Oe?a?inuee? caie? i?ae aeaaeith Aano??enueei? oa ?in?enueei? ?iia??e

sse cacia/aeinue a iiia?aaei?e oai?, aoiaeaeaiiy Aaee/eie oa Aoeiaeie
aei Aano??enueei? ei?iie iie?aueei ?o noaiiaeua aiane?aeie ?aoi?i, ye?
i?iaiaeeea Ia??y-Oa?ac?y oa ?? ianooiieee. I?ioa aiie o?eaaee iaaeiaai.
I?ney nia?o? Eineoa ?? iiaea?i?caoe?y i?eieiaeany, a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai naeyi, noaei
ianoa?iiei.

Ae?eoei aei oiai, ui aeania ainiiaea?noai ia aeaaaei naeyieio
iiaeeeaino? caaacia/eoe i?i?iaeuei? iio?aae n?i’?. Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue
aeeooy ia ia?aaeuoaaea 30-40 ?ie?a. Cia/ia iana oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
aeniaaeoaaeany e aeie?aea. I?aeoe/ii oe?a?inuee? caie? noaaaee
eieii?aeueiei i?eaeaoeii i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo oeaio?aeue-ieo oa
cao?aeieo i?ia?ioe?e ?iia???.

A ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy ye iiaii?e?aeiaieo, oae ? noa?eo aoaa?i?e
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny e?aei?i iie?oe/iei aaci?aa’yi, iaoe?iiaeueiei ai?oii
oa aeiiii?/iei coaiae?iiyi. Iiaea?-i?caoe?ei? i?ioeane, ui ?icii/aeeny c
naeyinueei? ?aoi?ie ? iiaee i?eaanoe aei iie?auaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua, i?iaiaeeeeny c cai?ciaiiyi,
caee-oaeeny iaiaaeaieie, iaiine?aeiaieie, iacaaa?oaieie, noia?a/eeaeie ?
ia iaee nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Oea, ye ? a Aano??enuee?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie, oneeaaeithaaei i?ioeane
ia?aoiaeo noni?euenoaa aei a?eueo i?ia?aneaiiai niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa,
aei iiaiai oeio ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??, ui io?eiaea a iao?e
e?oa?aoo?? iacao “eai?oae?cio”. Nioe?aeueii-aei-iii?/i? ooenee
ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aeeeeeaee i?i-oeae?th
(aeea. oaae. 6.1):

Oaaeeoey 6.1 – Aenooie i?ioe aeaaee a Aano??enuee?e oa ?in?enuee?e
?iia??yo

A Aano??enuee?e ?iia???A ?in?enuee?e ?iia???– 1809?. aenooie naeyi
*i?oe?a-ueie;

– 1810-1825??. ?ica?eiee?anueeee ?oo. E?aea?e: TH.Iaeaithe, Ae.sseei/oe,
I.Iaeueie/oe, N. Oiaoa, ?. Eieioa oa ?i.;

– 1819-1822 ?. aenooie naeyi Eiia-??aueie.

– 1848?. aenooie naeyi I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie i?ae i?iaiaeii E.Eiaeeeoe?.Ca
iaiiaieie aeaieie, a Oe?a?i? c 1797 ii 1825 ??. a?aeaoeiny iiiaae 100
aenooi?a e??iinieo naeyi. Iaea?eueo a?aeii?:

– aenooie naeyi Iiae?eey i?ae i?iaiaeii O. Ea?iaethea (1812-1835 ??.);

– “Ee?anueea eica//eia” (1855 ?.) – ?oo ioiiea iiiaae 400 n?e, a?aei
o/anoue 180oen. /ie.;

– “Iio?ae a Oaa??th ca aieath” (1856 ?.) – iiiaae 75 oen. /ie.;

– i?ioyaii 1826-1854 ??. a?aeaoeiny 354naeyinuee? aenooie.

E?eca oaiaeaeueii? nenoaie ainiiaea?noaa, iineeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai oa
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ai?oo, aieea i?ia?aneaieo ?aeae Cao?aeii? ?a?iie i?eaaee
aei iiaiai aoaio oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.
Ine?eueee aoaeue-yea iaaaei-aieaiiy ia iiaei i?iyaeoenue o iie?oe/i?e
noa??, oi aiii iaaoei iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaii?, i?ina?oieoeueei?,
eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? oi?ie. Cie?aia, eiee a 1797-1835 ??. iaoa?ao?cueea
Aa?aeueae?y (niaoe?aeueia eii?n?y), a oiae? ia?aa??ee caeiiiino? iaaoooy
aeai?yinoaa eicaoeueeith noa?oeiith, aeciaea iaeaea iieiaeio c ieo
aaci?aenoaaieie, oi oa ia i?aai?coaaea iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e, a coneeeyie ?.
Ia?eiae/a, O. Eaeeinueeiai, I. Ieei?aaeiae/a, A. Iieaoeee, A. *aie, ye?
iaceaaee naaa “iao??ioaie ??aeiiai e?ath” /a?ac aea/aiiy ?noi???,
Oe?a?ie acyeenue caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane ia eeoa aeai?yi, a e anueiai
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Oeaio?ii oe??? ae?yeueiino? noaa caniiaaiee
coneeeyie Aaneey Ea?ac?ia Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao (1805 ?.).

Ni?eya aea/aiith naiiaooiino? Oe?a?ie aieea Aaeeei? O?aioeocueei?
?aai-ethoe??, caaaeyee eiio oa ?aeayi i?iaoeueeiai o?einioa E.A.
Aa?aea?a, ye? ia??oioiaoaaee ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue eiaeii? iaoe??, ??
i?aai ia naiaiaeo, a Oe?a?i? ca?iaeaeo?oueny aoiia?ao?y. A 1819 ?.
?oneo?eiaaiee a?oceinueeee eiycue I. Oea?aoae? aeaeaa ia?oo ca??eo
oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?e/ieo aeoi. O 1827 ?. aeaeaoiee ?in?enueeee
aioeeeeiiaaeeno Ieoaeei Iaeneiiae/ aeaeaa “Iaei?in?enuee? i?ni?”, ye?
iaee aaee/aciee aieea ia iaoe?iiaeueia oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaeiai?
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, cie?aia, I. Eoe?oa oa I. Einoiia?iaa.
Aaee/acia cia/aiiy iaei oaeiae aeaeaiiy aeeeaaea/ai-o?eieiaii
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?cia?eii N?aciaanueeei, a/eoaeai I.
Einoiia?iaa, i?ioyaii 1833-1838 ??. oanoe aeione?a “Caii?iaeneie
Noa?eiu”.

Caaaeueia caoiieaiiy noa?iaeiith ni?eyei iiya? “Aia?aee” ?.
Eioey?aanueeiai, yea c?iaeea ni?aaaei?e ia?aai?io a oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo??. I?ae aieeaii ?. Eioey-?aanueeiai no/aniith oe?a?inueeith
iiaith ii/aee ienaoe /eaie oa?e?anueeiai ao?oea, ui neeaany iaaeiei
oi?aa?neoaoo a 20-30 ??. XIX no., cie?aia, I. Aoeae-A?oa-iianueeee, A.
Ea?oea-Iniia’yiaiei, ?. A?aa?iea.

A i?iaoaeaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a cia/io ?ieue
a?ae?a?aee ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia “?noi??y ?on?a”,
/ioe?eoiiia “Enoi?ey iaeie ?innee” Ae. Aaioeo-Eaiainueeiai, i’yoeoiiia
“Enoi?ey Iaei?innee” I. Ia?eaae/a.

Oaeei /eiii, aoiia?ao?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, e?oa?aoo?i? oai?e
aoee oei “iiaeeaiei” na?aaeiaeuai, o yeiio i?iaoaeaeoaaeanue
iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. *ei aeae?,
oei o?ni?oa ?e noaaaei a ?aieao iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
yea ia iiaei i?eaanoe aei aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie. Iio??aai aoa eeoa iiooiao,
uia a?aeaoany ia?ao?ae aei iie?oe/ii? oi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Iei
noaea oai?/?noue O. Oaa/aiea. Naia a?i coi?a neeith naiai oaeaioo
i?iaeiaaeeoe i?aoeth nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, i?aeianoe aei na?oiaiai ??aiy
i?aaaeo i?i ?noi??th, eoeueoo?o, iaioaeuei?noue oe?a?ioe?a, cana?ae/eoe
?o i?aai ia naith naiiaooi?noue ? iacaeaaei?noue, ia naith
aea?aeaai?noue. Oiio ia aoaea ia?aa?eueoaiiyi ii??aiyiiy Eiaca?y c
Iiena?i. Iai? aiie ii noo? a?yooaaee nai? ia?iaee. Iaeei – c iieiio
?aeiaonueeiai, a ae?oaee – c ?aanoaa aeooiaiiai, c
aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?eieo iaco??a ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

A Aaee/ei? ii/aoie oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiio
a?ae?iaeaeaiith iieeaa o 1816 ?. a Ia?aieoe? nayuaiee ?aai
Iiaeeueieoeueeee, canioaaaoe ooo ia?oa ina?oi? oiaa?enoai. Eiai ii?eoiii
noaa ia?aieoeyinueeee ?ieneii ?aai Ni?ao?nueeee. Iaaeiei iueiai a
20-30-o ?ieao XIX no. cina?aaeeany ao?oie ia?aaeiai? ?ioae?aaioe??: E.
Eaaeoeueeee, E. Eiceinueeee, A. Aeia?yinueeee, ?. Eaa??anueeee. Aiie
ia?oeie cai?iaaaeaeoaaee oe?a?iiiiaia oe?eueieoeoai, aeaeaee a?aiaoeee
oe?a?inueei? iiae Iiaeeueieoeueeiai (1822 ?.), Eiceinueeiai (1833 ?.),
Eaaeoeueeiai (1834 ?.). Iaeiae aiie aoee aeineoue aeaeaeeie a?ae
ia?iaeii? iiae, oyae?ee aei oea?eiaiineia’yinueei?.

Ia?oith i?aai?caoe??th, ui a?aenoithaaea oe?a?inueeo ia?iaeio iiao oa
eoeueoo?o, aoea “?onueea o??eoey”, noai?aia a 1831 ?. aeoiaaioeyie
Euea?anueei? aeooiaii? nai?ia??? Ia?e?yiii Oaoeaae/ai, ?aaiii
Aaaeeaae/ai ? sseiaii Aieiaaoeueeei. Aaniith 1834 ?. aiie i?aeaiooaaee
ca??iee “Ci?y”. Oi/ a?aeainueea oeaico?a eiai aeicaieeea, aea i?ioani?
ii?aeueii? oaieia?? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo A. Eaaeoeueeee ?
ieo?iiieeo I. Eaaeoeueeee caai?iieee aeaeaiiy. Eeoa a 1837 ?. “?onuee?e
o??eoe?” aaeaeiny aeaeaoe aeaui ia?a?iaeaiee ca??iee i?ae iacaith
“?onaeea Aei?no?iaay” a Aoaeaiaoo?. Iaeiae iaeaea aanue oe?aae aoa
a?aooiaaiee oeaico?ith. I?iaae aeaeaiiy, ooenee c aieo
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeeo ???a?o?a i?ecaaee aei nia?o? 32-??/iiai nayuaieea
Oaoeaae/a. Ia?aeoia aei iieuenueeiai oaai?o ?. Aaaeeaae/, noaa i?ci?oa
iineaio?eii ss. Aieiaaoeueeee.

Aea ni?aaa “aoaeeoae?a”, ye ?o iaceaaa ?. O?aiei, ia i?iiaea ia?ii.
?ne?a, caiaeaia “?onaeeith Aei?no?iaith”, aaaee? oiiae aeeooy
oe?a?inueeeo naeyi ? ?yaeiaeo nayuaiee?a cioneee ea??aieoeoai
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae a na?aaeei? 40-o ?ie?a XIX no. iinooiiai
ia?aeoe c iiceoe?e caoenoo ?ioa?an?a aano??enueeeo ? iieuenueeeo
iaaiao?a aei ae?aaeaiiy ei??iieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.
Inoaoi/ii oeae ia?ao?ae caaa?oeany c ii/aoeii ?aaiethoe?? 1848 ?. C
oeueiai /ano ? aei nueiaiaei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa aoea ? ?
e?aea?ii oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Ia?aeaeueii c oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiei a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi oa
ca?iaeaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaee i?noea ??ciiiai?oi?
oi?ie nioe?aeueii? ai?ioueae. Ine?eueee noaiiaeua naeyi I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie ia ci?ieeiny ia e?aua i?ney ia?aoiaeo oeeo caiaeue a?ae Iieueu?
aei ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a aei iieuenueeiai iii?ueea aeiaeaany ua e
?in?enueeee /eiiaiee, oi noaiiaeua naeyi iia??oeeinue. Ni?eyei oeueiio
aei?noe?oa, i?ae ca ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, cae??ia/aiiy naeyinoaa, a oaeiae
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeey caaaeaiiai noaio ?ae?oonueei? iiaeiiino?, yei? a
iiia?aaei? /ane ia ciaei i?aaiaa?aaeia naeyinoai. Uii?aaaea, iaai?
iaae?? naeyie iieeaaeaee ia oa, ui o/anoue ?o ye aeia?iaieueoe?a o a?ei?
1812 ?. i?eaaaea aei neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa. Aea oeacii Ieaenaiae?a
? naeyi iiaa?ioee iacaae iii?ueeai, a o? iineeeee aecene, uia ca ?aooiie
e??iae?a eiiiainoaaoe nai? ao?aoe a?ae a?eie c Iaiieaiiii.

Oiio caeiiii??iei noaa aeaoo ia?iaeiiai i?ioanoo, iaeyne?aa?oei i?iyaii
yeiai aoa ii?eoe?anueeee (?ica?eieoeueeee, aoioa?nueeee) ?oo, yeee ia
oa?aiao, i?eiaeii? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie iaa cia/i? o?aaeeoe??.
Iaea?aeii?oei oa iaeaeaeaoi?oei i?aaenoaaieeii caaaeaiiai yaeua, cie?aia
ia Iiae?ee?, noaa Onoei Ea?iaethe (Ni?aaaei? i??caeua aaoaaeea, ye
cana?ae/o? iao?e/ia eieaa eiai ??aeiiai naea Aieia/eioe? — oaia?
Ea?iaetheiaa AEie?ainueeiai ?aeiio A?iieoeueei? iaeano? — Onoei
Ea?iaithe).

Iaaeiei oeueiai ?ooo iaa?iiaaeeeinue /eiaei eaaaiae, ye? i?oeii oa?eoee
ia eeoa o ianiao ia?iaeio na?aeii?noue, a e cae??ieeenue o i?aoeyo
?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a, e?iio?eueiao, e?oa?aoo?ieo oai?ao, Oni?e
ia?iaei?e oai?/ino?. A?i o?aeooaaany ye ?aaiethoe?eia ai?ioueaa, yea oi
?icoe?thth/enue aei 20 oen. o/aniee?a, aeoiaeeea ca ?aiee Iiae?eey ia
Aieeiue, Aana?aa?th, Ee?aueio, oi caoaeoaaeanue aei aeanyoea iaeaeeae/eo
ni?aoiee?a Ea?iaethea ? e?eueeio ianaeaieo ioieo?a. Oa a naeyinueeo
a?eio a?i ia ia?a??n. Caiaaeoi neeueiei aoa i?ioeaiee —
a?enueeiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aia?ao ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a nithc? c on?i
iii?ueoeueeei eeanii. O/anieee aenooi?a ia iaee i? /?oei? i?ia?aie ae?e,
i? yeiainue ia’?aeioth/iai i?aai?ciaaiiai noa?aeiy, yeei a oe?a?inueeeo
iianoaiiyo XVII -XVIII no. oa Eie??auei? 1768 ?. aoei eicaoeoai. ?oo
i?ae i?iaiaeii Ea?iaethea ca?any eeo aei cieuaiiy ? a?aaoieo
iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oe?a ? ainiiaea?noa aaaao??a (aoei cae?eniaii a?ey 1
oeny/? iaiaae?a). Ia aoei a iueiio i? iine?aeiaieo neoaea aa?oaoe?? ca
ia?aoai?aiiy iianoaiiy o anaia?iaeia, i? ona?aeiieaiiai ?icoi?iiy
iaiao?aeiino? ai?ioueae ca cieuaiiy ?nioth/i? aeaaee ? noai?aiiy aeanieo
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy. Oea aoa inoaii?e, caanath/ee i?iya o?aaeeoe?eii?
aeey ieioeeo a?e?a oi?ie ianiaiai naeyinueeiai i?ioanoo i?ioe ?nioth/i?
nioe?aeueii? iani?aaaaeeeaino?.

I?ioa, ye iieacothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy aeioeaioa eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa
e?a?iiciaanoaa Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo A.Aey/ea,
O. Ea?iaithe /a?ac ??ci? aeeoo?a? ianoaaeie iio?aieaoe ia eaoi?ao ?
ao?eoe c ia?, oeei iinoaaea naaa iica caeiiaie ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a
iiooee cania?a aei ?nioaaiiy i?aeooiaoioee eiai nii/aoeo aei ae??aieo
e?aae?aeie, a caiaeii — aei a?aeaa?oeo a?aaoie?a ? ?ica?eieo iaiaae?a
ni?eueii c oaeeie ae, ye ? a?i nai, iniaaie.

Aeieoiaioaeuei? aeaea?aea cana?ae/othoue ae?enii iaaaeye? i?e?iaei?
cae?aiino? O. Ea?iaithea (o?ce/ia neea, aeo?eaae?noue), a oaeiae
iaia?an?/io aaea/o uiaei naiai «?aianea»: aeanyoe?acia? a?aooe oa
oa’yciaiiy e naie?acia? aaeae? ni?iae aoa/?, ai?iiy oieeaoe iaeaa,
ieaioaaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? aaoaae oiui.

Na?aae iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy aaoaaeea, ca nioe?aeueiei noaoonii,
ia?aaaaeathoue aeaeeaniaai? aeaiaioe (aeaca?oe?e, ao?ea/? c i?noeue
iicaaaeaiiy aie? oiui), ye?, ao?aoeaoe nioe?aeuei? ca’ycee,
ia’?aeioaaeeny c O. Ea?iaitheii, ia?ane?aeoth/e aeani? oe?e?.
Iaia’yceiaith oiiaith caeo/aiiy iiaa/e?a aoea iayai?noue a ieo
iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo a?aeiia?aeii? ae?yeueiino? aai e noaeeiino? /e
ia?aaoaaiiy i?ae ne?aenoaii.

Ui noino?oueny e?euee?niiai neeaaeo ea?iaithe?aoe?a, oi niinoa??aa?ii
iaaia ca?eueoaiiy ?o /enea: yeui i?ioyaii 1813-1822 ??. aaciina?aaei?o
o/aniee?a ae?e aoei eeoa 13 (i?e/iio o? /e ?io? a/eiee cae?enithaaeeny
a?oiith ii 3-4 /ieia?ee), oi aaea a 1825-1827 ??. ia?ii 26 in?a, a a
1830-1835 ??. — aeecueei 50 (aeaye? iaiaaee ia?aoiaothoue aei 10
o/aniee?a). A oe?eiio, i?ioyaii caaaeaiiai /ano, ca i?yio, a ia?aaaaeii
ca iiina?aaeeiaaio i?eiaeaaei?noue aei aaoaae ?ica?eiee?a, aei noaeo
aoei i?eoyaiooi aei 300 in?a.

AEa?oaaie ea?iaithe?aoe?a o 1813-1822 ??. noaaaee ia?aaaaeii naeyie (24
aeiaaeee, c yeeo 15 i?eiaaea? ia e?aae?aeee, 6 — ia ?ica?ei? iaiaaee ?
ii iaeiiio — ia i?aeiae, aaeanoai oa ?aaeooaaiiy). Ia an? ?io?
nioe?aeuei? a?oie i?eiaaea? eeoa 11 aeiaaee?a aeoeaieo ae?e. A ia??iae
iaeaeuiai i?aeianaiiy ae?yeueiino? O. Ea?iaithea (1825-1835 ??.), iaa
i?noea 31 aeiaaeie ianeeuenoaa noiniaii naeyi; i?uai-oi?aiaoe?a — 17
aeiaaee?a; i?aaenoaaiee?a oeyooe, aeeth/ath/e Neoaeaiao, /eioiao,
iinan?eio ? iii?uee?a -22 aeiaaeee. Aeoeai? ae?? ea?iaithe?aoe?a uiaei
i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ea?eaeiaaiiai noaio — oeyooe eeoa a ia??iae c 1825 ii
1835 ??. iaaoee a?eueo noaeiai, oi/ ia??aeei noeo?eiiai ? aeaeaei ia
aaceiii?ii?niiai oa?aeoa?o. Aei oiai ae aea?oaaie, ye i?aaeei, noaaaee
i?aaenoaaieee /eioiai? ? neoaeaiai? oeyooe. Iaeiae ooo ia?aaaaea?
i?eoiaaia oi?ia ae?e-e?aae?aeee.

Caaaeath/e ia aeuacaaaeaia ? i/aaeaeiei, ui O Ea?iaithe oa eiai
ni?eueieee ia ia?ane?aeoaaee iaoe ci?ie ?nioth/eo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo ii?yaee?a, a oiio iaia? i?aenoaa
?icaeyaeaoe ?o ae?yeuei?noue ye ai?ioueao i?ioe iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?
?ae?a?eiiai aiiaeaiiy oa iaae?eyoe aioee??iinieoeueeith,
aioeiii?ueoeueeith ni?yiiaai?noth.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Ea?iaithea, eiai no/anieeaie aoee i?aaenoaaieee
iia?oiuei? oi?ie ai?ioueae i?ioe e??iinieoeueeeo ii?yaee?a. Oea
iie?oe/ia i?aai?caoe?y c /?oeith no?oeoo?ith, i?ia?aiith, ieaiii ae?e.
I?ci?oa oeth i?aai?caoe?th iacaooue aeaeaa-?enonueeith – ca /anii ??
ni?iae caoiieoe aeaaeo a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? a a?oaei? 1825 ?.
Aeaeaa?enonueea i?aai?caoe?y aoea ana?in?enueeith. Na?aae ??
i?aai?caoi??a aoee ? ethaee oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye a?aoe
Io?aaeiae-Aiinoiee. ?aeeiee aeoiaeaoeue ?c naeyi – o?iaeaeaiaoeue n.
?oaee/ii? I?ineo??anueeiai iia?oo O.O. Aeoioeia-Aeaiaeianueeee. A?i
anooiea o 1825 ?. aei Oiaa?enoaa ia’?aeiaieo naeyi. Aoa canoaeaeaiee aei
eaoi?ae ? ca-neaiiy a Nea??. A 1854 ?. eiai iiaoi?ii canoaeeee aei
caneaiiy ? iiea?aee aaoiaaie ca ?oeiiene aioeo?yaeiaiai ci?noo. I?ioe
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ca anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee aenooieea a
oeae /an noai?aia ae?oaii I.N. Iooe?ia, oaeiae iiaoii, A.O. ?a?anueeei
i?aai?caoe?y “Cae?ci? ia?ni?”, oeaio? yei? ciaoiaeeany o
Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio. Ina?aaeie oeueiai ao?oea ?nioaaa ? a i.
ss?iieeioeyo, i?ioa eiai ae?yeuei?noue ia aeine?aeaeaia. ?aaeaeoi?ii
“?onueei? i?aaaee” ? iaeiei ?c ea??aiee?a I?aaeaiiiai oiaa?enoaa aoa
o?iaeaeaiaoeue Iiae?eey I.A. THoiaanueeee. Iii?oia i?noea na?aae
aeai?yinueeeo ?aaiethoe?iia??a caeiaa o?iaeaeaiaoeue n. Ai?noee
Ooeoeueeiai iia?oo I.E. Ei?i?eia oa ?io?. A oe?eyo eiini??aoe??
i?aai?caoe?y, noai?aia a 1816 ?. a Iaoa?ao?c?, aea?/? naii?icioneaeanue
? i?iyea iacao. C 1821 ?. aiia ?icae?eeeanue ia 2 /anoeie: I?ai?/ia
oiaa?enoai (Iaoa?ao?a) ? I?aaeaiia oiaa?enoai (oeaio?aeueia Oe?a?ia).
Aaniethoia a?eueo?noue /eai?a i?aai?caoe?? aoee io?oea?aie ?in?enueei?
a?i??. Oea coiiaeei ? oa, ui iaoiaeii caoiieaiiy aeaaee aeaeaa?enoe
aea?aee a?enueeiaee ia?aai?io. Aeaaea iio??aia ?i aoea ia ca?aaee
aeaaee, a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue: e?ea?aeaoe??
aaniethoecio ? e??iinieoeoaa. A?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiei aoei I?aaeaiia
oiaa?enoai.

Neeaaeaia I. Ianoaeai i?ia?aia I?aaeaiiiai oiaa?enoaa “?onueea i?aaaea”
ia?aaeaa/aea iiaia cieuaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? oaiaeaeueieo a?aeiinei,
aea a oie aea /an ocaeiithaaea a?enueeiao aeeeoaoo?o ? oi?oa?io
aea?aeaao, a ye?e iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy acaaae? ia a?aeiny aei oaaae.
I?ia?aia I?ai?/iiai oiaa?enoaa “Eiin-oeoooe?y” I. Io?aaeiaa aenoaaea
aeiiao iaiaaeaiiy aeaaee iiia?oa caeiiii ? e?ea?aeaoe?th eeoa
e??iinieoeoaa, a ia oaiaeaeueieo a?aeiinei a oe?eiio. Caoa aoea ca
a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/i? ii?yaeee ? a?aooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy i?e
ia?aoai?aii? oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae a oaaea?aoeaio. Iaea aooe a?aeiiaeaia ?
oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue. Oa ia iaeia, a c?aco o?e: ia E?aiaa?aaeae?
c? noieeoeath a Oa?eia?, I?aaiaa?aaeae? – a Ee?a? ? ia I?aaei? – a
Iaean?. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui ca iniiao aea?aeaaioai?aiiy aoa acyoee
?nioth/ee oiae? iiae?e Oe?a?ie ia o?e aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa, ye? aoee
Io?aaeiaei o?ioe i?aeei?aeoiaai? ? i?aeaeuai? aei noaoono
aea?aeaa-/eai?a caaaeueii-?in?enueei? oaaea?aoe??. A 1823 ?ioe? a
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeo a?aoe Ai?eniae noai?eee “Oiaa?enoai ia’?aeiaieo
neia’yi”. Eiai ina?aaeee ae?yee o E?aneeia? ? Noa?i-einoyioeiia?. A ieo
ii?yae c io?oea?aie-?in?yiaie aenooiaee i?noeaa? aeai?yie
Neaeue-ia?ianueeee, Iiiyoianueeee. Oiaa?enoai ia?aaeaa/aei iiaio
e?ea?aeaoe?th naiiaea?-aeaanoaa ? oaiaeae?cio, aea iaeaooi?e aea?aeaaiee
ono??e aaa/aei a oi?i? oaaea?aoe?? aea?aeaa an?o ca?eueiaieo
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a. A 1825 ?ioe? aiii oa?eoei aei neeaaeo
I?aaeaiiiai oiaa?enoaa.

Aenooi aiooaaany ia e?oi 1826 ?. Iaeiae, iaia?aaeaa/ai? iiae??: a?aooe
ea??aiee?a I?aaeaiiiai oiaa?enoaa, ?aioiaa nia?oue ?iia?aoi?a
Ieaenaiae?a ? – cioneee aeaeaa?eno?a aenooieoe ia cian?i
i?aeaioiaeaieie. 25 a?oaeiy 1825 ?. a?aeaoeinue iianoaiiy I?ai?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa a Iaoa?ao?c?, a a e?ioe? a?oaeiy oa ia ii/aoeo n?/iy, aaea
i?ney eiai ?ica?iio, ye aeo a?ae/ath ? nie?aea?iino?, a?aeaoeiny
iianoaiiy, eiio?ieueiaaia aeaeaa?enoaie *a?i?a?anueeiai iieeo ia /ie? c
N. Io?aaeiaei-Aiinoieii. Ea??aiee?a iianoaiiy aoei no?a/aii, eiai
o/aniee?a-/eai?a oiaa?enoaa caneaii a Nea??, a nieaeao iiea?aii
oi?oe?ooaiaie ? a?aei?aaeaii ia eaaeacueeo a?eio.

Ia?oa oe?a?inueea oa?iia iie?oe/ia i?aai?caoe?y aeieeea a Ee?a? a 1845 –
ia ii/aoeo 1856 ?. ia iniia? nooaeaionueeiai ao?oea, yeee aeiee a 1842
?. ?i?oe?aoi?ii noai?aiiy oiaa?enoaa aoa i?ioani? oi?aa?neoaoo na.
Aieiaeeie?a Ieeiea Einoi-ia?ia. Iaaeiei iueiai ia’?aeiaeenue i?ioani?
Ieeiea Aoeae, ienueiaiiee Iaioa-eaeiii Eoe?o, aeaeaoiee aoiia?ao Aaneeue
A?eica?nueeee – anueiai aeecueei 100 in?a. I?ney aeiaaeo noia?a/ie
niaoe?ae?noe ae?eoee ?aeiino? i?i oa, ui aeoeaiei /eaiii oiaa?enoaa aoa
Oa?an Oaa/aiei.

I?ia?aiieie aeieoiaioaie oiaa?enoaa, yea eiai /eaie iaceaaee a?aonoaii
(ca aiaeia??th c ii/aoeii OV?? no.) aoee: “Noaooo ? i?aaeea oiaa?enoaa
nayoeo Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y”, iaienai? A. A?eica?nueeei c a?aooaaiiyi
iiceoe?? ?ioeo /eai?a; “Caeii aiaeee (Eieaa aoooy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo)” I. Einoiia?iaa oa onoaiia/a “Caienea” A. A?eica?nueeiai. A
ieo, ia iniia? aeaui ?iiaioe/iiai ?noi?e/iiai aeneo?no, ?iaeany aeniiaie
i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeiaeaaoenue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie ?
noai?aiiy oaaea?aoe?? aaeeeeo ??aiii?aaieo neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a c
oeaio?ii o Ee?a?. O a?aeicaao “Aei oe?a?ioe?a” oa “Aei a?ao?a iieye?a oa
iineae?a” ooi/ithaaeinue, ui oe?a?ioe? oi/ooue ni?aaae? ??aiii?aaiiai
nithco c a?ei?onaie, iineaeyie, iieyeaie, /aoaie, neiaaeaie,
neiaaioeyie, na?ai-oi?aaoaie oa aie-aa?aie, a yeiio ia aoei a iaiaaeno?
i?ae ia?iaeaie, a eiaeiee c ieo iaa ae i?aai ia naith iiao, naith
e?oa?aoo?o e naith aeanio aea?aeaai?noue c? nai?ie ia?eaiaioaie.

Iaeii/anii ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe? aeiaaaee e?ea?aeaoe?? e??iiniiai i?aaa,
naiaiaee ae?oeo, a??e e iaoee, caaaeueii? ina?oe, cai?ie ?ae?oonueei?
a?i?? ia ia?iaeio i?e?oe?th oiui. Uiaei iaoiae?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe na?aae
/eai?a a?aonoaa ia aoei ?aeiino?. Iii??eiaaia a?eueo?noue,
ia’?aeiaaoenue iaaeiei I. Einoiia?iaa, aenooiaea ca aaiethoe?eiee oeyo,
i?ina?oieoeoai, a /a?ac iueiai – i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?aoi?i.
?aaeeeaeueia iaio?noue – O. Oaa/aiei, I. Aoeae ? ?o i?eoeeueieee –
i?aaioee aeinyaoe iaoe oeyoii i?aeiyooy naeyinueei? ?aaiethoe??.
?aaeueii ae nee aeey ia?aiiae ia aoei. Oiio aeaaea, aee?eaoe a ea?oi?
1847 ?. ca aeiiinii nooaeaioa Iao?iaa oiaa?enoai, iaaecae/aeii aei?noiei
c ieie ?ici?aaeeanue. I. Aoeaea aoei canoaeaeaii aei oa’yciaiiy a
Oe?naeueao?cuee?e oi?oaoe?, O. Oaa/aiea – aei 10 ?ie?a nieaeao/eie, aac
i?aaa ienaoe ? iaethaaoe, ?aooo – aei ??cieo no?ie?a oa’yciaiiy c
iiaeaeueoei caneaiiyi.

Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueea a?aonoai iieeaei ii/aoie ia?aoai?aiith
oe?a?inue-eiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a iie?oe/iee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo. Eiai oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie aoee
aeaiie?aoeci ? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae o/aniee?a. Iiae?ai? i?ioeane
(iie?oecaoe?? ia?iaeieo ?oo?a) a?aeaoaathoueny ? a Aano??enuee?e
?iia???.

Iaeyne?aa?oeie i?iyaaie ye aioeoaiaeaeueiiai, oae ?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieue-iiai ?oo?a o Aoeiaei? aoei naeyinueea iianoaiiy
1843 ?. i?ae i?iaiaeii Eoe’yia Eiaeeeoe?, a a Aaee/ei? – ?aaiethoe?y
1848 ?., a oiae? yei? oe?na? Oa?aeeiaiae ? i?iaieinea eiinoeoooe?th,
neeeeaa ia?eaiaio, neanoaaa iaiueio. A oiae? ?aaiethoe?? oe?a?ioe?
aenooieee naiino?eiith iie?oe/iith neeith, noai?eaoe a ea?oi? 1848 ?.
Aieiaio ?onueeo ?aaeo ia /ie? c ?ieneiiii a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae
A?eai???i ssoeiiae/ai. Aiia aeiaaaea cai?iaaaeeoe a oeieao oa i?aaiao
aeaaee oe?a?inueeo iiao, aeiionoeoe oe?a?ioe?a aei caeiyooy aea?aeaaieo
iinaae, c??aiyoe a i?aaao oe?a?inueea aeooiaainoai c iieuenueeei. A
o?aai? 1848 ?. aiia i?aai?coaaea aeaeaiiy ia?oi? oe?a?inueei? aacaoe
“Ci?y Aaeeoeueea”, a aeiaoi? 1848 ?. ia?oee c’?cae ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e oa iaoee canioaaa “Aaeeoeueei-?onueeo iaoeoeth” – ia?oo
eoeue-oo?ii-ina?oith i?aai?caoe?th, iieeeeaio oeyoii aeaeaaieoeoaa eiea
aeey ia?iaeo ni?eyoe iioe?aiith ina?oe oa iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?.

I?ney ca?ieiiai iianoaiiy 1 eenoiiaaea 1848 ?., i?aeiyoiai ?ia?oieeaie
oa nooaeaioaie, ? eiai i?eaeooaiiy ?aaiethoe?y aoea ?ica?iieaia. Ia?oee
ia?eaiaio, a yeiio aoei 39 iine?a-oe?a?ioe?a, ?iciouaii.

Ca iiaith eiinoeoooe??th, aaiaeeany aaea ? aaeeoeueeee e?aeiaee naei,
aea a iueiio oe?a?ioe? noaiiaeee anueiai 49 iine?a ?c 150. Eiinoeoooe?y
1867 ?. caaa?oeea i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy aaniethoenonueei? ?iia??? a
eiinoeoooe?eio iiia?o?th c aeaiaioaie oaaea?ae?cio (aeey Oai?ueie), aea
iaoe?iiaeueia noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a iaeaea ia iie?aueeiny. Iaaiaee, a
Aaee/ei? iineeth?oueny iieii?caoe?y, a a Caea?iaoo? – iaaey?ecaoe?y.
Eeoa aeae?eaiiy a 1861 ?. Aoeiaeie a ie?aiee “ei?iiiee e?ae” aeaui
aeoea?co? iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia oe?e oa?eoi???, ?icoe?th?
?aiee a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a. I?ioa ?o
aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ia ci?ieeiny. I?iaaaeaia naeyinueea ?aoi?ia ia
iniia? aeeoio aea?aeaaith naeyinueeeo iaae?e?a i?ioyaii 50 ?ie?a ?
aeieaoith oeeo noi naeyiaie noaaeea ?o o caeaaei?noue a?ae /eiiaieoeoaa,
aaeueioaaea ?icaeoie eai?oae?cio ia nae?.

Aeoaea neeaaeii i?iaeaie ca?eueiaiiy naeyi a?ae e??iinieoeoaa
ae??ooaaeeny ? a i?ae?in?enuee?e Oe?a?i?. Ooai?aiee oea?nueeei o?yaeii a
n?/i? 1857 ?. oa?iiee eii?oao aeey i?aeaioiaee a?aei?ie e??iiniiai i?aaa
ia?aaeaa/ea, e??i caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue, aeeeaaeaieo o “Iai?oano? 19
ethoiai”, oe?eo ieceo i?ecia/aieo niaoe?aeueii aeey oe?a?inueeeo
aoaa?i?e oeac?a ? iinoaiia. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?in?enueeeo, o an?o
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo naeyinuee? iaae?ee i?ney ?aoi?ie ??cei ciaioeeeny
aiane?aeie ao?aoe naeyiaie “a?ae??ce?a”. Ia i?iyei noaiiaeua ? oa, ui ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae?, aae i?eaa?iooe oe?a?ioe?a noi?ioe iaiaae?eieo
iieuenueeeo oeyooe/?a, naeyiai iaaeaaaeiny i?aai iaea?aeaiiy iiaiiai
iaae?eo. A na?aaeiueiio iaae?ee, ye? iaea?aeaee oe?a?inuee? naeyie, a
oiiaao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie aaaaeaeeny aeinoaoi?ie, aea a Oe?a?i? i?e ??
aa?ioaoi?oe? oaeee iaae?e ia caaacia/oaaa iaa?oue i?iaeeoeiaiai
i?i?ioio. Ca iaea?aeaio caieth naeyie Oe?a?ie aei 1906 ?. nieaoeee 382
iei ea?aiaaioe?a i?e ?? ?eieia?e oe?i? 128 iei.

Cia/ii i?ia?aneai?oeie ? cia/oueie aeey Oe?a?ie aoee noaeiaa ? cainueea
?aoi?ie. Cainueea naiioi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? ciaeoei nai?o naiia?aeaeaieo
i?aoe?a-iee?a, ye? aaaaoi c?iaeee a aaeoc? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
(iaoa??aeueia aeiiiiiaa, eoeueoo?a caiea?ianoa), iaaeeoeeie (c?aceiaa
iaaee/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy, a?a??ia ? nai?oa??y) oa ina?oe (oeiee ? eo?ne
ia nae? ? aeey naea), oi?a?ae?. Aea cainoaa ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?,
ine?eueee oai iaea ia?aaaao iieuenueea oeyooa, aoee aaaaeai? eeoa a 1911
?.

Oe?eueia ?aoi?ia 1860-1864 ??. caniiaoaaea ?aeeio nenoaio ina?oe ??cieo
nooiai?a, ui ?icoe?thaaei ia?aaeo oe?e a Oe?a?i?, aea iaeii/anii
iineethaaany eiio?ieue ca oe??th noa?ith c aieo io?oe?eieo i?aai?a
aeaaee. Iath ia aeiioneaeinue noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo oe?e.

I?nueea ?aoi?ia 1870 ?. cai?iaaaeeea o aaeeeeo i?noao Oe?a?ie aeai?i?
i?nuee? aeoie (Ee?a, Eaoa?eiineaa, Iieoaaa, Oa?e?a, Oa?nii, Ieeiea?a).
Aeacai? ?aoi?ie a ?in?? iaee ao?aeoaciee oa?aeoa? ? a iniiaiiio ni?eyee
?noi?e/iiio iinooio Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie ?iia???.

Iaiine?aeiai?noue ? iacaaa?oai?noue ?aoi?i 60-70-o ?ie?a oa ??cieoey a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie a neeaae? ?in?enueei?
?iia??? ni?eyee ia?aoiaeo aieiaiiai aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee ia
eai?oae?noe/iee eaae ye i?onnueeei (oiia?eueiaiei), oae ? aia?eeainueeei
(i?enei?aiei) oeyoii, ui coiiaeei:

— oa?eoi??aeueio ia??aiii??i?noue a ?icoaooaaii? ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee;

— ia?aoai?aiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie (aea iaaoa iioe?aiiy aia?eeainueeee
niin?a) ia iniiaio iaeeaii-iaoaeo?a?eio aaco an??? ?iia???, ?c cia/iei
caeo/aiiyi ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a;

— a?eueo oaeaee? oaiie ?iaeono??aeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa aeuo
eiioeaio?aoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa, c?inoaiiy i?no;

— oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? oi?aiai-i?iieneiai? ae?oe: Oa?auaie?a,
A?iaenueeeo, Oa?eoiiaie?a, ssoiaie?a, Naie?aie?a oa ?ioeo; eeano
a?eueiiiaeiaieo ?ia?oiee?a, ?ioae?aaioe??.

Caeeaaeai? a o? ?iee aeeni?iii?oe?? a oa?eoi??aeueiiio ?icoaooaaii?
ae?ia-ie/eo nee ia o?eueee ia aoee iiaeieaii?, a ua a?eueoa iiaeeaeeeny
? ia?aoai?eeeny a iao /an ia neeaaeio aeiiii?/io i?iaeaio iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee. Oae naii aaeeeith i?iaeaiith, yea caeeoeeeny c oeo /an?a, ?
i?iaeaia i?ea’ycee aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei ?iia??? /a?ac aeaioiaeaiiy
e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??. Oe?a?inuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ui ae?iaeyee aioiao
i?iaeoeoe?th, neeaaeaee eeoa 15 %, ?aooa ae o?eueee aiooaaee ne?iaeio,
neeaaeia? /anoeie, aocee. Oea coiiaethaaei ?? iaioiaa?o?ni?noue,
caeaaei?noue a?ae oeaio?o, oiaoi iineei eieii?aeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Ua iaeiei iane?aeeii ?aoi?ie na?aaeeie O?O no. noaea ao?aoa
oe?a?inueeeie naeyiaie iiiaae 15 % caaaeueii? ieiu? e?aui? caie?, ui
aoea ?ai?oa a ?o ei?enooaaii? oa iaoyaeaiiy naeyinueeeo aeai??a
iaiii??ieie iiai?aie (aeeoiieie ieaoaaeaie, iiaeooiei ? iicaiaeueiei
iiaeaoeii), iaoo?aeueieie iiaeiiinoyie. I?aaaea, ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? o?yae
(ui ia aaci?aenoaaii ia aeia??ya iieuenuee?e oeyoo?) iaaeaa naeyiai
caie? ia 18 % a?eueoa, aea ca aeuith oe?iith.

A iaio ?iia??yo, iacaaaeath/e ia i?iaaaeai? ?aoi?ie, oe?a?inueea
ianaeaiiy oa?i?ei iaoe?iiaeueiee ai?o. Oe?a?inueea iiaa ?aii?oaaeany.
Iaa/aiiy a oeieao aaeiny ?in?enueeith, i?iaoeueeith, iieuenueeith,
oai?nueeith /e ?oioinueeith iiaaie. Ia i?eeiaeeny aei ?icaeyaeo a
onoaiiaao aoaeue-ye? cayae /e aeieoiaioe ienai? oe?a?inueeith iiaith,
cai?ithaaeeny aaia?ao?/i? iacae. sse ?aaeoe?y ia oea a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeoea?caoe?y oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. A 1855
?ioe? i?ioiaeeoue “Ee?anueea eica//eia”, a 1856 ?. – aoa/? naeyi “a
Oaa??th ca aieath”. A e?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a o Iaoa?ao?c? eieeoi?
ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?, yeei caai?iieee i?ney iiaa?iaiiy ?c caneaiiy
i?iaeeaaoe a Oe?a?i?, noai?eee A?iiaaeo c aeiiiiiaith
iii?uee?a-iaoeaiao?a Aaeaaaia ? Oa?iianueeiai. Aiia canioaaea
ae?oea?ith, yea aeaeaaaea eieae oe?a?inueeeo aaoi??a. A 1861 ?. ca
?aaeaaoaaiiyi A?eica?nueeiai ii/aee aeaeaaaoe a?iiaaenueei-e?oa?aoo?iee
/aniien “Iniiaa”. A iueiio i?iaiaeeeanue ?aeay i?aaa oe?a?ioe?a ia
aeanio naiiaooi?noue. C ?in?enueeeo aeaiie?ao?a A?iiaaeo i?aeo?eiaa eeoa
I. Aa?oeai. a nai?e Oe?a?i? ca i?eeeaaeii iaoa?ao?cueei? A?iiaaee
noai?thaaeenue aiaeia?/i? i?aai?caoe??, ye? caeiaeenue
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith ae?yeuei?noth na?aae ia?iaeo. Iaea?aeii?oith
na?aae ieo noaea a?iiaaea nooaeaio?a ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, yea
io?eiaea iacao “oeiiiiaie” (a?ae iieuenueeiai “oeii” – naeyiei). A
ia?aaaaei?e a?eue-oino? oea aoee aeo?aeoe? c iieuenueeeo /e niieueuaieo
eicaoeueeeo ?iaeei I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. ?o e?aaei aeneiaea e?aea?
“oeiiiiai?a” Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/ o “Niia?ae?” ia noi??ieao /aniieno
“Iniiaa”. Ia ia?aeiiaiiy ao?oe?aoe?a, iieuenueea oeyooa, ui aeeaa a
Oe?a?i?, ia? iiethaeoe ia?iae, na?aae yeiai aeeaa, ? aeieeanoe an?o
coneeue aei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iie?auaiiy aeie?
naeyi. Oeei oeyooa niieooo? e?eaaee, ye? ?? i?aaeee caaaeaee oe?a?ioeyi.
A ?ioiio aeiaaeeo aiia caeeoeoueny ai?iaeith aei oe?a?inoaa ni?eueiioith
caeae-ia?aceo?a.

“Oeiiiiaie” ia i?aeo?eioaaee ?aea? iianoaiiy, oiio aiie, aa?aaoenue o
naeyinueeee iaeya, oiaeeee ii naeao, iaa/ath/e naeyi a?aiioe,
i?iiaaoth/e ciaiiy c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o. Iie?oe?y
a?aoooaaea aeayeeo “oeiiiiai?a”, oiio ao?oie ia ?oaaae? 1860-1861 ??.
oi?iaeueii i?eieiea nai? ?nioaaiiy. Eiai i?ia?aeieie ae?y/aie aoee
Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/, Einoue Ieoaeue/oe, Ai?en Iic-iainueeee, Oaaeae
?eeuenueeee oa ?io?.

Iieuenueea iianoaiiy 1863 ?., a yeiio aeoeaio o/anoue a?aee e oe?a?ioe?,
cie?aia, A. Iioaaiy, iaeyeaei oea?ao ? cioneei aaeaoenue aei ?ai?an?e
i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo. A 1863 ?. i?i?no? aioo??oi?o ni?aa I. Aaeo?a
aeaeaa oee?eoey?, yeei caai?iiea an? oe?a?inuee? i?aai?caoe??,
aeeth/ath/e iaae?euei? oeiee oa ae?oeoaaiiy eiea oe?a?inueeith iiaith. A
e?ioe? 60-o ?ie?a O?O no., eiee ieeuei?noue aeaaee ciaioeeanue, A.
Aioiiiae/, I. Ae?aaiiaiia, I. *oaeinueeee noai?eee “Noa?o a?iiaaeo”, yea
i?aaioea i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ae?yeuei?noue nai?o iiia?aaeieoeue. Aiia
oaeoe/ii ni?yiiaoaaea ae?yeuei?noue ee?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy
?in?enueeiai ?iia?aoi?nueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa. A eiai no?oeoo??
aoei noai?aii a?ae?ioaeo oa iocae. A 1875 ?. “Noa?a a?iiaaea” i?eaeaaea
aacaoo “Eeaaneee oaeaa?ao” ? ia?aoai?eea eiai o na?e i?aai. Aeoea?caoe?y
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aeeeeeaea oaeeth aeiiin?a.
Iniaeeai noa?aany iiia/eoaeue Ee?anueeiai oe?eueiiai ie?oao THcaoiae/.
sse iane?aeie, a o?aai? 1876 ?. Ieaenaiae? ?? i?aeienaa a i. Ain oeac,
yeee caai?iiya iaa?oue aa?c a e?a?io eiea, aeaeaieo oe?a?inueeith iiaith
ca ei?aeiiii, oa iinoaiiaeo oaao?aeueieo aenoaa oe?a?inueeith iiaith;
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeanue caai?iia oe?a?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Ee?anueea
a?aeae?eaiiy ?in?enueeiai ?iia?aoi?nueeiai aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa aoei
?iciouaii, “Eeaaneee oaeaa?ao” cae?eee… aoei aeicaieaii ae?oeoaaoe
oe?a?inueeith iiaith eeoa aiaeaeioe, aea “y?eaeiei” o?eooii, oiaoi
oe?a?inuee? neiaa ?in?enueeeie aoeaaie. E??i oiai, /eiiaieeai, ye?
i?eaoee i?aoethaaoe c ?in?? a Oe?a?io, i?aeaeueee ca?ia?oio ieaoo. A
1892 ?. iaaaaeaee oeaici?ai i?i iaaeiionoei?noue noaaeaiiy aei ae?oeo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?aeeaaeo aoaeue-yeiai ?in?enueeiai oai?o, a a 1894 ?.
iiaoi?eee caai?iio ?iii?oo oe?a?inueeeo eieaeie oiui.

Aeoeai? ae?y/? “Noa?i? a?iiaaee”, ia /aeath/e a?aoo?a, ae?oaee a
Iaoa?ao?a, Oa?e?a /e, ye Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia, ca ei?aeii. Oeaio?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?oo ia?ai?noeany aei Eueaiaa,
aea oe?a?inuee? i?aai?caoe?? iiaee ae?yoe eaaaeueii. I?e?cae aei Eueaiaa
aeaeieo ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo cia/ii iineeea oe?a?inuee? neee a
Aaee/ei?. Oei a?eueoa, ui oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo
ia?aaeeaaa oai iaaio e?eco, coiiaeaio ?iceieii ia ii/aoeo 60-o ??. O?O
no. *anoeia aaoa?ai?a, ciaa??eaoenue o iiaeeeainoyo oaeaeei? ia?aiiae
oe?a?inueei? ni?aae, ia?aeoea ia iiceoe?? iineaio?euenoaa ? ii/aea
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?oneie Aaee/eie – oea /anoeia aaeeei?in?enueeiai
ia?iaeo, a ?o iiaa – oea c?iniaaia iieuenueeeie aieeaaie ?in?enueea
iiaa. Ca oea aiie ii/aee io?eioaaoe o?iainoaaiiy c Iaoa?ao?aa. Iieiaea
aaia?aoe?y iaaiaee, noaa?aeaeoaaea, ui ?oneie – oea /anoeia
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a ?o iiaa ? ae?aeaeoii oe?a?inueei? iiae. Aiie
naaa iaceaaee ia?iaeiaoeyie. A 1868 ?ioe? aiie canioaaee “I?ina?oo”, yea
oeyoii aeaeaiiy aeaoaaeo eiea aeey ia?iaeo, noai?aiiy ia?iaeieo aeii?a,
oe?e oiui ni?eyea i?iaoaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?
oe?a?ioe?a. A 1873 ?. aoei caniiaaia oiaa?enoai ?i. O. Oaa/aiea, yea
coneeeyie I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa ? I. A?ooaanueeiai aoei ?ai?-aai?ciaaia a
iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai ?i. O. Oaa/aiea – ii noo? ia?oo Aeaaeai?th iaoe
Oe?a?ie.

A e?ioe? O?O no. oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ia?aoiaeeoue
a?ae aoaio a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei noai?aiiy iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
ui coiiaethaaeinue ye caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeie i?ioeanaie, oae ?
iio?aaaie a?eueo o?niiai cao?ooaaiiy iie?oe/ii aeoeaieo oe?a?ioe?a c
iaoith i?aeaioiaee ?o aei ?aaiethoe??, oeyoii yei? aiie niiae?aaeenue
a?aenoiyoe ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie oa caoenoeoe ?ioa?ane o?oaeyueo.

A 1890 ?. a Aaee/ei? c ?i?oe?aoeae ?. O?aiea ? I. Iaaeeea aoei noai?aii
?onueei-oe?a?inueeo ?aaeeeaeueio ia?o?th (?O?I), yea a i?ia?ai?-i?i?ioi
noaaeea caaaeaiiy oeyoii ?aoi?i iie?aueoe aeeooy o?oaeyueo, a a
i?ia?ai?-iaeneioi – iiaoaeoaaoe nioe?ae?ci a Oe?a?i? (oey aeiiaa aoea
ciyoa a 1895 ?.). O 1899 ?., i?ney ?iciaaeo ?O?I, ooai?eeenue
Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y (OIAeI) oa Oe?a?inueea
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y (ONAeI). Ia?oa c ieo aenoaaea aeiiao
ia’?aeiaiiy an?o oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ? ei?enooaaeanue i?aeo?eieith
a?eueoino? oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie I?ae aa?aeith OIAeI ae?yea a?eueo?noue
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Ia aeai?ao
aei aano??enueeiai ia?eaiaioo 1907 ?. aiia iaea?aeaea 4 iaiaeaoe, a
ONAeI – 2. A 1895 ?. oe?a?inueeee a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/ TH. Aa-/einueeee
aeaeaa eieao “Ukraina irredenta”, a ye?e ia??oioiaoaaa iaiao?aei?noue
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Ia Caea?iaoo? ua ia aoei ia?o?e.

C ii/aoeii XX no. noai?ththoue nai? aeani? iaoe?iiaeuei? iie?oe/i?
ia?o?? oe?a?ioe? a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. Ia?oith c ieo aoea ?OI –
?aaiethoe?eia oe?a?inueea ia?o?y (Oa?e?a, 1900 ?.). ?? i?ia?aiith noaea
a?ioo?a aaeaieaoa Ieeiee I?oiianueeiai “Naiino?eia Oe?a?ia”, yea
i?iaieiooaaea iaoo – noai?aiiy ?aeeii?, naiino?eii?, niai?ii?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae “a?ae Nyio aei Aeiio, a?ae a?? Ea?iaonueeeo aei
a?? Eaaeacueeeo”. ??cii??aeiee neeaae ia?o?? i?eca?a aei ?iceieo ?OI,
ine?eueee a?eueo?noue ea??aiee?a ia?aaoaaee i?ae aieeaii
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aea? i?i iaaeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy naiino?eieo
aea?aeaa. Oiio a 1902 ?. I. I?oiianueeee noai?th? IOI (Ia?iaeio
oe?a?inueeo ia?o?th, yeo c a?oaeiy 1917 ?. noaee iaceaaoe Oe?a?inueeith
ia?o??th naiino?eiee?a-nioe?ae?no?a). A 1905 ?. ?OI ia nai?io ae?oaiio
c’?cae? ?ai?aai?coaaeanue a ONAe?I (Oe?a?inueeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io
?ia?oie/o ia?o?th i?ae i?iaiaeii I. Ii?oa, A. Aeiie/aiea, N. Iaoeth?e,
Ae. Aioiiiae/a). A 1906 ?. noi?ioaaeanue iae/eneaii?oa oa iaeaieeaia?oa
oe?a?inueea ia?o?y – OIN? (Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a), ia /ie? c ?? e?aea?aie I. Eiaaeaanueeei,
E. Eiaaeueiaei, I. O?enotheii. A e?ioe? 1905 ?. a ?acoeueoao?
ia’?aeiaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? (I. Eioioeueeee, ?.
*eeaeaiei oa ?i.) ? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?? (A. A??i/aiei, ?.
?o?aiia, O. Iaoooaanueeee oa ?i.) aeieeea O?AeI (Oe?a?inueea
?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y), c /a?aiy 1917 ?. – Oe-?a?inueea
ia?o?y nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a. Iae/eneaii?oeie ? iaeaieeaia?oeie
ia?o?yie aoee ONAe?I ? OIN?. An? ia?o??, e??i IOI, a nai?o i?ia?aiao
aeiaaaee oe?iei? aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie a neeaae? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?in??. An?
oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? aeiaaaee cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. noaiiaeua ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo iia??oeeinue
aiane?aeie na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece 1899-1903 ??., yea ioiieea ?
iaeaea? ?iia???. Iniaeeai aaaeea noaiiaeua neeaeiny a ?in?enuee?e
/anoei? Oe?a?ie. Oae, c 56 aeiiai i?aoethaaei eeoa 23. Ia 1/3 nei?ioeany
aeione ia?iaic?a o Eoaainueeo ? Oa?eia?. Iiiaae 100 oeny/ ?ia?oiee?a
noaee aac?ia?oieie. E??i oiai iineeeany iaoe?iiaeueiee ai?o, yeee iinea
ia o?eueee aeooiaiee, eoeueoo?iee oa?aeoa?, aea e aeiiii?/iee.
Iieuenuee?, ?a?aenuee?, o?aioeocuee?, i?iaoeuee?, aaeuea?enuee?
i?aei?e?ioe? anoaiiaethaaee aeey oe?a?inueeeo ?ia?oiee?a ieae/o iieaoo
i?aoe?, ciaaaaeeeai noaaeeeny aei cae/a?a ? iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e
i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy. Iaaeiaaeeiai oe?a?ioe? a?aee o/anoue a ?aaiethoe??
1905-1907 ??.

I?e/eie ?aaiethoe??:

— aeiiii?/ia a?aenoae?noue, iecueeee ??aaiue aeeooy oe?ieeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy ?iia???;

— caeeoee oaiaeae?cio, ui aaeueioaaee i?ia?an. Aei ieo a?aeiineeinue:

a) iaioaaiiy iii?ueoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy, ?, ye iane?aeie, 54
a?aenioee naeyinueeeo aeai??a iaee aei 6 aeanyoei, 30 % – a?ae 6 aei 10,
16 % – iiiaae 10 aeanyoei (1 aeanyoeia – aeecueei iaeiiai aaeoa?a);

a) a?aenooi?noue iie?oe/ieo i?aa ia eeoa o naeyi ? ?ia?oiee?a, a e o
ao?aeoac??.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi, ye? aeneiaethaaee nai?
iaaaeiaieaiiy no?aeeaie oa iie?oe/ieie aeiiaaie, ao?aeoac?y iaiaaaeany
aeiaeoeny aeaaee iaoeoe?yie oa oinoaie ia ??caeayii-iiai??/ieo aaieaoao
1904 ?.

Eaoae?caoi?ii, yeee i?eoaeaeoea ii/aoie ?aaiethoe??, noaea ii?acea
oea?aoo a ?in?enueei-yiiinuee?e a?ei? 1904-1905 ??. ?aaiethoe?y a nai?io
?icaeoeo i?ieoea ?yae aoai?a, ui aeaeii c? noaie (?en. 6.2).

I?ney iai?oanoo 17 aeiaoiy 1905 ?. aeoea?coaaany oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo, yeiio aaeaeiny:

— e?ea?aeoaaoe an?eye? iaiaaeaiiy ia aaeeaaiiy iiae. Oe?a?inueea neiai
caeoiaei a oeieao ? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao;

— noai?eoe oe?a?iiiiaio i?ano. O 1905 ?. a Eoaiao ii/aea aeoiaeeoe
aacaoa “Oe?ai?ia”, c’yaeeenue aeo?iaee “Aeca?i”, “Oe?a?inueea oaoa”,
“??aeiee e?ae”, “Iin?a”, “Naei ” oa ?io?. Anueiai 24 oe?a?iiiiai?
aeaeaiy;

— i?aai?coaaoe 35 ina?aaee?a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? i?aai?caoe??
“I?ina?oa”, a yeeo i?aoethaaee I. Eioethaeinueeee, A. A??i/aiei, I.
Ie?iee, Ae. ssai?ieoeueeee oa ?io? i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe??.

A oie naiee /an iaae?athoue neee ? aeina?aeo oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i?
ia?o??: ?OI, ONAe?I, OIN? (ana?e); noai?ththoueny ?aaee ?ia?oie/eo
aeaiooao?a ? i?ioni?eeia? i?aa-i?caoe??; ?icai?oa?oueny eiiia?aoeaiee
?oo, aeieeathoue i?noeaa? i?aai?caoe?? ?in?enueei? naeyinueei? ni?eee,
ye? aoee noai?ai? a 7 aoaa?i?yo, 12 iia?oao, 120 aieinoyo; iaaoaa?oueny
aeina?ae ia?eaiaionueei? ae?yeueiino? /a?ac Oe?a?inuee? aeoinuee?
a?iiaaee, ye? ooieoe?iioaaee a ? ? ?? Aea?aeaaieo aeoiao ? iinoaaeee ia
ii?yaeie aeaiiee ieoaiiy i?i aaoiiii?th Oe?a?ie.

Oaeei /eiii oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo a ?iee ia?oi? ?in?enueei?
?aaiethoe?? aeinya nooo?aeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo c?ooaiue, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue io?oe?eii
iinoaaeoe a Aea?aeaai?e aeoi? ieoaiiy i?i iaaeaiiy Oe?a?i? aaoiiii??.

Aei oaeiai ia?aa?ao iiae?e, eiee iinoaia ieoaiiy aaoiiii??, a caiaeii ?
noaa?ai?oaoo, e?au? neee oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe aiooaaeeny
cacaeaeaa?aeue. A?eueoa oiai, aiie ia?aaeaa/aee iaiao?aei?noue
i?aeaioiaee aei ca?ieiiai caoenoo oe?a?inueei? ni?aae.

C oe??th iaoith a Aano??enuee?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie noai?thaaeeny
iieiae?aei? nii?oeai? oa iiaeaaei? oiaa?enoaa “Nie?e”, “N?/” ? “Ieano”.
Ia?oa oaea oiaa?enoai aoei noai?aii a 1894 ?ioe? a Eueaia? ?iaeaia?ii
Iaa??iei. Ia?oa “N?/” i?ae i?iaiaeii e?aea?a ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o??
Aaee/eie Ee?eea O?eeueianueeiai aeieeea a 1900 ?. a n. Caaaeey ia
Niyoeiuei?. A aa?aci? 1913 ?ieo i?ieoee ia?o? cai?e “Oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a”, ye? i?eeiyee na?e noaooo. Ia ii/aoie
1914 ?ieo aoei noai?aii 96 no??eaoeueeeo oiaa?enoa. Aiie ioiiethaaee
nai?i aieeaii aeanyoee oeny/ oe?a?inueei? iieiae?. I?e oeeo oiaa?enoaao
noai?thaaeeny ai?i?ciaai? caaiie.

?noi?e/iith caneoaith oe??? i?aai?caoe?? ? o/anoue a i?iaieioaii? ?
caoeno? Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, noai?aii? yae?a
Oe?a?inueei? Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? (OAA), yea a?ae?a?aea iii?oio ?ieue i?ae
/an iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? a?eie 1918-1919 ??.

N?/iaee ?oo noaa iane?aeeii aeoiaii? oa i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, “I?ina?oe”, eiiia?aoea?a, 15 oe?a?inueeeo a?iiac?e
? iiiaae 3 oeny/ oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo oe?e… Iniaeeai aaeeeee aieea
ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie iaea
ae?yeuei?noue ieo?iiieeoa a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae A. Oaioeoeueeiai.
Ana cacia/aia aeaei i?aenoaae I. A?ooaanue-eiio iacaaoe Aaee/eio
“Oe?a?inueeei I’?iiioii”. (Ca aiaeia??th c ?oae?enueeith i?ia?ioe??th
I’?iiio, c yei? ?icii/aeinue a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? ?oae??).

A i?ae?in?enuee?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie cia/iee aieea iaea Noieei?inueea
aa?a?ia ?aoi?i, ?icii/aoa i?ney ?ica?iio an?o e?aeo, cie?aia
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? iaeaea an?o i?ioni?eie. Aiia ?oeioaaea
naeyinueeo iaueio c ?? eieaeoeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth. C aeiiiiiaith
noai?aieo o eiaeiiio iia?o? aea?aeaaieo eii?n?e c i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie,
naeyie io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue aeeoe c iaueie, io?eiaoe naith caieth
?aeeiei iaae?eii ? noai?eoe aeaniee ooo?? aai, i?iaeiaaeoth/e aeeoe a
nae?, – ei?enooaaoenue nai?th caieath (“a?ae?oaii”). Ca ca-aeoiii
?i?oe?aoi?a ?aoi?ie oae? naeyie iiaeii? aoee noaoe iaae?eiith iii?ith
?nioth/iai eaaeo. Aeey aeiiiiiae oaeei ainiiaea?noaai aoei noai?aii
naeyinueeee iicaiaeueiee aaie. A oiae? ?aoi?ie oeei i?aaii ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae? nei?enoaeinue 50,74 %, ia I?aaei? – 34,2 %, ia
E?aiaa?aaeae? – 13,8 % ainiiaea?noa. Caaaeii ii Oe?a?i? – 33 %, oiae? ye
ii ?in?? – 24 %. ?aoi?ia aeicaieeea ca?eueoeoe na?aaeiuei-??/iee ca??
ca?iiaeo aei 1070 iei ioae?a 1909-1913 ??. i?ioe 775 iei ioae?a a
1896-1902 ??.

Ua iaeiei iai?yieii ?aoi?ie aoei ia?anaeaiiy aaccaiaeueieo ?
iaeicaiaeueieo naeyi ia a?euei? caie? a Nea??. Iaeiae /a?ac oa ui a?io?,
aeae?eai? aeey ?o i?aeo?eiee, ?ic?e?aee – c iaeiiai i?eueeiia
ia?anaeaioe?a 70 % aai iiia?ee, aai iiaa?ioeenue iacaae.

Ine?eueee caii/aoeiaaia aeey ?icoe?aiiy nioe?aeueii? aace
naiiaea?aeaanoaa aa?a?ia ?aoi?ia iani?aaae? noai?thaaea aino?o
eiieo?aioe?th a inia? naeyi-aeaniee?a iii?ueeai, oi/ ?o caieaaieiae?iiy
aiia ia ca/?iaea, oi aiie aenooieee i?ioe oe??? ?aoi?ie. Oaeiae i?ioe
ia? aenooiaee e?a? iie?oe/i? neee, a yeeo nei?i/oaaeanue iii?a ia nae?.
Oiio aeiee i?ioei?e?iaeiee aeueyin e?aei?o e?aeo ? i?aaeo nee,
aiane?aeie yeiai aaaio iie?oe?? Ae. Aaa?ia, /eai ia?o?? ana??a, 1
aa?aniy 1911 ?. a Ee?anuee?e iia?? nia?oaeueii ii?aiea I.
Noieei?ia.Iinoaoue Noieei?ia aeey Oe?a?ie iaeiicia/ia. A?i aoa caoyoei
oe?a?ii-oiaii. A 1910 ?. a?i nai?i oeacii ua ?ac caai?iiea oe?a?inueeo
iiao oa an? oe?a?inuee? i?aai?caoe?? c oi?ioethaaiiyi “iauaaeeiaiea ia
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo eioa?anao aaaeao e oaaee/aieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
iainiaeaiey”, a oaeiae a?aei?n oe?a?ioe?a aei ?ii?iaeoe?a, yeei iaa?oue
caai?iiyeinue noai?thaaoe naith oeieo, oi/ oea aoei aeicaieaii ?iaeoe
a?oceiai, iieyeai, eeoiaoeyi, anoiioeyi oa ?ioei. A 1911 ?. a?i
?ic’yniea, ui “?noi?e/iei caaaeaiiyi ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaiino? ?
ai?ioueaa c ?ooii, o oaia??oi?i /an? i?icaaiei oe?a?inueeei, yeee
i?noeoue o nia? ?aeath a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noa?i? Oe?a?ie e ono?ith
iaei?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie ia aaoiiiiieo iaoe?iiae-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iniiaao”.

I?iaeiaaeoth/e aioeoe?a?inueeo iie?oeeo Noieei?ia, oea?nueeee o?yae a
1914 ?. caai?iiea nayoeoaaiiy noi??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy O. Oaa/aiea
(?en. 6.3). Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oea, a Ee?a? a?aeaoeanue 100-oeny/ia
aeaiiino?aoe?y iao??ioe/-ii? iieiae? aia?oa i?ae neiuei-aeiaoeie
i?aii?aie ye neiaieaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo (aia?oa aeiaoi-aeaeeoiee noya noaa neiaieii ai?ioueae ca
iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie i?ae /an ?aaiethoe?? 1848 ?ieo).

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoa ia?a?aaiee Ia?oith
na?oiaith a?eiith, yea iinoaaeea oe?a?ioe?a iaio ?iia??e a iaaecae/aeii
neeaaeia noaiiaeua:

— ii-ia?oa, aiie aoee aoyaioo? o a?eio anoia?a/ nai?i aeaniei
iaoe?i-iaeueiei ?ioa?anai;

— ii-ae?oaa, aeyaeeeny a i?ioeeaaeieo aithth/eo eiae?oe?yo ? ciooai?
aoee aaeaaoe iaeei iaeiiai. A ?in?enuee?e a?i?? ia?aaoaaei 3,6 iei
oe?a?ioe?a, o aano?i-oai?nuee?e – 250 oen.;

— ii-o?ao?, ?o caie? noaee ia’?eoii aeniain?? c aieo iaio aithth/eo
aeie?a;

— ii-/aoaa?oa, oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie ia?aoai?eeany a a?aio ai?iieo ae?e c
on?-ia ?? iac?o/iinoyie – ?oeiaoe??th aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy,
ainiiaea?nueeeo ? i?iieneiaeo nii?oae, aeeoea ? o.ae.;

— ii-i’yoa, a /an a?eie a iaio ?iia??yo aaeeaaeeny caoiaee i?eaeooaiiy
iii-ceoe??, nei?i/oaaeeny iiaeeeaino? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? caoenoo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa;

— ii-oinoa, a?eia coiiaeea aeeaieee ?iceie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ye i?ae
oe?a?ioeyie aithth/eo noi??i, oae ? a iaaeao ?iia??e ia i?eoeeueiee?a oa
i?ioeaiee?a ia?aiiaeii? a?eie.

I?aai?caoe??, ye? caeiaee o? /e ?io? iiceoe?? iieacaii a oaae. 6.2:

Oaaeeoey 6.2 – Noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie.

I?iaano??enuee? iiceoe??I?i?in?enuee? iiceoe??– Aieiaia Oe?a?inueea
?aaea noai?aia a Eueaia? (na?iaiue 1914 ?.) Aiia yaeyea niaith aeie
ia?o?e: ?aaeeeaeueii?, nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?,
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?a-oe/ii?;

– Nithc aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie, noai?aiee o A?aei? 1914 ?. ai?a?aioaie c
?in?? Ae. Aeiioeiaei, A. Aei?ioaieii, A. AEoeii oa ?ioeie.

I?ia?aiiith aeiiaith NAO aoei noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie ca
aeiiiiiaith *aoaa?oiiai Nithco.– Oiaa?enoai Oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a
(OOI);

– /anoeia ONAe?I ia /ie? c N. Iao-eth?ith;

– “Ea?iaoi-?onneee inaiaiaeeoaeueiue eiieoao”, yeee i?aai?coaaee
ai?a?aioe-iineaio?ee a Ee?a?.

A. Aeiie/aiei ? cia/ia /anoeia oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a caeiaee
aioeai?iio iiceoe?th i?ae aaneaie “Aaoue a?eio! Oae aeeaa aaoiiii?y
Oe?a?ie!”

3 aa?aniy 1914 ?. ?in?enuee? a?enueea caeiyee Euea?a.
Aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Aaee/eie aoa i?ecia/aiee a?aeaa?oee oia?i?no I.
Aia?einueeee. A?i a?ae?aco cayaea, ui “Aaeeoeey e Eaieiaueia eneiie
ei?aiiay /anoue aaeeeie ?one… Ana ono?ienoai aeieaeii auoue iniiaaii ia
?onneeo ia/aeao. ss aoaeo aaiaeeoue caeanue ?onneee ycue, caeii e
ono?ienoai”. I?aeoe/ii a?ae?aco a?i a?ae ne?a ia?aeoia aei ni?aa: aoee
?ica?iieai? an? oe?a?inuee? i?aai?caoe??, a oeiee, I?ina?oe, ia?iaei?
aeiie, ei-iia?aoeae – cae?eo?. Aeaaiaaeoeyoue oeny/ aeoea?no?a
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo aac noaeo aoee caneai? aei Nea??o. E?aea?
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo ieo?iiieeo A. Oaioeoeueeee aoa caneaiee a Nocaeaeue.

Oiio a 1915 ?ioe?, eiee aano?i-i?iaoeuee? a?enueea ia?aeoee a ianooi, ?o
?aaei a?oaee aaee/aie, ye? ua iaaeaaii oe?aii ? n?eeth cono??/aee
?in?enuee? a?enueea. A 1916 ?. caie? Oa?iii?eueueie noaee a?aiith
e?iaii?ieeoieo ai?a i?ae /an A?oneeianueeiai i?i?eao ?in?enueeeo
a?enuee. Aea /a?ac a?ae ?aca?a?a oa ai?i?eian?a a?i caoeeioany ? a?eia
ia?aeoea a iiceoe?eio oaco, ui i?eianei e?ath aeiaeaoeia? ioee ?
iauanoy. Cie?aia, oaeaia c?inoaiiy oe?i. Aeey i?inoiai ethaeo aiie noaee
i?inoi iaaeinooiieie. Oea noinoaaeiny e oa?eoi??? Iiae?euenueei?
Aoaa?i??. Aaea a ea?oi? 1915 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueei? i?nueei? aeoie iaaieiooaaeiny: “ … a i?no?
iiaea aeieeiooe aieiae…”

A?eia aei e?ath caaino?eea an? i?ioe??//y a iaio aithth/eo aeieao, aea c
iniaeeaith neeith oea i?iyaeeiny a ?in??: caiaiaea aeiiii?ea,
?iciaaeaeeny o?iaine, nei?ioeeiny iinoa/aiiy i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy. Noni?euenoai oa?i?ei a?ae ceiaaeeaaiiy aeueo
iinaaeiaoe?a, ianei iaaei?aaaeai? ao?aoe ia o?iioao. Ia e?iaoeue 1916 ?.
a e?a?i? noaeiny e?eciaa noaiiaeua, ui caa?iaeoaaei ia?a?inoe a
?aaiethoe?th.

Oaeei /eiii, Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia i?eianea aaaee? aei?iaoaaiiy
oe?a-?inueeiio ia?iaeo. ?acii c oei aiia noai?thaaea ia?aaeoiiae e?aoo
?iia??e, ia’?aeiaiiy ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? oe?a?inueeeo aoi?/ieo
caiaeue ? iiaoaeiae ia ieo iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

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