?aoa?ao c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

ia oaio: «Oe?a?inueea a?aeiia?aeue ia iiao ?iia?nueeo ?aeaieia?th».
Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueea a?aonoai

A oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? 20—30-o ?ie?a ia aoei
i?/iai oaeiai, ui noaiiaeei a na?eicio caa?ico aeey ?in?enueei? ?iia???.
Oe?a?inuee? iao??ioe — e?oa?aoi?e, cae?a/? oieueeei?o, oeeaaea/? ?noi??e
oa a?aiaoee — caa??aaee eiyeuei?noue aei oea?y ? aei ?in??, a naith
ae?yeuei?noue ia iea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ii?aeioaaee c?
neoaeaith o ?in?enueeeo aea?aeaaieo onoaiiaao. Aiaeii/an ?in?enueeee
o?yae i?ney iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy 1830—1831 ??. caa?ioa oaaao ia
eoeueoo?iee ?oo a Oe?a?i?, iath/e iai?? c eiai aeiiiiiaith iiai?ioe
iieuenuee? eoeueoo?i? e iie?oe/i? aieeae ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?. Oe?e iao?
aoei i?aeii?yaeeiaaia i?ecia/aiiy ia?oei ?aeoi?ii Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Ieoaeea Iaeneiiae/a. Io?oe?eio i?aeo?eieo a Oe?a?i?
ae?noaee ?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. 1835 ?. o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
aoa noai?aiee Oei/aniaee eii?oao aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noa?iaeie, a 1837
?. — A?oaieia?/iee iocae. O 1843 ?. o Ee?a? caniiaaii A?oaia?ao?/io
eii?n?th, o ae?yeueiino? yei? acyei o/anoue /eiaei oe?a?inueeeo
iao??io?a.

Na?aeiia aeei?enoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a nai?o ooee?oa?ieo oe?eyo aoei
iaeiei ?c i?iya?a iiaiai eo?no a iie?oeoe? ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Aei
iiiaioo iianoaiiy 1830—1831 ??. Iaoa?ao?a ia iaaeaaaa aaeeeiai cia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaiith. A?ae ii/aoeo XVIII no. aae aei 1820-o ?ie?a
?in?enueea ?iia?nueea iiaeaeue caniiaoaaeany ia o?aaeeoe?eiiio
aecia/aii? a?iiaaeyinoaa: a?ae a?iiaaeyieia aeiaaaeiny a??iii?aeaeaiiai
aeeiiaiiy nai?o iaia’yce?a oa aacoiiaii? eiyeueiino? aei oea?y. Eiai
a??iniia?aeaiiy /e iaoe?iiaeueia i?eiaeaaei?noue ia a?aeeny aei oaaae.
A?ae /an?a Iao?a ? aae aei Ieaenaiae?a ? na?aae ?in?enueei? i?aaey/i?
ae?oe aoei /eiaei ?iicaioe?a oa in?a ia?in?enueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
(aaeo?enueeeo i?ioe?a, iiaeo oe?a?inueeeo aeai?yi, iieuenueeeo
oeyooe/?a). Oa ae naia noinoaaeiny /eai?a ?in?enueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe oa
i?ioani?nueeiai neeaaeo oi?aa?neoao?a. Aaaaoi c oeeo ?iicaioe?a i?ney
aeiaaeo ?ie?a neoaeae o Iaoa?ao?c? e Iinea? oae ? ia iaa/eeeny
?iciiaeyoe ?in?enueeith iiaith. O oeueiio ia aoei iio?aae: iiaith
iaoa?ao?cueeiai aeai?o aoea o?aioeocueea, a /anoeia i?ia?ioe?eiiai
aeai?yinoaa ?iciiaeyea i?iaoeueeith.

Iianoaiiy 1830—1831 ??. ia i?eeeaae? iieuenueei? oeyooe iieacaei, ui
noa?a ?iia?nueea iiaeaeue a?iiaaeyinoaa ia ? iaae?eiith. Oaiaeaioe?? aei
cai?uaiiy /oaeeioe?a ia ?in?enueeeo aeai?yi a ?iia?nueeiio ioi/aii?
i?iyaeeeny ua a inoaii? ?iee i?aae?iiy Ieaenaiae?a ?. Aea ni?aaaeiuei?
neee aiie iaa?aee o 30-o ?ieao, ca i?aae?iiy Ieeiee ? (1825— 1855).
Aieiaiei ?aeaieiaii iiaiai eo?no noaa i?ecia/aiee Ieeieith ? ia iino
i?i?no?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe a?ao Na?a?e Oaa?ia. A?i cai?iiiioaaa iia?oe
?in?enueeo aea?aeaai?noue ia o?e i?eioeeie: «naiiaea?aeaanoai,
i?aaineaa’y, ia?iaei?noue». Ia?o? aeaa i?eioeeie aoee noa?eie ?
c?icoi?eeie, oiae? ye o?ao?e — ia?iaei?noue — aoa i?iaeeeoiaaiee
iiaea?ieie cao?aeieie ?ioaeaeooaeueieie aieeaaie. Aea ye i?iaanoe oeae
i?eioeei o aea?aeaa?, aea iaioa iieiaeie ianaeaiiy ?iciiaey?
?in?enueeith iiaith? Oaa?ia i?iiiioaaa ?ica’ycaoe oeth i?iaeaio i?inoei
e aoaeoeaiei niiniaii — ?oneo?eaoe??th ae?oai? iieiaeie. Aieiaiei
caniaii aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iiaeiia aoea noaoe ?oneo?eaoi?nueea
ina?oiy iie?oeea. Ianaiia?aae o?aaa aoei cai?noeoe ?iicaiieo i?ioani??a
? a/eoae?a ?in?enueeeie. Oaa?ia ia eeoa i?ia?a «/enoeo» i?ioani?nueeiai
neeaaeo, a e a?ae?a?aa iieiaeeo ? iaeoaeaiiaeo?oeo aeeeaaea/?a aeey
noaaeoaaiiy o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo oi?aa?neoaoao, a i?ney caaa?oaiiy
noaaeoaaiiy i?inoaaa ?o ia aenie? iinoe.

Oe?a?inuee? ae?y/? aoee a /ene? oeo, ooi nei?enoaany c oeeo ?aoi?i.
Iaeneiiae/ aoa i?ecia/aiee ?aeoi?ii o a?oe? 30 ?ie?a ca i?yiei
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Oaa?iaa. ?ioei i?ioaaea i?i?no?a ina?oe aoa ?cia?e
N?aciaanueeee. Aeoiaaioeyie Iaeneiiae/a ? N?aciaanueeiai aoee aeaa
i?ia?aei? ae?y/? iiai? oaee? oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy — Iaioaeaeiii
Eoe?o oa Ieeiea Einoiia?ia.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaei aeoai?aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ee?iaoo, a yeiio iiaee
i?i?inoe ia?inoee iiai? oe?a?inueei? ?aeaieia??. Ia iiiaio i?iaaaeaiiy
oaa?ianueeeo ?aoi?i ?iia?nueeee o?yae ia iaa aioiai? ?in?enueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoee ? eoeueoo?e, c aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeia aoei a
?oneo?eoaaoe ia?in?enueea ianaeaiiy /e ina?/oaaoe naieo ?in?yi. Iiaa,
na?onueea ?in?enueea eoeueoo?a, yea a?ae??ciyeany a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo
ia?iaeii-naeyinueei? oa oea?eiaii? eoeueoo?e, ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny eeoa o
60-o ?ieao XVIII no. Ia ii/aoeo XIX no. aiia ana ua ia?aaoaaea o noaae??
oi?ioaaiiy. Aei /ano i?aae?iiy Ieeiee ? iiaa ?in?enueea, ye ? iiaa
oe?a?inueea, eoeueoo?a aoea iicaaaeaia io?oe?eii? ii?ee. ?in?enueeee
aea?? aeiaaee /an aoa einiiiie?oe/iei, iaaeath/e ia?aaaao
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeei e?oa?aoo?ai ? niaeai, ci?ia iiaeae? a?iiaaeyinoaa
c ?iia?nueei? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-?in?enueeo iaiaei?iii ia?aaeaa/aea
?icaeoie oe??? iiai? ?in?enueei? «aeniei?» eoeueoo?e.

Oe?a?inueea ? ?in?enueea eoeueoo?e o 30-o ?ieao oai?eee neeaaeia?
/anoeie iaeiiai iioieo. Aeeaae aeo?aeoe?a c Iaei?in?? o oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e aoa aeoaea nooo?aei, oiio ii/anoe oe?a?ioe? iiaee
aaaaeaoe oeth eoeueoo?o nai?th aeaniith. A?aeiia?aeii ?in?enueeee aea??
oaae ?icaeyaeaa oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o ye naith, aeiee aiia ia aeoiaeeea
ca iaae? eiyeueiino? aei ?iia???. Oiio i?aeie?aiiy ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?e
iaieio/a icia/aei e ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueei?. Aea /ei
aeeiai?/i?oa ?icaeaaeeny iaeaea? eoeueoo?e, oei iaiiaeeea?oei noaaaei
?oi? aeaeueoa ia?ic/eaiiaaia ni?a?nioaaiiy. Oae, aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc?
?noi??? iaieio/a aenoaaee ieoaiiy i?i /an aeieeiaiiy «iaei?in?a» ?
«aaeeei?in?a», i?i i?noea a ?oi?e niaaeuei? ia??iaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?,
ye? iieeaee ii/aoie aino?ei aeeneon?yi i?ae oe?a?inueeeie ? ?in?enueeeie
ae?y/aie.

Aieiaiei caeiaooeii 1830-o ?ie?a noaei i?enei?aia ae/eaioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino? c caaaeueii?onueeiai iioieo.
Oiniaeaiiyi oeueiai ia?aai?ioo noaei iiaa iieie?iiy oe?a?inueeeo
ae?y/?a, yea aenooieei ia noni?eueio a?aio ia iaae? 1830-o ? 1840-o
?ie?a. Oeaio?aeueieie o?ao?aie oe??? aaia?aoe?? aoee Ieeiea Einoiia?ia,
Iaioaeaeiii Eoe?o ? Oa?an Oaa/aiei. O ?oi?o a?ia?ao?yo ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ca??i? ?ene iiaiai iieie?iiy oe?a?inueeeo iao??io?a.
Ia?aaeon?i, ia a?aei?io a?ae nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a — iauaaee?a eicaoeueei?
noa?oeie, an? o?i? aoee «iecueeiai» nioe?aeueiiai iioiaeaeaiiy: Eoe?o
iioiaeea c n?i’? a?eueieo naeyi, Einoiia?ia aoa iicaoethaiith aeeoeiith
?in?enueeiai iii?ueea e oe?a?inueei? e??ia/ee, a Oaa/aiei ia?iaeeany a
n?i’? e??iae?a ? nai aei 24-ai ?ieo aeeooy aoa e??iaeii. ?ioith ?oiueith
ni?eueiith ?enith aoei oa, ui o 1840-o ?ieao an? aiie caeiaee iinaaee a
onoaiiaao i?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe (Eoe?o iaa/aa o a?iiac?yo Ee?aa,
Eooeueea, Iaoa?ao?aa oa o Iaoa?ao?cueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, Einoiia?ia — o
??aiainuee?e a?iiac?? ? Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, a Oaa/aiei i?aoethaaa
o Ee?anuee?e a?oaia?ao?/i?e eii?n??, a o ethoiio 1847 ?. iaea?aeaa
iinaaeo aeeeaaea/a o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?). sseui ae?y/? ia?oiai
iieie?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?aeooaaee nai? e?oa?aoo?i? ?
iaoeia? caiyooy ye nai???aeia oia?, oi aeey Eoe?oa, Einoiia?iaa ?
Oaa/aiea ?oiy ae?yeuei?noue o aaeoc? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e iaea, oae ae
iiaeoe, oe?eeii oaoiaee oa?aeoa?.

Iaeaecia/i?oith iinoaooth o oeueiio o??oia??ao? aoa Oa?an Oaa/aiei. A?i
ia?iaeeany 1814 ?. o Ee?anuee?e aoaa?i??. O iaaiiio nain? eiai aaoueei
aoa aeiyoeii na?aae e??iae?a-iaeiinaeue/ai — a?i oi?a /eoaoe. Ii
iaae?eyo a?i /eoaa n?i’? «AEeo?y nayoeo». A?ae naiai ae?aea, o/anieea
Eie??aueie, a?i /oa ?iciia?ae? i?i aaeaeaiae?a. Eiai aeeoeinoai i?ieoei
na?aae aaaaoi? i?e?iaee, yea ??cei eiio?anooaaea c e??iaoeueeeie
aoaeiyie. Oaa/aiei ?aii caeeoeany ne?ioith. Ua a ?aiiueiio aeeoeinoa?
i?iyaeeeny eiai iaaaeye? ienoaoeuee? cae?aiino? — i?eno?anoue aei
iaethaaiiy. Aeayeee /an a?i iaa/aany o i?noeaaiai i’yieoe?-aeyea, aea
ao?e, ia ci?noe ciouaiue iaae niaith. I?noeaaee iii?uee Iaaei
Aiaaeueaa?aeo, aaeuethoaio a?aeainueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, acya
Oaa/aiea o aeiiaoith i?eneoao, a 1829 ?. ae?oaa aei A?eueia, caa?aaoe c
niaith. Aei 1843 ?. Oaa/aiei ia?aaoaaa iica Oe?a?iith. Aei iaeyne?aa?oeo
a?aaeaiue ?aiiuei? iieiaeino? iaeaaeaoue eiai niiaaaee c /an?a
iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy 1830—1831 ??. Aiaaeueaa?aeo a?yooaaany a?ae
iianoaeeo aoa/ath o Iaoa?ao?a. Oaa/aiei ?acii c ?ioeie neoaaie ciooaiee
aoa aeiaaiyoe naiai iaia. Eiai oeyo i?ieyaaa /a?ac oa?eoi??th, ia ye?e
iieuenuee? iianoaioe? aaee ai?ioueao c ?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie. Ea?oeie
aioe?in?enueeiai iianoaiiy iaeeaee ia eiai na?aeii?noue aeeaieee
a?aeaeoie.

O Iaoa?ao?c? Aiaaeueaa?aeo i?ney aeiaaeo oiiaeyiue caiaeeany a?aeaeaoe
Oaa/aiea o iaa/aiiy aei iaey?a Oe?y?aa. Aeiey aeiaaeeiai caaea eiai c
caieyeii, ooaeiaeieeii ?aaiii Nioaieii, yeee iaa/aany o ? ?aoa?ao?cuee?e
aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa. Nioaiei aa?a eiai o ienoaoeueei-e?oa?aoo?i? eiea
Iaoa?ao?aa, cie?aia a oe?a?inueeee ao?oie, ui a?oioaaany iaaeiei
A?aa?iee. Aeiey oaeaiiaeoiai ooaeiaeieea-e??iaea noaeethaaea aaaaoueio
iaoa?ao?cueeeo ieooe?a ? e?oa?aoi??a. A?aeiiee ?in?enueeee
ooaeiaeiee-?iiaioee E. A?theeia iaiaethaaa ii?o?ao iiaoa A.
AEoeianueeiai. Ii?o?ao aoa ?ic?a?aiee a eioa?a? na?aae /eai?a
?iia?aoi?nueei? ?iaeeie. Ia ae?o/ai? oaeei /eiii a?io? 1838 ?. Oaa/aiei
aoa aeeoieaiee c iaaie?.

A?eueiee noai aeaa eiio ciiao anooieoe a Aeaaeai?th ienoaoeoa e
iaea?aeaoe ca o?noue ?ie?a aeia?o ina?oo. Eiai caeiaooee ye ooaeiaeieea
aoee /eiaeeie. Aea ua a?eueoei aeyaeany eiai iiaoe/iee oaeaio. Ua ca ??e
aei naiai aecaieaiiy a?i iaienaa aaeaaeo «I?e/eiia», a aaea 1840 ?.
aeaeaa ca??eo iiac?e i?ae iacaith «Eiaca?».

Cia/aiiy «Eiaca?y» aeoiaeeei aeaeaei ca iaae? e?oa?aoo?e. Iii?e aenieo
anoaoe/io aa?o?noue Oaa/aieia? iiac?? a?ae??ciyeeny nai?th iiaith. Aiie
aoee iaienai? e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith aeniei? i?iae. Oaa/aieiaa iiaa aoea
ia i?inoi a?aeoai?aiiyi ia?iaeii? iiae; a?i oai?ea ?? ia iniia? o?ueio
oe?a?inueeeo ae?aeaeo?a (i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai, i?ai?/iiai ?
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai), aeaiaio?a oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? iiae, a oaeiae
iiaiiai iaoa??aeo ?aii?o oe?a?inueeeo e?oa?aoo?ieo oai??a. ?acoeueoao
ae??ciyany i?e?iaei?noth ? i?inoioith cao/aiiy, ui aeeacoaaei
aai?aeuei?noue iiaoa. Oaa/aiei oei naiei caeeaa i?oei? i?aeaaeeie i?ae
iiaea?io oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o, a a oe?oiio cia/aii? — ? i?ae
oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeaioe/i?noue.

Ua a?eueoa cia/aiiy iaa iie?oe/iee aniaeo eiai oai?/ino?. Iaeie?aei?oeie
c oe??? oi/ee ci?o aoee 1843—1845 ??., eiee, iiaa?ioaoenue a Oe?a?io,
Oaa/aiei iaienaa nai? iae?aaiethoe?ei?o? iiaie — «Nii», «Eaaeac»,
«Aaeeeee eueio», «? ia?oaei, ? aeeaei…» oa a??o «Caiia?o». A?eueo?noue
c ieo a?i c?a?aa o nai?e ?oeiieni?e eieaea/oe? i?ae iacaith «O?e e?oa».
Eiai i?eno?ania iiac?y aeoiaeeea ca iaae? eieaeueiiai iao??ioecio oa
iieaeoaaiiy aa?i?/iiai ieioeiai. Aiia aoaeeea iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy ?
aeaaaea aa/aiiy iaeaooiueiai: yeui Oe?a?ia o ieioeiio ei?enooaaeany
i?aaaie naiino?eii? aea?aeaae, oi oea iiaeiii neoaeeoe aeinoaoiueith
i?aenoaaith aeey caeiaoooy iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? o iaeaooiueiio.

Caeioaa/oth/e o iiiaaieaii? O e?a?ie ?in?th oa ?in?enueeeo ?iia?aoi??a,
Oaa/aiei a?aeeeaeaa eiioi?i?nonueeo iiaeaeue «iaei?in?enoaa», ui
??oiooaaeany ia ?aea? ia?icae?eueiino? Iaei? ? Aaeeei? ?on? ?
eiyeueiino? aei ?iia?aoi?a.

?ioith aaeeeith caneoaith Oaa/aiea aoei oa, ui a nai?e oai?/ino? a?i
ii?aeiaa aeaa aei oiai /ano a?aeie?aieaieo no?oiai? eicaoeueei?
o?aaeeoe?? — i?inoiethaeiee ? noa?oeinueeee. Eiai iaiaaenoue aei
nioe?aeueii? iani?aaaaeeeaino? oa aaie?aaiiy ca aieth ? a?aei?noue
i?inoi? ethaeeie aeaiaeeeeny c eiai naeyinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aea
nai?ie ?ioaeaeooaeueieie caeiaooeaie a?i caaaey/oaaa aieeaai
oe?a?inueeiai aeai?yinoaa Oaa/aiea iiaee /eoaoe an? — ? naeyie, ?
aeai?yie, ciaoiaey/e a eiai iiac?? a?aeia?aaeaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a.
Oaa/aie?a caeeee aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? nioe?aeueiiai aecaieaiiy noaa
?aeaieia?/iei ia??aeiei eaiaiai iiaea?ii? Oe?a?ie.

Oaa/aieiaa oai?/?noue ? aiaeiae?eii o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ?aea?. Aiia
caeeaea iniiae ia?aoai?aiiy aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe o iie?oe/ii na?aeiio
iaoe?th. Oaanue i?ci?oee oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo o??th /e ?ioith
i??ith aeaiaeeany c iiac?? Oaa/aiea. A eiai io/aieoeueea iniaenoa aeiey
iineoaeeea aeaea?aeii aeey aeoai?aiiy neeueiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?oo,
yeee iaaeeoaa ianooii? iieie?iiy oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a.

O 1846 ?. Oaa/aiei oa?eoia aei neeaaeo oa?iii? oe?a?inueei?
i?aai?caoe??, ui iaceaaea naaa Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeei a?aonoaii. Naia
i?aai?caoe?y aeieeea aeaui ?ai?oa, iai?ee?ioe? 1845—ia ii/aoeo 1846 ?.
(Aeaye? aeine?aeieee oaa?aeyoue, ui iiia?aaeieeii
Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa aoa ao?oie «Oe?a?inueea iieiaeue», yeee
i?aeoi aeiee o 1843—1844 ??. o Ee?a?), Aei e?ioey 1846 ?. o eiai neeaae
aoiaeeei 11 in?a: Ieeiea Einoiia?ia, Ieeiea Aoeae, Aaneeue
A?eica?nueeee, Oa?an Oaa/aiei, Iaioaeaeiii Eoe?o, Ieeiea Naae/, TH??e
Aiae?ocueeee, Iiaian Ia?eiaei, Ieaenaiae? Iaa?ioeueeee, ?aai Iinaaea,
Ieaenaiae? Ooeoa. Ca aeiyoeii Oaa/aiea, Einoiia?iaa ? Naae/a, an? aiie
aoee iieiaeeie ethaeueie a?eii a?ae 19 aei 25 ?ie?a. Ua aeecueei 100
in?a i?aeo?eioaaee c a?aonoaii aeoeai? ca’ycee. I?aeoe/ii an? a?ao/eee
o??th /e ?ioith i??ith aoee iia’ycai? c Ee?anueeei oi?aa?neoaoii.
I?ci?oa io?oe?eia ?icne?aeoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai
a?aonoaa i?eieno? ea??aio ?ieue o oe?e i?aai?caoe?? Ieeie? Aoeaeia?,
oiae? ye aeine?aeieee oeaio?aeueiith o?ao?ith aaaaeathoue Ieeieo
Einoiia?iaa. Ia?a?nii oiaa?enoai aeieeei iaaeiei a?oie iieiaeeo ethaeae,
ye? 1845 ?. ?acii c? nooaeaioaie-oiaa?eoaie a?aea?aeoaaee eaeoe??
Einoiia?iaa c? neia’yinueei? i?oieia??. Aea/aiiy ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?
oe?a?ioe?a oa ia?iaeii? oai?/ino? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a i?eaaei
Einoiia?iaa aei aeniiaeo, ui i?ae oe?a?ioeyie e ?ioeie neia’yiaie ?nio?
/eiaei ni?eueiiai. Oea iaooiaoioei eiai ia ?aeath neia’yinueei?
?aeiino?. I?ney ia?a?caeo c ??aiiai aei Ee?aa Einoiia?ia canoaa o
i?noeaaiio oi?aa?neoao? a?oio iieiae?, yea aoea aaea i?eaioiaaia aei
canai?iiy oeeo iiaeo ?aeae eaeoe?yie Ieoaeea Iaeneiiae/a. Iiae?aii ye
N?aci?anueeee o Oa?eia?, Einoiia?ia noaa aeooiaiei i?iaiaee?ai oe???
a?oie. «Oe?a?inueea i?niy e iaienaia neiaani?noue ia?iaeo oe?a?inueeiai
iaooioee iieiae? oie a Ee?a? nianaiiith aeoieith — aeaeaeaiooe naith
iaoe?th ?c oai?yae», — ienaa i?ci?oa I. Eoe?o, a a nai?e aaoia?ia?ao??
aeiaeaa: «O?enoeyinoai oa ?noi??y neia’yi aoee ?i iio??ai? aeey aaeeeiai
niiaeaeaeieoeoaa».

?aeaieia?y Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa aoea neioacith ?aea? o?ueio
?oo?a: oe?a?inueeiai aaoiiii?noe/iiai, iieuenueeiai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?
?in?enueeiai aeaeaa?enonueeiai a Oe?a?i?. A?ae/ooiei o eiai ae?yeueiino?
aoei o?enoeyinueea ni?yioaaiiy, ui a?aeia?aceeiny o aeai?? iao?ii?a
oiaa?enoaa — na. Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y, ye? iaaa?ioee neia’yi o
o?enoeyinoai, oi?i? naii? i?aai?caoe??, yea iane?aeoaaea noa??
oe?a?inuee? oea?eiai? a?aonoaa, oa o i?ia?aiiiio aeieoiaio?
ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a — «Eiec? aeo?y oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo» (?ioa iacaa —
«Caeii aiaeee»). Aaoi?ii «Eieae aeo?y…» aaaaea?oueny Ieeiea
Einoiia?ia. Oeaio?aeueiei iiiaioii o i?ia?aiiiio aeieoiaio? a?aonoaa
aoei iaiieyaaiiy ia iaiao?aeiino? aeinyaiaiiy o?enoeyinueeeo ?aeaae?a
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, naiaiaee ? ??aiino?, ye? o «Eiec? aeo?y» ii?aeiothoueny
c ii/oooyi oe?a?inueeiai iao??ioecio.

Ii?aeiaiiy o?enoeyinueei? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeae ia aoei aeiaoiaeii
ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a. Oeth oi?ioeo aiie caiice/eee o iieuenueeeo
?ioaeaeooae?a, ia?aaeian?i c oai?o Aaeaia I?oeeaae/a «Ksiegi narodu
polskego i pielgrzymstwa polskego» («Eieae ia?iaeo iieuenueeiai ?
i?e?a?einoaa iieuenueeiai»), iaienaiiai ? aeaeaiiai o Ia?eae? 1832 ?.,
i?ney ii?acee eenoiiaaeiaiai iianoaiiy. Aea iacaaaeath/e ia caiice/aiiy
iaei??? c oeaio?aeueieo ?aeae «Eieaa Aoooy…» aoea i?ea?iaeueiei
aeieoiaioii. O i?e ?icaeaaeany ?aeay oe?a?inueeiai ian?ainoaa:
oe?a?inueeee ia?iae, iaea?eueo i?eaiiaeaiee ? ciaaaaeaiee, a aiaeii/an —
? iaea?eueo aieaethaiee oa aeaiie?aoe/iee, ca?eueieoue ?in?yi a?ae
?oiueiai aeaniioecio, a iieye?a — a?ae a?enoie?aoecio. O nai?e
aaoia?ia?ao?? Einoiia?ia i?ci?oa i?eciaaaany, ui oaaea?aoe?th
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a a?ao/eee oyaeyee nia? ia c?acie noa?iaeaai?o
a?aoeueeeo ?anioae?e aai Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee. «Eieaa aeo?y»
cae?i/oaaeany neiaaie: «? anoaia Oe?a?ia c nai?? iiaeee, ? ciiao
iciaaoueny aei an?o Neia’yi, ? ii/othoue e?ee ??, ? anoaia Neia’yiueia,
? ia iicinoaiaoueny i? oea?y, i? oea?aae/a, i? oea??aie, i? eiycy, i?
a?aoa, i? aa?oeiaa, i? neyoaeuenoaa, i? i?aainoiaeeoaeuenoaa, i? iaia,
i? aiy?eia, i? e??iaea, i? oieiia — i? a Iineiauei?, i? a Iieueu?, i? a
Oe?a?i?, i? a *ao??, i? o Oi?ooai [Oi?aao?a], i? o Na?a?a, i? o Aieaa?.

? Oe?a?ia aoaea iai?aeeaaeith ??//th Iiniieeoith a nithc? Neia’yinuee?i.

Oiae? neaaeooue an? yceee, iieacoth/e ?oeith ia oa i?noi, aea ia ea?o?
aoaea iaiaeueiaaia Oe?a?ia: «Io eaiaiue, ?ai aea i?a??aioa c?aeaeoue?,
oie aenoue ai aeaao oaea».

I?ia?aia Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa ae?iaeyeany o aino?eo
aeeneon?yo, ianaiia?aae — i?ae Einoiia?iaei ? Oaa/aieii. ?icoiaeaeaiiy
i?ae oeeie aeaiia /ieiaeie a?ao/eeaie aeaee i?ea?ae ?aaeyinueeei
?noi?eeai ? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoeyi aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy aeaio oa/?e
ana?aaeei? oiaa?enoaa — «?aaeoe?eii?» ? «?aaiethoe?eii?». Oea
oaa?aeaeaiiy ia ca?aeia c i?aaaeith: i?e?iaeii, ui ??aaiue
?aaeeeaeueiino? a?ao/ee?a aoa ??ciei, aea i?ooi c ieo ia aoa
«?aaeoe?iia?ii». Oi/i?oa aoaea neacaoe, ui iie?oe/ia o?einio?y a?aonoaa
iaea neie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?: Eoe?o iaaieiooaaa ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeaiaio?, Einoiia?ia — ia caaaeueiiethaenueeiio ? o?enoeyinueeiio, a
Oaa/aiei — ia nioe?aeueiiio. Eiaeiee c oeeo aeaiaio?a ciaeoia nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o «Eiec? Aoooy…»

Nioe?aeueia i?ia?aia ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a i?noeea aeaa ioieoe:
neanoaaiiy e??iaoeoaa oa iioe?aiiy ina?oe na?aae ia?iaeo. Aiie ia
?ic?iaeee eiie?aoi?oeo ieai?a uiaei cieuaiiy e??iaoeoaa e aaaaeaiiy
caaaeueii? ina?oe. ?aae?caoe?y oeeo iaeaeaio aeiia aoea eeoa
ia?aaeoiiaith aeey oe?oeo iie?oe/ieo ci?i, ye? iaee ??oiooaaoeny ia
i?eioeeiao o?enoeyinueei? aoeee, ?aea? iaineaa?cio ? oe?iei c?icoi?eiai
e?aa?ae?cio /— iniaenoi? naiaiaee ethaeae, iacaeaaeii? a?ae ?oiueiai
nioe?aeueiiai noaoono.

Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueea a?aonoai aoei ?ica?iieaia aeaiaea?iaie ca aeiiinii
nooaeaioa Ieaen?y Iao?iaa aaniith 1847 ?. Nii/aoeo o aeaiaea?i?a
neeaeiny a?aaeaiiy, ui ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa ia noaiiaeea na?eicii?
iie?oe/ii? caa?ice. Oao aeaiaea?i?a a?ao I?eia o eeno? aei Ieeiee ?
ienaa, ui, «iauanoai auei ia aieaa eae o/aiue a?aae o?ao iieiaeuo
ethaeae». Iaeiae oea a?aaeaiiy oaeaeei ?ica?yeiny i?ney a?aooo Oaa/aiea,
o yeiai aoei ciaeaeaii cioeoe c iiaiaie «Eaaeac», «Nii», «Iineai??…».
E??i ?oiueiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai e aioe?in?enueeiai ci?noo Ieeieo ? iao?eei
oa, ui o oeeo a??oao i?noeeeny ia?aceea? iaoyee ia eiai iniao oa eiai
ae?oaeeio. Oiio i?ney caaa?oaiiy ne?aenoaa iniaeeai oyaeei aoei iiea?aii
Oaa/aiea: eiai aoei a?aeaeaii o nieaeaoe ia iaaecia/aiee oa?i?i a
I?aiao?cueeee ie?aiee ei?ion. Ca iniaenoei ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi ?iia?aoi?a
iaae iei aoa anoaiiaeaiee noai?ee iaaeyae c caai?iiith ienaoe ?
iaethaaoe. ?io? /eaie oiaa?enoaa aoee canoaeaeai? ia ??ci? oa?i?ie
oa’yciaiiy, a i?ney oa’yciaiiy — ia caneaiiy o a?aeaeaeai? aoaa?i?? aac
i?aaa iiaa?iaiiy a Oe?a?io. Ie??i oiai, Eoe?oo, Einoiia?iao ? Aoeaeia?
aoei caai?iiaii caeiaoeny e?oa?aoo?iith ae?yeuei?noth.

Ae?yeuei?noue ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a iieeaea ii/aoie iia?e aeia? a
?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoieao. Aei oeueiai /ano an? oe?a?inuee?
?ioaeaeooaeuei? yaeua aoee oi/ ? nai???aeiei, aea ana ae oaee
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ?in?enueeiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai aeeooy. Aein? oe?a?ioe?
caaeiaieueiyeeny oeie i?oaie, ye? noai?thaaea aeey ieo ?in?enueea
eoeueoo?a. Caiiaithth/e o? i?o?, aiie aiaeii/an aiineee naith ei?aeoo?o
o iiiyooy «?onueeino?». Aeo?aeoe? c Iaei?in?? ia?oeie ii?ooeee ieoaiiy
i?i ?in?enueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeaioe/i?noue. Aeath/e ?icoe?aia
(«iaua?onneia») o?aeooaaiiy nai?? ?aeaioe/iino?, «iaei?ine» aaiaeeee
?in?yi o oe?oee neia’yinueeee na?o ?, aei iaaii? i??e, aiooaaee a?oio
aeey neia’yiio?euenoaa ? ?in?enueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio.

I?eeeaae ?ioaa?aoe?? «iaei?in?a» a ?iia?nueea noni?euenoai iaiia aeaaaa
noaa?aeio a?aeiia?aeue ia iinoaaeaia Iooe?iei caieoaiiy: /e c?eethoueny
on? neia’yinuee? ??ee o ?in?enueea ii?a? Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae «Iaeith» ?
«Aaeeeith» ?onnth, ui neeaeiny ia ii/aoeo XIX no., neoaoaaei aioiaith
iiaeaeeth aeey anei?eyoe?? ?ioeo ia?iae?a — oiaoi ?aae?caoe??
oaa?ianueei? oi?ioee «ia?iaeiino?». Caeaaaeiny, ui «noa?a Oe?a?ia»
c?eoea c ?noi?e/ii? noeaie, ? a oe?a?inueeiio ieoaii? ia aoei i?/iai
oaeiai, ui ?iaeei a eiai iie?oe/iei, oi?iaaaeaeoth/e nai? ?aoi?ie,
Oaa?ia ciaia’ycoaaa Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao aei i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo
caoiae?a «e enoeaeaieth aeoaieie ycau — acaeiiie iaiaaenoe aeaoo
neaayineeo ia?iaeia». A?i iaa ia oaac? eeoa ia?iaee ?in?enueeee ?
iieuenueeee. Io?oe?ei? ieaie ia ia?aaeaa/aee ?nioaaiiy a Iaei?in??
o?aouei? iaoe?? — oe?a?inueei?.

Ae?iaeaia ae ee?eei-iaoiae??aoeyie ?aeay neia’yinueei? ?aeiino?
ia?aaoaaea o a?aeaa?o?e iiiceoe?? aei o?yaeiaiai iaineaa?cio. I?ae
?aea?th a?aoa?noaa neia’yi oe?a?inuee? ae?y/? 1840-o ?ie?a ?icoi?ee
ianaiia?aae nithc aeaio ?ioeo iaoe?e — oe?a?inueei? ? iieuenueei?
(iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui oeth ?aeath a?ao/eee caiice/eee c oe?a?inueei?
oeiee o iieuenuee?e e?oa?aoo??). ?aea? coeaio?ae?ciaaii? neia’yinueei?
?iia??? c oeaio?ii o Iaoa?ao?c? aiie i?ioenoaaeee ?aeath oaaea?aoeaii?
neia’yinueei? ?anioae?ee c noieeoeath o Ee?a?. Oei naiei aiie caaaeaaaee
oaea?o a iae/ooeea?oa i?noea oaa?ianueei? eiioeaioe?? ia?iaeiino?.

C?icoi?ei, /iio ae?yeuei?noue ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a aeeeeeaea oaeo
?aaeoe?th c aieo io?oe?eiiai Iaoa?ao?aa. ??aii ae iiaeia c?icoi?oe, /iio
iaeei c i?ia?aeieo e?aea??a ?in?enueeiai neia’yiio?euenoaa Ieaen?e
Oii’yeia a?aeaoeioany i?i ee?eei-iaoiae??aoe?a ye i?i iaei?in?a,
ca?aaeaieo iie?oe/iei aacoinoaii. Oyaeei, iaeiae, c?icoi?oe a?aeaoe
aieiaea?y aeoiie ?in?enueei? e?aa?aeueii? ? i?icao?aeii iano?i?ii?
?ioae?aaioe?? A?na??iia A?e?inueeiai. O eeno? aei I. Aii?ieiaa o a?oaei?
1847 ?. a?i ienaa i?i Oaa/aieia? iiaie: «ss ia /eoae yoeo ianeaeeae, e
ieeoi ec iieo ciaeiiuo eo ia /eoae (/oi, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, aeieacuaaao,
/oi iie ieneieueei ia cee, a oieueei ieinee e aeoiu). Oaa/aieo iineaee
ia Eaaeac nieaeaoii. Iia ia aeaeue aai, aoaeue aai noaeueath, y naeaeae
au ia iaiueoa». Oe? neiaa aeeaii cao/aee c ono e?aa?aea, yeee o an?o
?ioeo aeiaaeeao canoaeaeoaaa ae?yeuei?noue O?aoueiai a?aeae?eo —
?in?enueei? oa?iii? iie?oe??.

?icae?aooaaiiy A?e?inueeiai aeeeeeaei i?aaiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a
1840-o ?ie?a ienaoe oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Ia eiai aeoieo, e?oa?aoo?iith
iiaith ina?/aieo iaei?in?yi iiaeiia aooe ?in?enueea. A?i aaaaeaa, ui
na?aae on?o neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a eeoa ?in?yie ? ua, iiaeeeai, /aoe
iiaeooue ieoaoeny aaeeeeie iiaoaie. Oe?a?inueeith iiaith, yeith
?iciiaey? eeoa «iaei?in?enueea /a?iue», ia iiaeooue ienaoeny oai?e
aeniei? ienoaoeueei? aa?oino?. A?i i?i?ieoaaa oe?eeiaeoa cieeiaiiy oe???
iiae ye i?e?iaeiee iane?aeie aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a ?in?enueeo ?iia??th.
Ia iiaeyaeao A?e?inueeiai neeueii iicia/eany aieea o?einio?? Aaaaey,
cie?aia eiai iiae?e ia «?noi?e/i?» e «ia?noi?e/i?» ia?iaee. Caeaoi?noth
oai?eoe ?noi??th, ca?aeii c oe??th o?einio??th, aieiae?thoue o?eueee o?
ia?iaee, ye? iathoue naith aea?aeaao. Aeiey ae ?ioeo, «ia?noi?e/ieo»
ia?iae?a, ye? ao?aoeee aai ae cian?i ia iaee nai?? aea?aeaae, iieyaa? o
oe?eeiaeo?e anei?eyoe?? e ?ic/eiaii? na?aae ia?iae?a «aea?aeaaieo».
O?einio?y Aaaaey o iiaeyaeao ia iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy aoea caia?a/aiiyi
iiaeyae?a Aa?aea?a, ? ?? o??oioaeueia iioe?aiiy ia ?a?iiaenueeiio
eiioeiaio? iii?oii i?ae??aaei iiceoe?? ?iiaioee?a. Cie?aia, aiia
caaaeaea oyaeeiai oaea?o oe?a?inuee?e ni?aa?: a?ae 1840-o ?ie?a on?eyea
ni?iaa a?ae?iaeoe «ia?noi?e/io» oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th a i/ao ?in?enueeeo
e?aa?ae?a aeaeyaeaea ye e?ie iacaae, ui noia?a/eoue ?noi?e/iiio
i?ia?ania?.

Aea iaeiinoaei?noue, c yeith ?in?enuee? io?oe?ei?, neia’yiio?euenuee? ?
i?icao?aei? ?ioae?aaionuee? eiea canoaeeee ae?yeuei?noue
Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa, a?aeia?aaeaea iaai? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaieia??. Aino?a ?aaeoe?y ia
a?aeiiao iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo oe?a?ioe?a noaoe ?in?yiaie aoea
ni?e/eiaia oei, ui nai? ?in?yie ia ?ica’ycaee nai?? aeanii? i?iaeaie
?aeaioe/iino? o iia?oi?e aeia?. sse aaeaei a?aei?oea ?. Oii?ethe, yeui
ia ii/aoeo XIX no. iieyee aoee iaoe??th aac aea?aeaae, oi ?in?yie aoee
aea?aeaaith aac iaoe??. ?in?y noaea aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiith ?iia???th ua
aei oiai /ano, ye noi?ioaaeany iiaea?ia ?in?enueea iaoe?y. Ia oae aoei
ia Caoiae?, aea oai?aiiy ?iia??e o?iiieia?/ii ? oa?eoi??aeueii aoei
a?aeie?aieaia a?ae i?ioeano oai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae (ye
i?aaeei, cao?aei? iao?iiie?? ? ?oi? eieii?? aoee ?icae?eai? ii?yie aai
eiioeiaioaie). Iaoii?noue ?in?yie caaieiaoaaee non?aei? e aoi?/ii /oae?
?i ia?iaee, ia aoaeo/e nai? iaai?, ui oaea aeania «?in?y», a ui ? eeoa
oa?eoi??yie i?ae ?in?enueeei iaioaaiiyi. O ?in?? oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii?
?in?enueei? iaoe?? no?eioaaa oa?aeoa? ?? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie. Ia Caoiae?
noni?euenoai aeieeaei iacaeaaeii a?ae iie?oe/ii? aeaaee iiia?oa,
ine?eueee iiia?o aoa i?aaeoaeai nai?o i?aeaeaieo, aea ia aoa ?oi?i
aeanieeii. O ?in?? iiia?o?y iaea ?ene oae caaii? iao??iii?aeueii?
nenoaie, eiee oea? aoa ia eeoa i?aaeoaeai, a e iiaiei aeanieeii ?
?icii?yaeieeii aeie? nai?o i?aeaeaieo. ?in?enueea aeeiano?y aeaiaeeea
nai? ei??iiy a?ae i?aaeoae?a Ee?anueei? ?on?, oiio aiie aaaaeaee an?
caie?, ui eieenue iaeaaeaee ?e (a oiio /ene? oe?a?inuee?), /anoeiith
nai?? ?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie.

«Cae?aiiy ?onueeeo caiaeue» aoei iaei??th ?c iaa’yceeaeo ?aeae
iineianueeeo oea??a ? iaoa?ao?cueeeo ?iia?aoi??a. I?e?aeiaiiy, a caiaeii
?ioaa?aoe?y Oe?a?ie a ?in?enueeo ?iia??th c ?oiuei? oi/ee ci?o
aeaeyaeaei ye iiaa?iaiiy nia? ao?a/aii? eieenue aio/eie. Oa, ui
oe?a?inuee? caie? ?ai?oa aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa
Eeoianueeiai, Iieuenueei? ?a/? Iiniieeoi? aai ae oo?eioaaee naith
iie?oe/io aaoiiii?th ? ca oie /an anoeaee ae?iaeoe nai? eoeueoo?i?,
?ae?a?ei? ? iie?oe/i? o?aaeeoe??, ni?eeiaeiny ye cai/aiiy, coiiaeai?
i?aeoi i?eioniaei a?aeae?eaiiyi Oe?a?ie a?ae oea?y.

I?ia?aei? ?in?enuee? ?ioaeaeooaee iiaee nia?a/aoeny i?i i?e?iaeo
?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueiino?, aea aiie ia iaee iaeiaioiai noii?ao uiaei
«?in?enueeino?» oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ? oeae iiaeyae ca?aaany c
io?oe?eiith iiceoe??th ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa. Ca oaeeo oiia
ni?iaa Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa ooaa?aeeoe ie?aio a?ae
?in?enueei? oe?a?inueeo ?aeaioe/i?noue ni?eeiaeany an?ia eieaie
?in?enueeiai noni?euenoaa ye iaoe?iiaeueia c?aaea. Noai?a iiea?aiiy
a?ao/ee?a noaei iaiia ia?anoi?iaith aeey an?o, ooi iani?eeany a i?oe
aeae? ?oi?i oeyoii. Iaeiae iaaeaiiy oe?a?inuee?e ni?aa? i?aieo
io/aieoeoaa ? aea?oiaiino? eeoa iineethaaei ?? i?eoyaaeuei?noue aeey
ianooiieo iieie?iue oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a.

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