Oe?a?inuee? caie? i?ae aeaaeith non?aei?o aea?aeaa (ia?oa iie. OIV –
na?. XVII no.). Aeieeiaiiy eicaoeoaa

C ii/aoeii XIV no. niaaeei?iieoey ae?aaiuei? ?on? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea
aea?aeaaa iinooiiai ii/aea ao?a/aoe nai? iiceoe??. Oeueiio ni?eyee:
aeiiii?/i?, aeaiia?ao?/i?, iie?oe/i? ao?aoe, iia’ycai? c
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeei iaoanoyi; iino?ei? cac?oaiiy ia noaa?ai?oao ?
iacaeaaei?noue aea?aeaae c aieo non?aei?o Iieueu? oa Oai?ueie;
nionoioeea? iaiaaee e?einueei-oaoa?nueeeo i?ae; noia?ieoeoai ca aeaaeo
i?ae eiycyie; aiy?nuee? /aa?e; aaeueioaaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeiino?; ao?aoa ae?oith ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaia’yceo, ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia iiaiiy ca aeaiaeith; ia?aiiaa a
iie?-oe/iiio i?ioeai?noa? oaiaeaioe?? a?aeie?aieaiiy caiaeue.

sse cacia/aeinue a iiia?aaei?e oai?, a 1340 ?. i?eieieeanue
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueea aeeiano?y. A inoaiiueiai ?? i?aaenoaaieea
TH??y-Aieaneaaa cyoai aoa eeoianueeee eiyaee/ Ethaa?o. Oiio Eeoaa
i?aae’yaeyea i?aaa ia anth Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeo aea?aeaao. Aea ?io?
non?aee aoee c oeei ia caiaei?. I?aoaic?? Iieueu? oaae aacoaaeeny ia
?iaeeiieo a?aeiineiao ei?iey Eaceie?a c iie?eiei TH???i. Oai?nuee?
i?aaeoae? cayaeyee, ui ca?aeii c oiiaaie aeiaia??iiai nithco caniiaieea
aeeiano?? eiycy ?iiaia c oai?nueeei ei?ieai Aiae???i, caie?
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae oaia? iiaeii? ia?aeoe aei ieo. A Cieioa
I?aea ia aaaeaea i?eie?eoenue c ao?aoith aanaea, ?icoe?ithth/e eiai
caie? ye nai?.

Iia?aoeai?oa ae?yee eeoiaoe?, ye? aac iii?o caeiyee iaeaea anth ??
oa?eoi??th. Ia ?o ei?enoue aoei oa, ui aiie aenooiaee ye aecaieeoae?
a?ae cieioii?aeeinueei? caeaaeiino?, ? oa, ui ?o eiyaeee ??ae aoa
nii??aeiaiee ia o?eueee c aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeith, aea e c ?ioeie
?onueeeie eiyaeeie aeeiano?yie. Iieyee ae, i?ney caiaeei? ai?ioueae, a
1349 ?. ca aeiiiiiaith oaoa? caoiieee Aaee/eio. Ooo anoaiiaeeenue
iieuenuee? ii?yaeee, a?aeiiaeeinue cae?aiiy aeaieie ia ei?enoue Cieioi?
I?aee. Ethaa?o iaiaaaany a?aeaithaaoe Aaee/eio, aea iaaaeaei. Oai?nueeee
ei?ieue Ethaeia?e, yeee noaa i?aaeoaeai Iieueu? i?ney nia?o? Eaceie?a,
iaaea? Aaee/ei? aaoiiiiiee noaoon i?ae iacaith “?onueea ei?ie?anoai” c
i?aaii iaoe nai? caeiie, noae, iiiaoo. Aea ia an? aaaeeea? iinaaee aoee
i?ecia/ai? iaae’y?e ? iieyee, ??cieie i?eueaaie caioi/oaaeinue
ia?anaeaiiy nthaee eaoieeoeueeiai ianaeaiiy. Oa i?ney nia?o? Ethaeia?ea
iia? i?aaeoae? Iieueu?: eiai aei/ea ssaea?aa ? ?? /ieia?e – iiaiia?aiee
iieuenueeee ei?ieue, a?i aea aaeeeee eiycue eeoianueeee ssaaeei
iie?i/eee c a?ith a aaoiiii?th, i?aai?coaaaoe a 1387 ?. iiao ieoiaoe?th
Aaee/eie, ? anoaiiaeee oai oaeoe/ii eieii?aeueiee ?aaeei.

Ia e?eueea e?o ?ai?oa ?acii c Iieaeiaith ca?eueieeanue a?ae oai?oe?a
Aoeiaeia. A?ey 100 ?ie?a i?ae iacaith Oeieinueea caiey (a?ae oiae?
aieiaiiai i?noa – Oeieioe?) aiia iaea aaoiiii?th a neeaae?
Iieaeianueeiai eiyc?anoaa. Aea c oeaio?ae?caoe??th a iueiio i?aae?iiy
aaoiiii?y aoea e?ea?aeiaaia. Iiaa iia??oaiiy noaiiaeua ianooieei c ii/.
OVI no., eiee Iieaeianueea eiyc?anoai ciooaia aoei aeciaoe naaa aanaeii
Ii?oe (Oo?a//eie). Uiaei Cieioi? I?aee, oi aiia iaiaaaeany i?ioeae?yoe
ia?aoiaeo ?onueeeo caiaeue a Eeoao, aea caciaea a 1363 ?. ii?acee a
aeoa? ia Nei?e Aiae?. I?ney oeueiai i?aaeaiue I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie – a
oiio /ene? ? Iiae?eey – ia?aeoia aei neeaaeo Eeoae. Oaoa?nuee? ieaiaia,
ye? ei/oaaee a i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo noaiao, aeciaee naaa ?? aanaeaie.
Aea a OV no. aiie aeeoee c caeaaeiino? ? ooai?eee naith aea?aeaao –
E?einueea oainoai, yea c 1475 ?. iaea?aeaei i?ioaeoi?ao Ii?oe. Oaeee
iiae?e oe?a-?inueeeo caiaeue i?i?nioaaa aei Ethae?inueei? oi??, a aeey
I?aaeiy, Aaee/eie ? Aoeiaeie – aei e?ioey OVIII no.

Ai?ioueaith non?ae?a nei?enoaeeny oe?a?inuee? oaiaeaee. Aiie,
c?aaeaeoth/e aeaniee ia?iae, ii/aee i?iyoe nai?o ainiiaea??a.
*a?i?a?anuee? eiyc? – Iaei?anuee?, Ai?ioeinuee?, Iinaeuenuee? ia?aeoee
i?ae ?oeo Iineae. Oea noaei i?e/eiith oe?eiai ?yaeo
Iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei, inoaiiy c ieo – /aoaa?oa, i?iaeiaaeoaaeany
a?eueoa 10 ?ie?a (1512-1523 ??.).

Oaeei /eiii, caoiieaiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue non?aeaie a?aeaoaaeiny
??cieie oeyoaie: i?e?aeiaiiyi neeith; nithcieoeueeeie oaiaeaie;
aeeianoe/ieie ca’yceaie; iaa’ycoaaiiyi i?aeaeainoaa.

A?aei?iieie aoee e oiiae ia?aaoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a neeaae?
?ioeo aea?aeaa. O?, ui aa?eoee aei neeaaeo Oai?ueie ? Iieaeiae,
ei?enooaaeeny iaiaaeaiith aaoiiii??th. A Iieaeia? ?onueeee aeaiaio
ni?aaeya aaeeeee aieea ia eoeueoo?ia ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy
e?a?ie. ?onueea iiaa aei na?aaeeie XVII no. aoea io?oe?eiith iiaith
eaioeaey??? iieaeianueeeo ainiiaea??a.

I?yii i?ioeeaaeieie aoee oiiae a Iieueu? oa Eeoa? (oaae. 4.1):

Oaaeeoey 4.1 – Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue o neeaae? Iieueu? oa Eeoae

E??I??a– ????iy ??? ???e ?????y;

– caeo/aiiy ?onueeiai aiy?noaa ia neoaeao iiainoai?ai?e aea?aeaa?;

– ooaa?aeaeaiiy “?onueei? i?aaaee” aea?-aeaaiith i?aaiaith iniiaith;

– aeciaiiy ?onueei? iiae io?oe?eiith;

– ?icoe?aiiy aieeao i?aaineaa’y;

– caiice/aiiy eeoiaoeyie aeina?aeo a?enue-eiai? i?aai?caoe??,
aoae?aieoeoaa oi?oaoeue ? o.ae.;

– c?inoaiiy ci?oaieo oetha?a, iioe-?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo cae/a?a, ia?yae?a;

– anei?eyoe?y eeoiaoe?a oe?a?ioeyie.– ??????y ????? ?????-??? ???e;

– i?ecia/aiiy ia aeu? iinaaee eeoa iieuenueeeo oaiaeae?a;

– iioe?aiiy ia oe?a?inuee? caie? iieue-nueeiai i?aaa;

– io?oe?eia iiaa aeeeth/ii iieuenueea;

– ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae;

– ca?eueoaiiy iiaeiiinoae a ca’yceo c ?icoe?aiiyi o?eueaa?eiaiai
ainiiaea?-noaa;

– ooenee oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, o?aaee-oe?e ? cae/a?a.

Aaeee? eiyc? eeoianuee?, ye? i?e?aeiaee aei naaa eaaiao /anoeio Oe?a?ie,
ae?yee ca i?eioeeiii “noa?iai ia ci?ithaaoe, a iiaiai ia
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe”, /ei caaacia/eee ii?yae ?c ca?eueiaiiyi a?ae
oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeiai iaioaaiiy eaaea “ienaieoiaa” i?e?aeiaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei Eeoae. Oea a?aeaeeiny ? a iaca? aea?aeaae
“Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea, ?onueea ? AEaiaio?enueea”. Ni?aaae?, ca
aeaieie I.I. sseiaaiei, aeecueei 90 % ianaeaiiy e?a?ie neeaaeaee ?oneie:
oiaoi a?ei?one ? oe?a?ioe?. Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea noaei iaei??th
c iaea?eueoeo aea?aeaa ?a?iie.

A oi?aae?inuee?e nenoai? Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae oeaio?aeueia i?noea, ye ?
eieenue ia ?on?, caeiaee: aaeeeee eiycue, oae?euei? oa i?noeaa? eiyc?.
Aaaaeaeiny, ui ?o aeania i?n?y ye iiaiaee??a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ia?aae
Aiaii ca aeieth naiai ia?iaeo, aecia/aeany naiei oaeoii ia?iaeaeaiiy.
Oea aoea ?aeeia a?oia noni?euenoaa, aei yei? “ia aeaaaee aeinooio i?
aaaaonoaa, i? aieea, i? aenie? o?yaeia? iinaaee. Iaa?oue ei?ieai
noathoue, a eiycai ia?iaeaeothoueny”.

Eiyc? aoee o aanaeuenuee?e caeaaeiino? a?ae aaeeeiai eiycy. Aiie
i?enyaaee eiio ia a??i?noue; niea/oaaee ui??/io aeaieio; aenooiaee o
a?enueeia? iioiaee; neeaaeaee aaeeeieiyc?anueeo ?aaeo – Iaie-?aaea.

A nai?o aieiae?iiyo aiie ?icii?yaeaeaeeny caieyie ? i?eaooeaie; cae?aee
ieoi; cae?enithaaee noaeia? ooieoe??; aeaaee i?i /enaeuei?noue a?enueea
? eiai ai?caeaoi?noue; ia?aaiaeeee a aiy?e c ?ioeo noai?a noni?euenoaa.

Eiaeai oae?eueiee eiycue iaa nai?o aanae?a c i?noeaaeo eiyc?a ? aiy?.
Oaeoe/ii oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa o Eeoa? aoee aaoiiiiieieaea?aeaaieie
ooai?aiiyie.

Ci?oeieaoenue, oe?a?inuee? oae?euei? eiyc? ? aiy?noai iai?ee?ioe? XIV
no. ii/aee a?aeaa?oi i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iacaeaaei?noue. Oeaio?ii
naiino?eieoeoaa noaei Ee?anueeaeiyc?anoai.

Eiai eiycue Aieiaeeie? Ieueaa?aeiae/ (eeoianueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy)
i?iaiaeea naiino?eio iie?oeeo; a?aeiiaeany i?eeiyoe eaoieeoeoai;
ea?aoaaa aeanio iiiaoo; a?a ia?aaiai?e c Iineianueeei oea?noaii.

Ianeooiyii a?a naaa ia o?eueee Ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie?
Ieueaa?aeiae/, aea e Aeieo?i Ei?aoo – eiycue Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeee,
Oaae?? Ei??aoiae/ – eiycue Iiae?euenue-eee.

E??i oiai, c’yaeeenue e ?io? iani?eyoeea? aeey Eeoae ianoaaeie:
aeoea?coaaany Oaaoiinueeee i?aeai; iineeeany oene Iineianueeiai
oea?noaa; oai?nueei-iieuenuee? a?enueea caoiieee /anoeio oa?eoi???.

Ana oea niiioeaei eeoianueeeo oaiaeae?a aei ia’?aeiaiiy c Iieueuath, ui
e aoei aeinyaiooi i?aeienaiiyi E?aanueei? oi?? a 1385 ?ioe?. Ca ??
oiiaaie Aaeeeee eiycue Eeoianueeee ssaaeei i?ney iae?oaeaiiy c
15-??/iith iieuenueeith ei?ieaaith ssaea?aith, i?eeiya eaoieeoeeci ?
noaa ei?ieai Iieueu? i?ae ?iaiai Aeaaeeneaa. A?i ciaia’ycoaaany
iieaoiee/eoe eeoiaoe?a oa “iaa?e i?e?aeiaoe an? nai? caie?, eeoianuee?
oa ?onuee?, aei Ei?iie Iieuenueei?”, a oaeiae a?aeiiaeoe iiceoe??
Iieueu? a Aaee/ei?.

I?ioe oeeaaeaiiy E?aanueei? oi?? aenooieea i?aaineaaia ae?oa Aaeeeiai
eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai i?ae i?iaiaeii ssaaeeiaiai a?aoa A?oaooana
(A?oiaoa), ui caa?aaei ia iaaiee /an noaa?ai?oao Eeoae. I?ioa, Iieueu?
aaeaeinue a iai?i ia aeiiiiiao Eeoa? a i?eaeooaii? iianoaiiy
iiae?euenueeiai eiycy Oaaei?a Ei??aoiae/a a 1393 ?ioe? caa?aoe nia?
Cao?aeia Iiae?eey c Eai’yioeai-Iiae?euenueeei.

Ianooiiei e?ieii a ?ioaa?aoe?? Iieueu? oa Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa
Eeoianueeiai noaea Ai?iaeaeuenueea oi?y (1413 ?.), ca yeith noi?iie
ciaia’ycaeenue ia aithaaoe i?ae niaith, noai?thaaeenue aeiaeaoeia? oiiae
aeey iioe?aiiy eaoieeoeecio ia oa?eoi??? eiyc?anoaa (i?noai, ye?
i?eeiaee eaoieeoeeci, iaaeaaaeinue Iaaaeaao?cueea i?aai, oaiaeaeai –
aa?ae oa oeooee, a naeyiai – a?e? aiaiyi? naeoee). C oeueiai iiiaioo
iieuenueei-eaoieeoeuee? aieeae o Aaeeeiio eiyc?anoa? Eeoianueeiio ii/aee
ia?aaaaeaoe ?onueei-i?aaineaai?.

I?aaineaaia ae?oa, ia aaaeath/e ao?a/aoe nai? iiceoe??, a 30-o ?ieao XV
no. i?aeiyea na??th iianoaiue, a?aeiieo i?ae ca??iith iacaith
“Naeae?eaaeeia? a?eie”, niiae?aath/enue c ?o aeiiiiiaith iinoaaeoe ia
Aaeeeieiyaeee i?anoie A?oaooaniaiai a?aoa Naeae?eaaeea. Iaeiae oey
ni?iaa cae?i/eeanue ii?aceith, ? iieuenuee? aieeae ua a?eueoa
iineeeeenue. Iniaeeai c 1447 ?., i?ney oiai, ye aaeeeee eiycue
eeoianueeee Eaceie? noaa iaeii/anii ? iieuenueeei ei?ieai. Ii/aeeny
nooo?a? ci?ie a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ii?yaeeao a noi?iio iaaeeaeaiiy
?o aei iieuenueeeo c iaoith inoaoi/iiai iiaeieaiiy i?e/ei
“Naeae?eaaeeiaeo a?ei”. Oae?ee a 1450-70 ??. aoee e?ea?aeiaai?, ?
cai?noue ieo aaaaeaia iieuenueea aaei?i?no?aoeaia nenoaia:
ai?aiaenoaa-noa?inoaa (uinue ia c?acie no/anieo iaeanoae ? ?aeii?a, aea
a?eueoeo ca ?ici??ii). Ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa
Eeoianueeiai aoei ooai?aii 4 ai?aiaenoaa: Aieeinueea, A?aoeeaanueea,
Ee?anueea, *a?i?a?anueea. (A Iieueu? a oie /an aoei 3 ai?aiaenoaa ia
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo: ?onueea (Euea?a), Aaecueea (Cao?aeia Aieeiue) – c
e?ioey XIV no. ? Iiae?euenueea (Eai’yiaoeue).

Oae?ee e?ea?aeiaoaaeeny iinooiiai. Ia i?noea iiia?eeo eiyc?a
i?ecia/aeeny ia ?o niaaeei?ioe?, a ai?aiaee /e noa?inoe. Aea aoee ?
ci?ie iaio ?icoyaioo? a /an?. A 1447 ?. ia i?aaineaaio oea?eao
iioe?eeeny eaoieeoeuee? ii?yaeee, ca?aeii c yeeie ei?ieue-eiycue iaa
i?aai, ye iiiacaiee Aiaeee, ?icaeaaaoe aeooiai? iinaaee eiio
caiaiaoueny, a oiio /ene? e na?onueeei iniaai. Oiae? ae oaiaeaee
io?eiaee i?aai noaeo iaae nai?ie i?aeaeaieie. AEeoaeyi i?no i?ae no?aoii
aenaeaiiy aoei caai?iiaii caeiaoenue n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii. I?aai
caei?aeiiii? oi?a?ae? io?eiaee o?eueee oaiaeaee, a i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
noai?a aoei a?ae ia? oaeoe/ii onoiooi aaaaeaiiyi iaaeaenieeo ieoieo
ieaoaae?a, oiae? ye ciaoue a?ae ieo iiai?noth ca?eueiyeanue. C oeueiai
/ano aeoaea c?inoa? aioo??oiy oi?a?aey, a?aee?eaa?oueny iana y?ia?e?a ?
oi?a?a.

A 1470-o ??. ii/aeanue ?aoi?ia oaiaeaeueiiai caieaaieiae?iiy, yea
o?eaaea aeecueei 20 ?ie?a. Coiiaeaia aiia aoea oei, ui aaaaoi aiy?
ooeeyeiny a?ae aea?aeaaii? neoaeae. A oiae? ?aoi?ie cai?noue aiy?nueeiai
(aio/eiiiai) caieaaieiae?iiy aaiaeeeinue neoaeaiaa, “cai’yinueea”.
Cai’yie, ye? ia ii/aoeo XVI no. ia?aeiaioaaeenue ca iieuenue-eei c?aceii
o oeyooo, iaee cia/ii a?eueoa i?aa uiaei nai?o i?aeaeaieo, i?ae aiy?e,
aea aoee cia/ii caeaaei?o? a?ae aeaaeii? aa?o?aee aea?aeaae. Aea
iinooiiai, iath/e i?eeeaae Iieueu?, aiie aeiaeeeny oiai, ui
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ye? o Aaeeeiio eiyc?anoa? Ee-oianueeiio iaea Iaie-?aaea
(aiaeia ?onueei? aiy?nueei? aeoie), ia?aeoee aei oey-oaonueeeo c?a?aiue
(naei?a). Eeoianueeee noaooo 1529 ?., yeee yaeya niaith oa?o?th i?aa
iiaiai noaio ? i?eeoia ia ci?io aiy?nuee?e “?onuee?e I?aaae?”, cae??iea
aeaaeo oeyooe. sseui a ?aae? ia?aaaaeaee i?aaenoaaieee aeaai?o eiyaeeo
?onueei-eeoianueeeo ?iae?a, a?eueo?noue yeeo niia?aeoaaea i?aaineaa’y,
oi na?aae oeyooe ia?aaaaeaee ieaoiee/ai? ? niieueuai? aeaiaioe.

sseui nii/aoeo ia?aoiaeo c noaoono aiy? a cai’yinueei-oeyoaonueeee aoa
iaaiee ii??, oi o i??o c?inoaiiy i?ea?ea?a, ye? caeiaoaaea nia? oeyooa,
aaaeath/eo iiiiaieoe ?? ?yaee noaaaei ana a?eueoa. A na?aaeei? XVI no. o
ai?aiaenoaao aoee i?iaaaeai? niaoe?aeuei? oeyoaonuee? ?aa?c?? aeey
aeyaeaiiy oeo in?a, ye? iaea?aeaee oeyoaonoai iacaeiiiei oeyoii.

Ia?aeaeueii c ?icaeoeii oeyoaonoaa ii/aeinue iinooiiaa cae??ia/aiiy
a?eueieo naeyi-iaueiiee?a, ye? ao?a/athoue nai? eieeoi? i?aaa:
caiaeueii? aeaniino?, naiai noaeo, naiaiaee ia?anoaaiiy ye
oa?eoi??aeueiiai, oae ? ia?ai?uaiiy a ?io?, aeu? nioe?aeuei? noaie.
Aieiaiith i?e/eiith ianooio oeyooe ia naeyi aoei ??cea c?inoaiiy oe?i ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia ca?ii (aei 10
?ac?a), yea iaei i?noea a on?o ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao c ii/aoeo XVI no.,
ui coiiaethaaeinue ao?oeeaei ?icaeoeii i?no o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?, yeee aoa
aeeeeeaiee aaeeeeie aai-a?ao?/ieie a?aee?eooyie ?, ye iane?aeie –
ao?oeeaei i?eoieii eieii?aeueieo oiaa??a oa ?icaeoeii ?aianea ?
oi?a?ae?. Oeyooa caaaaeaea iaoe aeani? ainiiaea?noaa. Noai?th-aaeeny
aiie oeyoii a?aeae?aiiy caie? a naeyi ? iineee iacao o?eueaa?e?a.
Ocaeiieea oe? ae?? aiei/ia ?aoi?ia, ui ii/aeanue a 1557 ?. ?
ia?aaeaa/aea o?enaoe?th ?ici??o caiaeue-iiai iaae?eo ia naeyinueeee
aea??, yeee aoa caeaoai niea/oaaoe aea?aeaa? iiaeaoee ? ianoe ??ci?
iiaeiiino?. ?ici?? iiaii? aieiee noaiiaea 20 aeanyoei, aea
i?aeoeeoaaeinue aaa-aeaiiy oaeiae iieiaeie ? /aa?o? aieiee. Iaaeeeoee
caie? caae?aeenue ? a?aeaiaeeeenue i?ae o?eueaa?ee. Ine?eueee oeth
?aoi?io cae?enithaaea oeyoaonueea aea?aeaaa, oi oeyooa io?eiaea ? e?au?
caie?. ?acoeueoaoe aiei/ii? ?aoi?ie: e?ea?aeaoe?y naeyinueei? iaueie ye
eieaeoeaiiai aeanieea caie?, ia?ao?ae ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aiei/ia
caieaei?enooaaiiy, iaiaaeaiiy caiaeueieo ieiu, ye? caeeoaeeny a
naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao, noai?aiiy aaeeeeo oeyoaonueeeo ia?oe?a
(o?eueaa?e?a), iaaccaiaeaiiy cia/ii? /anoeie eieeoi?o iaueiiee?a, ye?
ciooai? oaia? aoee i?aoethaaoe a o?eueaa?eao. sseui nii/aoeo aiei/ia
?aoi?ia aoea i?iaaaeaia o?eueee ia aea?aeaaieo caieyo, oi iacaaa?ii
iiae?aia i?aeoeea aoea iioe?aia ia an?.

?aoi?ia oaiaeaeueiiai caieaaieiae?iiy caaaeueiiaoaaeeny eeoa a?ey
i?aaeaiieo ei?aeii?a aea?aeaae, ui i?ioiaeeee oiae? o?ioe ieae/a e?i??
A?aoeeaa — *a?eane — Iieoaaa. A?aoe neoaeae (caieth) aaaeath/eo aoei
iaei (ua ia ii/aany ca?iiaee aoi). Aea ? ia ii/aoeo XVI no., eiee iiieo
ia ca?ii c??n, ?o ia aeoaea iia?eueoaei. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui c 1480-o
?ie?a, ii/eiathoueny nionoioeea? oaoa?nuee? iaa?ae, c yeeie Eeoianueea
aea?aeaaa ia iiaea nii/aoeo i?/iai aae?yoe. Oiae? aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy
ca?eueieoe naeyinuee? iaueie oeeo ?aeii?a a?ae on?o iiaeaoe?a acai?i ?o
a?enueeiai? neoaeae c ioi?iie ei?aeii?a. Oae ii/aeany ?noi??y
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa.

Ioaea, a e?ioe? XV no. aiy?nueea oaiaeaeueia nenoaia aoea cai?uaia ia
oeyoaonueeo, a a i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao aeieea? iiaee noai a?eueieo ethaeae
– eicaoeoai. Nii/aoeo aiii io?eio? a iniiaiiio iiiiaiaiiy a inia?
ao?ea/?a c oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ui iaeaaeaee Iieueu?, a c na?aaeeie XVI
no. – ? oeo, ye? aoiaeeee aei Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a Eeoa? eaeooue a iai?yieo
iaaeeaeaiiy aei oeo ii?yaee?a, ye? aoee a Iieuenuee?e aea?aeaa?. Aea
caa??aa?oueny ? ?yae iniaeeainoae: iinooiia?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i,
iai?eeeaae, ia?aaaaeaiiy naeyi ia aieiee caaa?oeeinue aaea i?ney
Ethae?inueei? oi??; a?aenooi?noue ianiai? io?oe?eii? aeene?ei?iaoe??
i?aaineaaieo; iaiaaeaiiy naaaie? oeyooe caeiiii; iayai?noue oaeiai
iaceno naiaiaee ye eicaoeoai.

?ioaa?aoe?y Iieueu? oa Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai a ?aeeio
aea?aeaao caaa?oeeinue eeoa a 1569 ?ioe? i?aeienaiiyi Ethae?inueei?
oi??. Oea noaei iiaeeeaei aiane?aeie oiai, ui a na?aaeei? XVI no.
iieuenuee? oaiaeaee io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue ?aae?coaaoe nai? aeaai? ieaie
i?i inoaoi/ia ia’?aeiaiiy Iieueu? e Eeoae c iaoith caoiieoe iaioth/?
iiceoe?? a aeiiii?oe? oa iie?oeoe? ia’?aeiaii? aea?aeaae. Ni?aaa a oiio,
ui ia oeae /an Eeoaa aoea aeiaaaeaia iaeaea aei e?aoo iaiineeueiith aeey
?? aeiiii?ee o?eaaeith E?aiinueeith a?eiith c Iineianueeei oea?noaii.
Oiio cia/ia /anoeia eeoianueeeo oaiaeae?a niiae?aaeanue c aeiiiiiaith
Iieueu? ia?aiiaoe a oe?e a?ei?. E??i oiai, iaaio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaei
i?aaiaiiy ia’?aeiaoe coneeey aeey ai?ioueae c naeyinueeeie iianoaiiyie ?
eicaoeoaii.

Nei?enoaaoenue ni?eyoeeaith neooaoe??th, iieuenueea oeyooa cioneea
AEeaiiioa Aaaonoa, ui aoa iaeii/anii ei?ieai iieuenueeei ? aaeeeei
eiycai eeoianueeei, neeeeaoe naei a Ethae?i? a e?ioe? 1568 ?. aeey
ia’?aeiaiiy aeaio aea?aeaa. Eiee iaaiaoe c Eeoae, A?ei?on?? ? Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia I. *i?oi?eenueeee, E. Ino?icueeee, A. Ei?aoeueeee ? E.
Aeoiaaaoeueeee, iiaa/eee, ui a iia?e aea?aeaa? an? i?aaa caoiieththoue
iieuenuee? iaaiaoe, oi iieeioee naei, niiae?aath/enue oeei c??aaoe eiai
?iaioo. Iaeiae oea ?i ia aaeaeiny. Naei aac ieo ia?aaeaa Iieueu? an?
oe?a?inuee? caie?. Oiae? i?aaineaai? eiyc?, ceyeaaoenue, ui ao?aoyoue
ana, iiaa?ioeenue ia naei ? i?aeienaee Ethae?inueeo oi?th 1569 ?.
Oaiaeith aoea noai?aia ?aeeia oaaea?aoeaia aea?aeaaa – ??/ Iiniieeoa.

Aeey Oe?a?ie oey oi?y iaea oaoaeuei? iane?aeee, ine?eueee iieuenuee?
oaiaeaee oa eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa a?ae?aco eeioeenue “inaithaaoe”
ia?aaeai? ?i caie? Aieeinueeiai, A?aoeeaanueeiai, Ee?anueeiai ?
*a?i?a?anueeiai ai?aiaenoa. A 1573 ?. iinoaiiaith naeio ? Eeoianueeei
noaoooii 1588 ?. aoei aaaaeaii e??iinia i?aai, oaiaeaee iaaoee i?aai
noaeeoe naeyi, ca?eueoeeeny /eioiaee ? iaoo?aeuei? iiaeaoee. Ca ei?ioeee
ia??iae e??iiniee ai?o noaa iano?eueee aaaeeei, ui iaa?oue o?aioeocueeee
?iaeaia? A. Aiieai, ui a XVII no. ia?aaoaaa ia neoaea? a iieuenueeiai
ei?iey, a?aecia/aa, ui noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeeo naeyi a??oa i?ae aaea?ieo
iaa?eueiee?a. E??i ianoa?iiiai nioe?aeueiiai aeceneo, aeaaea i?iaiaeeea
ianeeueieoeueeo iieii?caoe?th oa iieaoiee/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a. A 1596 ?ioe?
i?aeienaia Aa?anoaenueea (A?anonueea) oea?eiaia oi?y, iane?aeeii yei?
noaei cia/ia iineaaeaiiy i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, a, ioaea, ? iiceoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai i?a-aineaaiiai ianaeaiiy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai, oe?a?inueeee
ia?iae iieieany ia a?ai? iiaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai cieuaiiy.

Io?oe?eia ?in?enueea oa ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y o?aeooaaea
Aa?anoaenueeo oea?eiaio oi?th 1596 ?. iaeiia?/ii oa iaeiicia/ii –
iaaaoeaii. I?ae oei, aoei ?yae oaeoi??a e iiceoeaiiai ci?noo, ye?
ooiaoaee aeuee i?aaineaaiee ee?? Oe?a?ie aei ni?eee c ?eiii. Eiee
Oe?a?ia-?onue i?eeiyea o?enoeyinoai, ua ia aoei ?iceieo ia i?aaineaa’y ?
eaoieeoeeci. Oiio ?aeay ?aeiino? o?enoeyinoaa caaaeaee ciaoiaeeea a
Oe?a?i? nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a (aieiaea? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae
Aeaieei, Ee?anueeee ieo?iiieeo A?eai??e Oeaiaeae oa ?i.), oea ii-ia?oa.

Ii-ae?oaa, /anoeia i?aaineaaieo aeaaeee aaa/aea o Aaoeeai? neeo, yea
iani?aaae? iiaea caoenoeoe ?o ? ianoao a?ae iaoeea?e?ciaaiiai ianooio
iieuenueeiai eaoieeoeecio, cie?aia oaeaiiai oeneo i?aeaia ?co?o?a,
iaaeaoe iaieio/iio caeeaeaiith i?ae a??oth/eie ??cieo eiioan?e a?eueo
i’yeiai ? oiea?aioiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ii-o?ao?, /anoeia i?aaineaaiiai aeooiaainoaa iaaaci?aenoaaii aaaaeaea,
ui nithc c ?eiii i?ecoieieoue caiaiaae no?aeii? oea?eae acaaae?:
iineaaeoue i?iyae oeaio?ae?cio (i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aeooiaii? aeaaee
na?onuee?e); i?aeooiaoia ?icaeoie aiaineianueei? iaoee; i?aeiana ii?aeue
nayuaiee?a oiui.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, oe?a?inueea i?aaineaaia aeooiaainoai ?ic?aoiaoaaei ca
aeiiiiiaith oi?? i?eieieoe caa?aaaiiy no?aeieo iao??a?o?a c
iineianueeeie oea?yie, ? aeooiaainoaii, yea aaei aei noai?aiiy
Iineianueei? iao??a?o?? ? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?e oe?a?inueeeo ?ia?o?e.
Ioaea, oi?y iaaiith i??ith iiaea a iaoe e iiceoeai? iiiaioe, aea oeueiai
ia noaeiny, aieiaiei /eiii, /a?ac a?aenooi?noue o ?? oai?oe?a ?icoi?iiy,
ui ?ae?a?y a o? /ane aecia/aea ia o?eueee ?aeaieia?th, aea e oei
eoeueoo?e. Ioaea, ci?ia ?ae?a?? icia/aea a?aeiiao a?ae nai?? eoeueoo?ii?
? iaoe?iiaeueii? noo?.

Caoaa?aeaeaia o A?ano? oi?y oi/ ? caa?aaea i?aaineaai? ia?yaee ?
oea?eiaii-neia’yinueeo iiao aiaineoae?iiy, aea a iniiao iieeaea aieiai?
aeiaiaoe eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, ui aaei aei aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? e
iiiey/aiiy oe?a?ioe?a.

O?yae ? ei?ieue ?a/? Iiniieeoi? AEeaiiiae ??? iinoaiiaeee aaaaeaoe oi?th
iaia’yceiaith aeey an?o i?aaineaaieo a??oth/eo ia oa?eoi??? e?a?ie.
i?ioa ?aea? oi?? aeyaeeeny iaeic?icoi?eeie aeey ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino?
i?uai oa naeyi, ieae/iai ? na?aaeiueiai aeooiaainoaa. Aiie o?aeooaaeeny
ye c?aaea. Oiio aeine?aeieee a?aecia/athoue, ui aeieeiaiiy oi?aonueei?
oea?eae i?ecaaei aei ?iceieo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, aei iiaeeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae. Aanei ai?ioueae c oi??th aoei iaeiei c
iniiaieo i?ae /an iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a eicaoeueei? aiioe.
Eeoa /a?ac 200 ?i-e?a a na?aaeei? XIX no. oi?aonueea oea?eaa ia caoiae?
Oe?a?ie aenooieea ae?acieeii iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Iineeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eiiai ai?oo i?eaiaeeei aei
c?inoaiiy i?ioanoo a on?o aa?noaao oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

A iai?aieo eieao aeieeea i?aaineaaia iaaiaonueei-oeyoaonueea iiiceoe?y c
eiycai Aaneeai-Einoyioeiii Ino?icueeei. Iaoa iiiceoe?? – ?icoe?aiiy
aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie a neeaae? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. Iaoiaee aeinyaiaiiy iaoe:
iaoeoe?? aei naeio ? ei?iey; i?aeo?eiea eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ni?aae;
ni?eyiiy ?aoi?iaoe?eiei ?ooai (eaeuea?i?cio, nioe?i?ainoao); aenooie ca
naiaiaeo nia?no?. C /anii i?noea iaaiaonueei-eiyc?anueei? iiiceoe??
canooieea oeyoaonueei-noa?oeinueea. Iaoa ? iaoiaee aeinyaiaiiy iiae?ai?.

Aeieeea iiiceoe?y ? na?aae i?uai, ye? iaiiaieee iiaei ci?noii oaeo
eaaaeueio oi?io a?aenoithaaiiy nai?o i?aa, ye a?aonoaa. Aia?oa a?aonoaa
ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie caaaeothoueny a aeieoiaioao 1460-80-o ??. noiniaii
Eueaiaa ? Eooeueea. Icia/aee oiae? aiie ?ai?nie/? oeaoe, eoaee aoiaeeee
i?aaineaai? iaeno?e, ? i?/ei ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo. Cian?i ?ioa iaee//y iathoue a?aonoaa, ui
aeieeathoue c ae?oai? iieiaeie XVI no. Oi/a nii/aoeo oi?ioaaeenue aiie
ia iniia? oeaoiaeo a?aonoa ? ia?aeiyee a?ae ieo oae? i?aai?caoe?ei?
i?eioeeie, ye aianee ca anooi ? /eainoai, ui??/i? aeai?e noa?oei, aeania
noaei/einoai, nenoaio oo?ao?a ? iiea?aiue oa oae? ooieoe??, ye eiio?ieue
ca ae?yeuei?noth nai?o /eai?a, aca?iia i?aeo?eiea, aeiiiiiaa oei /eaiai
a?aonoaa, ye? iio?aieee a ne?ooo, ? n?i’yi iiia?eeo a?ao/ee?a. Aea ? e
cia/i? a?aei?iiino?.

A a?aonoaa iaee i?aai anooiaoe ia o?eueee ?ai?nieee, a e an? i?aaineaai?
aoaeue-yeiai noaio: oeyooe/?, nayuaieee, eoioe?, aeo?aeoe? c naeyi.
A?aonoaa i?aa-i?ciaoaaeeny iaaeiei iaaii? oea?eae, ?iaiai yei? ?
caaeeny. Iai?eeeaae, Euea?anueea Oniainueea a?aonoai, Ee?anueea
Aiaiyaeainueea. Iniiaiith oo?aioith aoea aeiiiiiaa i?aaineaai?e oea?ea?
a caoeno? ia?iaeo a?ae aeooiaiiai ? eieii?aeueiiai aiiaeaiiy:
ieaoiee/aiiy, iiiey/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith a?aonoaa i?aai?ciaothoue
oeiee, ae?oea?i?; ne?aeeothoue, uia aeooiaainoai noie?iii noaaeeiny aei
nai?o iaia’yce?a. An? /eaie a?aonoaa aoee oi?iaeueii ??aiii?aai? ye a
ae?yeueiino?, oae ? a iiea?aiiyo – aae aei a?aeeo/aiiy a?ae oea?eae. A
a?aonoaa i?eeiaee ? ae?iie.

Oeaio?ii a?aonueeiai ?ooo aoa Euea?a, iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy a?i io?eiaa
a Aaee/ei?. ? oea ia aeeaii – naia ooo iieuenueea eieii?aeueia aiiaeaiiy
aoei iaeaeaai?oei ? iaeneeuei?oei. Caiaeii ?o ae?yeuei?noue
iioe?th?oueny ia anth Oe?a?io. I?ae 1589-1615 ??. a?aonoaa aeieeee
iaeaea o 20 i?noao – Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio, Ino?ic?, ?iaaoei?,
Ia?aieoe?, Ee?a?, Iaie?ia?, A?iieoe? oa ?i. Ca /eneii nai?o /eai?a aiie
aoee iaaaeee?. Iaea?eueoa – Euea?anueea – ia?aoiaoaaei aei 30 /ieia?e. A
i?noao, caaaeyee /eneaiiei caai?iiai iieuenueei? aeaaee, aeeei aeoaea
iaei oe?a?inueeeo n?iae. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oea, aieea ae?yeueiino?
a?aonoa aoa cia/iei. Aiie aaaaoi c?iaeee aeey caoenoo ? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. A?aonuee? oeiee aeei?enoiaoaaee
ia?aaeia? aeey naiai /ano i?ia?aie cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, aea aoee a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/i?. A?ae aeeeaaea/a aeiaaaeinue,
uia ?aeeiei e?eoa???i eiai noaaeaiiy aei o/i?a aoee ?o ciaiiy. Oeiey?? c
a?aeieo n?iae ? ne?ioe iiai?noth oo?eioaaeeny ca eiooe a?aonoaa. Iin?yia
a?aonoaaie ca?ii c?inei a eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa? o aeaeyae? Iiaeeyinueei?
aeaaeai??, ?icaeiooiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy, aeniei?, a ii??aiyii? c
non?aei?ie e?a?iaie, a?aiioiino? ianaeaiiy. Aeeiiaaoe nai? caaaeaiiy
caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, a?aonoaa a eicaoeuee?e aea?aeaa?
i?eieieee nai? ?nioaaiiy, a a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aiie ae?yee aae aei
e?ioey XVIII no. Nai?th i?ina?oieoeueeith oa aioeoi?aonueeith
ae?yeuei?noth a?aonoaa ?aeaeii i?aeaiooaaee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueio
ai?ioueao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo OVII no.

A ?a/? Iiniieeo?e oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy oa?i?ei ia o?eueee a?ae
iainueeeo iaaaeie, a e iane?i/aiieo oaoa?nueeeo iaa?a?a. Aanae Oo?a//eie
E?einueea oainoai nionoiooaaei oe?a?inuee? caie?. Iinooiiai
noi?ioaaeinue /ioe?e iniiai? oeyoe, yeeie oaoa?e iaiaaeaee ia
oe?a?inuee? caie?: ia E?aiaa?aaeae? – Io?aanueeee (/a?ac oaia??oith
Oa?e?aueio); Eo/iai?anueeee (/a?ac oaia??oith *a?i?a?aueio); ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae? – *i?iee (/a?ac Iiae?eey ia Aieeiue); Iieoonueeee (/a?ac
Iiae?eey ia I?eea?iaooy).

Ca 300 ?ie?a e?ei/aie iieiieee iiiaae 3 iei oe?a?ioe?a. Ia oe? iaa?ae
/anoi i?aeaeaaa oaoa? iineianueeee oea?. Ca aeaieie N. Nieiaeiaa a 1482
?. iinie ?aaia ??? Ieoaeei Eooocia iaea?aeaa ?ino?oeoe?? noeeeoe
e?einueeiai oaia Iaiae?-A??ay, uia a?i “…iineae ?aoue naith ia
Iiaeieueneoth caieth eee ia eeaaneea ianoa. Iaiaee-Ae?ae iineooaeny,
iaeaaeae Eeaaii, oaae a ieai aeeoaeae, ae?oaea caaeio-ioeenue a iaua?ao,
Ia/a?neoth oea?eiaue e iiianou?ue ?aca?aaee e ec aeiau/e i?eneae a
Iineao aaeeeiio eiycth cieioie aeenein e iioe? ec Nioeeneiai niai?a”.
(N.I. Ni-eiaue?a. Ni/., ei.???. – I., 1989. – N.90)

Eeoianuee? oa iieuenuee? oaiaeaee iaei aeaaee i?i caoeno oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue, aeiaiaeeeiny iieeaaeaoeny ia aeani? neee ianaeaiiy. C XVI no.
aaaeeeao ?ieue o caoeno? Oe?a?ie a?ae oaoa?nueeeo iaa?a?a noaei
a?ae?a?aaaoe eicaoeoai.

Eicaoeoai – iiaa nioe?aeueia aa?noaa oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, yea a
iniiaiiio aeieeea a XIV-XV no. Ia?o? ienaii? na?ae/aiiy i?i oe?a?inueeeo
eicae?a ye oaeeo i?eiaaeathoue ia e?iaoeue 80 – ii/aoie 90-o ??. XV no.
A?aeiii, ui iacaa “eicae” oth?enueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? cono??/a?oueny ua
a “Oa?ii?e ?noi??? iiiaie?a” (1240 ?.) oa a 1303 ?. a neiaieeo
iieiaaoeueei? iiae (“eiaeaen Eoiaiin”) ia icia/aiiy a?eueii?,
iacaeaaeii? ethaeeie, a?iaeyae, aa?oe, noi?iae?, ea?aoeo. I.
A?ooaanueeee cacia/aa, ui eica//eia aoea noa?ei iiaooiaei yaeuai,
aeeeeeaiei non?aenoaii oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c ei/iaei oeaeaoeueeei
noaiii.

?in?enuee? ?noi?eee I. Ea?aic?i oa I. Iiaiae?i aaaaeaee eicae?a
iauaaeeaie /i?ieo eeiaoe?a. Oaeith ca??iith iacaith (a?ae “ea?a-eaeiae”
– /i?i? oaiee) eiaio-aaeeny aeaye? ei/ia? oa iai?aei/ia? ieaiaia
(aa?aiaea?, ia/ai?ae, oi?ee oiui), ui a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XI no. in?ee a
aanaei? ?in? oa i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo ?aeiiao Ia?a-yneaanueeiai eiyc?anoaa
? ianee i?eei?aeiiio neoaeao. Oth?enueeee aeaiaio o eicae?a aoa
i?ca?iei, aea /i?i? eeiaoee iiaee caeeoeoe iaaio o?aaeeoe?th
eicaeoaaiiy. ?io? aeine?aeieee aeaiaeyoue eicae?a a?ae e?oiienieo
“aa?eaaeiee?a” (1159 ?.), ye? aoee nia?aeaie, ui o?eaee c i. Aa?eaae?
(?oioi?y). Iiaeeeai, ui iiia?aaeieeaie eicae?a aoee oaeiae a?iaeieee –
iaiae??ai? ethaee, ye? a XII-XIII no. canaeyee noaie i?ae ieaei?i Aeiiii
oa Aeoia?i, aeeee ii ??/eao – oi?aiaaeueieo oeyoao. Oae? ?noi?eee, ye A.
Ai-oiiiae/, Ae. ssai?ieoeueeee, Ae. Aei?ioaiei, iia’ycoaaee aeieeiaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ei-caoeoaa c oa?aeoa?ii oa iniaeeainoyie nioe?aeueieo ?
iicaiaeueieo noinoie?a, ye? neeaeeny o Aaeeeiio eiyc?anoa? eeoianueeiio:
i?a?aoe??th ia ie?a?ii? /i?iicaie c i?aaii a?aeaoaaoe neoaeao, aoa/ath
a?ae iiaeaoe?a oa iiaeiiinoae. Ooo aiie cae?aeeny aeineoue aaeeeeie
aaoaaaie. A?iiaaenuee? oi?ie aeeooy ua caeaaia aoee aeanoea?
oe?a?inuee?e ia?iaeiino?. Caa?ice c aieo e?ei/ae?a, ui ia?aaoaaee o
aanaeuei?e caeaaeiino? a oo?aoeueeiai noeoaia, iineeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
ai?oo a ?a/? Iiniieeo?e cia/ii i?enei?eee a XVI no. oi?ioaaiiy
eicaoeueeiai noaio. Oaeoe/ii, iiyaa eicaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? coiiaethaaeany
noeoii?noth aaia?ao?/ieo (aooa?), nioe?aeueieo (aiiaeaiiy) oa aoi?/ieo
(oe?a?ioe?a ? oaoa?) /eiiee?a (?en. 4.2):

Iiyaa eicaoeoaa iia’ycaia c aeaiia iniiaieie /eiieeaie:

– i?e?iaeiei i?aaiaiiyi ethaeae aei iniaenoi? ainiiaea?nueei?,
iie?oe/ii? ? aeooiaii? naiaiaee;

– iaiao?aei?noth caoenoo oe??? naiaiaee a?ae cac?oaiue ai?ia?a.

Eicaoeoai iiae?eyeiny: ca nioe?aeueiei noaoonii – ia
?a?no?iaa?ia?a?no?iaa; ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy – n?/iaa, caii?icueea
(ieciaa)?ai?iaeiaa.

A on?o ??ciiaeaeao eicaoeoaa aoea oa /e ?ioa oi?ia naiioi?aae?iiy:
eicaee ia niea/oaaee iiaeaoe?a aea?aeaa?, aoee a?eueieie a?ae
oaiaeaeueii? caeaaeiino? ethaeueie ? an?eyei iie?aeeny ni?iaai iinoaaeoe
?o a oaeo caeaaei?noue.

Eiee aeieeei eicaoeoai ye ie?aia noaiiaa a?oia oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa anoaiiaeoe aaaeei. I. Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei aaaaea?, ui
eicaee a aeeoo? Oe?a?ie c’yaeeenue o XIV noie?oo?. Ia?oa ienaiia caaaeea
i?i oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a i?noeoueny o o?ii?oe? I. A?euenueeiai a?ae 1489
?.

Aiie iinaeyeeny a na?aaei?e oa/?? Aei?i?a, /a?ac ui ae?noaee iacao
caii?icueeeo aai ieciaeo eicae?a. Ooo a iaeiaeinooiieo i?noeyo aiie
aoaeoaaee oi?oaoe? – n?/?. Ca?aene n?/ia? eicaee. Aaaaea?oueny, ui
ia?oith aoea caoaeiaaia oaea N?/ ia aei?i?ianueeiio ino?ia? Iaea
Oi?oeoey a na?aaeei? XVI no. C /anii oey N?/ noaea aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iei
ooai?aiiyi c oe?ieeie aeaiie?aoe/ieie canaaeaie. Iani?aaae? N?/ aeieeea
o?ioe ?ai?oa ia ino?ia? Oiiae?aea ? c?aco aea ia?aa?aea ia naaa
aea?aeaaio ooieoe?th caoenoo Oe?a?ie. Caeaa?eueoiai oea cae?enithaaeinue
aac anyei? aeiiiiiae ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. *anoeia oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa,
ia a?aei?io a?ae ieciaiai caii??cueeiai, i?iaeeaaea ia ia N?/?, a ia
aieinoyo, aai ia ai?iaeao oiaoi ia caieyo, ui aoee i?ae aeaaeith
i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai. Oe? eicaee
iaceaaeenue ai?iaeiaeie. ?o iieuenueei-eeoianueea aea?aeaaia
aaei?i?no?aoe?y caeo/aea aei iai?iie ei?aeii?a a?ae iaa?a?a oaoa? ?
oo?e?a. I?aai?caoi?aie oeueiai aoee i?eei?aeiii? noa?inoe: /a?eanueeee –
I. Aeaoeaae/, N. Iieiciae/, oiaeueieoeueeee – I. Eyioeei?iinueeee,
aa?nueeee – A. I?ao-ae/, iaaiaoe N. Cai?ianueeee, Ae. Aeoiaaaoeueeee, A.
?oaeeinueeee. Naia eiycth Aeo-iaaaoeueeiio iaeaaeeoue /anoue
aoae?aieoeoaa N?/? ia Oi?oeoe?. A 1583 ?. Ae. Aeoiaaaoeueeee (ca
ia?iaeieie eaaaiaeaie Aaeaea) aoa noiieaiee oaoa?aie, aeaeaiee oo?eai ?
ca iaeacii noeoaia no?a/aiee. Eiai i?aea?neee ca ?aa?i ia no?i?
noeoainueeiai caieo. Inue ye oea ciaeueiao? ia?iaeiee aiin:

Ie e?eeioa oea? nai?i aaeaeoeai:

“A?cuei?oue Aaeaeo aeia?a a ?oee,

A?cuei?oue Aaeaeo, ? ca’yae?oa,

Ia aae ?aa?ii ca/ai?oa!”

Aeny/e ia aaeo Aaeaea a?aeeeaea? i?iiiceoe?th noeoaia i?i iae?oaeaiiy c
eiai aei/eith ? caa?oa?oueny aei naiai aeaeo?e c i?ioaiiyi aeaoe eiio
eoe ? no??ee:

Ie aa/o y o?e aieoai/ee –

Oi/o ?o oaeoe aeey eiai aei/ee!

————————————

Ie ye no??eea – oea?y aoe?eea,

A oea?eoeth a iioeeeoeth,

Eiai aeiiueeo a aieiaiiueeo

I oea oia?, oea?th,

Ca Aaeaeeio ea?o!

?a?no?iaa eicaoeoai noai?eea a e?ioe? XVI no. iieuenueea aeaaea yea,
i?aaioea e?ea?aeoaaoe ai?iaeiaa eicaoeoai ye noai oeyoii ia?aoai?aiiy
eiai a e??iae?a. Oiio aiia ae??oeea iineaaeoe ii?? eicae?a oeueiio
iai??ia? /a?ac aaaaeaiiy aeey /anoeie c ieo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae. Ia?oei
aaoueiaiii ?a?no?iaoe?a iieuenueeee ei?ieue i?ecia/ea oeyooe/a ss.
Aaaeianueeiai. Ioaea, ieciaa ? ai?iaeiaa eicaoeoai aeieeathoue a /ane,
eiee oe?a?inuee? caie? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa
Eeoianueeiai, ? aeieeathoue c aie? ianaeaiiy, a ?a?no?iaa noai?aia aaea
iieuenueeith aeaaeith aeey nai?o iio?aa. A e?ioe? XVI – ia ii/aoeo XVII
no. /enaeuei?noue eicaoeoaa noaiiaeea: ai?iaeiaiai – a?ey 100 oen.
n?iae, ieciaiai – a?ae 8 aei 60 oen. /ie., ?a?no?iaiai – 3-6 oen. /ie. A
oiae? Aecaieueii? a?eie ? a /ane eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae /enaeuei?noue
?a?no?iaiai eicaoeoaa ca?eueoeeany aei 60 oen. (caiaeii iinooiiai
cieaeoaaeanue – aei 20 oen. a XVIII no.) ? cia/ii ciaioeeanue
e?euee?noue ai?iaeiaiai eicaoeoaa, yea aoei ia?aaaaeaia a iiaeaoi? noaie
i?uai ? a?eueieo naeyi.

A i/ao oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo eicaoeoai aoei ?aeaaeii a?eueiiai aeeooy.
Inia-eeaith iiaaaith ei?enooaaeinue ieciaa ye caoeniee a?ae oaoa?nueeeo
iaa?a?a ? iai?a nai?? aea?aeaae. ?a?no?ia? ciooai? aoee a Iieueu?
aeineoue /anoi aeeiioaaoe ea?aeuei? ooieoe?? i?ae /an ia?iaeieo
iianoaiue, oiio iniaeeaith iiaaaith ei?enooaaoenue ia iiaee. Aea a 1648
?. aiie ia?aeoee ia a?e iianoaeeo ? ii?yae c caii?iaeoeyie noaee yae?ii
a?enueea A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai. I?ae ??ciiaeaeaie eicaoeoaa ia aoei
yeeoinue ia?ao?aeieo iaae. ?a?no?iaoe? /anoi iineeaee nai?o nei?a ia N?/
aeey aeoeieo, c ?ioiai aieo – ia an? iiaee aeiaai aeo?eiaoe noai?a
aeeooy ia N?/? ? oiio ia?aoiaeeee a ai?iaeiaa /e ?a?no?iaa eicaoeoai.
Caaiiy ?a?no?iaoey ia aoei niaaeeiaei. C ?a?no?o eicae i?a aeaooe c
??cieo i?e/ei: ii?aiaiiy, a?eo, n?iaeieo ianoaaei. A oie naiee /an
caiiaeiee ai?iaeiaee eicae i?a eoieoe nia? i?noea a ?a?no??. A?ae
ooene?a aeaaee ai?iaeia? eicaee /anoi ?yooaaeeny, anooiath/e a ?yaee
n?/iaee?a.

Naia eicaoeoai noaei oei aeaaiaeaoiei ??oioii, a yea aiaee ?aea?
iaoe?i-iaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, caii/aoeiaai? a?aonoaaie. Iniaeeai
iii?oii oea o ae?yeueiino? aaoueiaia A?enueea Caii??cueeiai ?a?no?iaiai
I. Naaaeaea/iiai, yeee, aeoiaey/e c ?aae?e ?nioth/eo
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a, iaiieaaeeai caeeaaeaa ooiaeaiaio
iae-aooiuei? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Naia caaaeyee eiai coneeeyi
eicaoeueea a?enueei, iii?e an? iaiaaeaiiy ? caai?iie, aoei ?aoi?iiaaia o
?aaoey?io aeenoeeie?iiaaio a?i?th /enaeuei?noth o 40-50 oen. in?a.

Nie?ath/enue ia oeth neeo, I. Naaaeaea/iee aeoeaii a?aenoith?
iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?i aa?a i?ae na?e
i?ioaeoi?ao Ee?anueea Aiaiyaeainueea a?aonoai, anooieaoe aei iueiai c
on?i A?enueeii Caii??cueeei; i?aeo?eio? iaoa??aeueii Ee?anueeo a?aonueeo
oeieo, yea caiaeii noa? aecia/iei eoeueoo?iei oa aeooiaiei oeaio?ii
Oe?a?ie – Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueeith aeaaeai??th; a?aeiiaeth? ao?a/aio i?ney
Aa?anoaenueei? oi?? i?aaineaaio ???a?o?th; aeaiiino?aoeaii caoeua?
ia?aaoaaiiy a Ee?a? ??onaeeinueeiai iao??a?oa Oaioaia. Oieeath/e
a?aee?eoiai i?ioenoiyiiy c iieuenueeith aeaaeith, I. Naaaeaea/iee
aeiaeaa?oueny aieiaiiai: ii?icoi?iiy o?ueio i?ia?aeieo aa?noa
oiae?oiueiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa – eicaoeoaa, oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oeyooe oa aeooiaainoaa – o caoeno? aeanieo i?aa.

Caaaeueiia?aeiia ai?ioueaa I. Naaaeaea/iiai c oo?aoeueei-oaoa?nueeith
aeniain??th. I?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii acyoi Aa?io, I/ae?a, Ia?aeii,
Neiii, O?aiacoiae, Eaoo, ui aeicaieeei A?enueeo Caii??cueeiio
i?e?aeiaoeny aei “E?ae i?e?oe?? o?enoeyinoaa”, ooai-?aii? o Cao?aei?e
?a?ii? i?ioe Iniainueei? ?iia???.

O aiyo ?c oo?eaie i?ae Oioeiii o 1621 ?. I. Naaaeaea/iee aoa aaaeei
ii?aiaiee. Ii?aiaiiy oa i?aenooii?noue iieuenueeiai o?yaeo i?enei?eee
nia?oue aaoueiaia (10 ea?oiy 1622 ?.). I?ney eiai nia?o? eicaoeoai
i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?icii/aoo iei ni?aao ai?ioueae ca aeieth ia?iaeo. Aiii
aoei iniiaiith ?oo?eiith neeith eicaoeueei-naeyinueeeo iianoaiue 90-o
?ie?a XVI no. – i?ae i?iaiaeii E. Eineinueeiai oa N. Iaeeaaeea, ?ioeo
iianoaiue, ye? i?ioiaeeee a 20-30-o ??. XVII no. Ui aoei ni?eueiiai oa
a?aei?iiiai i?ae oeeie iianoaiiyie? An? aiie aoee aeeeeeai? iie?oeeith
iieuenueei? aeaaee, a on?o ?i?oe?aoi?ii ? iaea?eueo aeoeaiei aeaiaioii
aoei caii?icueea eicaoeoai. A on?o aeiaaeeao iianoae? o ae??oaeueieo
aeoaao aaeaaaeenue aei iai?iiii? oaeoeee (oe??ieaiee oaa??), aeiaeiiai
?aco ia iaee aiie ciai?oi?o nithciee?a. A oie aea /an eiaeia c iianoaiue
iaei na?e eiie?aoiee i?ea?ae: iianoaiiy i?ae i?iaiaeii E. Eineinueeiai –
iieuenueeo i?iaieaoe?th c iaaeaiiyi eiio caiaeue eiycy Ino?icueeiai ?
ni?iao aeaaee i?aai?coaaoe aeieaaeo N?/?; iianoaiiy N. Iaeeaaeea –
ni?iao oeyooe ?ici?aaeoenue iaae eiai caaiiii ? aaaaeaiiy oi?aonoaa.
Iianoaiiy 1625 ? 1630 ??. aoee aeeeeeai? ianooiii iieuenueei? aeaaee ia
ai?iaeiaa eicaoeoai ? i?aaineaaio oea?eao; 1636-37 ??. – a??ieiiiith
?ici?aaith o Aa?oaa? iaae caii?icueeith noa?oeiith ca c?oeioaaiiy
oi?oaoe? Eiaeae; 1638 ?. – ni?iaith iieye?a iinoaaeoe i?ae na?e iiaiee
eiio?ieue Caii?iaeaey. I/iethaaee an? oe? iianoaiiy caii?icuee?
aaoaaeee, aei ieo i?e?aeioaaeenue ai?iaeia? eicaee, naeyie. O?eueee a
iianoaii? 1594-1596 ??. caii?iaeoe? c ?yaeo i?e/ei ae?yee ie?aii a?ae
caaiio N. Iaeeaaeea (a iniiaiiio – /a?ac eiai o/anoue o a?enueeo eiycy
Ino?icueeiai i?ioe caii?iaeoe?a a 1591-93 ??.). Iianoaiiy cae?i/oaaeeny
ii-??ciiio, aea a on?o oeeo iianoaiiyo iaaoaaany iaiao?aeiee aeina?ae
ai?ioueae c iieuenueeeie a?enueeaie, c??ea ?aeay iaiao?aeiino? iiaiiai
ca?eueiaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae iieuenueei-oeyoaonueeiai iaioaaiiy. Cia/ii
c?inoaee eicaoeuee? neee ca ?aooiie oeo, ooi naii/eiii iaieiooaaa naaa
eicaeaie. Aiie ia aeciaaaee iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? naiino?eii
iae?aee nia? noa?oeio ia caii?icueeee iaia?. Oae?, ye ?o caaee,
“iaiineooi?”, o aaaaoueio i?e-ei?aeiiieo i?noa/eao ? naeao neeaaeaee
a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy. Oae, o Eaiaa? i?iaeeaaei 960 i?uai ? 1300
eicae?a, o Ei?noi? – 200 i?uai ? 1300 “iaiineooieo” ? o.ae.

A?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee ?.I. E?ei’yeaae/, iaaiaey/e oe? aeai?,
iineea?oueny ia aeieoiaio, a yeiio iaaieioo?oueny, ui oae? eicaee – “a
aea?aeaa? ae?oao aea?aeaao caiaeyoue”.

Aea ia aeoieo Ieaie Aiaiiae/ iianoaiiy 20-30-o ??. OOV?? no. aoee
ia?oith aecaieueiith a?eiith oe?a?inueeiai, yea oi/ ? cae?i/eeanue
ii?aceith, aea i?aeaiooaaea Oiaeueie//eio.

Eicaoeoai a?ae?a?aei aaee/acia cia/aiiy a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo:
ia?iae Oe?a?ie a noai? eicaoeoaa iaa iiaooith iii?o a i?aaiaii? aei
aecaieaiiy c-i?ae ai?oo ?a/? Iiniieeoi?; eicaoeoai ia o?eueee
i?aeo?eioaaei aeoo i?ioanoo, aea e anaeyei a??o a ia?aiiao, a?aei
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o ai?iouea?, caoeuaei, iaaeaaaei i?eooeie an?i
ne?eaaeaeaiei; eicaee aoee ea??aieeaie ? i?aai?caoi?aie aenooi?a
ianaeaiiy i?ioe oeyooe; eicaoeuee? ainiiaea?noaa aeaiiino?oaaee ia?aaaae
a?eueii? i?aoe? iaae e??iaoeueeith, /ei ?icoeooaaee oaiaeaeuei?
ii?yaeee. Eicaee oaeoe/ii ni?eyee ca?iaeaeaiith iiai? eai?oae?noe/ii?
nenoaie, aeaiiino?oth/e iiaeeea?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aac
iaia; eicaoeoai acaaae?, Caii??aeaey cie?aia, noaei ca?iaeeii iiai?
aea?aeaaiino?, iiaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue I.
Einoiia?iao, a ca iei ? E. Ia?eno iacaaoe Caii?icueeo N?/ c ??
aeaiie?aoeciii ? aenieith ii?aeuei?noth “O?enoeyinueeith eicaoeueeith
?anioae?eith”, c yei? “aeoo aieueiino? ?iceeaaany ii an?e Oe?a?i?”. I.
Aiaiiae/ iaceaaea caii??cueeo n?/ – Ca?ieieie Neeaie Oe?a?ie.

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