?AOA?AO

IA OAIO:

« Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ?aaiethoe?y 1917-1921 ??..
Ai?ioueaa ca a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie»

Aeeiiaea:

Einoaiei E.I.

Ieai:

1. Ethoiaaa ?aaiethoe?y 1917 ?. oa ?? aieea ia Oe?a?io

2. Ooai?aiiy Oe?. ? oa ?? Oi?aa?naee

3. A?eueoiaeoeueeee ia?aai?io o Iao?ia?aae? a aeiaoi? 1917 ?. oa
ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i?

4. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai.

5. Aee?aeoi??y ?? iie?oeea ? iane?aeee.

1. Ethoiaaa ?aaiethoe?y 1917 ?. oa ?? aieea ia Oe?a?io

27 ethoiai 1917 ?. a ?in?? ia?aiiaea ?aaiethoe?y. O oeae aeaiue a
Iao?ia?aae? aoei ooai?aii aeaa iiaeo ?aaeueieo i?aaie aeaaee:

Oei/aniaee eii?oao IV Aeoie (caiaeii — Oei/aniaee o?yae) ia /ie? c
eiycai Eueaiaei Iao?ia?aaenueea ?aaea ?ia?oie/eo, nieaeaonueeeo
aeaiooao?a ia /ie? c iaioiaeeii *oa?aeca

A i?/ c 2 ia 3 aa?aciy Ieeiea II c??eny i?anoieo ? ia?aaeaa aeaaeo
Oei/aniaiio o?yaeo, yeee i?iaieinea iie?oe/i? naiaiaee ? ii/aoie aeai??a
aei Onoaiia/eo cai??a — aiie iiaeii? aoee ae??oeoe aeieth ?in??,
i?eeiyoe ?? eiinoeoooe?th.

?aaeueia aeaaea a ?in?? cina?aaeaeoaaeany a ?oeao Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo.

2. Ooai?aiiy Oe?. ? oa ?? Oi?aa?naee

I?ney ?aaiethoe?? ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie iioe?th?oueny ye aeaaea
oeaio?aeueieo i?i?noa?noa, oae ? aieea iiainoai?aieo ?aaiethoe?eieo
i?aai?a ia?iaeiaeaaeaey. Aei na?aaeeie aa?aciy 1917 ?ieo ?aaee
?ia?oie/eo aeaiooao?a aoee ia?ai? a Ee?a?, Iaean?, Oa?eia? , Noiao ,
Eaaaaeei? oa ?ioeo i?noao ? i?noa/eao Oe?a?ie. Ie?aii a?ae ieo ii/aee
aeieeaoe ?aaee nieaeaonueeeo aeaiooao?a, aaaaoi yeeo iacaaa?ii
ia’?aeiaeenue ?c ?aaeaie ?ia?oie/eo aeaiooao?a. Iaeii/anii, a ?ieiee e
?ai?oa , ii?yae ?c ?aaeaie ?ia?oie/eo ? nieaeaonueeeo aeaiooao?a oa
i?ecia/aieie eii?na?aie Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo, ia i?noeyo aeieeaee
??ciiiai?oi? i?aaenoaaieoeuee? i?aai?caoe?? , ui iaee ??ci? iacae :
eii?oaoe a?iiaaenueei? aaciaee, eii?oaoe a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ,
eii?oaoe ia?iaeii? aeaaee oiui., ca yeeie iacaaa?ii cae??ieeanue ?aeeia
iacaa – a?iiaaenuee? aeeiiaa/? eii?oaoe. Iai?ee?ioe? aa?aciy – ii/aoeo
ea?oiy 1917 ?ieo a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoeanue oe?ea iecea c’?cae?a, iane?aeeii
?iaioe yeeo noaei a?aeiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?o?e. Oae
25 – 26 aa?aciy iaeei ?c ?i?oe?aoi??a ooai?aiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee –
Oiaa?enoai oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a, ?ai?aai?coaaaoenue o Nithc
aaoiiii?no?a – oaaea?ae?no?a, i?eeia? ??oaiiy “an?ia caniaaie oai?eoe
aaoiiii?y Oe?a?ie , aaeeoe an?o caoiae?a, uia iaaeaoe ?e ye iaea?eueoiai
aaoi?eoaoo”.

Ia ii/aoeo ea?oiy 1917 ?ieo io?oe?eii noi?ioaaeanue Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y
nioe?ae?no?a – ?aaiethoe?iia??a. Aeaeaaaoe onoaiia/iai c’?caeo ia?o??
aeciaee “iaea?eueoith iio?aaith oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo iaaaeia
i?iaaaeaiiy a aeeooy oe?iei? iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? ?c
caaacia/aiiyi i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae ? iaaaeia neeeeaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? onoaiia/i? ?aaee aeey ae?iaeaiiy iniia ? oi?i aaoiiii??”.
C’?cae oaeiae aeciaa , ui ?aeeiith oi?iith ono?ith ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae
? oaaea?aoeaii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ?anioae?ea. Aecia/eaoe na?e
aea?aeaaieoeueeee ?aeaae o oi?i? aaoiiiiii? Oe?a?ie , ui ? neeaaeiaith
?in?enueei? oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee , oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? a
eiai iniiao iieeaee i?eioeei i?e?iaeiiai i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia
noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?. Aei?a/ii cacia/eoe , ui oe?a?inuee?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe, aenooiath/e iiai?ieeaie ?ia?oieoeoaa , noiyee ia
eeaniaeo iiceoe?yo. Ia iao iiaeyae , iie?oe/i? i???ioe?e ia?o?? ia iiaee
ni?eyoe eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe .

A?ae?aco i?ney ca?noee i?i iiae?? a Iao?ia?aae? ?icii/aany i?ioean
ia’?aeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?a?inueeeo nee. C ?i?oe?aoeae Oiaa?enoaa
oe?a?inueeeo iinooiiaoe?a i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueei? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
?ioae?aaioe?? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino?, noai?eee iie?oe/ii –
eii?aeeiaoe?eiee oeaio? ?aaiethoe?eieo nee oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe –
Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo. C ?i?oe?aoeae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee i?iaiaeeeenue
aoaa?inuee? oa iia?oia? iaoe?iiaeuei? c’?caee, a oaeiae anaoe?a?inuee? –
naeyinuee? , a?enueeia? , ?ia?oie/?, i?ioan?ei?, a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e.

Aeoiaey/e ?c oeueiai, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea iinoaaeea ia?aae niaith
caaaeaiiy “caa?iooenue aei anueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?c caeeeeii
i?aai?coaaoeny oa i?enooieoe aei iaaaeiiai caeeaaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioo
aaoiiiiiiai eaaeo ia Oe?a?i?. Aeania oea a?aeiia?aeaei ?aciethoe?? 3 )
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiia?ano, i?eeiyoi? aei oiai ca aea? i?nyoe?.
?aae?caoe?y ?aciethoe?? a?aeaoeanue /a?ac i?eeiyooy Ia?oiai Oi?aa?naeo.
Oeae aeo, i?iaieioaiee ia ieiu? ia?aae Nio??anueeei niai?ii ?
noi?iaiaeaeaiee oea?eiaiei iieaaiai ? a?enueeiaei ia?aaeii , aoa
cono??iooee ?c aaee/aciei i?aeianaiiyi. I?aaiaa iniiaa Oi?aa?naeo
coiiaethaaeanue ?aea?th ia?iaeiiai noaa?ai?oaoo e i?eioeeiii i?e?iaeiiai
i?aaa oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ia iacaeaaeia ?nioaaiiy. Aaoi?e aeieoiaioa
an?eyei iaiaaaeeny iie?oe/iee aaoi?eoao ?inoeoooe??, a?ae ?iai? yei?
aoei aeaeaii Oi?aa?nae, ?? caaaeueiiia?iaeiee i?aaenoaaieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?, aecia/eoe ia iniia? i?eioeeio i?e?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oea
ae?aaeaeinue o iaiao?aeiino? oai?aiiy iiaiai eaaeo a?eueii? aaoiiiiii?
Oe?a?ie. Iaieiooth/e naaa ae?acieeii aie? “aeai?ieo ethaeae”
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea aeciaaaea, ui o?eueee “ia?iae
oe?a?inueeee ia nai?e caie? ia? i?aai nai ii?yaeeoaaoe nai?i aeeooyi ”
/a?ac ia?ai?, ia aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaaeao Anaia?iaei? Oe?a?inuee? cai?e
(Naei). ?acii ?c oei , Oi?aa?nae i?iaieiooaaa, ui nai? aea?aeaaia aeeooy
Oe?a?ia aeaooiao? “ia iaeae?eyth/enue a?ae on??? ?in??”. Oaeei /eiii
noaa?aeaeoaaany oaaea?aoeaiee ono??e ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, i?e yeiio
“An? caeiie, ui iiaeii? aeaoe oie eaae ooo o ian , ia Oe?a?i?, iathoue
i?aai aeaeaaaoe o?eueee iao? Oe?a?inuee? cai?e”. O oie aea /an,
i?a?iaaoeaith Ana?in?enueeiai ia?eaiaioo ? aeaeaiiy caeii?a “ui iathoue
eaae aeaaaoe ii an?e ?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa?”.

Oaeei /eiii, Oi?aa?nae aecia/ea i??i?eoaoe ? iai?yiee aea?aeaaioai?/eo
i?ioean?a iia’ycaieo ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi aaoiiiiiiai ono?ith a Oe?a?i?.
Caa?iaiiy a?aeia?aceei iiaee i?aeo?ae i?aaey/eo e?e ?in?? aei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. sseui aei oeueiai oeaio?aeueia aeaaea aaaaeaea
iaaeioe?eueiei ?ica’ycaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy aei neeeeaiiy
Ana?in?enueeeo Onoaiia/eo cai??a, oi i?ney i?iaieioaiiy ? Oi?aa?naeo,
yeee cana?ae/ea i?aaiaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?eii? aeaiie?ao?? aei
noai?aiiy i?aaiaeo iniia iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie
, c?aooith cioneei aeaaeo aaeaoenue aei iaaieo caoiae?a. Iie?ath/enue ia
aeinyaioo? aeiiiaeaiino? c Oei/aniaei o?yaeii, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea 3
eeiiy 1917 ?ieo ii?eethaeieea oaeno ?? Oi?aa?naeo. Oeei aeoii ?aaea
iaieiooaaea nai? i?aaiaiiy iiiiaieoe na?e neeaae i?aaenoaaieeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ui i?iaeeaaee a Oe?a?i?. Iiaee neeaae Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, o naith /a?ao , iiaeiai aoa noai?eoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ia?aae
iath i?aai – iiaee Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao, ui iaa noaoe iin??i aeui?
e?aeiaith aeaaee Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo a Oe?a?i?. Iia?aeiieyeiny oaeiae i?i
i?aeaioiaeo Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, ca caiaeith c i?aaenoaaieeaie
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioinoae , i?iaeoo aaoiiiiiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie , yeee
iaa aooe aianaiee ia caoaa?aeaeaiiy Ana?in?enueeeie Onoaiia/eie cai?aie.

Ii?yae ?c oei, a Oi?aa?nae? cacia/aeiny, ui Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea , aoaeo/e
i?ioeaieeii a?aeie?aieaiiy a?ae ?in??, aenooia? i?ioe naii/eiiiai
“cae?eniaiiy aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie aei Ana?in?enueeeo Onoaiia/eo cai??a”.
Ci?no ?? Oi?aa?naeo cionea e?aea??a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee cina?aaeeoe
naith oaaao ia i?aaiaeo aniaeoao oi?aae?iiy, oiaoi inaithaaoe iiaa aeey
naaa iiea ae?yeueiino?. Aea oey ci?ia a?aeiinei ?icaeoeo ?aaiethoe??
noaiiaeea aeey Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aaee/aci? o?oaeiiu?. O ia?oo /a?ao
aiie aoee coiiaeai? oei , ui i?ioean eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??,
/?oea ona?aeiieaiiy iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo i??i?eoao?a ?aaiethoe?? ,
iniiaiei ?c yeeo aoei ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?, ia aoa
caaa?oaiee. ?ioith aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith, yea aecia/aea ci?no i?ioe??/
?aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a, caeeoaeenue a?aeiineie c oeaio?aeueiith
aeaaeith.

3. A?eueoiaeoeueeee ia?aai?io o Iao?ia?aae? a aeiaoi? 1917 ?. oa
ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i?

A e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo , i?aaiai aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?in?enueei?
?anioae?ee ia aaeaeiny aieeiooe ia ia?aa?a iiae?e. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
iaaaeiaieaiiy o?oaeyueo ian nai?i nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei noaiiaeuai,
a?eueoiaeoeueea ia?o?y iai?ee?ioe? aeiaoiy 1917 ?ieo , a ?acoeueoao?
oni?oiiai ca?ieiiai iianoaiiy, aeiiiaeany a?ae ?? Ana?in?enueeiai
c’?caeo ?aae ?ia?oie/eo ? nieaeaonueeeo aeaiooao?a i?iaieioaiiy
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a e?a?i?. ?c ia?aiiaith a?eueoiaee?a a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeiei??iia ci?ia oi?ie ? ci?noo ?aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Aaeaea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao, ye i?aai oei/aniaiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa e?ath , ui aein? iaeaaeaa aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei?
aea?aeaae , aeciaaaee Oei/aniaee o?yae ca aeuee i?aai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Iniiai? canaaee iiaiai aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai noaiiaeua
Oe?a?ie aecia/eeenue ??? Oi?aa?naeii.

I?iaieineaoe ooai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (OI?),
a?aeiineie yei? c ?in??th iiaeii? aoee aoaeoaaoenue ia canaaeao
oaaea?ae?cio, Oi?aa?nae iaaeaaaa Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? ooieoe?e aeuiai
caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio aeaaee. Iaia’ycee aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee iieeaaeaeenue
ia Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao. Noaa?aeeaoe nai? aaaeaiiy ia oai?aiiy
iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea , a?aoiaoth/e
aeina?ae ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue, oa?aeoa? ?aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a
o ?in?? , aeneiaeea noii?ae uiaei aeioe?eueiino? o/ano? oe?a?inueei?
ni?eueiioe o aeai?ao aei Ana?in?enueeeo Onoaiia/eo cai??a. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth ??? Oi?aa?naeo , ii??aiyii c aeaiia iiia?aaei?ie, aoei oa ,
ui a iueiio aeaeea?oaaeany i?ia?aia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue, iai?aaeaieo ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ciaaeieaii? /anoeie
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Oea aea? iai i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
oa , ui na?aae e?aea??a Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? caaa?oeany i?ioean
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iiaeyae?a o iai?yieo aeii?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
aeueoa?iaoea ?icaeoeo ?aaiethoe?? iaae iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieie.

? Anaoe?a?inueeee c’?cae ?aae , ui a?aeaoany o Ee?a?, i?aeo?eiaa
Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo . Oiio a?oia aeaeaaao?a – a?eueoiaee?a i?eaoea aei
Oa?eiaa, aea 11-13 a?oaeiy aoei ?inoeaiiaaii aeueoa?iaoeaiee c’?cae
?aae. C’?cae a?oaa iianoaiiy o Iao?ia?aae? , iie?oeeo ?aaeia?eiio,
i?iaieinea anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia Oe?a?i?, ia?aa
Oeaio?aeueiee aeeiiaa/ee eii?oao ?aae Oe?a?ie. Inoaii?e, o naith /a?ao,
noai?ea Ia?iaeiee Nae?aoa??ao – ?aaeyinueeee o?yae Oe?a?ie.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie n?/iy ?icii/aany ianooi ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ia Ee?a.
25 n?/iy /eaie Iaei? ?aaee oa ?aaee i?i?no??a (oaeo iacao ae?noaa
Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao i?ney i?iaieioaiiy ?V Oi?aa?naeo ) caeeoeee
Ee?a. Neooaoe?y neeaeany oae , ui aeiey Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee caeaaeaea
a?ae aeiiiiiae ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa.

9 n?/iy 1918 ?ieo Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea i?eeiyea ?V Oi?aa?nae. Eiai oaeno
aoa caoaa?aeaeaiee ia ia ieaia?iiio can?aeaii? ?aaee , a /eaiaie ??
i?aceae??. Oey ianoaaeia aoea coiiaeaia iaiaaaiiyi e?aea??a ?aaee
yeiiiaa oaeaeoa i?iaieineoe iacaeaaeio , noaa?aiio Oe?a?inueeo Ia?iaeio
?anioae?eo .Oaea iini?oi?noue aoea aeeeeeaia oaeaeeei ianooiii
?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ia Ee?a. ?V Oi?aa?nae i?iaieiooaaa iiaio aea?aeaaio
iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie. Iie?ath/enue ia caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iiaiai
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai noaoono , Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea aei?o/aea o?yaeo,
?aae? ia?iaeieo i?i?no??a, caaa?oeoe ?icii/ao? ia?aaiai?e c e?a?iaie
*aoaa?oiiai nithco. ?acii ?c oei, Oi?aa?nae i?iaieiooaaa iaiao?aei?noue
neeeeaiiy Onoaiia/eo cai??a. Ui i?aaaea, eiie?aoiee oa?i?i ?o neeeeaiiy
ia aoa aecia/aiee. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney aeiaoiaaiai ia?aai?ioo a
Iao?ia?aae? , iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ye a ?in?? , oae ? a Oe?a?i?,
aeiei??iii ci?ieeanue. Aeania aoei ia?a?aaii caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th
?icaeoeo ?aaiethoe??, iia’ycaio c? neeeeaiiyi Onoaiia/eo cai??a, iniiaia
caaaeaiiy yeeo iieyaaei o aecia/aii? aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo.

Ianooiiiai aeiy Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea c?a?aeanue ia nai? /a?aiaa can?aeaiiy
, yea noaei inoaii?i. Ooo aoei iaeia?aii i?iaeo Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee. Oiai ae aeiy Anaoe?a?inueeei c’?caeii
oe?ai?ia?a aoei ia?aii aaoueiaia Oe?a?ie. Iei noaa iauaaeie ae?aaiueiai
eicaoeueeiai ?iaeo I. Nei?iiaaenueeee.

4. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai

9 ea?oiy ?918 ?. ia oe?ai?ianueeiio eiia?an? (iaeaea 8 oen. aeaeaaao?a)
aaoueiaiii iiaiai aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy — Aaoueiaiao «Oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaa» — aoa i?iaieioaiee aaia?ae I. Nei?iiaaenueeee. Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea aoea ?iciouaia.

Iiaa aea?aeaaa aacoaaeany ia ii?aeiaii? iiia?o?/ieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ?
aeeeoaoi?nueeeo canaae. O aaeoc? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aeaaea ni?yioaaea
nai? coneeey ia i?aeia?iaeia aeciaiiy Oe?a?ie, na?ae/aiiyi /iai aoei
anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei c 12-ia e?a?iaie. Aoa i?aeienaiee
ie?iee aeiaia?? ? c ?in??th.

Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee aoei neanoaaiiy oaeeo
iiaiaaaaeaiue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ye iaoe?iiae?caoe?y aaeeeeo ia?oe?a
oa eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii??, aaaaeaiiy ie?aii? eaoaai??? a?iiaaeyi —
eicae?a, ye? oaeoe/ii aoee caiiaeieie naeyiaie ? iaee noaoe
nioe?aeueiith iii?ith ?aaeeio aaoueiaia.

O?yae Nei?iiaaenueeiai aaaaeaa caiaeueia ieoaiiy iaeiei c aieiaieo. O
aeiaoi? 1918 ?. a?i canioaaa Aeoo Caiaeueio Eii?n?th ia /ie? c
aaoueiaiii. Ia ii/aoeo eenoiiaaea aoei caoaa?aeaeaii i?iaeo ?aoi?ie
caiaeue, ca yeei oe? aaeee? caiaeuei? ia?oee aea?aeaaa iaea i?eioniai
aeeoieoe o iii?uee?a 1 ?iciiae?eyoe i?ae naeyiaie (ia a?eueo ye ii 25
aeanyoei a iaei? ?oee). Aea ana oea oae ? caeeoeeiny iacae?eniaiiei.

Oaeoe/ii aeaaea a Oe?a?i? aoea a ?oeao i?ioe?a, ui ? a?aeaa?ioei a?ae
o?yaeo Nei?iiaaenueeiai a?eueo?noue ia?o?e, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee
Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo. Ana oea iaeeaei na?e a?aeaeoie ia ?icaeoie ? o?ae
iie?oe/ieo iiae?e. Oa?aeoa?iith ?o iciaeith aoei iiaeaeueoa iia??oaiiy
noaiiaeua ia?iaeo. Ieoiaioe i?aeo?eioaaea aeaniee?a oaa?ee 1 caaiae?a,
iii?uee?a, ui iiaa?ioeeny. Naeyie «a aaaeaee iiaa?oaoe eiio?neiaai? o
iii?uee?a iaeii ? caieth. Ii/aeany i?aeiaye ia?oe?a, iio?aae iin?a?a,
oaeanoaa iii?uee?a, ui, a naith /a?ao, aeeeeeaei ?ai?aneai? caoiaee
ieoiaoe?eii? aeaaee. O a?aeiia?aeue iceiaeai? naeyie ooai?thaaee
ia?oecainuee? caaiie, ye? noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ?ooo iii?o
ieoiaioai. Oeae ?oo iaiaaaeeny aeei?enoiaoaaoe y nai?o ?ioa?anao ana?e ?
a?eueoiaeee.

5. Aee?aeoi??y ?? iie?oeea ? iane?aeee

A i?/ ia 14 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. o Ee?a? a?aeaoeiny oa?iia can?aeaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? ia’?aeiaeeny o
Iaoe?iiaeueiee nithc. I?enooi? a?aeoeeeee ?aeath a?aeiiaeaiiy
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? noai?eee aa?oiaiee i?aai OI? — Aee?aeoi??th.
Aieiaith ?? noaa A. Aeiie/aiei, /eaiaie—N. Iaoeth?a, O. Oaaoeue, I.
Aiae???anueeee, A. Iaea?aiei .

A oie aea /an, na?aae Aee?aeoi??? ia aoei caiaee uiaei iai?yie?a
iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oea oneeaaeithaaeiny noia?ieoeoaii i?ae
Aeiie/aieii oa Iaoeth?ith ? ?oi?ie i?ea?/ieeaie. Aieea inoaiiueiai
iaaieiii c?inoaa, i?ioa ia ne??cue. Oiiaiei a?e aoa o a?enueeiaeo
no?oeoo?ao, ui yaeyee niaith iai?aia?oecainuee? caaiie. Aiie aeia?a
aithaaee iaiiaeae?e a?ae i?noeue i?iaeeaaiiy, a ca iani?eyoeeai?
ianoaiiaee ?iciaaeaeeny. Naia oiio Aee?aeoi??y iaea ia ii/aoeo naiai
i?aae?iiy ?II-oeny/io a?i?th, a iai?ee?ioe? n?/iy, ia?aae caea/ath Ee?aa
a?eueoiaeeai,— anueiai 21 oen /ieia?e.

Ianoaa?euei?noue, a?i??, i?eaeooaiiy ?ia?oie/eo no?aee?a, ?ica?i
i?ioni?eie, iia?iie ie?iiai ianaeaiiy oa ?io? ae??! noaee i?e/eiaie
iaae?iiy Aee?aeoi???.

Ae??oeee oea i?ioe??//y a?eueoiaeee, ye? a n?/i? 1919 ? ?icii/aee na?e
ae?oaee ianooi ia Oe?a?io, ia?aae oeei ca?aoe iai?aaoeue ia?aaiai?e c
Aee?aeoi???th. A cii? ieoiaoe?? aiie ?icai?ioee ia?oecainuee? ae?? i?ioe
Aioaioe, a a ethoiio 1919 ?. ?acii c ?aaoey?ieie ?aaeyinueeeie
a?enueeaie ?ica?iieee ?? a?enueea i?ae Aicianainueeii.

Ca oeeo ianoaaei, ia io?eiaaoe aeiiiiiae a?ae O?aioe??, aei yei?
Aee?aeoi??y aa?ioeany ii aeiiiiiao, A. Aeiie/aiei a na?aaeei? ethoiai
iiaeaa o a?aenoaaeo ? ae?oaa ca ei?aeii. N. Iaoeth?a — i?iaeiaaeoaaa
ai?ioueao c a?eueoiaeeaie.

6. A?aeiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i? a 1919 ?. Iie?oeea
“ai?iiiai eiioi?cio”

I?ney i?iaieioaiiy a Oa?eia? 6 n?/iy 1919 ?. Oe?a?inueei?
Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee (O?N?) ? inoaoi/iiai
anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? oi?ie aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie, ia III
Anaoe?a?inueeiio c’?cae? ?aae o Oa?eia? (6-10 aa?aciy 1919 ?.), ae?oaee
oe?a?inueeee o?yae i?io?eiaany aeecueei 7 i?nyoe?a, i?iaiaey/e iie?oeeo,
aac o?aooaaiiy i?noeaaeo ianoaaei – iie?oeeo “ai?iiiai eiioi?cio”. Aiia
aeeth/aea: © aeeeoaoo?a eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??, ooai?aiiy iaaecae/aeieo
i?aai?a aeaaee ?aaeii?a ? eiia?ae?a;

® iaoe?iiae?caoe?y i?iieneiaino?, o?iain?a, ca’yceo ;

© noai?a oeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii ? ?iciiae?eii oiaa??a;

© aea?aeaaia iiiiiie?y ia i?iieneia? oiaa?e, caai?iia i?eaaoii? oi?a?ae?
? ia?ao?ae aei i?yiiai oiaa?iiai?io;

® caaaeueia o?oaeiaa iiaeii?noue;

© ea?oeiaa nenoaia, ?iciiae?e i?iaeoeo?a ca eeaniaith iciaeith
(?ia?oieeai -‘ a?eueoa);

© cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?iae?iceeaaeee, ui icia/aei ia?ao?ae aei i?eioniaiai
aeeo/aiiy o naeyi iaiao?aeiiai aea?aeaa? i?iaeiaieuenoaa. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy oe?aicaaio?aaeue noai?thaaeeny i?iaeiaieue/? caaiie, ye?
ae?yee ea?aeueieie iaoiaeaie;

© «/a?aiiee oa?i? » i?ioe ?aaeueieo ? iioaioe?eieo i?ioeaiee?a
a?eueoiaecio. O Iie?oeea «ai?iiiai eiioi?cio» aoea aeeeeeaia ia eeoa
iaaecae/aeii neeaaeieie ianoaaeiaie, ui aeieeee a oiae? a?iiaaeyinueei?
a?eie, a e ieaiaie a?eueoiaee?a oaeaeei cae?enieoe na?oiao ?aaiethoe?th
? ia?aeoe a?ae oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei aei aeiiii?ee aac ?eieo ?
a?ioae.

Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai aoa «iio?ae ii oe?a»; eiee 3 .oeny/? ?ia?oiee?a ?c
Iineae e Iao?ia?aaea a?aeae?aee, ca?ii a oe?a?inueeeo naeyi. Iiieeeiaith
aoea iie?oeea oeueiai o?yaeo ? noiniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noa, ui a?aeaa?ioei a?ae iueiai ia o?eueee na?aaeiye?a, a
iaa?oue /anoeio a?aeiioe, ye? ? noaee nioe?aeueiith iii?ith
iaoiianueeiai oa ?ioeo ?oo?a. Oe? –naeyinuee? ?ooe aenooieee i?ioe
a?eueoiaee?a ua e oiio, ui i?eoeeuei? aei ieo iie?oe/i? neee—ia?o??
ai?ioueaeno?a oa oe?a?inueeeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ia?anoaee
i?aeo?eioaaoe o?yae X. ?aeianueeiai /a?ac eiai iiieeeiaa noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. (Iiai?noth aoee
i?i?aii?iaai? i?aaa oe?a?inueei? iiae ye aea?aeaaii?). Inoaoi/ii
aeene?aaeeooaaa naaa oeae o?yae, eiee aeey ai?ioueae c
«eiio??aaiethoe??th» a Oe?a?i? aoei noai?aii ia ii/aoeo 1919 ?.
Anaoe?a?inueeo iaaecae/aeio eii?n?th (AO*E) ia /ie? c Eaoeenii, yea
ae?yea iniaeeai aei?noiei. Eeoa a Ee?a? aeeie «/ae?noaie» aoei
?icno??eyii 3000 iaaeiieo ethaeae. A anueiai ca e?eueea i?nyoe?a
ia?aaoaaiiy a?eueoiaee?a o Ee?a? a 1919 ?. caaaeueia e?euee?noue
caaeaeeo a?ae ?oe /ae?no?a noaiiaeoue ia iaioa 12900 /ieia?e. I?ney
i?eoiaeo a?eueoiaee?a aei Iaeane o?ao?e ?ac o 1920 ?. aoei iaeacaii
aaaeothaaoe an?o aaee/ai. Eiee o? c?a?aeeny ia oiaa?io noaioe?th c
ae?oaeeiaie ? ae?oueie, ?o noaee ?icno??ethaaoe c eoeaiao?a. O Oa?eia?
iaia?aaeiaei? i?eoiaeo aeai?e?ioe?a eiiaiaeaio *E Na?iei aeanii?o/ii
caio/ea nioi? ethaeae.

O /a?ai? 1919 ?. E?aiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io caoiieee a?enueea Aeai?e?ia.
Iaeii/anii i?oea a ianooi 35-oeny/ia a?i?y Iaoeth?e ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? oa
50-oeny/ia Oe?a?inueea Aaeeoeueea a?i?y. Ca iaeacii Eai?ia a?eueoiaeea
e?ea?aeoaaee ae?oaee oe?a?inueeee ?aaeyinueeee o?yae. 30 na?iiy 1919 ?.
Ee?a caeiyee a?enueea Iaoeth?e, a 31 na?iiy — a?enueea Aeai?e?ia, ye?
iiaaee naaa aei?noiei, noaee iiiiaethaaoe iii?ueoeuee? caieaaieiae?iiy.

Oaea iie?oeea Aeai?e?ia a?aeooiaoioea a?ae iueiai ia?iaei? iane ?
ci?oeieea ciiao iiceoe?? a?eueoiaee?a, ye? ia ii/aoeo eeiiy 1919 ?. aeey
ea??aieoeoaa ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?eueieo a?eueoiaeoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ia
caeiyo?e a?enueeaie Aeai?e?ia oa?eoi??? noai?eee a E?aiai/ooe?
cao?iioiaa ath?i OeE EI(a)O.

Aaeeeeo ianooaa?a aeinya ? iianoainueei-ia?oecainueeee ?oo, iniaeeai ia
Eaoa?eiineaauei?, aea ae?ya I. Iaoii. A?i o?e/? aithaaa ia aioe?
*a?aiii? A?i??, aea O?ioeueeee nai?ie i?aenooiieie iaeacaie i?i
ia?aaeeneieaoe?th a?enuee Iaoia ia?aoai?ea eiai ?c nithcieea o ai?iouea?
i?ioe Aeai?e?ia ia ai?iaa. A ?acoeueoao? oaei? cei/eiii? iie?oeee
O?ioeueeiai oa eiai ioi/aiiy a Oe?a?i? aoee i?ieeo? ??ee e?ia?, cie?aia
o ai?iouea? c Iaoiii, ?oo yeiai o?eaaa a Oe?a?i? aae aei na?iiy 192? ?.

*a?ac iacaai? aeua i?e/eie, aeai?e?ioe? ia iiaee o?eaaeee /an aieiae?oe
Oe?a?iith ? aaea o aeiaoi? 1919 ?. aoee ?ica?iieai? a?eueoiaeoeueeeie
a?enueeaie i?ae E?aiaie, 15 a?oaeiyi caeeoeee Ee?a, a ia ii/aoeo 1920?.
iieeioee oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie.

A Oe?a?i? ciiao a?aeiiaeeany ?aaeyinueea aeaaea, yea i?iaiaeeea aaea
a?eueo i?iaeoiaio iie?oeeo. I?i oea na?ae/eea ?aciethoe?y Ainueii?
Ana?in?enueei? ia?oeiioa?aioe?? (2—4 a?oaeiy 1919 ?.) «I?i ?aaeyinueeo
aeaaeo ia Oe?a?i?», o ia?oiio ioieo? yei? i?iaieiooaaeiny, ui «?EI
noi?oue ia oi/oe? ci?o aeciaiiy naiino?eiino? O?N?». Aio/e?oith noaea
aa?a?ia iie?oeea, aoei i?eieiaii eieaeoea?caoe?th. Ii?? ianaeaiiy oaea
ia aoa oaeei, ye ?ai?oa, oi/a naeyinueeee iianoainueeee ?oo, iniaeeai
caiiaeieo naeyi, i?iaeiaaeoaaa ai?ioueao i?ae i?iaiaeai Iaoeia oa
aaaaoueio ?ioeo aae aei ii/aoeo 1921?.

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