o aieiae?iue. Aiie iaee oeooe «c Aiaei? eanee eiyc?a
Ee?anueeeo», ea?aoaaee aeanio iiiaoo, aaeaaaeeny aei naiino?eieo
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo aeoe?e. ?icoe?eeany oa?eoi??y Ee?anueeiai
eiyc?anoaa, c?inee eiai aaoi?eoao ? aieea a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Ci?ia iie?oe/iiai eo?no Eeoae

sse Ae ?icoi??oa, aaoiiii?y oe?a?inueeeo eiyc?anoa iineethaaea
naia?aoenonuee? oaiaeaioe??, a?aee?eaaea ia?niaeoeae aeoiaeo eiyc?anoa
c-i?ae aeaaee eeoianueeiai oeaio?o. Uia ia aeiionoeoe oeueiai,
Eeoianueeee o?yae o ae?oa?e iie. XV no. acya eo?n ia e?ea?aeaoe?th
oae?eueieo eiyc?anoa. Aiie ia?aoai?thaaeeny ia cae/aei? i?ia?ioe??
(ai?aiaenoaa) ia /ie? c iai?nieeaie, ui i?ecia/aeeny aaeeeei Eeoianueeei
eiycai. O 1471 ?ioe? aoei e?ea?aeiaaia Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai.

2. A?ae Eeoianueei-?onueei? aei Iieuenueei-Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae

I?ney nia?o? o 1340 ?. inoaiiueiai aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiai eiycy TH??y
II Aieaneaaa i?ae Iieueuath ? Eeoaith ?icii/aeany ai?ioueaa ca
oe?a?inuee? caie?. I?ioa, c e?i. XIV no. ?yae ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o
ianoaaei niiioeaee oe? aea?aeaae aei ia’?aeiaiiy, yea a?aeaoaaeiny
ia??aiii??ii (inoaoi/ia, caeaaaeiny a, ia’?aeiaiiy aea?aeaa ci?ithaaeiny
?o iie?oe/iith naiino?ei?noth) aei na?. XVI no. O oeueiio ia’?aeiaii?
aeae?eythoue aeaa iniiaieo aoaie — E?aanueea oi?y 1385 ?., yea
caii/aoeoaaea ia’?aeiaiiy Eeoae ? Iieueu?, ? Ethae?inueea oi?y1569 ?.,
yea caaa?oeea ?o ia’?aeiaiiy a iaeio aea?aeaao — ??/ Iiniieeoo.

E?aanueea oi?y 1385 ?. I?e/eie oi??

I?aaiaiiy Eeoae ? Iieueu? ia’?aeiaoe coneeey ia?aae iaaaciaeith c aieo
iiaooiueiai Oaaoiinueeiai i?aeaio, yeee iaioaaa ia Aaeo?enueeiio
ocaa?aaeae?, c aieo Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa, aaoi?eoao yeiai c?inoaa
i?ney ia?aiiae iaae oaoa?aie a Eoeeeianuee?e aeoa? 1380 ?., c aieo
E?einueeiai oainoaa (aeae?eeeiny o 1443?. ?c neeaaeo Cieioi? I?aee, c
1475?. aeciaei caeaaei?noue a?ae Iniainueei? ?iia???).

Iiooee aaeeeei eiycai eeoianueeei ssaaeeii (1377-1392??.) nithcieea aeey
ci?oeiaiiy naiai noaiiaeua. ssaaeei, iieiaeoee nei Ieueaa?aea, caeiyaoe
aaeeeieiyc?anueeee i?anoie anoia?a/ i?eioeeiai ?iaeiaiai noa?oeinoaa,
iieieany o ne?ooi?e neooaoe??. I?ioe iueiai aenooieee noa?o?
Ieueaa?aeiae/? ? eocai A?oiao.

Ci?no oi??

Oea aoea oethaia oi?y — eeoianueeee eiycue ssaaeei iae?oaeeany c
iieuenueeith ei?ieaaith ssaea?aith ? aoa i?iaieioaiee iieuenueeei
ei?ieai; aiane?aeie oeueiai i?eieiyeeny nooe/ee i?ae Iieueuath ? Aaeeeei
eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei, a ?o ca?iei? neee ia’?aeioaaeeny. Oi??th
ia?aaeaa/aeiny i?e?aeiaiiy Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai aei Iieueu?.
I?ioa, o ?acoeueoao? i?aaiaiiy eeoianueei? aa?o?aee aei iie?oe/ii?
naiino?eiino? Eeoaa oaeoe/ii caeeoeeany ie?aiith aea?aeaaith, aeaaea a
ye?e aaciina?aaeiuei iaeaaeaea eocaio ssaaeea — eiycth A?oiaoo
(1392-1430 ??.).

Ca oiiaaie oi?? Eeoaa, yea aoea inoaiiueith yce/ieoeueeith e?a?iith a
?a?ii?, i?eeiyea eaoieeoeoai.

Iane?aeee oi??

Iiceoeai? — ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue aeaio aea?aeaa aeiiiiiaei ?ica?iieoe
Oaaoiinueeee i?aeai ? coieieoe i?inoaaiiy i?ioe?a o neia ‘yinuee? caie?
(aeoaa i?e A?thiaaeueae? 1410?.).

Iaaaoeai? — iineethaaany aieea iieye?a a Oe?a?i?, ii/aeiny
ianeeueieoeueea ianaaeaeaiiy eaoieeoeoaa. Iieueua i?aaioea iiai?noth
i?aeei?eoe Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea.

Oe?a?inuee? caie? ca eiycthaaiiy A?oiaoa( 1392- 1430??.)

Ii?acea oe?a?inueei-eeoianueeeo a?enuee ia ?. Ai?nee?

I?aaio/e iaieiae?oe an??th ?onnth, A?oiao aaeaany aei i?ioeai?noaa c
Cieioith I?aeith Cae?enieaoe aeaa ia?aiiaeieo iioiaee o 1397 ?. oa 1398
?., a?i aeinya ae?ea Aei?i?a oa Aeiio, ?icaea ai?iae? a?enueea a E?eio.
I?ioa o?ao?e iio?ae cae?i/eany iaaaeaei. O 1399 ?. o aeoa? a?ey ?.
Ai?neee /enaeuei?o? neee cieioii?aeeinueeeo oai?a caaaeaee ieu?aii?
ii?acee a?enueeai A?oiaoa, a?eueo?noue yeeo neeaaeaee iiie/aiiy
Ee?aueie, Aieei?, Iiae?eey. Ia Ai?nee? a?enueea aaeeeiai eeoiaueeiai
eiycy noaee ia caoeno cieioii?aeeinueeiai oaia Oiooaieoa, neeiooiai c
i?anoieo aiane?aeie eiioe?eoo c O?/io?ii ( Oaia?eaiii). A?oiao
niiae?aaany ia aeiiiiiao Oiooaieoa a iaieiae?ii? Iineianueeei
eiyc?anoaii.

Ii?acea ia Ai?nee? iioeoioea iiceoe?? eiycy ? cioneea eiai a?aeiiaeoe
oi?th c Iieueuath. Ca oiiaaie A?eainueei? oi?? 1401 ?. aeciaaaeany
aanaeueia caeaaei?noue Eeoae a?ae Iieueu?, a i?ney nia?o? A?oiaoa iaea
a?aeaooeny ?iei?ii?aoe?y Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai, ia?aaeaa/aia
E?aanueeith oi??th.

Ai?iaeaeuenueea oi?y

O ?iee «Aaeeei? a?eie» (1409-1411 ??.) Iieueua e Eeoaa aenooieee
nithcieeaie o ai?iouea? i?ioe Oaaoiinueeiai i?aeaio. Eoeuei?iaoe?eiei
iiiaioii oe??? a?eie noaea A?thiaaeueaenueea aeoaa (15 eeiiy 1410 ?.).
Nithcia a?enueei, o neeaae? yeiai aoee ? iieee c oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue,
?ica?iieei o?anoiiinoe?a. I?ney A?thiaaeueaenueei? aeoae iineeeeiny
i?aaiaiiy Eeoae aei aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? a?ae Iieueu?. O 1413 ?.
aoei i?aeienaii Ai?iaeaeuenueeo oi?th, ca yeith Aaeeea eiyc?anoai
Eeoianueea aeciaaaeiny iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith, oi/a caa?oi?noue
Iieueu? iaae iei caa??aaeany: ia?aiiy aaeeeiai eiycy eiio?iethaaeiny ?
caoaa?aeaeoaaeiny iieuenueeei ei?ieai. Eeoianueea eaoieeoeueea ciaoue
o??aithaaeenue o i?aaao c iieuenueeith oeyooith.

Ci?oeieaoe nai? iiceoe??, A?oiao a?aeiiaea oni?oio ai?ioueao c
i?aeeioeyie. Ca eiai i?aeo?eiee aei aeaaee a Cieio?e I?ae? i?eeoea
aeeiano?y Oiooaieoa, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue Eeoa? ?icoe?eoe nai?
aieiae?iiy ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie. Acaeiaae ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai ii?y i?ae
Aei?no?ii ? Aei?i?ii aoee caaaeai? oe??ieai? i?noa/ea, na?aae yeeo —
Oaaeaeeaae (iei? Iaeana, 1415 ?.) oa Aeao?a (iei? I/ae?a, 1430-? ??).

Ia aa?anaiue 1430 ?. ieaioaaeany ei?iiaoe?y A?oiaoa, yea, aiane?aeie
i?ioeae?? c aieo ssaaeea, oae ? ia a?aeaoeany.

Oe?a?inuee? caie? o ae?oa?e o?aoei? XV — ia?o?e iie. XVI no.

Naeae?eaaeei Ieueaa?aeiae/ oa Aaeeea eiyc?anoai ?onueea

I?ney nia?o? A?oiaoa o aeiaoi? 1430 ?. eiai ianooiieeii noaa iieiaeoee
a?ao ssaaeea -Naeae?eaaeei Ieueaa?aeiae/, n?aa?nueeee eiycue. A?i ciiao
iia?a ai?ioueao i?ioe iineeaiiy Iieueu?, ca iacaeaaei?noue Aaeeeiai
eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai. O nai?e iie?oeoe? eiycue Naeae?eaaeei nie?aany
ia oe?a?inueeo ciaoue, ui coiiaeei iaaaeiaieaiiy eeoianueeeo
oaiaeae?a-eaoieee?a. Oaiaeaee-eaoieeee i?iaieineee Aaeeeei eiycai
eeoianueeei noa?iaeoanueeiai eiycy Nea?cioiaea Eaenoooiae/a (a?aoa
A?oiaoa). ? ianooii? 4 ?iee a iaaeao Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai
?nioaaei aea? aea?aeaae — aeania Eeoaa ? «Aaeeea eiyc?anoai ?onueea».
Ia?oa i/iethaaa Nea?cioiae, ae?oaa — Naeae?eaaeei. Ae??oaeueia aeoaa
i?ae ?onueeeie oa iieuenueei-eeoianueeeie a?enueeaie a?aeaoeany o 1435
?. i?ae A?eueeiie?ii. Oeth aeoao ca ianooaai?noth ?noi?eee ii??aiththoue
c A?thiaaeueaenueeith. A?enueea Naeae?eaaeea aoee auaio ?icaeo?, naiiio
eiycaa? aeiaaeiny ?yooaaoeny aoa/ath. Naeae?eaaeei c??eny oeooea eiycy
Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa ?onueeiai, iaeiae ia?iaiaioia a?eia o?eaaea aei 1440
?., eiee a?ae ?oe ciiaiee?a, i/iethaaieo aieeinueeeie eiycyie ?aaiii ?
Ieaenaiae?ii *a?oi?eenueeeie, Nea?cioiae caaeioa.

Aaeeeei eiycai Eeoianueeei aoei ia?aii neia ei?iey ssaaeea — 13-??/iiai
Eaceie?a ssaaeeiae/a(1440-1492 ??.), yeee o 1444 ?. noaa ? ei?ieai
Iieueu?. Oaeei /eiii, ia’?aeiaiiy Eeoae ? Iieueu? aoei a?aeiiaeaia o
oi?i? ia?niiaeueii? oi??.

Inoaoi/ia e?ea?aeaoe?y oae?eueiiai ono?ith

Eaceie?, aaaeath/e caaacia/eoe aioo??oi?e niie?e, aeciaa ca
Naeae?eaaeeii iii?iaeueiee iiaeeoo?aee oeooe aaeeeiai eiycy ?
iiaeeea?noue aieiae?oe a?aeiiaeaiei Aieeinueeei eiyc?anoaii. Eaceie?
ionea aeciaoe ? a?aeiiaeaiiy oae?eueiino? Ee?anueeiai eiyc?anoaa, aei
aeaaee a yeiio iiaa?ioeany aeeiano?y Ieaeueeiae/?a, caniiaaia
Aieiaeeie?ii Ieueaa?aeiae/ai: Ieaenaiae? (Ieaeueei)
Aieiaeeie?iae/(1440-455??.), caiaeii Naiai Ieaeueeiae/(1455-1470??.).

Oa c /anii iaiaaaiiy Eaceie?a e?ea?aeoaaoe aaoiiii?th oe?a?inueeeo
eiyc?anoa oa?i/aeeny oni?oii. Nei?enoaaoenue ?c nia?o? Naeae?eaaeea oa
Naiaia Ieaeueeiae/a, a?i e?ea?aeoaaa Aieeinueea (o 1452 ?.) oa Ee?anueea
(o 1471 ?.) eiyc?anoaa. Ia oe?a?inuee? caie? iioe?th?oueny ai?aiaenueeee
ono??e.

Ia i?aeo?eieo iineianueeiai eiycy ?ic?aoiaoaaee i?aai?caoi?e oae caaii?
«ciiae eiyc?a» 1481 ?. -Ieoaeei Ieaeueeiae/oa Oaae?? Aneuenueeee (iioee
Aieiaeeie?a Ieueaa?aeiae/a). Ciiaieee iaee ca iaoo aicaanoe ia
aaeeeieiyc?anueeee no?e Ieoaeea Ieaeueeiae/a, a o ?ac? ae iaaaea/? —
i?e?aeiaoe aei Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa ?onuee? caie? acaeiaae ?.
Aa?aceie. Ciiao aoei aee?eoi.

I?ney nia?o? Eaceie?a o 1492 ?. ai?iia aeoeai?noue Iineae ?noioii
c?inea, ?in?enuee? a?enueea ii/aee ianooi ia niieainuee? oa
*a?i?aiai-N?aa?nueea caie?. Iineianueeee eiycue ?aai III iioeaoaaa nai?
ae?? iaiao?aei?noth caoenoo i?aaineaaieo a?ae ?ae?a?eieo ia?ane?aeoaaiue
? ianaaeaeaiiy eaoieeoeoaa. A ?acoeueoao? a?eie c Eeoaith (1500-1503
??.) Iineaa cae??ieea ca niaith anth *a?i?aiai-N?aa?ueio, ia
a?aeiiaeaoenue, iaeiae, a?ae iiaeaeueoiai i?inoaaiiy a ?onuee? caie?.

Ai?ii? ae?? aeoea?coaaee aecaieueiee ?oo a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo. A?i
iia’ycaiee c ?iaiai eiycy Ieoaeea Aeeinueeiai (?-1534 ??.). ?acii c?
nai?ie a?aoaie Aaneeai oa ?aaiii o 1508 ?. Ieoaeei Aeeinueeee i/ieea
iianoaiiy ?onueei? oa a?ei?onueei? ciao?, iaaaeiaieaii? iaioaaiiyi
Eeoae. I?e/eie ii?acee iianoaiiy ne?ae ooeaoe ye o a?aenooiino?
ia?oeyii? aeiiiiiae ?c ciai? — c aieo e?einueeiai oaia oa iineianueeiai
eiycy, oae ? o a?aenooiino? aeeaieeo nioe?aeueieo ei?ai?a. Ia oeae /an
oe?a?inuee? eiyc? e aiy?e aaea aaeaiooaaeeny o nenoai? Aaeeeiai
eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai, a?eueo?noue ?c ieo ianoithaaea eeoa aeani?
?ioa?ane ? ia aaaeaea ieie ?eceeoaaoe ca?aaee ?aea? Aeeinueeiai i?i
ooai?aiiy Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae. Naiiio ae Aeeinueeiio a ?noi?e/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeathoueny i?ioeeaaei? ioe?iee — a?ae iai?iioey
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ?onueeeo caiaeue Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae —
oaeaiiaeoiai aaaioth?enoa.

3. Ethae?inueea oi?y oa ?? iane?aeee

Ia ii/aoie XVI no. noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea
aeecueea aei caiaiaaeo. O 1522 ?. Iineaa a?ae?a?aea o iueiai *a?i?a?a ?
Noa?iaeoa ia i?ai?/iiio noiae? Oe?a?ie. A o 1549 oa 1552 ??. aiii ia
ciiaei i?ioenoiyoe aeaii aaeeeei aoi?aiaiiyi oaoa?. O 1562—1570 ??.
ia?inoath/a e?eca nyaioea e?eoe/ii? iaae?, eiee Eeoaa oa’ycea a iiao
o?eaaeo a?eio c Iineianueeei oea?noaii. Aeniaaeai? aaee/acieie ai?iieie
aeo?aoaie e iieieaoeny ia?aae caa?icith iineianueeiai aoi?aiaiiy,
eeoiaoe? caa?ioeeny aei Iieueu? ii aeiiiiiao. Iieyee aioia? aoee ??
iaaeaoe, aea ca ieaoo. Oaia? aieiaiith oiiaith aiie iinoaaeee ia’?aeiaoe
a iaeia iie?oe/ia oe?ea Iieueuo c Eeoaith, yeeo aei oeeo i?? iia’ycoaaa
ni?eueiee iiia?o.

Iiaithth/enue iinooieoeny nai?i iai?aiei noaiiaeuai ia?aae iieuenueeeie
eiieo?aioaie e caiaiiei?i? iaaaciaeith c?inoaiiy eaoieeoeueeeo aieea?a,
eeoianuee? oa oe?a?inuee? iaaiaoe iie?aeeny inoaoi/iiio ceeooth c
Iieueuath. Aea iaaaeiaieaia iaioaaiiyi iaaiao?a na?aaeiy oa ae??aia
oeyooa i?aeo?eiaea iieye?a, niiae?aath/eny caeiaooe nia? oe?ie?
i?ea?ea?, yeeie ei?enooaaeeny iieuenuee? oaiaeaee.

Neeeeaiee o 1569 ?. a Ethae?i? ei?ieai Nea?cioiaeii Aaaonoii naei
i?ioiaeea o ae?aiaoe/i?e oa aino??e ai?iouea?. Oea cioneei ii?iaenoeo
iaaiao?a iiaa?iooeny ca no?e ia?aaiai??a, ? 1 eeiiy 1569 ?. aoea
oeeaaeaia Ethae?inueea oi?y.

Aiane?aeie i?aeienaiiy oi?? ooai?eeany ??/ Iiniieeoa, ui iaea ?aeeiiai
aeai?iiai ei?iey, naei, a?io?, iiaeaoee oa ?aeeio ciai?oith iie?oeeo.
Aea Aaeeea eiyc?anoai iaaiith i??ith caa??aaei aaoiiii?th, cie?aia
i?noeaaa a?yaeoaaiiy, a?enueei, nea?aieoeth oa nenoaio noaei/einoaa. Oa
oaia? aei Iieuenueei? ei?iie a?aeoiaeeee an? oe?a?inuee? caie?, ui
?ai?oa iaeaaeaee eeoiaoeyi.

Ethae?inueea oi?y 1569 ?. noaea aeey oe?a?ioe?a iiae??th aaee/acii?
aaae. Iii?e an? nai? iaaeie?ee Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea i?ioyaii
aeaio noie?oue noai?thaaei aeey ieo ni?eyoeea? oiiae ?nioaaiiy.
Oe?a?inuee? eiyc? oi/ ? i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny eeoiaoeyi, iaeiae iaee
aaeeeee aieea o noni?euei?e, aeiiii?/i?e, ?ae?a?ei?e oa eoeueoo?i?e
oea?eiao aeeooy. I?ioa, ye na?ae/eea aeiey Aaee/eie, ui ia?oith
iio?aieea i?ae aeaaeo Iieueu?, c ia?aoiaeii oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a?ae
Eeoae aei Iieueu? aoei iinoaaeaii i?ae noii?a naia ?nioaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a
ye ie?aii? aoi?/ii? ni?eueiino?.

I?ae XIV ? XVI no. ia aaainoeaio aeeoee e?a?ie, ye? a ianooii? noie?ooy
aecia/aoeiooue aeieth Oe?a?ie. Nii/aoeo a?aaeath/eo oni?o?a ia Oe?a?i?
aeiaeeany Eeoaa, i?aae?iiy yei? aeyaeeiny iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei aeey
oe?a?ioe?a. Aea a?eueo /eneaiia e aa?aneaia iieuenueea oeyooa iinooiiai
aeo?nieea eeoiaoe?a c Oe?a?ie. Aaeath/enue aei a?enueeiaiai oeneo ia
Eeoao oa aeeieiiaoe/ieo oaiae, aiia aecia/eea iaeaaaaoo? oe?a?inuee?
caie? ye aieiaiee ia’?eo nai?? aeniain??. Ia caaeiueiio ieai?
aeiaeueiaoaaeeny ?io? aea?aeaae, eio?? aieeaaoeiooue ia Oe?a?io. Oea —
oea?noai Iineianueea, yea oaeaeei c?inoaei, e E?einueea oainoai,
iia’ycaia ?c anaiiaooiueith Iooiiainueeith ?iia???th. I/aaeaeii, ui ca
oaeeo ianoaaei ia?niaeoeae aeinyaiaiiy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? aoee
iaeiia?oeyth/eie.

Ciaoue ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue e?eueea ?ac?a ?iaeea ni?iae noaoe ia
caoeno nai?o ?ioa?an?a. Aea /oaeicaiia e ianaiia?aae iieuenueea
iaioaaiiy ii?iaeeei iiaa yaeua — eoeueoo?io anei?eyoe?th oe?a?inueei?
ciao? iai?aiith aea?aeaaith. Iinooiiai ioioiaeithth/e aeani? i?aaiaiiy c
iio?aaaie aea?aeaae, ui aeyaeea aioiai?noue ?oe ?e iacono??/,
oe?a?inueea oeyooa ao?a/aea caeaoi?noue ai?iieoe i?noeaa? ?ioa?ane.

4. Oa?i?iieia?/iee neiaiee:

A?aoeeaaueia – ?noi?e/ia iaeanoue Oe?a?ie a 14 – 18 no., ui ioiiethaaea
oa?eoi??th A?iieoeueei? oa /anoeio Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae.

Eeoianuee? noaoooe –eiaeaene na?aaeiueia?/iiai i?aaa Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa
Eeoianueeiai, ui ae?yee ia i?e?aeiaieo aei iueiai oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a
16 – ? iie. 19 no.

Naei – noaiiai – i?aaenoaaieoeueeee i?aai ca aeiae oaiaeae?cio a
Iieuenueei – Eeoianuee?e aea?aeaa?,, aa?oiaiee i?aai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee
? caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai Iieueu?.

Oi?y – ia’?aeiaiiy, nithc aea?aeaa i?ae aeaaeith iaeiiai iiia?oa.

Oeyooa – na?onuee? ae??ai? oa na?aaei? oaiaeaee o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie (Iieueua, Eeoaa, Oe?a?ia oa ?i.)

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