Oaia 1. ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeuee? aeiaiai?e e cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie?

Iaoa. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeee iaeo i?i iaiaiaae a?ae 23
na?iiy 1939 ?, ? oa?iiee i?ioieie aei iueiai oa ?o ?ieue o ?ica’ycaii?
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie e o iiaeaeueo?e aeie? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.
?ice?eoe noia?a/eeaee i?ioean i?e?aeiaiiy aei O?N? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue oa ?o ?aaeyi?caoe??. Oi?ioaaoe a o/i?a oi?iiy aiae?coaaoe e
ocaaaeueithaaoe ?noi?e/iee iaoa??ae. Aeoiaoaaoe o/i?a o aeon?
iao??ioecio, aca?ii?icoi?iiy i?ae ia?iaeaie ia iniia? iniaenoiai
ona?aeiieaiiy aeina?aeo ?noi???.

Oei o?ieo: o?ie canai?iiy iiaeo ciaiue.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee Oo?/aiei A.A., Iai/aiei I.I., Oei/aiei N.I.
Iia?oiy ?noi??y Oe?a?ie (1939-2001), no?iia ea?oa «Oe?a?ia a ?iee
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie».

Aoaie o?ieo: ?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

?V. Cae??ieaiiy iiaeo ciaiue

V. Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

1. ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeee iaeo i?i iaiaiaae a?ae 23 na?iiy 1939 ?, ?
oa?iiee i?ioieie aei iueiai oa ix ?ieue o ?ica’ycaii? ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie e o iiaeaeueo?e aeie? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey (noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeaiiino?aoe??th ea?o)

Iaia?aaeiaei? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie N?N? iieieany a oeaio??
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. A?ae eiai iiceoe?? caeaaeaa ?o iiaeaeueoee
o?ae. I?eoeeueiino? N?N? aeiiaaaeeny ye Aiae?y c O?aioe??th, oae ?
I?ia//eia. Ia?aae ?aaeyinueeei ea??aieoeoaii iinoaea i?iaeaia
inoaoi/iiai aeai?o i???ioe?a.

Ia aeoieo Noae?ia nithc c Aiae??th oa O?aioe??th, o e?auiio aeiaaeeo,
i?a i?eianoe iai?oaeai? a?aeiineie c I?ia//eiith (aieiaiee oi?aiaaeueiee
ia?oia? N?N?), a a a??oiio — a?eio c iath. Nithc aea c I?ia//eiith
caeeoaa ae N?N? ia iaaiee /an inoi?iiue na?oiaiai eiioe?eoo ? aeaaaa
iiaeeea?noue ao?ooeoenue o iueiai a c?o/iee iiiaio. Oaeiae iiaeia aoei
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia i?eieiaiiy aieiaeo ae?e c ssiii??th, ui aaeenue ia
oa?eoi??? Iiiaieuenueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (ii?) a ?aeii? ??/ee
Oaeo?i-Aie (c o?aaiy 1939 ?.), ia yeo ye nithciee iiaea aieeiooe eeoa
I?ia//eia, ? ia oa?eoi??aeuei? i?eaeaaiiy ca ?aooiie Iieueu?,
I?eaaeoeee, O?ieyiae?? oa ?oioi??. I?ia//eia aoea caiaeia ia oea, aae
o?eueee aeaanoe N?N? ?c a?e oa ?ica’ycaoe nia? ?oee aeey aa?an?? i?ioe
Iieueu?, a caiaeii ? i?ioe e?a?i Caoiaeo. C?aooith Noae?i noeeeany aei
nithco c I?ia//eiith.

?iaioa c aeieoiaioii.

I?iiiaa E. Noae?ia ia can?aeaii? iie?oath?i OeE AEI(a) 19 na?iiy 1939 ?.

«Aii?in ie?a eee aieiu anooiaao a e?eoe/aneoth aeey ian oaco. Anee iu
caeeth/ei aeiaiai? i acaeiiiiiiue n O?aioeeae e Aaeeeia?eoaieae,
Aa?iaiey ioeaaeaony io Iieueoe e noaiao eneaoue «iiaeon aeaaiaee» n
caiaaeiuie aea?aeaaaie. Aieia aoaeao i?aaeioa?auaia, ii a aeaeueiaeoai
niauoey iiaoo i?eiyoue iianiue oa?aeoa? aeey NNN?. Anee iu i?eiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey Aa?iaiee i caeeth/aiee n iae iaeoa i iaiaiaaeaiee, iia,
eiia/ii, iaiaaeao ia Iieueuo, e aiaoaoaeuenoai O?aioeee e Aiaeee a yoo
aieio noaiao iaecaaaeiui. Caiaaeiay Aa?iia aoaeao iiaa?aiooa na?ueaciui
aieiaieyi e aanii?yaeeai. A yoeo oneiaeyo o ian aoaeao iiiai oainia
inoaoueny a noi?iia io eiioeeeoa, e iu niiaeai iaaeayoueny ia iaoa
auaiaeiia anooieaiea a aieio.

Iiuo aeaaaeoeaoe iineaaeieo eao iieacuaaao, /oi a ie?iia a?aiy
iaaiciiaeii eiaoue a Aa?iia eiiioienoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, neeueiia aei
oaeie noaiaie, /oiau aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey niiaea au caoaaoeoue
aeanoue. Aeeeoaoo?a yoie ia?oee noaiiaeony aiciiaeiie oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa aieueoie aieiu. Iu naeaeaai naie auai?, e ii ynai. Iu
aeieaeiu i?eiyoue iaiaoeeia i?aaeeiaeaiea e aaaeeeai ioineaoue ia?aoii
aiaei-o?aioeocneoth ienneth. Ia?aui i?aeiouanoaii, eioi?ia iu ecaea/ai,
aoaeao oie/oiaeaiea Iieueoe aei naiuo iiaenooiia e Aa?oaaa, aeeth/ay
Oe?aeineoth Aaeeoeeth.

Aa?iaiey i?aaenoaaeyao iai iieioth naiaiaeo aeaenoaee a I?eaaeoeeneeo
no?aiao e ia aic?aaeaao ii iiaiaeo aica?auaiey Aanna?aaee NNN?. Iia
aioiaa onooieoue iai a ea/anoaa ciiu aeeyiey ?oiuieth, Aieaa?eth e
Aaia?eth. Inoaaony ioe?uoue aii?in, naycaiiue n THaineaaeae… A oi aea
a?aiy iu aeieaeiu i?aaeaeaeaoue iineaaenoaey, eioi?ua aoaeoo auoaeaoue
eae ec ii?aaeaiey, oae e ec iiaaaeu Aa?iaiee. A neo/aa aa ii?aaeaiey
iaecaaaeii i?iecieaeao niaaoecaoeey Aa?iaiee e aoaeao nicaeaii
eiiioienoe/aneia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Iu ia aeieaeiu caauaaoue, /oi
niaaoece?iaaiiay Aa?iaiey ieaaeaony ia?aae aieueoie iianiinoueth, anee
yoa niaaoecaoeey yaeony iineaaenoaeai ii?aaeaiey Aa?iaiee a nei?ioa/iie
aieia. Aiaeey e O?aioeey aoaeoo aua aeinoaoi/ii neeueiu, /oiau
caoaaoeoue Aa?eei e oie/oiaeeoue niaaoneoth Aa?iaieth. A iu ia aoaeai a
ninoiyiee i?eeoe ia iiiiuue iaoei aieueoaaenoneei oiaa?euai a Aa?iaiee

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoa caaea/a caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau Aa?iaiey niiaea
aanoe aieio eae iiaeii aeieueoa, n oeaeueth, /oiau onoaaoea e aei aunoae
noaiaie ecio?aiiua Aiaeey e O?aioeey auee ia a ninoiyiee ?aca?iieoue
niaaoece?iaaiioth Aa?iaieth. I?eaea?aeeaaynue iiceoeee iaeo?aeeoaoa e
iaeeaeay naiaai /ana, NNN? aoaeao ieacuaaoue iiiiuue iuiaoiae Aa?iaiee,
niaaaeay aa nu?ueai e i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuie oiaa?aie. Ii, naii niaie
?acoiaaony, iaoa iiiiuue ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?acia?ia
aeey oiai, /oiau ia iiae?uaaoue iaoo yeiiiieeo e ia ineaaeyoue iiuue
iaoae a?iee.

A oi aea naiia a?aiy iu aeieaeiu aanoe aeoeaioth eiiioienoe/aneoth
i?iiaaaiaeo, iniaaiii a aiaei-o?aioeocneii aeiea e i?aeiouanoaaiii ai
O?aioeee. Iu aeieaeiu auoue aioiaui e oiio, /oi a yoie no?aia a aiaiiia
a?aiy ia?oey aoaeao auioaeaeaia ioeacaoueny io eaaaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
e oeoe a iiaeiieuea. Iu ciaai, /oi yoa ?aaioa iio?aaoao iiiaeo aea?oa,
ii iaoe o?aioeocneea oiaa?eue ia aoaeoo niiiaaaoueny.

Eo caaea/ae a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aoaeao ?aceiaeaiea e aeaii?aeecaoeey
a?iee e iieeoeee. Anee yoa iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa aoaeao iaania/aia,
yoi aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue niaaoecaoeee O?aioeee. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoeo
ieaiia iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aieia i?ieeeanue eae iiaeii aeieueoa, e eiaiii
a yoo noi?iio aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ana neeu, eioi?uie iu
?aniieaaaai a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e ia Aaeeaiao.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue aoi?ia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, oi anoue iiaaaeo Aa?iaiee.
Iaeioi?ua i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey, /oi yoa aiciiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao
aeey ian na?ueacioth iianiinoue. Aeiey i?aaaeu a yoii ooaa?aeaeaiee
anoue. Ii auei au ioeaeie aeoiaoue, /oi yoa iianiinoue aoaeao oae aeecea
e oae aaeeea, eae iaeioi?ua aa i?aaenoaaeytho. Anee Aa?iaiey iaea?aeeo
iiaaaeo, iia aueaeao ec aieiu neeoeii enoiuaiiie, /oiau ia/aoue
aii?oaeaiiue eiioeeeo n NNN? ii e?aeiae ia?a a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao. Aa
iniiaiie caaioie aoaeao eiio?ieue ca iiaaaeaeaiiuie Aiaeeae e O?aioeeae
n oeaeueth iiiaoaoue eo ainnoaiiaeaieth. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iiaaaeiiiniay Aa?iaiey aoaeao ?aniieaaaoue ia?iiiuie oa??eoi?eyie, e a
oa/aiea iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee iia aoaeao caiyoa «eo yenieoaoaoeeae» e
onoaiiaeaieai oai aa?iaineeo ii?yaeeia. I/aaeaeii, /oi Aa?iaiey aoaeao
caiyoa a ae?oaii ianoa, /oiau iiaa?iooue i?ioea ian. Anoue e aua iaeia
aauue, eioi?ay iineoaeeo iaoae aaciianiinoe. A iiaaaeaeaiiie O?aioeee
OEI (O?aioeocneay eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey) anaaaea aoaeao i/aiue
neeueiie. Eiiioienoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey iaecaaaeii i?iecieaeao, e iu
niiaeai eniieueciaaoue yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai aeey oiai, /oiau i?eeoe ia
iiiiuue O?aioeee e naeaeaoue aa iaoei nithcieeii. Iicaea ana ia?iaeu,
iiiaaoea iiae caueoo» iiaaaeiiiniie Aa?iaiee, oaeaea noaioo iaoeie
nithcieeaie. O ian aoaeao oe?ieia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe aeey ?acaeoey
ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee.

Oiaa?eue! A eioa?anao NNN? — ?iaeeiu o?oaeyueony, /oiau aieia
?ac?aceeanue iaaeaeo ?aeoii e eaieoaeenoe/aneei aiaei-o?aioeocneei
aeieii. Ioaeii naeaeaoue ana, /oiau yoa aieia aeeeeanue eae iiaeii
aeaeueoa a oeaeyo ecio?aiey aeaoo noi?ii. Eiaiii ii yoie i?e/eia iu
aeieaeiu niaeaneoueny ia caeeth/aiea iaeoa, i?aaeeiaeaiiiai Aa?iaieae, e
?aaioaoue iaae oai, /oiau yoa aieia, iauyaeaiiay iaeiaaeaeu,
i?iaeeeeanue iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai a?aiaie. Iaaei aoaeao oneeeoue
i?iiaaaiaeeno neoth ?aaioo a aiththueo no?aiao aeey oiai, /oiau auoue
aioiauie e oiio a?aiaie, eiaaea aieia caeii/eony…» [27, n. 55—57].

Caieoaiiy aei aeieoiaioa.

1) *ei iioeaoaaa E. Noae?i iaiao?aei?noue caeeaeaiiy c I?ia//eiith ?
i?aeienaiiy iaeoo?

2) sseo iaoo ia?ane?aeoaaa E. Noae?i?

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey

I?ney iao?eaaeeo ia?aaiai??a i?i?no?a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa I?ia//eie
??aaaio?iia ? ia?eiia caei?aeiiieo ni?aa N?N? Iieioiaa 23 na?iiy 1939 ?.
o E?aie? aoei i?aeienaii iaeo i?i iaiaiaae i?ae aeaiia e?a?iaie. Oeae
aeieoiaio, ui oa?eoia a ?noi??th i?ae iacaith «iaeo
Iieioiaa—??aaaio?iia» ia?aaeaa/aa ciaia’ycaiiy noi??i oo?eioaaoeny a?ae
aa?aneaieo ae?e noiniaii iaeia iaeii? aai aoaeue-yeeo ?ioeo ae?e
ni?eueii c o?ao?ie aea?aeaaaie, ye? a caa?iaeoaaee ?ioa?anai iaei??? c?
noi??i, ui aeiiiaeyeeny.

Ie?aiith /anoeiith ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeiai aeiaiai?o noaa oa?iiee
i?ioieie, ui ia?aaeaa/aa ?iciaaeoaaiiy noa? aieeao iaio aea?aeaa o
?a?ii?. I?ia//eia aeciaaaea noa?ith ?ioa?an?a N?N? O?ieyiae?th,
Anoii?th, Eaoa?th oa Aanna?aa?th, a Eeoao a?aeianea aei noa?e nai?o
?ioa?an?a. I?ioieie ia?aaeaa/aa iiae?e Iieueu?. E?i?y iiae?eo iaea
i?ioiaeeoe ii ??/eao Ia?aa, A?nea, Nyi.

Oaeei /eiii, oa?iiee i?ioieie oi?eaany oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, Ui aoiaeeee
aei neeaaeo Iieueu?. A?aeaeath/e oe?a?inuee? caie? Noae?io, A?oea?
oae?oaa ia/a i?aee?anethaaa naith iacaoe?eaaeai?noue Oe?a?iith (oia?oa
oea aoei i?aee?aneaii ae?yie I?ia//eie uiaei Ea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie, yea
aoea ia?aaeaia Oai?uei?), oi/a ua a 1938 ?. «oe?a?inueea ea?oa» aeoeaii
?ic?a?oaaeany i?iaoeueeei ea??aieoeoaii. Aeiiiaeaiino? i?ae N?N? oa
I?ia//eiith ?ica’ycaee ?oee inoaii?e aeey aa?an?? i?ioe Iieueu? e oei
naiei iieeaee ii/aoie Ae?oa?e na?oia?e a?ei?.

1 aa?aniy 1939 ?. i 4 aiaeei? 45 oaeeei caeie i?iaoeueeiai a?iiaiinoey
«Oeaca?a-Aieueooaei» ii iieuenueeiio i?eei?aeiiiiio oe??ieaii? ia ein?
Aanoa?ieyooa ?icii/aee Ae?oao na?oiao a?eio

Iaeii/anii i?iaoeuee? a?enueea aoaeoaaee iieuenueeo oa?eoi??th c i?a
ii/?, caoiaeo e i?aaeiy (c oa?eoi??? nithcii? I?ia//ei? Neiaa//eie)
Io?oe?eiee Aa?e?i i?aaenoaaea i?iaoeuee? ae?? ye aeiooaio a?aeiia?aeue
ia iieuenueeo aa?an?th (i?iaieaoe?y o Ae?a?oea): «Ca iaeacii oth?a? ?
aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/a aa?iaoo acya o nai? ?oee aeoeaiee caoeno ?aeoo.
Aeeiioth/e iaeeiooa cciai? caaaeaiiy iieeanoe e?ae iieuenueeiio
ianeeeth, nueiaiaei? a?aioe? i?iaoeuee? nooiiooi? a?enuee ia?aeoee o
eiio?ianooi ia anueiio iieuenueei-i?iaoeueeiio ei?aeii?»

Oi?iaeiaae ia?oiai oeaeiy a?eie i?aai?ciaaiee ii?? iieuenueei? a?i??
aoei ceaiaii. Aaea 3 aa?aniy 1939 ?. aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/ ca?ieieo nee
Iieueu? ia?oae ?ec-Ni?aee c?icoi?a, ui ii?acea iaieio/a. I?ioa ie?ai?
iieuenuee? /anoeie i?iaeiaaeoaaee /eieoe ii??, a ?iiae iaa?oue
caeiaoaaee ia?aiiae. Oae, a iaeiiio c ai?a i?iaoeueea 1 oaieiaa aeea?c?y
a ?acoeueoao? eiio?oaea?o iieuenueei? a?eaaaee ao?aoeea iaeaea o?aoeio
nai?? aieiai? oaoi?ee ? aoea eaaeue ia ?ica?iieaia Aa?i?/iith noi??ieith
iieuenueei? a?i?? noaea iai?iia Aanoa?ieyooa eiee 182 iieuenuee?
nieaeaoe no?eioaaee ianooi ia?aaaaeath/eo nee a?oea??aoe?a. Ioaeiuei
ai?iieeeny caoenieee Aa?oaae, Eueaiaa O? ?ioeo i?no. Aea aa?i?ci
iieuenueeeo nieaeao?a, ia i?a cai?ieoe a?enueeiai-oaoi?/io a?aenoae?noue
e?a?ie ? ci?ieoe caaaeueii? no?ao? ??/ii? ianoaiiaee. Iieueua i?ia?aea
a?eio. ?? nithcieee Aiae?y oa O?aioe?y, oi/a e iaieineee a?eio
I?ia//ei?, aea ?aaeueieo ae?e ye? a aeiiiiiaee Iieueu?, oae ? ia
cae?enieee..

Caa?i?oue oaaao!

I?ney ii/aoeo aieiaeo ae?e a?eueo?noue oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
caeeoeeiny eiyeueiei aei Iieueu?. O? oe?a?ioe?, ui neoaeeee o
iieuenuee?e a?i?? (aeecueei 200 oen. in?a, ye? ia?aaaaeii neoaeeee ia
i?iaoeueei-iieuenueeiio ei?aeii?) /anii aeeiiaee na?e iaia’ycie ia
aeyaeyth/e /eiaeee aa?i?ci. Ca ioe?ieaie aenia?o?a eiaeai aeanyoee
c-iii?ae ieo caaeioa o aith aai iiia? a?ae ?ai, oai?ia o oaai?? aeey
iieiiaieo. I?ia//eia, ?icii/aaoe a?eio, iaiaaaeanue aoyaiooe a
aa?aneaieo ae?? e N?N? c iaoith c?iaeoe eiai ni?ao/anieeii ? nai?i
nithcieeii. E?eueea ?ac?a, 3, 5, 8, 12 aa?aniy 1939 ?., A?oea? caa?oaany
aei Noae?ia c aeiiaith ?icii/aoe aieia? ae?? i?ioe Iieueu?. Aea
?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai a?aeiia?aeaei, ui a iio??aiee /an eiio
«iaia’yceiai aeiaaaeaoueny… ii/aoe eiie?aoi? ae??. Aea ie aaaaea?ii,
ui oeae iiiaio iiee ui ia ianoaa», a «iini?oi?noue iiaea c?inoaaoe
ni?aao ? ni?eyoeia cao?oiaaiino? ai?ia?a». Oaea iiceoe?y ?aaeyinueeiai
ea??aieoeoaa aoea i?iaeeeoiaaia iaaaaeaiiyi aeaeaaaoeny a i/ao na?oiai?
a?iiaaenueeino? aa?ani?ii, aiii i/?eoaaei iaae?iiy iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae.

Ae/?eoaaeueia iiceoe?y ?aaeyinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa niiioeaea i?iaoeueea
eiiaiaeoaaiiy aei ?ica’ycaiiy «iieuenueeiai ieoaiiy» aac ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco. I?iaoeuee?,a?enueea ia?aoioee e?i?th, aeacaio c oa?iiiio
i?ioieie?, ? i?enoioeenue aeae? ia no?ae, i?ae?eoiaoe aei Eueaiaa,
A?anoa, a oaeiae ii/aee a?eueo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaeaoe ieoaiiy noai?aiiy
a Aaee/ei? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, nie?ath/enue ia IOI, yea iaea
i?aai?coaaoe aioeiieuenueea iianoaiiy. Oaeiae i?iaoeueeith ?ica?aeeith
(aaaa?ii) o neeaae? i?iaoeueei? a?i?? aoei noai?aii oe?a?inueeee eaa?ii
i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi ?iiaia Nooea.

Aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y

12 aa?aniy 1939 ?. aenieiiinoaaeai? ea??aieee I?ia//eie ??aaaio?ii,
Eaia??n, Eaeoaeue i?iaaee can?aeaiiy, ia yeiio eoeiny i?i iiaeeea?noue
noai?aiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. *a?ac e?eueea aei?a o A?aei?
Eaia??n cono??any c aieiaith i?iaiaeo IOI A. Iaeueieeii. Ea??aiee aaaa?o
iaaieinea ia iiaeeeaino? noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Cao?aeii? (Aaeeoeueei?)
Oe?a?ie. Iaeueiee iano?eueee iia??ea o oea iia?aeiieaiiy, ui iaa?oue
ii/aa aiooaaoe nienie /eai?a o?yaeo iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae.

Oei /anii no?oeoo?e IOI, ui ae?yee ia oa?eoi??? Iieueu?, i?aai?coaaee
na??th iianoaiue, uia caoiieoe i?noa Aaee/eie ? i?iaieineoe a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. 10 aa?aniy o Ae?iaiae/?, No?eth, Ai?eneaa?,
Eaeoo? oa ?ioeo i?noao a?aeaoeeny ca?iei? aenooie aieiaee?a IOI i?ioe
iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??, aea caoiieoe aeiaeia c oeeo i?no ia
aaeaeiny. Ianooiiee aenooi aoa i?ecia/aiee ia 18 aa?aniy, aea anooi
caaii?a *a?aiii? A?i?? a Aaee/eio c??aaa oe? ieaie. Ae/?eoaaeueia
iiceoe?y ?aaeyinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa niiioeaea i?iaoeueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy
aei ?ica’ycaiiy «iieuenueeiai ieoaiiy» aac ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.
I?iaoeuee?,a?enueea ia?aoioee e?i?th, aeacaio c oa?iiiio i?ioieie?, ?
i?enoioeenue aeae? ia no?ae, i?ae?eoiaoe aei Eueaiaa, A?anoa, a oaeiae
ii/aee a?eueo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaeaoe ieoaiiy noai?aiiy a Aaee/ei?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, nie?ath/enue ia IOI, yea iaea i?aai?coaaoe
aioeiieuenueea iianoaiiy. Oaeiae i?iaoeueeith ?ica?aeeith (aaaa?ii) o
neeaae? i?iaoeueei? a?i?? aoei noai?aii oe?a?inueeee eaa?ii i?ae
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi ?iiaia Nooea.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

14 aa?aniy 1939 ?. ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai iia?aeiieei, ui *a?aiia
A?i?y aioiaa ?icii/aoe aieia? ae?? i?ioe Iieueu?. Oaeei /eiii, iaeo
Iieioiaa-??aaaio?iia ni?eya ?ica’ycaiith Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, a
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? iieieeeny o noa?? aieeao N?N?. Iiaeaeueoa ?o
aeiey caeaaeaea a?ae ae?e ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

Caieoaiiy ia cae??ieaiiy.

1) sseee aeieoiaio io?eiaa iacao «iaeo Iieioiaa—??aaaio?iia»? Ui
ia?aaeaa/aa oa?iiee i?ioieie?

2) Aeiey yeeo oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ae??ooaaeany ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeeie
aeiiiaeaiinoyie?

?iaioa c aeieoiaioii.

Iiceoe?y E. Noae?ia uiaei ii/aoeo Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie aeneiaeaia iei
i?ae /an aan?aee c ea??aieeaie Eii?ioa?io (7 aa?aniy 1939 ?.)

…a?eia eaea i?ae aeaiia a?oiaie eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?i (a?aei? e aaaao?
noiniaii eieii?e, ne?iaeie oa ?i.) ca ia?aae?e na?oo, ca iaioaaiiy o
na?o?! Ie ia i?ioe, uia aiie aeia?y/a iiaeeeny ? iineaaeee iaeei
iaeiiai. Iaiiaaii, yeui ?oeaie I?ia//eie aoaea ?icoeoaii iaeaaaaoo?
eai?oae?noe/i? e?a?ie (iniaeeai Aiae?th). A?oea?, nei oeueiai ia
?icoi?th/e ? ia aaaeath/e, ?iceaaeith?, i?ae?eaa? eai?oae?noe/io
nenoaio… Ie iiaeaii iaiaa?oaaoe, i?aeooiaooaaoe iaeio noi?iio i?ioe
?ioi?, uia e?aua aoyaioeeny a a?eeo. Iaeo i?i iaiaiaae o aeaye?e i???
aeiiiiaaa? I?ia//ei?. Ianooiiee iiiaio — i?aeooiaooaaoe ?ioo noi?iio…
…cieuaiiy oe??? aea?aeaae (Iieueu?) a oaia??oi?o oiiaao icia/a?, ui
iaeiith ao?aeoaciith oaoenonueeith aea?aeaaith aoaea iaioa! Ui aoei a
iiaaiiai, yeae a ?acoeueoao? ?ica?iio Iieueu? ie iioe?eee a
nioe?ae?noe/io nenoaio ia iio oa?eoi??? ? ianaeaiiy [34, n. 18—19].

Caieoaiiy ? caaaeaiiy aei aeieoiaioa.

1) Noa?aeoa?ecoeoa iie?oeeo E. Noae?ia uiaei ii/aoeo Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie,

2) sse? a?aoiaioe iaaiaeeeeny ia ei?enoue e?ea?aeaoe?? iieuenueea
aea?aeaae? ‘

«Aecaieueiee iio?ae» /a?aiii? a?i?? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie?

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey..

Eiee noaei c?icoi?eei, ui ii?acea Iieueu? iaieio/a, ?aaeyinueea
ea??aieoeoai ?icii/aei ??oo/? ae??. Aoei noai?aii A?ei?onuee?
(eiiaiaeoth/ee I. Eiaaeueia) ? Oe?a?inueeee (eiiaiaeoth/ee N. Oeiioaiei,
ia/aeueiee ooaao I. Aaooo?i) o?iioe, yeei aoea iinoaaeaii caaaeaiiy
ia?aoiooe ?aaeyinueei-iieuenueeee ei?aeii ? acyoe i?ae eiio?ieue
?aaeyinueeo ciio aieeao.

Aei neeaaeo Oe?a?inueeiai o?iioo aoiaeeei 28 no??eaoeueeeo, 7
eaaaea??enueeeo aeea?c?e, 10 oaieiaeo a?eaaae, 7 a?oeea??enueeeo iiee?a
?aca?ao Aieiaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy (240 oen. in?a, 2300 oaie?a 1800 aa?iao
? i?iiiao?a). Ae?? a?enuee iaio o?iio?a i?ee?eaaee 4 oen. e?oae?a.
(Na?aae iniaiaiai neeaaeo o?iioo aeo?aeoe? c Oe?a?ie neeaaeaei aeecueei
o?aoeie.) Iieyee ia ?aaeyinueeiio ei?aeii? iaee anueiai 25 aaoaeueeii?
(12 oen. in?a).

Ianooi ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee aoa iano?eueee ianiiae?aaiei aeey
iieuenueeiai ea??aieoeoaa, ui aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/ iieuenueei? a?i?y
?eaec-Ni?aea a?aeaeaa iaeac: «…?c Nia?oaie aieia? ae?? ia aanoe, eeoa
o aeiaaeeao c ?o aieo ?icca?i?oe iao? /anoeie. Caaea/? aeey Aa?oaa? e
Iiaee?ia, ye? iiaeii? caoeuaoeny a?ae i?ioe?a, caeeoathoueny aac ci?i.
*anoeie, aei ?icoaooaaiiy yeeo i?ae?eoee Nia?oe, iiaeii? aanoe c ieie.
ia?aaiai?e c iaoith aeoiaeo aa?i?cii?a aei ?oioi?? aai Oai?ueie [21, n.
65].

Oa oieeiooe nooe/ie ia aaeaeiny. Ao?aoe Oe?a?inueeiai o?iioo neeaaeaee
aeae?eueea nio nieaeao?a oaeoeie, 10 oaie?a, 33 aaoiiaoeie, 5 aa?iao ? 2
e?oaee. Caaaeii ao?aoe *a?aiii? A?i?? i?ae /an aecaieueiiai iioiaeo»
neeaee,795 in?a oaeoeie, 59 cieeeeie aaca?noe, 2019 ii?aiaieie.

O iieii aei *a?aiii? A?i?? iio?aieei 452,5 oen. iieuenueeeo nieaeao?a oa
io?oea??a. A?eueoa ?o /anoeia aoea a?aeiouaia, a 125,4 oen. iieieeenue o
oaai?ao (a iniiaiiio io?oea?e). ?oiy aeiey neeaeany o?aa?/ii. O
ea?oi?-o?aai? 1940 ?. a eaoeinueeiio e?n? i?ae Niieainueeii, a ua ?ai?oa
— i?ae Oa?eiaii oa a ?ioeo i?noao iiiaae 15 oen. in?a aoei ?icno??eyii
(800 c ieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi aoee oe?a?ioe?).

Ianooi *a?aiii? A?i?? aoa no??ieei. Aieiaiith iaoith Oe?a?inueeiai
o?iioo aoei yeiaeoaeaeoa iaieiae?oe Eueaiaii. Oaei? iaoe aeio?eioaaeeny
e i?iaoeuee? a?enueea, ye? 13 aa?aniy i?aenooieee aei i?noa, a 18
aa?aniy ioi/eee i?noi c o?ueio noi??i ? iaiaaaeeny iaieiae?oe iei.
Iieuenuee? a?enueea a/eieee caacyoee ii??. 19 aa?aniy 1939 ?. i?ae
i?iaoeueeeie ? ?aaeyinueeeie /anoeiaie /a?ac iaii?icoi?iiy noaany a?e, o
yeiio c iaio aie?a aoee ao?aoe. C?aooith i?ney ia?aaiai??a i?iaoeuee?
a?enueea aoee a?aeaaaeai? a?ae i?noa, a 22 aa?aniy 1939 ?. Euea?a
caeiyee ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea. Iieuenueeee aa?i?cii ia /eiea iii?o
?aaeyinueeei a?enueeai. Oiai ae aeiy o A?ano?, A?iaeii, I?inueeo,
Ia?aieoe? a?aeaoeeny ni?euei? ia?aaee ?aaeyinueeeo ? i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee
ia /anoue ia?aiiae iaae Iieueuath.

Aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y

I?ae /an iaeiiai aith 27—28 aa?aniy 1939 ?. o iieii aei *a?aiii? A?i??
iio?aiea ii?aiaiee aaia?ae Iieuenueei? a?i?? A. Aiaea?n. Eiiaiaeoth/ee
12-th a?i??th ?. Otheai?a ia?aeiiaa eiai iaienaoe caa?iaiiy aei
iieuenueeeo nieaeao?a ?c caeeeeii aeia?ia?eueii neeanoe ca?ith. I?ney
iaiaaeo I?ia//eie ia N?N? A. Aiaea?n noaa eiiaiaeoaa/ai Iieuenueei?
a?i??, ui oi?ioaaeany O Iiaieae?. Oiae? ae noaei a?aeiii i?i cei/ei,
a/eiaiee noae?inueeei ea??aieoeoaii uiaei iieuenueeeo io?oea??a, ?
Iieuenueea a?i?y Aiaea?na ca aeiiiaeai?noth c nithcieeaie aoea aeaaaeaia
/a?ac ??ai aei I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee, aea aaea aieia? ae?? ?acii c
aiae?enueeeie a?enueeaie.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Ieaioth/e iaiaae ia Iieueuo, ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai i?aaioei ciaeoe
i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ia??oiooaaiiy oe?e aeoe??. Oaeei ??oiooaaiiyi noaei
i?eai?/aia noaiiaeua oe?a?ioe?a e a?ei?on?a o Iieueu? oa ?oi? aaccaoenia
noaiiaeua i?ney ?iciaaeo Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Ianooi ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee oaeiae ca?any ?c a?ae’?caeii iieuenueeiai
o?yaeo 17 aa?aniy 1939 ?. aei ?oioi??. Iaia?aaeiaei? anooio ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee ia oa?eoi??th Iieueu? iieuenueeiio iineo a Iinea? aoei a?o/aii
iioo, o ye?e cacia/aeiny:

Iieuenueea aea?aeaaa oa ?? o?yae oaeoe/ii ia?anoaee ?nioaaoe. Oaeei
/eiii i?eieieee naith /eii?noue aeiaiai?e, oeeaaeai? i?ae N?N? ?
Iieueuath. Iaaeaia naia nia? e caeeoaia aac ea??aieoeoaa, Iieueua
ia?aoai?eeanue ia c?o/ia iiea aeey an?eyeeo aeiaaeeiainoae,
ianiiae?aaiie, ye? iiaeooue noai?eoe caa?ico aeey N?N?. Oiio…
?aaeyinueeee o?yae ia iiaea… aaeaeoaea noaaeoeny aei oiai, ui
?aeeiie?iai? a?aoe — oe?a?ioe? oa a?ei?one, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ia
oa?eoi??? Iieueu?, eeioo? iai?ecaieyua, caeeoeeeny aaccaoenieie.
Oiane?aeie oaeeo ianoaaei ?aaeyinueeee o?yae aeaa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
Aieiaiiio eiiaiaeoaaiith *a?aiii? A?i?? a?aeaeaoe iaeac ia?aeoe ei?aeii
? acyoe i?ae na?e caoeno aeeooy ? iaeii ianaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie oa
Cao?aeii? A?ei?on?? [29, n. 115—116].

Caieoaiiy aei aeieoiaioa.

sse? a?aoiaioe iaaiaeeei ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai, aei?aaaeiaoth/e
aa?an?th c? naiai aieo? Naith aeoieo aeiaaae?oue.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Iath/e oaea ?aeaieia?/ia ia??oiooaaiiy, aa?an?y i?ioe Iieueu? aoee
i?aaenoaaeaia ye «aecaieueiee iio?ae» *a?aiii? A?i??. I?ae /an «iioiaeo»
*a?aiia A?i?y caeiyea oa?eoi??th iaioo, ia ia?aaeaa/aeiny oa?iiei
i?ioieieii. Aeey a?aaoethaaiiy ieoaii? ei?aeii?a o Iinea? ?icii/aeenue
ia?aaiai?e, ?acoeueoaoii yeeo noaei i?aeienaiiy 28 aa?aniy 1939 ?.
Aeiaiai?o i?i ae?oaeao ? aea?aeaae ei?aeiie ? aeaio oa?iieo i?ioieiee
aei iueiai. Ca oeei aeiaiai?ii aoae inoaoi/ii iiae?eaii noa?e aieeao a
No?aei?e ?a?ii? e anoaiiaeai? ni?eueiee ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeee ei?aeii.

Ca oeei aeiaiai?ii e?ea?aeiaoaaeanue Iieuenueea aea?aeaaa,
anoaiiaethaaany iiaee ei?aeii ii «e?i?? Ea?ciiaa, noa?ith aieeao
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco noaea Eeoaa a iai?i ia aoi?/ii iieuenuee? caie?, ui
a?aeoiaeeee aei I?ia//eie, oiui. Ca oeei aeiaiai?ii o noa?o i?iaoeueeiai
aieea iio?aieee /anoeiai iieii?ciaai? oe?a?inuee? aoi?/i? caie? —
Oieiuiia, I?aeeyooy, /anoeia Iie?nny, Iinyiiy, Eaie?aueia, ia ye?e
i?iaeeaaei iaeaea i?ai?eueeiia oe?a?ioe?a. Oey ianoaaeia na?ae/eoue
i?ioa, ui a nai?o ae?yo Noae?i ea?oaaany ia i?aaiaiiyi a?yooaaoe
«?aeeiie?iaieo a?ao?a», a nooi aeanieie no?aoaa?/ieie ?ioa?anaie. O
?acoeueoao? iiae?eo Iieueu? aei N?N? a?ae?eoei 51,4 % ?? oa?eoi??? oa
37,1 % ianaeaiiy (12 iei. in?a).

Caieoaiiy ia cae??ieaiiy.

1) *iio ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai a?aeoyaoaaei aeaoo iaiaaeo ia Iieueuo?

2) sse aoee a?aaoeueiaai? a?aeiineie i?ae I?ia//eiith oa N?N? i?ney
caaa?aaiiy Iieueu??

3) Aeaeoa ioe?ieo aeiaiai?o a?ae 28 aa?aniy 1939 ?.

Aeeth/aiiy aei neeaaeo O?N? i?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie e i?eaeoiaenueeeo caiaeue

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

?aaeyinueeee Nithc i?eiee ia aeciaaaa i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? aei
?oioi??. Iaeo i?i iaiaiaae c I?ia//eiith ? aeiaeaoeiaee i?ioieie aei
iueiai, a oaeiae ii/aoie Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie noai?eee ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey ?ica’ycaiiy «aanna?aanueeiai ieoaiiy» ia ei?enoue N?N?. 29
aa?aciy 1940 ?. A. Iieioia, aenooiath/e ia nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N?,
cayaea, ui «o ian iaia? iaeoo i?i iaiaiaae c ?oioi??th. Oea
iiynith?oueny iayai?noth iaae??oaiiai noia?a/eeaiai ieoaiiy uiaei
Aanna?aa??, caoiieaiiy yei? ?oioi??th ?aaeyinueeee Nithc i?eiee ia
aeciaaaa, oi/a i?eiee ? ia noaaea ieoaiiy iiaa?iaiiy Aanna?aa?? ai?iiei
oeyoii». Oey cayaa caiaiiei?ea ?oioinueea ea??aieoeoai, yea iaiaaaeiny
ciaeoe i?aeo?eieo c aieo I?ia//eie. Aea inoaiiy, aoaeo/e caeiyoith
a?eiith ia caoiae?, cayaeea, ui «i?iaeaia Aanna?aa?? I?ia//eio ia
oe?eaaeoue — oea ni?aaa naii? ?oioi??».

Ii/aoie i?iaoeueeiai ianooio o O?aioe?? i?enei?ea ae?? ?aaeyinueeiai
ea??aieoeoaa. Eiie?aoi? ?aaeyinuee? ai?ii? i?eaiooaaiiy aeey ae??oaiiy
aanna?aanueeiai ieoaiiy» ?icii/aeeny 9 /a?aiy 1940 ?. ?aaeyinueeee
ia?eii A. Iieioia 26 /a?aiy 1940 ?. a?o/ea ?oioinueeiio iineo iioo
oeueoeiaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o c aeiiaith ia?aaeaoe N?N? Aanna?aa?th ia
I?ai?/io Aoeiaeio. ?oioi?y, yea ?icoi?ea aacia?niaeoeai?noue iii?o,
ciooaia aoea iiaiaeeoeny c aeiiaith. 28 /a?aiy 1940 ?. ?aaeyinuee?
a?enueea I?aaeaiiiai o?iioo i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi A. AEoeiaa ia?aeoee
Aei?noa? ? anoaiiaeee na?e eiio?ieue iaae cacia/aieie oa?eoi??yie.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui I?ai?/ia Aoeiaeia ia caaaeoaaeanue o aeiaei?e
Aeiiiaeaiino? i?ae N?N? ? I?ia//eiith. Oaeiae oey oa?eoi??y i?eiee ia
aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia a?aei?io a?ae Aanna?aa??.
Oiio ae?? n?n? o I?ai?/i?e Aoeiaei? aoee ni?eeiyo? I?ia//eiith aeoaea
iaaaoeaii, ? oea i?enei?eei ?ic?iaeo inoaiiueith ieai?a a?eie I?ioe
N?N?. O na?aaeei? eeiiy 1940 ?. i?iaoeueeee aaia?aeueiee ooaa ii/aa
?ic?iaeo ieaio «Aa?aa?inna» — ieaio iaiaaeo ia N?N?.

Ii/aoie ?aaeyi?caoe?? cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey. Caaeey iaaeaiiy caeiiiino? ?aaeyinueeiio ?aaeeio a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? 22 aeiaoiy 1939 ?. i?ae eiio?ieai iiai? aeaaee aoei
i?iaaaeaii aeai??a aei Ia?iaeieo Cai??a, ye? iai?ee?ioe? aeiaoiy
i?eeiyee Aeaeea?aoe?th i?i aoiaeaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo
N?N? ? aicc’?aeiaa ?? c O?N?. O eenoiiaae? 1939 ?. nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
N?N? ? O?N? ooaaeeee a?aeiia?aei? caeiie.

Ia oa?eoi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, ui io?oe?eii aa?eoea aei neeaaeo O?N?, o
a?oaei? 1938 ?. aoei noai?aii o?noue iaeanoae — Euea?anueea,
Noai?neaanueeo, Aieeinueeo, Oa?iii?euenueeo, ??aiainueeo,
Ae?iaiaeoeueea. Iaio i?ae /a?ac ??e aoei caeiiiaeaa/a ioi?ieaii ?
aeeth/aii aei neeaaeo O?N? oa?eoi??? I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie oa
i?eaeoiaenueeeo caiaeue. 2 na?iiy 1940 ?. ca ??oaiiyi VII nan??
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? aoei ooai?aii Iieaeaanueeo ?N?, a ia oa?eoi???
I?ai?/? Aoeiaeie oa Oioeinueeiai iia?oo Aanna?aa?? ooai?aii *a?i?aaoeue
iaeanoue e ia?aaeaii aei neeaaeo O?N?. O a?oaei?. 1940 ?. aoei ooai?aii
?cia?euenueeo iaeanoue, aei neeaaeo yei? oa?eoee Aea?iainuee? oa
?cia?euenueeee iia?oe.

O eenoiiaae? 1940 ?. i?ae Oe?a?inueeith ?N? ? Iieaeaanueeith ?N? aoei
anoaiiaeaii iiaee ei?aeii. *anoeio eieeoiuei? Iieaeaanuee? aaoiiiiii?
?N? o neeaae? O?N? aoei ia?aaeaii Iieaeaanuee?e ?N?. O ?acoeueoao? a?ae
Oe?a?ie aoei a?ae/oaeaii I?eaei?no?ia’y c aoi?/iei oe?a?inueeei
ianaeaiiyi.

I?ney aeeth/aiiy aei neeaaeo O?N? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie
? o?ueio iia?o?a Aanna?aa?? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ca?eueoeei ia 8,8 iei in?a
? ia na?aaeeio 1941 ?. noaiiaeei iiiaae 41,6 iei oa?eoi??y ?icoe?eeany
aei 565 oen. ei2.

C i?e?aeiaiiyi cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei N?N? ?icii/aa i?ioean
?aaeyi?caoe??», oiaoi ianaaeaeaiiy a on? noa?e aeeooy ae?iaeaii ca ?iee
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee no?aoaa?/ieo iai?yie?a: iaoe?iiae?caoe?y,
eieaeoea?caoe??, ?iaeono??ae?caoe??, eoeueoo?ii? ?aaiethoe??.

O i?ioean? ?aaeyi?caoe?? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aeae?eythoue 2
aoaie:

— aei aanie 1940 ?. ?aaeei ciai? caa??aaa aeaiie?aoe/i?noue, a oi?ie
cono??/aee i?aeo?eieo ianaeaiiy;

— ?c aanie 1940 ?. a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeeaeaiiy nioe?ae?noe/iiai ci?noo
ia?aoai?aiue, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ianiaeie ?ai?an?yie /a?ac
iai?eeiyooy oeeo ia?aoai?aiue a?eueo?noth i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy.

Iaaia /anoeia ianaeaiiy i?aeo?eiaea ieceo caoiae?a:

e?ea?aeaoe?y iieuenueeiai aea?aeaia?aoo;

eiio?neaoe?y caiaeue aaeeeeo aeaniee?a, iaoe?iiae?caoe?y oi?a?ae?
i?iieneiaino? (oe? aaeoc? caeaa?eueoiai ia?aaoaaee a ?oeao iieye?a oa
?a?a?a);

oe?a?i?caoe?y oa ci?oeiaiiy nenoaie ina?oe (e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo
oe?e ca?eueoeeany aei 6,5 oen. c iaeii/aniei nei?i/aiiyi iieuenueeeo; o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?, yeee aoei ia?aeiaiiaaii /anoue ?. O?aiea,
iie?oaoi?/iiio, iaaee/iiio, aaoa?eia?iiio ?inoeooo?, Aeu?e oi?aiaaeuei?e
oeie?, eiina?aaoi???. Aenie?e oeie? ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa,a oaeiae
oaoi?eoiao oa o/eeeuao iiaith aeeeaaeaiiy noaea oe?a?inueea);

?icaeoie nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy, iniaeeai ioi?iie caei?ia’y.

Iaaaeiaieaiiy aeeeeeaee:

cai?ia iieuenueeeo /eiiaiee?a ia i?noeaaeo eiioi?no?a oa ethaeae,
iaae?neaieo c? noiaeo Oe?a?ie;

ianeeueieoeueea eieaeoea?caoe?y (Iie?oath?i OeE AEI(a) i?eeiyei ??oaiiy
i?i eieaeoea?caoe?th 1 aeiaoiy 1940 ?., ia /a?aaiue 1941 ?. o eieainie
aoei ia’?aeiaii 15 % ainiiaea?noa);

oene ia oea?eao (ye a?aei-eaoieeoeueeo, oae ? i?aaineaaio);

?ica?ii iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, o oiio /ene?
oaeeo oaiiaaieo o ia?iae?, ye IOO, «I?ina?oai, «N?euenueeee ainiiaea?»,
«Ianeinithc» oa ?i.;

iania? ?ai?an??.

I?ney caoiieaiiy e?ath *a?aiiith A?i??th i?aeoe/ii a?ae?aco ?icii/aeeny
?ai?an??. Na?aae oe?a?ioe?a ?ai?oa ca ?ioeo caciaee ?ai?an?e aeoea?noe
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. ?aeeiith i?aai?ciaaiith neeith iii?o caeeoaeanue
I?aai?caoe?y oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a (IOI). Iaaani? 1940 ?. ?aaeei
?icii/aa oe?ieiianooaai? ?ai?an??:

— c inai? 1939 ?. aei inai? 1940 ?. o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aoei ?ai?aniaaii
ye iie?oe/ii iaaeaaiiaae?eieo e aeaii?oiaaii aeecueei 10 % ianaeaiiy
(318 oen. n?iae, aeecueei 1,2 iei. in?a). Nia?oi?noue na?aae
aeaii?oiaaieo neeaei. 16 % (aeaii?oiaaii a Nea?? ? Eacaonoai 400 oen.
oe?a?ioe?a);

— aeanyoee oeny/ ethaeae ia?aeoee ia iieuenuee? oa?eoi???, ieoiiaai?
i?ioeyie;

— ethaeae ia?ane?aeoaaee aac noaeo ? ne?aenoaa, aea c iaoith caeyeoaaiiy
ianaeaiiy ?ieiee i?iaiaeeeeny iieacia? i?ioeane (n?/aiue 1941—
Euea?anueeee i?ioean iaae 59 /eaiaie IOI).

Oe?eaai ciaoe

Iaaaoeai? i?iyae anoaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee noaee ana a?eueoa
i?iyaeyoeny a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1940 ?. sse iane?aeie a?aeaoaa?oueny
aeoea?caoe?y e?eueeino? IOI. Ca ae?oao iieiaeio ?ieo aiia i?iaaea CI
oa?i?enoe/ieo ca aeaa i?nyoe? 1941 ?. — 17. Aeoeaii iaeaaiaeaeoaaeiny
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c i?iaoeueeith ?ica?aeeith — Aaaa?ii. A?aeaoaaeany
i?aeaioiaea aei aioe?aaeyinueeiai iianoaiiy ia aeiaaeie ii/aoeo a?eie
i?ae I?ia//eiith oa N?N?.

Aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y

24 aa?aniy 1939 ?. a?aeaoeany cono??/ oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe??
(Aeiiiiiaiaee eii?oao) i?ae i?iaiaeii ae-?a E. Eaaeoeueeiai (aei yei?
aoiaeeee i?ioani? E. Nooaeeinueeee, ae-? ?. Ia?oaoeueeee, aaeaieaoe E.
Iao?ooaae/, N. Iaaaae, 3. Iaeainueeee, ae-? N. Aa?ai, ?iaeaia? Aai) c
?aaeyinueeei eiiaiaeaioii Eueaiaa aaia?aeii ?aaiiaei e oiiaiiaaaeaiei
I?uaieii. E. Eaaeoeueeee, yeee oi?iaeiaae i?aa?eo aoa iai?iioeai
oe?a?inoaa ia?aae /oaeeie ?aaeeiaie a Caoiae? Oe?a?i?, aeaieinea
i?iiiao, o ye?e, i?ae ?ioei, neacaa: cao?aei? oe?a?ioe? ciathoue iiai?
aeaaee, aea i?inyoue, aae ia aoei ?ai?an?e ca ieioea, aeicaieyea ? aeae?
i?aai?ciaoaaoe eoeueoo?ia e aeiiii?/ia aeeooy, uia aoei caa?aaea aacaoo
«Ae?ei», ia ia?ane?aeoaaeiny aeooiaainoai oiui. O a?aeiia?aeue
?aaeyinueee i?aaenoaaieee a?aeiia?ee: ui aoei aeioaia?, ionea?oueny a
iaaoooy, a ?aaeyinueea aeaaea aeiaaa? a?ae nai?o a?iiaaeyi eeoa
eiyeueiino? e ?acii c aecaieaii? i?eiineoue cao?aeiei oe?a?ioeyi aaaaoi
aeaa. Aea aaea ca aeae?eueea aei?a aac «Ae?ei» aoei cae?eoi, o
i?ei?uaii? ?? ?aaeaeoe?? ?ici?uaii ?aaeaeoe?th aacaoe «?aaeyinueea
Oe?a?ia». E. Eaaeoeueeee oa ?io? ae?y/? oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo e. XIX — 30-o
??. XX no. aoee caa?aooiaai? e a?aei?aaeai? aei Iineae.

Cae??ieaiiy iiaeo ciaiue

1) O ?acoeueoao? yeeo iiae?e cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? oa i?eaeoiaenuee? caie?
oa?eoee aei neeaaeo O?N??

2) *e iiaeia iaceaaoe iaiaae N?N? ia Iieueuo «aecaieueiei oiaeii»
*a?aiii? A?i??? Naith aeoieo ia??oiooeoa.

3) Ui iaaaoeaiiai oa iiceoeaiiai iiaeia aeae?eeoe o i?ioean? aoiaeaeaiiy
caiaeue aei neeaaeo O?N??

4) Ui oaea ?aaeyi?caoe?y? Iaca?oue ?? iniiai? neeaaeia?.

Iaa/ath/ee oano.

1) Eiee aoei oeeaaeaii Iaeo i?i iaiaiaae i?ae I?ia//eiith N?N??

a) 23 na?iiy 1939 ?.;

a) 1 aa?aniy 1939 ?.;

a) 17 aa?aniy 1939 ?.;

a) 28 aa?aniy 1939 ?.

2) Aeaa??oue oaa?aeaeaiiy, ye? ? iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie aeiaeaoeia?
i?ioieieo aei Iaeoo i?i iaiaiaae i?ae I?ia//eiith oa N?N?:

a) ?iciiae?e Iieueu? ia noa?e aieeao i?ae aeaiia e?a?iaie;

a) ?iciiae?e No?aeii? ?a?iie ia noa?e aieeao i?ae aeaiia aea?aeaaaie;

a) oeeaaeaiiy ai?iiiai nithco i?ae I?ia//eiith oa N?N?; ,

a) o/anoue N?N? o caoiieaii? aiae?enueeeo eieii?aeueieo aieiae?iue.

3) ssea oaiaea i?ae N?N? oa I?ia//eiith io?eiaea iacao Iaeo
??aaaio?iia—Iieioiaa?

a) Iaeo i?i iaiaiaae i?ae N?N? oa I?ia//eiith;

a) Aeiaia?? i?i ae?oaeao ? ei?aeiie i?ae N?N? oa I?ia//eiith;

a) i?e?aeiaiiy N?N? aei aea?aeaa «in?».

4) Ae?oaa na?oiaa a?eia ?icii/aeany c iaiaaeo I?ia//eia ia…

5) ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea ?icii/aee «aecaieueiee iio?ae» ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? o ….

6) sse? o?iioe aoee-ooai?ai? ?aaeyinueeei eiiaiaeoaaiiyi ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie i?ney iaiaaeo I?ia//eie ia N?N??

a) Oeaio?aeueiee ? I?aaeaiiee;

a) I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee ? I?aaeaiiee;

a) Cao?aeiee ? I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee; I?aaeaiiee ? Oe?a?inueeee.

7) Aeiaia?? i?i ae?oaeao ? ei?aeiie i?ae I?ia//eiith oa N?N? ia?aaeaa/aa
?iciiae?e Iieueu? ii…

a) ii ??/eao Ia?aa, A?nea, Nyi;

a) «e?i?? Ea?ciia»;

a) e?i?? aoi?/iiai ?icnaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a.

8) sse? oe?a?inuee? caie? iio?aieee a i?iaoeueeo noa?o ?ioa?an?a ca
Aeiaiai?ii i?i ae?oaeao ? ei?aeiie?

9) sseei aeoii aoei ocaeiiaii ?aaeyinueeee ?aaeei ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo?

10) Iie?oeea ?aaeyi?caoe?? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aeeth/a? a naaa
oae? caoiaee: …

11)Onoaiia?oue a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aeaoaie oa iiae?yie.

23 na?iiy 1939 ?.1) Anooi *a?aiii? A?i?? a Aanna?aa?th oa I?ai?/io
Aoeiaeio28 aa?aniy 1939 ?.2) Iaeo i?i iaiaiaae i?ae I?ia//eiith oa
N?N?22 aeiaoiy 1939 ?.3) Aeai?e aei Ia?iaeieo Cai??a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie28
/a?aiy 1940 ?.4) Aeiaia?? i?i ae?oaeao ? ei?aeiie i?ae N?N? ?
I?ia//eiith

12) sse? iaeano? aoee ooai?ai? ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui aoee
i?e?aeiai? aei O?N? o 1939—1940 ??.?

a) Euea?anueea, Oa?iii?euenueea, Aieeinueea, ??aiainueea,
?aaii-O?aie?anueea, Caea?iaonueea, *a?i?aaoeueea;

a) Euea?anueea, Ae?aaiaeoeueea, Oa?iii?euenueea, Noai?neaanueea,
Aieeinueea, ??aiainueea, *a?i?aaoeueea;

a) Euea?anueea, Ae?aaiaeoeueea. Oa?iii?euenueea, Noai?neaanueea,
Aieeinueea, ??aiainueea, *a?i?aaoeueea, ?cia?euenueea.

Caeeth/ia neiai a/eoaey.

I?e?aeiaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo O?N?, aac novi?ao,
aoei iiae??th aaeeei? ?noi?e/ii? aaae. Oia?oa ca aaaaoi noie?nmoe?a?ioe?
ia’?aeiaeeny o iaaeao iaei??? aea?aeaaii? no?oeoo?e. I?ioa oea aoei
cae?eniaii noae?inueeei oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii, yeee ea?oaaa aeanieie
?ioa?anaie.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ci?ie Oe?a?ie a 1939—1940 ??.

??eOa?eoi??aeuei? ci?ie1939Caea?iaooy (Ea?iaonueea Oe?a?ia) ~ ieoiaoe?y
? i?e?aeiaiiy Oai?ueiith

No?aeia Aaee/eia, Cao?aeia Aieeiue — aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo O?N?

Oieiueia, I?aeeyooy, Iinyiiy, Eaie?aueia — anoaiiaeaii? i?iaoeueei?
ieoiaoe?eii? aeaaee (oa?eoee aei neeaaeo Iieuenueeiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noaa)1949I?ai?/ia Aoeiaeia, Oioeiueia, I?eaeoiaenueeee
e?ae — aoiaeaeaiii aei neeaaeo O?N?

Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

1) Ii?aoethaaoe § 1];2) I?aeaiooaaoe ?aoa?aoe ca oaiaie: «Ae?yeuei?noue
IOI o 1939-1941 ??.», «Noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie iaia?aaeiaei? a?eie». 3)
Aeia?aaeaeaeueia caaaeaiiy. I?aeaiooaaoeny aei nai?ia?nueeiai? Caiyooy
ca oaiith «Ieoiaoe?y Oe?a?ie a?enueeaie I?ia//eia ?? nithciee?a».

Oaia 2. Ieoiaoe?y Oe?a?ie a?enueeaie I?ia//eie oa ?? nithciee?a

Iaoa. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe o?ae aieiaeo ae?e ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a
1941-1942 ??. ?ice?eoe i?e/eie ii?acee *a?aiii? A?i?? oa ieoiaoe??
Oe?a?ie i?iaoeueeeie a?enueeaie oa ?o nithcieeaie. Iieacaoe aa?i?ci
ai?i?a o ai?iouea? i?ioe caaa?aiee?a. Cae??ieoe iaae/ee aiae?co ?
c?noaaeaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo, oi?iiy ?icaeyaeaoe ?noi?e/i? yaeua a
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao. Aeoiaoaaoe o/i?a o aeon? iao??ioecio,
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa a?aeiino?.

Oei o?ieo: eiia?iiaaiee.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee, no?iia ea?oa «Oe?a?ia a ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie», aoean.

Aoaie o?ieo: ?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

22 /a?aiy 1941 ?. a?enueea oaoenonueei? I?ia//eie oa ?? nithciee?a
cae?enieee iaiaae ia N?N?. Ca aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeaiei ieaiii «Aa?aa?inna»
I?ia//eia oa ?? nithcieee cina?aaeeee ia ei?aeii? c ?aaeyinuee Nithcii
190 aeea?c?e e?euee?noth 5,5 iei in?a. ?i i?ioenoiyei oa?oaaiiy
?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee, yea iae?/oaaei 170 aeea?c?e ? 2 a?eaaaee (2,9 iei
in?a). I?iaoeueeee ieai aoa ?ic?aoiaaiee ia oaeaeea i?inoaaiiy a?enuee
aei iaeaaaeeea?oeo iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oeaio??a, ioi/aiiy ?
?ica?ii ?aaeyinueeeo /anoei o i?eei?aeiiieo aiyo. Ia Oe?a?io aoei
ni?yiiaaii ianooi a?oie a?i?e «I?aaeaiue», yei? aoiaeeee oaeiae
?oioinuee? oa oai?nuee? a?enueea. ?i i?ioenoiyee a?enueea Ee?anueeiai
Iniaeeaiai oa Iaeanueeiai a?enueeiaiai ie?oa?a.

Caaaeii a?enueea ai?iaa iinooiaeeny ?aaeyinueeei a?enueeai a Oe?a?i? ye
e?euee?nii, oae ? a ica?i?ii?. Aea ia iai?yi? aieiai? oaea?o ai?ia iaa
ia?aaaao. Oaea a ia?oee oeaeaeaiue a?eie aiei? neee a?oea??aoe?a iaee
iaieiae?oe Ee?aii. Aea iiae?? ?icai?oaee ?iaeoa. 23 /a?aiy 1941 ?.
aieiai? /anoeie i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee eiio?aoaeiaai? ?aaeyinueeeie
iaoai?ciaaieie ei?ionaie a ?aeii i?no Eooeuee-?iaii-Aeoaii-A?iaee.
?icai??eanue ia?oa a Ae?oa?e na?oia?e a?ei? a?aiae?icia oaieiaa aeoaa,
ui o?eaaea aei 29 /a?aiy. Oi/a *a?aiia A?i?y (?EEA) e caciaea ii?acee,
?e aaeaeiny coieieoe i?inoaaiiy i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee ia oeaeaeaiue.

I?ney ii?acee a i?eei?aeiiieo aiyo ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea ii/aee
a?aeoiaeeoe ia e?i?th oe??ieaiue noa?iai ei?aeiio («e?i?y Noae?ia»), ia
ye?e ia?aaeaa/aeiny coieieoe i?inoaaiiy i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee. Ia an?
?aaeyinuee? /anoeie ciiaee aaeaei cae?enieoe iaiaa? ii a?aeoiaeo. 5
eeiiy 1941 ?. i?iaoeuee? a?enueea coi?ee i?i?aaoe iai?iio noeoe? 5-? ?
6-? ?aaeyinueeeo a?i?e ? aeeoee aei iai?iiieo nii?oae i?noa. Oeae aeaiue
aaaaea?oueny ii/aoeii Ee?anueei? no?aoaa?/ii? iai?iia iia?aoe??, ui
o?eaaea 83 aei?. I?iaoeueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy ioe?ieei i?i?ea ye ae??oaeueio
ia?aiiao, ? iaae?iiy Ee?aa aaaaeaeiny ni?aaith a aeeae/iai /ano. Ia 21
eeiiy A?oea? i?ecia/ea ia?aae ia O?auaoeeo. Oa oeei ieaiai ia noaeeeiny
cae?enieoeny. I?iaoeuee? /anoeie, i?ae?eoee aei ia?oi? nioae iai?iie, ia
ciiaee ?? iiaeieaoe.

Ia?oee ooo?i Ee?aa 11—14 eeiiy aeyaeany aeey ai?iaa iaaaeaeei. Oe?
iiae?? iieeaee ii/aoie aa?i?/i?e iai?ii? i?noa, ui o?eaaea 71 aeaiue.
Iaaaeaeeie aoee ? ianooii? ni?iae iaieiae?oe i?noii. Aa?i?ci caoeniee?a
i?noa (iiiaae 120 oen. a?eoe?a, ?c yeeo 33 oen. noaiiaeei ia?iaeia
iiie/aiiy) no?eei o?eiaee iai?iio. 21 na?iiy A?oea? i?eeia? ??oaiiy
i?eieieoe eiaia? aoaee i?noa. I?ae Ee?aii ai?ia oo?aoea 100 oen. in?a.
Ianooi ia Ee?a oei/aniai i?eieieany.

Oei /anii iia?aoeaia neooaoe?y iaaeiei Ee?aa noaea oneeaaeithaaoeny. Ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae? a ?aeii? Oiai? ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea aoee ioi/ai? e
?ica?iieai?. Ai?ia aeeoia aei Aei?i?a i?aaeaii?oa Ee?aa. Ia ii/aoeo
aa?aniy 1941 ?. i?iaoeuee? a?enueea c i?aii/? oi?noaaee Aeanio ? a
?aeii? E?aiai/oea Aei?i?i. Iaae a?enueeaie I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai o?iioo
iaaenea caa?ica ioi/aiiy. ?aeeiei niiniaii a?yooaaoe ?aaeyinuee?
a?enueea a?ae ioi/aiiy aoei caeeoeoe Ee?a. Aea Noae?i eaoaai?e/ii
caai?iiea oea. Oaea neooaoe?y aeicaieeea i?iaoeueeei a?enueeai o
na?aaeei? aa?aniy caaa?oeoe ioi/aiiy ee?anueeiai oa?oiiaaiiy
?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee. Eeoa 17 aa?aniy Noaaea a?aeaeaea iaeac caeeoeoe
Ee?a, aea aoei aaea i?cii. A?enueea I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai o?iioo
iio?aieee a ioi/aiiy ? aoee ?ica?iieai?. Caaeioei i?aeoe/ii ana
ea??aieoeoai o?iioo ia /ie? c I. Ee?iiiinii. O iieii iio?aieei 663 oen.
/a?aiiia?i?eoe?a. 19 aa?aniy o Ee?a anooieee i?iaoeuee? a?enueea.

5 na?iiy 1941 ?. 300-oeny/ia i?iaoeueei-?oioinueea oa?oiiaaiiy ?icii/aei
ianooi ia Iaeano. I?ney aa?i?/ii? iai?iie 16 aeiaoiy 1941 ?. caoenieee
caeeoeee i?noi. Aaaeoeiaai? /anoeie aoei ia?aeeiooi aei Naaanoiiiey,
yeee ciaoiaeeany o ai?iaeiio ioi/aii?. Iai?iia i?noa o?eaaea 250 aei?a.
Ca i’youe i?nyoe?a a?eie ai?iaia? aaeaeiny i?inoiooenue ia 900-?200 ei
oaeea Oe?a?ie. Ia ieoiiaaieie caeeoaeeny eeoa oa?eoi??? ia noiae?
Oe?a?ie.

I?e/eie ii?acee ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee

— ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai ia /ie? c E. Noae?iei ia aaeeei iaiao?aeieo
caoiae?a aeey iaeaaeii? i?aeaioiaee ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee aei a?aen?/?
ai?iaa; iino?eia ionoaaiiy oace, ui iaeo i?i iaiaiaae ? aa?aio??th
I??ieo a?aeiinei c a?oea??anueeith I?ia//eiith, aeaci???iooaaei a?i?th ?
ia?iae (cayaa OA?N a?ae 14 /a?aiy 1941 ?., o ye?e aa?n?y i?i i?aeaioiaeo
I?ia//eie aeey iaiaaeo ia N?N? iaceaaeany i?iaieaoe?eiith).

— Na?eici? i?i?aooiee aoee aeiiouai? E. Noae?iei ? Aaia?aeueiei ooaaii o
aecia/aii? iai?yieo aieiaiiai oaea?o ai?iaa. ?aaeyinueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy
aieiaiei iiieeeiai aaaaeaei ianooi ia Oe?a?io, oiae? ca’?aeii c ieaiii
«Aa?aa?inna» aieiaiee oaea? iaea iaiineoe a?oia a?i?e «Oeaio?» ia
A?ei?on?th o iai?yieo ia Iineao. — Cia/iee aieiaee aeina?o i?iaoeueeiai
eiiaiaeoaaiiy ? aieiaeo /anoei o aaaeaii? no/anieo iia?eueieo aieiaeo
ae?e ?c canoinoaaii? cia/ii? e?eueeino? oaie?a ? e?oae?a.

— Iaaaeaea ?icoaooaaiiy ?aaeyinueeei a?enuee aeey aaaeaiiy iai?iiieo
ai?a. A?enueea aoee ?ici?uai? o?ueiia aoaeiio ie (57-ia, 52? ? 62-aa
aeea?c??), ui i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui c’?aeiaiiy anooiaee o ? ii /a?c?, e
oea aeaaaei iiaeeea?noue ?icaeo?-? ?o /anoeiaie

— ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea iaa?oue ia aiooaaeeny aei iai?iiieo ai?a. A?e
ia?aaeaa/aeiny aanoe «iaeith e?ia’th e ia oa?eoi??? ai?iaa». Neeaaee
ai?i?eian?a oa ?ioiai ai?iiiai iaeia aoee ?icoaoiaai? caiaaeoi aeec aei
ei?aeiio ? aaea a ia?o? aei? iieieeenue o ?oeao ai?iaa.

— Iai?iii? nii?oaee ia iiaiio ei?aeii? ia aoee aeiaoaeiaai? aei ii/aoeo
aieiaeo ae?e. Aei oiai ae aiie aoee iaaaeaei ?icoaoiaai? («e?i?y
Iieioiaa»), Iai?iii? nii?oaee ia noa?iio ei?aeii? aoee ?icca?ith

— Iania? ?ai?an?? 1937—1938 ??. a a?i?? oa a iiaeaeueo? ?iee i?ecaaee
aei aeieuaiiy e?aueo eiiaiaeieo eaae??a *a?aiii? A?i??. Aoei cieuaii
aeecueei 45 oen. in?a eiiaiaeiiai neeaaeo an?o ??ai?a (?ai?an?yi aoa
i?aeaeaiee aanue eiiaiaeiee neeaae Ee?anueeiai A?enueeiaiai ie?oao).
Iia? eiiaiaee?e ia iaee aeinoaoiueiai aieiaiai ? aeeoo?aa aeina?aeo.

— A?enueea ia aoee a/anii i?eaaaeai? a aieiao aioiai?noue (ca ie?aiei
aeeeth/aiiyi), uia aeaoe iaeaaeio a?aen?/ ai?iaia?, iacaaaeath/e ia oa,
ui noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai aoei a/anii iiia?aaeaeaii iiaeeeaee iaiaae.

— Aa?aoe?y aoea neoi/aia ia iniiaieo aa?iae?iiao, a ia ?icii?ioai? ia ii
iieueiaeo, ui i?ecaaei aei aaee/acieo ao?ao ia ii/aoeo a?eie (o ia?o?
aiaeeie a?eie ia 66 aa?iae?iiao aoei cieuaii 579 e?oae

?c ii/aoeii aieiaeo ae?e ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ii/aeanue iia?e?caoe?y
?ano?n?a aeey ai?ioueae c ai?iaii. I?iieneia?noue ia?aaiaeeeanue ia
ai?ii? ?aeee, eoea iia?e?caoe?y aei eaa *a?aiii? A?i??». Oae o ia?o?
i?nyoe? a?eie ?c 16 iaeanoae Oe?a?ie aoei iia?e?ciaaii 2 iei. 515 oen.
891 in.

Aei ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiiy aei e?ioey 1941 ?. anooieei 1300 oen. O eeii?
1941 ?. o aeieuoaaeueieo caaiiao iae?/oaaeinue 158,7 oen. I?inoaaiiy
ai?iaa oa?eoi???th Oe?a?ie iio?aaoaaei a oa?i?iiaiio ii?yaeeo
i?aai?coaaoe aaaeoaoe?th i?iieneiaeo ia’?eo?a, ?ano?n?a, oe?iiinoae
oaeea e?a?ie. Oae, aei no?aeieo ?aeii?a N?N? aoee aaaeoeiaai? iiiaae 550
aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa o?eaeoeyoe aaeocae i?iieneiaino? (i?ney aecaieaiiy
iiaa?ioeiny eeoa e?eueea). CI oen. o?aeoi??a, 125 iei. ioae?a ca?ia oa
?ioiai i?iaeiaieuenoaa, 6 iei. aie?a ooaeiae, aaaeoeiaai? onoaiiae
Aeaaeai?? iaoe O?N?, 70 aoc?a, 50 oaao??a. Ae?oaei 3,5 iei. in?a
ianaeaiiy. Oa, ui ia i?aeeyaaei aaaeoaoe?? ia?aaeaa/aeiny cieueoe.

Aa?i?/iee ii?? *a?aiii? A?i?? e i?aaiaiiy i?iaoeueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy
iaieiae?oe ?ano?naie Oe?a?ie i?ecaaee aei ia?aianaiiy aieiaiiai oaea?o
i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee c oeaio?aeueii? ae?eyiee ?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeiai
o?iioo (Cao?aeiee o?iio) a Oe?a?io. Iacaaaeath/e ia ii?aceo ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee a Oe?a?i? oa ?? ieoiaoe?th, aa?i?/iee ii?? *a?aiii? A?i??»
i?eca?a aei c?eao ieai?a «aeeneaae/ii? a?eie» ? aoa aeiaa?oaiee
?ica?iiii ai?iaa i?ae Iineaith (ceia 1941—1942 ??.).

Oe?eaai ciaoe

Ia?o? oni?oe i?ae Iineaith aeaee iiaeeea?noue ?aaeyinueeiio
eiiaiaeoaaiith — „cai?iooe ianooiaeuei? iia?aoe?? ia ?ioeo ae?eyieao
?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeiio o?iioo. Oae, eiiaiaeoaaiith
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai ? I?aaeaiiiai o?iio?a aoei iinoaaeaii caaaeaiiy
i?i?aaoe o?iio ai?iaa a ?aeii? Aaeaeea? oa A?oai?anueea, aeeoe a oee
aeiiaanueeiai oa?oiiaaiiy ai?iaa e a?ae??caoe eiio a?aenooi ia cao?ae.
Iaeii/anii ia?aaeaa/aeiny caaaeaoe oaea?o a iai?yieo E?aniia?aaea,
iath/e ia iao? caaacia/eoe oni?o ianooiaeueieo ae?e c i?aii/? e
aecaieeoe Oa?e?a. Oe? aeaeaeinyaei? ieaie ia aoee caaacia/ai?
aeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth nee, oiio ?acoeueoaoe ianooio 18—31 n?/iy 1942
?. aeyaeeeny iaiaaeaieie (Aa?a?ie?anueei-Eicianueea iia?aoe?y). Oi/a
?aaeyinuee? a?enueea e i?inoioeeny ia Cao?ae ia 100 ei, aea aeiaeii?
no?aoaa?/ii? iaoe ia aeinyaee. Ianooi i?eca?a aei ooai?aiiy
Aa?a?ie?anueeiai aenooio, ui caa?iaeoaaa aeiiaanueeiio oa?oiiaaiith
ai?iaa. Oi?iaeiaae ethoiai—ea?oiy 1942 ?. a ?aeii? aenooio oi/eeeny
caiaee? ai?, ai ai?ia iaiaaaany eiai e?ea?aeoaaoe, a ?aaeyinueea
eiiaiaeoaaiiy i?aaioei caaacia/eoe ieaoeaea?i aeey iiaiai ianooio ia
Oa?e?a,ui a?aeaoany o o?aai? 1942 ?.

Caeiaoaoe ia?aiiao a aeoa? i?ae Iineaith, ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai noaei
iiieeeiai aaaaeaoe, ui ai?iaa iiaeia ia?aiiaoe, ?icai?ioaoe caaaeueiee
ianooi ii an?o o?iioao. Iaaani? 1942 ?, aoei caieaiiaaii ieceo
ianooiaeueieo iia?aoe?e a Oe?a?i? (?aeii Oa?eiaa) oa a E?eio. Ia oie
naiee /an i?iaoeueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy ae?oeo 1942 ?. aiooaaei aaeeeee
ianooi ia i?aaeaiiiio oeaic? o?iioo, aea cina?aaeeei aieiai? neee c
iaoith aeoiaeo aei Noae?ia?aaea ? Eaaeaco

Aeey oeueiai iio??aii aoei caaa?oeoe ?ica?ii ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee O
E?eio (Ea?/ainueeee i?aino??a, ui aoa ca?eueiaiee ?aaeyinueeeie
a?enueeaie aceieo 1942 ?. a ?acoeueoao? Ea?/ainueea-Oaiaein?enueei?
iia?aoe??, oa Naaanoiiieue).

Ca oaeiai no?aoaa?/iiai ?iceeaaeo nee ??oaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai
eiiaiaeoaaiiy aeyaeeiny iiieeeiaei ? i?ecaaei aei aeaio iiaeo ii?acie
?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee (o?aaaiue 1942 ?.). O ?aeii? Oa?eiaa iioa?i?ea
ii?aceo Aa?a?ie?anueea ianooiaeueia iia?aoe?y. Aieiai? neee ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee ia oe?e ae?eyioe? aoee ioi/ai? e ?ica?iieai?. 227 oen.
*a?aiiia?i?eoe?a iio?aieee a iieii, a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee o?iio
caeeoeany aac aoaeue-yeeo ?aca?a?a.

?aaeyinuee? a?enueea oaeiae iioa?i?ee ii?aceo ? ia Ea?/ainueeoiy
i?aino?ia?, aea aoee ianiiae?aaii aoaeiaai? 11-ai i?iaoeueeith a?i??th
i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi Iaiooaeia. *a?ac i?i?aooiee eiiaiaeoaaiiy
E?einueeiai o?iioo a?eueoa /anoeia ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee aoea ioi/aia. O
iieii iio?aieei 180 oen. a?eoe?a. I?ioa aeaye? /anoeie ?aaeyinueei?
a?i?? (15 oen. in?a) cae??ieeeny a Aaeaeoiooeaenueeeo eaiaiy?iyo i?ae
Ea?/o ? o?eaaeee /an /eieee caiaeeee ii??, ia?ii niiae?aath/enue
aeiiiiiao. Ii?acea ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ia Ea?/ainueeiio i?aino?ia?
aeaea ciiao i?iaoeueeei a?enueeai ?icai?iooe ae??oaeueiee ianooi i?ioe
caoeniee?a Naaanoiiiey. 4 eeiiy 1942 ?. i?ney 250-aeaiii? iai?iie i?noi
aoei caoiieaii. Inoaii?e ?oa?ae iai?iie ciaoiaeue ia i?aino?ia?
Oa?niian. O iieii iio?aieei aeecueei 100 oen. ?in?enueeeo a?eoe?a.

Ii?acee ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee i?ecaaee aei iiaii? ieoiaoe?? Oe?a?ie 22
eeiiy 1942 ?. i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeeie a?enueeaie.

Caa?i?oue oaaao!

A?eia, ui ?icii/aeany, a N?N? aoea iacaaia «Aaeeeith A?o/eciyiith
a?eiith». Oaea 22 /a?aiy1941 ?. aeaaeai?e I. ss?ineaanueeee iaienaa
noaooth, yeo ianooiiiai aeiy iaae?oeoaaea aacaoa «I?aaaea» i?ae
caaieiaeii «Aaeeea a?o/eciyia a?eia ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo» ia ii/aoeo
an? o?e neiaa ienaeeny c iaei? e?oa?e). Caiaeii cai?iaaaeaeaii aaeeeo
e?oa?o aeey neiaa «a?o/eciyia», a iai?ee?ioe? a?eie ii/aee ienaoe ia?o?
aeaa neiaa c aaeeei? e?oa?e). Oey iacaa iaea ia eeoa aiioe?eiee, a e
iia?e?caoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. A Oe?a?i? noaooy I. ss?ineaanueeiai c’yaeeany
24 /a?aiy a ee?anuee?e aacao? «Niaaoneay Oe?auia» oa oa?e?anuee?e aacao?
«E?aniia ciaiy».

Naiino?eia ?iaioa ca i?ae?o/ieeii

Neeaae?oue oaaeeoeth ca iaoa??aeii i?ae?o/ieea «Iniiai? aeoae ia
?aaeyinueei-i?iaoeueeiio o?iio? a 1941 ?.»

AeoaaAeaoaIa?aa?a, ?acoeueoaoCia/aiiyOaieiaa aeoaa
??aia-Aeoaii-Eooeuee-A?iaee 23-29 /a?aiy 1941Ee?anueea iai?iia
iia?aoe?y7 eeiiy-26 aa?aniy 1941Iai?iia Iaeane5 na?iiy-16 aeiaoiy
1941Iai?iia Naaanoiiiey30 aeiaoiy 1941 — 4 eeiiy 1942

I?AeNOIEE O?IEO

Caeeth/ia neiai a/eoaey.

Aa?i?/iee ii?? *a?aiii? A?i?? ? i?aaiaiiy i?iaoeueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy
iaieiae?oe ?ano?naie Oe?a?ie i?ecaaee aei ia?aiana aieiaiiai oaea?o
i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee ?c oeaio?aeueii? ae?eyiee ?aaeyinueeo-i?iaoeueeiai
o?iioo (Cao?aeiee o?iio) a Oe?a?io. Iacaaaeath/e ia ii?aceo ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enuee a Oe?a?i? oa ?? ieoiaoeith, aa?i?/iee ii?? *a?aiii? A?i??
i?eca?a aei c?eao ieai?a «ae?oee?eao»

AeIIAOI? CAAAeAIIss

Ii?aoethaaoe § 2-3

Oaia 3. Oe?a?ia ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? a?eie 1944-1945 ??.

Iaoa. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe i?ioean caaa?oaiiy aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie a 1941-1942
??. Iieacaoe o/anoue oe?a?ioe?a o aecaieaii? ia?iae?a ?a?iie. ?ice?eoe
noaiiaeua ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o 1944-1945 ??. Cae??iethaaoe
iaae/ee aiae?co e c?noaaeaiiy ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo, oi?iiy ?icaeyaeaoe
?noi?e/i? yaeua a eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao.

Oei o?ieo: eiia?iiaaiee.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee, no?iia ea?oa «Oe?a?ia a ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie», aoean.

Aoaie o?ieo:

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Ia?aa??ea ciaiue

?V. Aea/aiiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

V. Cae??ieaiiy aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo

VI. I?aenoiee o?ieo

VII. Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Ia?aa??ea ciaiue

O?iioaeueia iieooaaiiy.

1) Ia?aiiaa a ye?e aeoa? aeaea ciiao ?aaeyinueeei a?enueeai i?enooieoe
aei aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie?

2) sse a?aeaoaaeiny ca?eueiaiiy E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie oa Aeiiaano?

3) Aeiaaae?oue, ui i?ae /an aeoae ca Aei?i?i aoa i?iyaeaiee ianiaee
aa?i?ci ?aaeyinueeeo nieaeao?a.

4) Ui oaea «No?aeiee aae»?

5) sse? iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeeee ia?oecaie?

?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caaaeaiiy.

Ea?oea ? 1

sse i?iyaeany oioae?oa?iee oa?aeoa? ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio i?ae /an aeoae
ca Aei?i?i?

Ea?oea ? 2

Noa?aeoa?ecoeoa ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeenue a ?aeaieia?? IOI.

Ea?oea ? C

sse? oaeoi?e ni?eyee oni?oiiio ianooio ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee o 1943 ?. a
Oe?a?i??

Ea?oea ? 4

*iio i?iaoeueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy iaaeaaaei aaeeeiai cia/aiiy oo?eiaiith
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie o nai?o ?oeao?

?V. Aea/aiiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

Aecaieaiiy i?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie e Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue

?iaioa ca i?ae?o/ieeii.

Ei?enooth/enue oaenoii i?ae?o/ieea,neeaae?oue oaciaee ieai.

Iia?aoe?? ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ii ca?eueiaiith I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue

1) AEeoiie?i-Aa?aee/?anueea iia?aoe?y (n?/aiue 1944 ?.)

2) Ei?noiue-Oaa/aie?anueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 24 n?/iy 1944 ?.)

3) ??aiainueei-Eooeueea iia?aoe?y (ethoee 1944 ?.)

4) I?eiiieuenueei-E?eai??cueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 30—31 n?/iy 1944)

5) I?ineo??anueei-*a?i?aaoeueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 4 aa?aciy 1944 )

6) Iaeanueea iia?aoe?y (aa?acaiue 1944 ?.)

8) E?einueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 8 ea?oiy 1944 ?.)

9) Euea?anueei-Naiaeiie?nueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 13 eeiiy 1944 ?.)

10) ssnnueei-Eeoei?anueea iia?aoe?y (ii/aoie 20 na?iiy 1944 ?.)

11) Ee?iaonueei-Oaeai?iaenueea iia?aoe?y (aeiaoaiue 1944 ?.)

Caieoaiiy oa caaaeaiiy.

1)Ui coiiaethaaei oaeaiee ii?? ai?iaa i?e aecaieaii? I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie e cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue? 2) Iaca?oue iia?aoe??, o
?acoeueoao? yeeo aoei aecaieaii I?aaiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io e
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie?. 3) sseith oe?iith aoei ca?eueiaii Oe?a?io
a?ae ieoiaio?a?

Ioaea, i?aenoiiao? a/eoaeue, o ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo o n?/i? 1944 ?.
/ioe?ia Oe?a?inueeeie o?iioaie ai?iieo iia?aoe?e oa?eoi??y oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue aoea inoaoi/ii ca?eueiaia a?ae a?oea??anueeex caaa?aiee?a.

8 aeiaoiy 1944 ?. aoei aecaieaii inoaii?e ianaeaiee ioieo O?N? o iaaeao
ei?aeii?a 1941 ?. (no. Eaai/ia).

14 aeiaoiy 1944 ?. a Ee?a? a?aeaoeiny o?i/enoa can?aeaiiy c iaaiaee
aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie. 28 aeiaoiy 1944 ?. aoei aecaieaii Oaeai?iae —
inoaii?e ianaeaiee ioieo o iaaeao no/anieo ei?aeii?a Oe?a?ie. Aieia?
ae?? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie o?eaaee 1225 aei?a (83,3 % a?ae caaaeueii?
o?eaaeino? Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie).

I?eioniaa aenaeaiiy ia?iae?a — iiaee cei/ei noae?inueeiai ?aaeeio

Naiino?eia ?iaioa ca i?ae?o/ieeii.

Ii?aoethaaoe a?aeiia?aeiee iaoa??ae i?ae?o/ieea.

Oe?eaai ciaoe

?c i?aaeaiieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie oa E?eio aoei aenaeaii 238,5 oen.
e?einueeio oaoa?, iieiaeia c yeeo caaeioee, 14,7 oen. a?ae?a, 8,5 oen.
a?piei, 12,4 oen. aieaa?.

Aan?aea ca ieoaiiyie

C yeiai iaoith aoei i?iaaaeaii oe? iia?aoe???

O/iio caeioaa/o-aaeeny ia?iaee, ui aoee i?aeaeai? ?ai?an?yi?

3. ?oo iii?o ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? a?eie ??iue ?i. Aiaoia, eo??iue ?i.
O. Oaa/aiea oa a?aeae?e ii?o/eea

A) ?AAessINUeEEE IA?OECAINUeEEE ?OO.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie iniiaiith iaoith ae?yeueiino?
?aaeyinueeeo ia?oecainueeeo c’?aeiaiue aoei: — ni?eyoe ae?yi *a?aiii?
A?i?? o aecaieaii? Oe?a?ie;

— cana?ae/oaaoe i?enooi?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia ua
ieoiiaai?e oa?eoi???;

— aanoe ?ic’ynithaaeueii-aa?oaoe?eio ?iaioo;

— o i??o aecaieaiiy oa?eoi??? Oe?a?i? ia?aiineoe naith ae?yeuei?noue ia
oa?eoi??th ?oioi??, Oai?ueie, Neiaa//eie oa Iieueu?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia nei?i/aiiy ieoiiaaii? oa?eoi???, ?aaeyinueeee
i?aei?eueiee oa ia?oecainueeee ?oo iaae?aa ana a?eueoiai ?iciaoo. ia
I?aaiaa?aaeae? ae?yei 350 i?aei?eueieo i?aai?caoe?e oa iiiaae 20
ia?oecainueeeo c’?aeiaiue, caaii?a oa aeeaa?n?eii-?ica?aeoaaeueieo a?oi.
Iniaeea?noth ia?oecainueeiai ?ooo oeueiai /ano aoea eiai o?nia
aca?iiae?y c ?aaeyinueeith a?i??th, yea ? iaaeae? o nai?o iia?aoe?yo
nie?aeany ia aeiiiiiao ia?oecai?a. Oaeaeea i?inoaaiiy a?enuee ?
Oe?a?inueeiai o?iio aoei caaacia/aia aecaieaiiyi ia?oecaiaie, ?aeii?a
??aiainueei? oa . Aieeinueei? iaeanoae. Ia?oecainuee? caaiie acyee
aeoeaio o/anoue o ca?eueiaii? 47 i?no, na?aae yeeo ??aia, Eooeuee,
Oiaiue, Eai?iue-Eaoe?nueeee. O?eaaee ?aeaee ia?oecai?a ii aeeaieeo oeeao
ai?iaa, o yeeo a?aa o/anoue 19 c’?aeiaiue ? 25 ie?aieo caaii?a. O
n?/i?—ea?oi? 1944 — Euea?anueei-aa?oaanueeee ?aeae 1 Oe? ia?oecainueei?
aeea?c?? c’?aeiaiiy Eiaiaea i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi I. Aa?oiai?e. I?ae /an
?aeaeo ia?oecaie i?ieoee c aiyie 2100 ei oa?eoi???th Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on?,
Iieueu?. O oie aea /an cae?enieei ?aeae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie caie? ?
c’?aeiaiiy i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi I. Iaoiiaa.

O i??o ciaioaiiy ciie ieoiaoe?? Oe?a?inueeee ooaa ia?oecainueeiai ?ooo
?icoi?ioaaa /anoeio ia?oecainueeeo caaii?a, i?e?aeiaaoe ?o aei neeaaeo
ae?th/i? a?i??. ?aooa i?iaeiaaeeea ae?yeuei?noue ia oa?eoi??? non?aei?o
e?a?i. Ia oa?-?? Iieueu? ae?yei n?i c’?aeiaiue ? 26 ie?aieo caaii?a,
aaaaoi aeeaa?n?eii-?ica?aeoaaeueieo a?oi. Ia oa?-?? ?oioi?? oa Oai?ueie
ae?yee niaoe?aeuei? aeeaa?n?eii-?ica?aeoaaeuei? a?oie.

Aioeoaoenonueea ai?ioueaa ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ni?aaeea /eiaeee aieea ia
aeoea?caoe?th iii?o a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao. Aei iueiai
i?e?aeioaaeeny oe?a?ioe?, ye? o?eaee c eiioeoaai??a. Oai aiie noaaaee
aeoeaieie o/anieeaie aioeoaoenonueeiai ?ooo o Iieueu?, THaineaa??,
A?aoe??, O?aioe??, ?oae??.

Aeiaeaoeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y

O neeaae? o?aioeocueeiai ?ooo Iii?o ?nioaaee o?e ie?ai? oe?a?inuee?
a?aeae?ee: eo??iue ?i. Aiaoia, eo??iue ?i. O. Oaa/aiea oa a?aeae?e
ii?o/eea E?oeianueeiai. Aiie ooai?eeeny c a?aeae?e?a oe?a?ioe?a, ye?
aithaaee o neeaae? i?iaoeueei? a?i?? oa ia?aeoee ia a?e ia?oecai?a. E??i
oiai, o neeaae? o?aioeocueeiai ?ooo Iii?o aithaaei /eiaei
oe?a?ioe?a-a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, ui aoaeee c eiioeoaai??a. Iaeiei c oaeeo
a?eoe?a aoa eieeoi?e eaeoaiaio *a?aiii? A?i?? A. Ii?ee, yeee noai?ea ?
i/ieea ia?oecainueeee caa?i. A?i caaeioa o aith aoa iinia?oii
oaeinoi?iee caaiiy Aa?iy ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, noaa aeciaiei
iaoe?iiaeueiei aa?i?i O?aioe??.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ieoiiaaii? a?oea??anueeeie a?enueeaie, 80 %
ianaeaiiy neeaaeaee oe?a?ioe?. O i’yoe iaea?eueoeo ia?oecainueeeo
c’?aeiaieo, ui ae?yee a Oe?a?i?, o?eueee 46 % a?eoe?a aoee oe?a?ioeyie,
o c’?aeiaii? Eiaiaea — o?eueee CI %. ?c anueiai neeaaeo ?aaeyinueeeo
ia?oecai?a ?in?yie neeaaeaee 52.9 %. a?ei?one — 33,9 %, oe?a?ioe? — 5,9
%. ?io? iaoe?iiaeueiino? — 7,3 %. OIA iaeaea ia 90 % neeaaeaeany c
oe?a?ioe?a.

Ae?yeuei?noue IOI-OIA

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Ia ii/aoie 1944 ?. OIA ia?aoiaoaaea 50 aeania oe?a?inueeeo eo?ai?a ? 15
eo?ai?a, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeee i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo ia?iae?a. O ieo
ia?aoiaoaaeiny 80 oen. oe?a?ioe?a ? 20 oen. i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

O?eueee-ii ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea cae?enieee ianooi ia I?aaiaa?aaeaey,
eiiaiaeoaaiiy OIA i?eeiyei ??oaiiy i?i ia?aaeeneieaoe?th iniiaieo /anoei
OIA a iaea?eueo i?eaeaoi? aeey ai?ioueae ?aeiie (Ea?iaoe oa Aieeiue) oa
?icione iaai?caeaoieo oi?ioaaiue. O ?acoeueoao? aaeeoeo caoiae?a
e?euee?noue aiye?a OIA nei?ioeeany iaeaea iaiieiaeio. ?c iaaeeaeaiiyi
?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee aei ?aeii?a, eiio?ieueiaaieo OIA, aiia i?aeoe/ii
i?eieieea ai?ii? ae?? i?ioe i?i a?enueea. Inoaiiy aioe iianoainueea
iia?aoe?y i?ioe OIA ii i?i/?noaaiith Ea?iao aoea i?iaaaeaia aa?o iaoii
oe?oeo 1944. I?ioa aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aiia ia aeaea. A iai?i ia
?ica?aeoaaii? aeai? aaaa? (i?iaoeueea ?ica?aeea) ciaia’ycaany iinoa/aoe
OIA ca?i?th oa ai?i?eianaie.

Ao?aoe Oe?a?ie

Aeaea?aea oa oe?ia ia?aiiae

Ethaenuee? ao?aoe

Iaoa??aeuei? caeoee

Aeaiia?ao?/i? ao?aoe (c /ieia?e?a 1923-24 ??. ia?iaeaeaiiy aeeaeie
caeeoeeiny eeoe 3-5%)

Iie?oe/i? iane?aeee

I?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie, iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Oe?ia ia?aiiae aeyaeeanue caiaaeoi aei?iaith. *iio aiia aoea naia
oaeith?

A ?noi?e/i?e ? ioae?oeenoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ia oea ieoaiiy ?niothoue aea?
oi/ee ci?o. Ia?oa: oea noaei ?acoeueoaoii ?aioiaiai iaiaaeo
a?oea??aoe?a, ?oiuei? aei?noiei? ieoiaoe?eii? iie?oeee, aacaeaeueiiai
cieuaiiy ie?iiai ianaeaiiy.

Ae?oaa: oea noaei ?acoeueoaoii iaioaaiiy noae?inueei? nenoaie, ia
oe?ioaaea ethaenueeiai aeeooy. Ia?aiiaa ca aoaeue yeo oe?io. Caaaeeoe
ai?iaa o?oiaie nai?o nieaeao?a.

Cae??ieaiiy aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo

Aan?aea ca caieoaiiyie.

1) O ?acoeueoao? yeeo iia?aoe?e aoei ca?eueiaii I?aaiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io ?
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie??

2) Eiee aoei iiai?noth aecaieaii oe?a?inuee? caie??

3) sse? caoiaee cae?enithaaea ?aaeyinueea aeaaea ia ca?eueiaieo
oa?eoi??yo?

4) Ui oaea aeaii?oaoe?y?

5) sse? ia?iaee aoee i?aeaeai? aeaii?oaoe?? o 1944 ?.?

6) sseee aianie c?iaeee ai?ie-oe?a?ioe? o ca?eueiaiiy ia?iae?a ?a?iie
a?ae iaoeenonueei-i?iaoeueeiai

I?aenoiee o?ieo

O 1944 ?. o ?acoeueoao? aeeneo/a i?iaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e oa?eoi??th
Oe?a?ie aoei iiai?noth aecaieaii a?ae iaoeenonueei? ieoiaoe??. I?ioa
aeey oe?a?ioe?a a?eia ia cae?i/eeany. Ai?ie-oe?a?ioe?, ui aithaaee o
neeaae? ?aaeyinueei? A?i??, i?iaeiaaeeee ai?ioueao ca ca?eueiaiiy e?a?i
?a?iie a?ae i?iaoeueei? ieoiaoe??. Oei /anii o cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie ?icai?oaeany ni?aaaeiy a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie
?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie ? i?eoeeueieeaie ?aea? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie. O
ia??aio ai?ioueao c? noae?inueeei ?aaeeiii anooieea OIA. Oaeei /eiii,
aeey Oe?a?ie 9 o?aaiy 1945 ?. ie? ianoaa.

Ae?oaa na?oiaa a?eia aei?iai eioooaaea Oe?a?i?: aaeee? ethaenuee?
aea?oae e iaoa??aeuei? ao?aoe. Oe?a?ioe? c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o
ia?aiiao iaae iaoeenonueeith I?ia//eiith.

Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

I?aoethaaoe oaeno i?ae?o/ieea § 7—8

Oaia 6. Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie a ?iee a?eie

Iaoa. Noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a ?iee a?eie.
?ice?eoe, yeei aoa aianie oe?a?inueei? oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe?? o ia?aiiao
iaae oaoeciii. Iciaeiieoe o/i?a c iniiaieie caeiaooeaie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e a ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. Oi?ioaaa ?ioa?an o/i?a aei
eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeoiaoaaoe aenie? ii?aeuei?
yeino? ia e?aueo c?aceao iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e.

Oei o?ieo: eiia?iiaaiee.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee, no?iia ea?oa «Oe?a?ia a ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai?
a?eie», aoean.

Aoaie o?ieo:

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Ia?aa??ea ciaiue

?V. Aea/aiiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

V. Cae??ieaiiy aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo

VI. I?aenoiee o?ieo

VII. Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Ia?aa??ea ciaiue

O?iioaeueia iieooaaiiy.

1) sseee aianie c?iaeea Oe?a?ia a ia?aiiao iaae I?ia//eiith?

2) Iaca?oue i?e/eie aeaii?oaoe?? e?einueeeo oaoa?, a??iai, aieaa? o 1944
?.

3) *e iiaeia ai?ioueao OIA i?ioe noae?inueeiai ?aaeeio aaaaeaoe
a?iiaaeyinueeith a?eiith?

Aea/aiiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

Naiino?eia ?iaioa ca i?ae?o/ieeii. Neeaaeaiiy oaaeeoe? «Aeinyaiaiiy
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a ?iee a?eie»

Noa?a eoeueoo?e AeinyaiaiiyIna?oaIaoeaE?oa?aoo?aOaao? ? e?iiCI?Oea?eiaia
aeeooy

Cae??ieaiiy aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo

1) Iaca?oue caeiaooee oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo o ?iee a?eie

2) Ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa aianie ieooe?a o ia?aiiao iaae ai?iaii

3) sseeie aoee iane?aeee ieoiaoe?? aeey oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e?

VI. I?aenoiee o?ieo

VII. Aeiiaoi? caaaeaiiy

I?aoethaaoe oaeno i?ae?o/ieea § 9.

Oaia 7. Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei? ci?ie. Aeo?ae O?N? ia
i?aeia?iaeio a?aio

Iaoa. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ci?ie aaiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie, ui
a?aeaoeeny i?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. C’ynoaaoe
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei? ci?ie a iiai?iiee /an. I?euaiethaaoe
iaae/ee ii??aithaaoe e c?noaaeyoe iaeiioeii? ?noi?e/i? iiae??, i?ioeane,
aeae?eyth/e ia oe?e iniia? aieiai? iciaee iaaiiai ?noi?e/ii? ia??iaeo.
Aeoiaoaaoe ?ioa?an aei nai?? ?noi???.

Oei o?ieo: o?ie canai?iiy iiaeo ciaiue.

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee, aoean.

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeuei? ci?ie. ?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Ieoaiiy i?i cao?aeiee ei?aeii N?N?, a a?aeiia?aeii e Oe?a?ie, aino?i
iinoaei i?ae /an caaa?oaeueieo iia?aoe?e Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a
?a?ii?, Aiii aeoeaii iaaiai?thaaeiny i?ae /an Oaaa?ainueei? (1943),
sseoeinueei? (1945 ?.) oa Iionaeainueei? (1945) eiioa?aioe?e e?aea?aie
aea?aeaa aioea?oea??anueei? eiae?oe??.

Inoaoi/ii ia?ene iiai?iieo ei?aeii?a O?N? noi?ioaaeeny o i?ioean?
oe?a?ii-iieuenueeiai, oe?a?ii-/aoineiaaoeueeiai, oe?a?ii-?oioinueeiai
oa?eoi??aeueieo ?iciaaeoaaiue oa th?eaee/iiai cae??ieaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ui oa?eoee aei neeaaeo O?N? i?ioyaii
1939-1945??. Iniaeeai neeaaeiei e o?eaaeei aoei a?aaoethaaiiy
oa?eoi??aeueieo ieoaiiy c Iieueuath oa *N?. Ia oeae i?ioean cia/ii
aieeaaei i?aeia?iaeia noaiiaeua, cie?aia i?aaiaiiy N?N? cae??ieoeny o
No?aei?e ?a?ii?.

Ia?oei e?ieii ia oeyoo oe?a?ii-iieuenueeiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?iciaaeoaaiiy noaea Ethae?inueea oaiaea i?ae o?yaeii O?N? ? iieuenueeei
Oei/aniaei Eii?oaoii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Aecaieaiiy a?ae 9 aa?aniy 1944 ?.
A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai aeieoiaioa /anoeia niieiia?/ieo Oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue (/anoeia I?aeeyooy, Oieiueia, Iinyiiy, Eaie?aueia), aea
i?iaeeaaei iaeaea 800 oen. oe?a?ioe?a, ia?aaeaaaeany Iieueu?. O oaeee
niin?a noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai iaiaaaeiny i?aeo?eiaoe iieuenueeee
i?i?aaeyinueeee o?yae ? caeaaeeoe iaaaoeaia ni?eeiyooy iieuenueeith
a?iiaaenuee?noth ?aaeyinueei? aa?an?? 1939 ?

Aeiiiaeai?noue i?ae N?N? oa Iieueuath aoei aeinyaiooi 16 na?iiy 1945
i?ae /an i?aeienaiiy aeiaiai?o noiniaii ?aaeyinueei-iieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ei?aeiio. Oey oaiaea cae??iethaaea ei?aeii ii «e?i??
Ea?ciia» c a?aeo?eaiiyi ia no?ae (ia ei?enoue Iieueu?)ia 5-8 ei, a ia
ie?aieo ae?eyieao ia 17 ei (?aeii Iaie??a—sseoaea) — ? iaa?oue ia 30 ei
(?aeii ?. Nieii?y ? i. E?ee?a).

Inoaoi/ii i?ioean iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy caaa?oeany 1951
?.. eiee ia i?ioaiiy Iieueu? a?aeaoany iai?i i?eei?aeiiieie oa?eoi??yie.
Oiane?aeie oeueiai aei Euea?anueei? iaeano? oa?eoee caie? a ?aeii? i?noa
E?enoiiiey (caiaeii ia?aeiaiiaaiiai a *a?aiiia?aae), a aei Iieueu?
i?ae?eoee oa?eoi??? aeiaeiea i?noa Ieaei? Ono?eee Ae?iaiaeoeueei?
iaeano?.

?c iaaeeaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee aei ei?aeii?a *aoi-Neiaa//eie
iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i iiaeaeueoo aeieth Ea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie. O
?aaeyinueei-/aoineiaaoeueeeo ia?aaiai?ao c ai?a?aionueeei o?yaeii A.
Aaiaoa ? aeiaiai?? i?i ae?oaeao, aca?iiaeiiiiiao ? i?neyai?iia
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?ae *N? oa N?N? (12 a?oaeiy 1943 ?.) ieoaiiy i?i
Ea?iaonueeo Oe?a?io ae??ooaaeiny ia ei?enoue *aoineiaa//eie.

Aea c? anooiii ?aaeyinueeeo a?enuee ia oa?eoi??th Ea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie
neooaoe?y ci?ieeany. ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai noaei ?icaeyaeaoe oeae
?aa?ii ye aaaeeea?e no?aoaa?/iee ieaoeaea?i aeey iineeaiiy aieeao a
Oeaio?aeuei?e oa I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy nai??
no?aoaa?/ii? iaoe ?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai aeei?enoaei aioeoaoenonueeee
oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ianaeaiiy e?ath. C? ca?eueiaiiyi e?ath
a?ae oaoenonueei? ieoiaoe?? aeeoee c i?aei?eey Ia?iaei? eii?oaoe, ye?
noaee a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue i?aai?a i?noeaai? naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ? eiioi?noe,
ye? 19 eenoiiaaea 1944 ?. canioaaee naiino?eio Eiioi?noe/io ia?o?th
Caea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie. A?aeiiaeaiiy /aoineiaaoeueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??
aaeueioaaeiny. A?eueoa /anoeia e?ath aoea aeeth/aia a ciio, ia yeo
iioe?thaaeanue aeaaea ?aaeyinueei? ai?iii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

O oaeeo oiiaao 26 eenoiiaaea 1944 ?. a i?no? Ioea/aaa aoei neeeeaii
c’?cae Ia?iaeieo eii?oao?a. Ia iueiio aoei noaaeaii Iai?oano i?i
aicc’?aeiaiiy c ?aaeyinueeith Oe?a?iith, ia?aii Ia?iaeio ?aaeo,
aa?oiaiee caeiiiaeaa/ee i?aai aeaaee Caea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie ? noi?iiaaii
o?yae. Aeineoue oaeaeei aoei noai?aii an? ao?eaooe aea?aeaaiino?
Caea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie — noae, i?ieo?aoo?o, ca?iei? neee, i?aaie
oi?aae?iiy ia i?noeyo oiui.

Iiae?? a Caea?iaoo? oo?aoaaee o?yae *N?. I?i?no? caei?aeiiieo ni?aa ss.
Iana?ee a?aeaa?oi cayaea, ui Caea?iaooy ia aoaea a?aeaeaii, ai «?in?th
ia iiaeia ioneaoe a ?a?iio». Oa o?ae iiae?e cioooaaa ea??aiee?a
*aoineiaa//eie a?aoiaoaaoe iia? ianoaaeie. Iiceoe?y ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy
aoea /?oeith ? iine?aeiaiith — aei Oe?a?ie. N?N?, ii?oooth/e iiia?aaei?
oaiaee, i?aaioa yeiaeoaeaeoa ae??oeoe aeieth Caea?iaooy ia naith
ei?enoue. On? ni?iae o?yaeo *N? ia?aianoe oea ieoaiiy ia iaaiai?aiiy
iiai?iii? i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??

Ae?aaeaeeny ia i?ioeae?th noae?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa. C?aooith o?yae *N?
ciooaiee aoa iinooieoeny. O /a?ai? 1945 ?. aeiaia?? i?ae *N? oa N?N?
th?eaee/ia cae??iea ??oaiiy c’?caeo a Ioea/aaiio. 22 n?/iy 1946 ?. aoei
aeaeaii oeac I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? i?i ooai?aiiy a neeaae? O?N?
Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?. Oeae aeo iaeii/anii e?ea?aeoaaa aac caiaee
ianaeaiiy Caea?iaonueeo Oe?a?io ye aea?aeaaia ooai?aiiy.

Aenooiath/e 30 /a?aiy 1945 ?. ia VII nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N?, O?ouia
cayaea, ui oe?a?inueeee ia?iae oia?oa aicc’?aeiaany a ?aeeio Oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaao. e?aieo o aecia/aii? iiai?iieo ei?aeii?a Oe?a?ie aoei aianaii
10 ethoiai 1947 ?. i?ae /an i?aeienaiiy ?aaeyinueei-?oioinueeiai
Aeiaiai?o, ca yeei aeciaaaeiny i?aai O?N? ia I?ai?/io Aoeiaeio,
Oioeiueio, ?cia?eueueio, oiaoi th?eaee/ia cae??iethaaeeny ei?aeiie,
anoaiiaeai? a /a?ai? 1940 ?.

Ioaea, iiai?iiee i?ioean a?aaoethaaiiy ei?aeii?a O?N? a?aeaoaaa
iaoiaeaie, i?eoaiaiieie oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiai, ? a ?ioa?anao eiai
no?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ye? ca?aeeny c i?aaiaiiyi oe?a?ioe?a
ia’?aeiaoeny a ?aeei?e aea?aeaa?.

I?ioean o?aaoethaaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo ieoaiue iaa aeey Oe?a?ie oae?
iane?aeee: aoee inoaoi/ii aecia/ai? oa th?eaee/ia aeciai? ei?aeiie
?anioae?ee; oa?eoi??y O?N? ca?eueoeeany ia 110 ei2; a?aeaoeeny
aeaiia?ao?/i? ci?ie; iniiaio /anoeio oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aoei
ia’?aeiaii a neeaae? iaei??? aea?aeaae.

Ia’?aeiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, aeo?ae ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio coiiaeee
ci?io aea?aeaaii? neiaie?ee ?anioae?ee. O eenoiiaae? 1949 I?aceae?y
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N? i?eeiyea oeac i?i Aea?aeaaiee Aa?a O?N?,
Aea?aeaaiee I?aii? O?N?, Aea?aeaaiee A?ii O?N?. *a?aiiee i?aii? c
iaienii «O?N?» aoei cai?iaii aeaieie??iei: aa?oiy /anoeia, ui noaiiaeea
2/3 oe?eie iieioia, aoea /a?aiiith, a ieaeiy iaea na?oei-aeaeeoiee
(eaco?iee) eie??. O aa?oiueiio e?aiio eoo? i?aii?a i?noeeinue
cia?aaeaiiy na?ia ? iieioa, a iaae ieie — i’yoeeooia c??ea. Aeayeeo ci?i
caciaa ? aa?a O?N?, ?c 1950 ?. aoei caii/aoeiaaii aeeiiaiiy a?iio O?N?.
(Aeaiiino?o?oueny cia?aaeaiiy iiaiai i?aii?a ? aa?aa.)

Oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie caaa?oeeiny o 1954. Oeueiai ?ieo
a?aecia/aeiny 300-??//y Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee. E?a?iith i?ieioeeany
oe?iea ? aio/ea i?iiaaaiaeenonueea eaiiai?y OeE EI?N iaia?iaeoaaa
o?eiaaeoeyoue «oac», o yeeo aeiaiaeeeany iioeoi?noue «a?/iiai nithco»
oe?a?ioe?a c ?in?yiaie. Oeaio?aeueiith iiae??th tha?eaeieo oi?aeanoa
noaea ia?aaea/a E?eio O?N?. 19 ethoiai 1954 ?. I?aceae?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
N?N?, iioeaoth/e nai? ??oaiiy ni?euei?noth aeiiii?ee, oa?eoi??aeueiith
aeecuee?noth oa o?nieie ainiiaea?nueeeie oa eoeueoo?ieie ca’yceaie i?ae
E?eiii oa Oe?a?iith i?eeiyea oeac «I?i ia?aaea/o E?einueei? iaeano? c?
neeaaeo N?N? aei neeaaeo O?N?». sse cacia/aeiny, aeo ? «na?ae/aiiyi
ae?oaeae ?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo».

Aea e?einueeee «iiaea?oiie» aoa ia oaeei aeia?i/eiiei aeoii nii/aoeo
caeaaaeiny. I?e?aeiaiiy E?eio ia?aeeaei ia Oe?a?io ?yae aeiiii?/ieo ?
iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai. O ?acoeueoao? a?eie ? aeaii?oaoe?? oaoa? o ?aa?ii?
iaioaaa aeiiii?/iee oain. Aei oiai ae, ?in?yie, ui i?iaeeaaee a E?eio
(860 oen. in?a) /eieee ii?? aoaeue-yeei ni?iaai oe?a?i?coaaoe aeeooy
iaeano?. Oaeei /eiii, a O?N? noaea. iii?oi?oith i?enooi?noue ?in?yi, ui
ni?eyei iiaeaeueo?e ?oneo?eaoe?? Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?ia — ni?a caniiaieoey III. Ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e
a?ai?

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Iai?ee?ioe? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Oe?a?ia ciiao aeoiaeeoue ia
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io a?aio. I?ioa, aoaeo/e neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, aiia aoea ia a ciic? i?iaiaeeoe naiino?eio
ciai?oith iie?oeeo.

27 n?/iy 1944 ?. ia ieaioi? OeE AEI(a) aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i
?icoe?aiiy i?aa nithciee ?anioae?e o noa?? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. X
nan?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? (28 n?/iy — 1 ethoiai 1944 ?.) i?eeiyea caeii
i?i ia?aoai?aiiy Ia?eiiaoo caei?aeiiieo ni?aa ?c caaaeueiinithciiai ia
nithcii-?anioae?eainueeee. A a aa?aci? 1944 ?. Aa?oiaia ?aaea O?N?
i?eeiyea caeii i?i ooai?aiiy Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
?anioae?ee. I/ieea Ia?iaeiee eii?na??ao Ae. Iaio?euenueeee.

Cae?enieaoe oaeee e?ie, noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai ia?ane?aeoaaei
aeaeaeinyaeio no?aoaa?/io iaoo. Ii-ia?oa, i?aaenoaaeoe i?e?aeiaiiy
cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on?? ye aeo aicc’?aeiaiiy aoi?/ieo
oa?eoi??e. Ii-ae?oaa, ca?eueoeoe e?euee?noue nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a o
i?aeia?iaei?e i?aai?caoe??, ia?aaiai?e i?i noai?aiiy yei? aeoeaii aaeeny
iai?ee?ioe? a?eie.

Ia E?einuee?e eiioa?aioe?? a ethoiio 1945 ?. NOA oa Aiae?y ciaia’ycaeeny
i?aeo?eiaoe i?iiiceoe?th ?aaeyinueeiai o?yaeo uiaei i?eeiyooy O?N? oa
A?N? o /eaie 00I. 6 o?aaiy 1945 ?. oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y i?eaoea aei
Nai-O?aioeenei ia onoaiia/o eiioa?aioe?th 00I ? aeoeaii aeeth/eeanue o
?iaioo. Ae. Iaio?euenueeee i/ieea eii?oao i?aeaioiaee oaenoo i?aaiaoee
(anooio) ? ia?oiai ?icae?eo Noaoooo 00I — «Oe?e? oa i?eioeei?a
i?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe??. ?io? /eaie oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe?? — ?.
Nai?i, Iaeeaae?e, A. Aiiaea?/oe, I. Iao?ianueeee, I. Iia?aaiye — oaeiae
acyee aeoeaio o/anoue o ?iaio? eii?oao?a

Ia ia?o?e nan?? Aaia?aeueii? Anaiaea? 00I 1946 ?. Oe?a?io aoei ia?aii
aei neeaaeo Aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? ?aaee, a a 1948-—1949 ??. Oe?a?ia
iae?a?oueny iaiino?eiei /eaiii ?aaee Aaciaee 00I. I?aaenoaaea Oe?a?ie
cai?ioothoue aei ?iaioe o aeayeeo no?oeoo?ao i?aai?caoe?yo, o oiio /ene?
I?aeia?iaeiiio noae?. Oe?a?ia i?aeo?eiaea i?ioaiiy ia anooi aei 00I
Oeaeeiio oa Eaino. ?? i?aaenoaaiee a?ae?a?aa ae??oaeueio ?ieue o
i?eeiyoo? ??oaiiy i?i iiae?e Iaeanoeie e noai?aiiy ?a?ae ueei? oa
iaeanoeinueei? aea?aeaa.

?c ia?oeo ?ie?a naiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueea aeeieiiao?y i?iaiaea
Aeineoue aeoeaio iie?oeeo. Ia /ie? c ia?eiiii Ae. Iaio?euenueeei aiia
a?aea o/anoue o Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe?? (29 eeiiy -15 aeiaoiy
1946 ?.) ? a ethoiio 1947 ?. iinoaaeea na?e i?aeien i?ae ie?ieie
aeiaiai?aie c ?oae??th, ?oioi??th, Oai?ueiith, Aieaa???th oa
O?ieyiae??th.

Oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y acyea aeoeaio o/anoue o ?iaio? Aeoiaenueei?
eiioa?aioe?? 1948 ?., yea ae??ooaaea ieoaiiy ?aaeeio oi?aiaiai
noaeiiieaanoaa ia Aeoia?. O ?iciae «oieiaeii? a?eie» O?N? oa?eoea aei
Anana?oiuei? ?aae? Ie?o, Cai?iiiioaaea oe?eo ieceo ie?ieo ?i?oe?aoea.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oaeo ao?oeeao ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?ia
ia aeoiaeeea ca iaae? iie?oeee iineianueeiai oeaio?o. Oae oaiaee: c
Iieueuath oa *aoineiaa//eiith i?i a?aaoethaaiiy ieoai?e ei?aeii?a
i?aeienoaaeenue i?aaenoaaieeii Nithciiai Ia?eiiaoo caei?aeiiieo ni?aa. A
i?iiiceoe?? Aaeeeia?eoai?? (1947) oa Noaeaio (1956) uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy
i?yieo aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei c O?N? ? caeeoeeeny aac a?aeiia?ae?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeo?ae O?N? ia ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io a?aio aoa coiiaeaiee
no?aoaa?/ieie ?ioa?anaie N?N?.

Oe?eaai ciaoe

Oia?oa aeaeaaaoe?y O?N? a 00I cayaeea i?i naaa, aenooieaoe ?i?oe?aoeaith
?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy uiaei iaiaaaiue Aieeaiae?? oa Aaeeeia?eoai??
a?aeiiaeoe nai? eieii?aeueia iaioaaiiy a ?iaeiiac??. Ua iaeiei aaaeeeaei
e?ieii oe?a?inueei? aeaeaaaoe?? noaee ?? e?iee, ui ni?eyee ooai?aiith
aea?aeaae ?c?a?eue.

I?ioa aae aei ?icaaeo N?N? oe?a?inueea aeaeaaaoe?y ia iaea naiino?eiino?
o ae?yo. Ciai?oi?i i?iyaii ianaiino?eiino? oe?a?inueei? i?n?? a 00I aoei
?icoaooaaiiy ia iaeiiio c iiaa?o?a i?aaenoaaieoeoaa N?N? a 00I o
Iueth-Ei?eo. O ?iee oieiaeii? a?eie» oe?a?inuee?e aeeieiiao?? aoei
aeae?eaia, ye oiae? aaaaeaeiny, iaeo?aeueia ae?eyiea aeeieiiaoe/ii?
?iaioe — nioe?aeuei? e aoiai?oa?i? ieoaiiy, ye? nueiaiaei? ?
i?ia?aeieie. Oae, Oe?a?ia noaea aaoi?ii ?i?oe?aoi?ii i?iaaaeaiith ?ieo
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iaaeee?a na?oo; ii ai?iouea? c iaienueiaii?noth ?
i?aeaioiaoe? eaae??a aeey ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny.

Oia?oa a 00I oe?a?inueea iiaa i?icao/aea a 1960 ?. i?ae /an aenooio
ia?oiai nae?aoa?y OeE EIO I. I?aeai?iiai.

CAE??IEAIIss IIAEO CIAIUe

Aan?aea ca caieoaiiyie.

1) sseeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo ci?i caciaea a ?acoeueoao?
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie?

2) *ei aoa coiiaeaiee aeo?ae O?N? ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio o e?ioe? Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie?

3) sseee aieiaiee ?acoeueoao i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? O?N??

I?AeNOIEE O?IEO

Caeeth/ia neiai a/eoaey.

Ae?oaa na?oiaa a?eia i?ecaaea aei cia/ieo ci?i o aeie? Oe?a?ie. O?N?
aeeoea ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio ye noa’?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, aoee
i?aeia?iaeia aeciai? cao?aei? ei?aeiie O?N?, aeiei??iii ci?ieany neeaae
ianaeaiiy ?, ui iaeaaaeeea?oa, oia?oa ca aaaaoi noie?oue iaeaea an?
oe?a?inuee? caie? iieieeenue o iaaeao iaei??? aea?aeaae.

AeIIAOI? CAAAeAIIss § 12-13

Oaia 8. Iiai?iia a?aeaoaeiaa a Oe?a?i?

Iaoa. ?ice?eoe ci?no i?ioeano a?aeaoaeiae oa eiai neeaaei?noue, iia?
cei/eie noae?inueeiai ?aaeeio. Iieacaoe aa?i?ci oe?a?ioe?a o a?aeaoaeia?
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. I?euaiethaaoe iaae/ee ii??aithaaoe ?
c?noaaeyoe iaeiioeii? ?noi?e/i? iiae??, i?ioeane, aeae?eyth/e ia oe?e
iniia? aieiai? iciaee iaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo. Aeoiaoaaoe a o/i?a
?ioa?an oa iiaaao aei nai?? ?noi???.

Oei o?ieo: eiia?iiaaiee

Iaeaaeiaiiy: i?ae?o/iee, aoean.

O?Ae O?IEO

?. I?aiiiaio

??. Iioeaaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?

???. Canai?iiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo

Ia?ao?ae aei ie?iiai aeeooy.

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

Oe?a?io iaiao?aeii aoei i?aei?iaoe c ?o?i ? iiiaeo. Aeaiia?ao?/i? ao?aoe
noaiiaa 17-18 iee in?a, iaoa??aeuei? ao?aoe 1,2 o?ei e?a.,
eaoano?io?/iee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa. Iniiaiith ?iai/ith neeith noaee
ae?iee ? i?aee?oee.

Aei e?ioey 1945 ?, aoei a?aeiiaeaii 44 % iiai?iieo iiooaeiinoae
iaoeiiaoae?aii? 30% eaaei? i?iieneiaino?, oaaaeaii a ae?th 123 aaeee? oa
506 ae??aieo oaoo Aeiiaano. I?iaiaeeeeny ?iaioe ii a?aeiiaeaiith
aeeoeiaiai oiiaeo, a?aeiiaeaii ?iaioo cia/ii? /anoeie oe?e, aoc?a,
iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a.

Iaei??th c aecia/aeueieo ?en iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie aoei ci?oeiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie — no?eaeiai yei? aoea eiioi?noe/ia
ia?o?y. Ia 1 n?/iy 1946 ?, EI(a)O iae?/oaaea 320 oen /eai?a, ?o
e?euee?noue c?inoaea. Ia?o?eiee aia?ao iino?eii i?aaioa aei oiai, aae
caaacia/eoe na?e oioaeueiee eiio?ieue iaae on?ia noa?aie noni?eueiiai
aeeooy.

Ia ca?eueiaieo oa?eoi??yo a?aeiiaethaaeanue ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. O ethoiio 1947 ?. aoee i?iaaaeai? aeai?e aei
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee, oiane?aeie /iai a?aeiiaeeanue o?aaeeoe?eia aeey ie?iiai
/ano no?oeoo?a aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. O a?oaei? 1947
a?aeaoeenue aeai?e aei i?noeaaeo ?aae.

Aiaeii/an aoei neaniaaii i?aaie oi?aae?iiy ai?iiiai /ano.
?ai?aai?ciaoaaeanue nenoaia oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth ? n?euenueeei
ainiiaea?noaii. O 1946 ?. ?aaeo Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a aoei ia?aeiaiiaaii o
?aaeo I?i?no??a O?N?.

I?aei?e?inoaa e onoaiiae ii?aoiaeeee ia ii?iaeueiee ?aaeei ?iaioe:
a?aeiiaethaaeeny 8-aiaeiiiee ?iai/ee aeaiue, a?aeionoee, neaniaaeanue
iiiaaeii?iiaa iaiiea/oaaia i?aoey. Nei?i/oaaeeny aneaioaaiiy ia iai?iio.
I?iieneia?noue ia?aoiaeeea ia aeione ie?ii? i?iaeoeoe??.

A?aeaoaeiaa oa ?? iniaeeaino? a Oe?a?i?

?iaioa c aeieoiaioii.

O/eoaeue ia?aaea? ci?no eeth/iaeo iieiaeaiue aeieoiaioa.

Ia cono??/? c aeai?oeyie noae?inueeiai ie?oao Iineae 9 ethoiai 1946
Noae?i o nai?e i?iiia? aeae?e?a /ioe?e iniiai? iiceoe?? aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo N?N?: iaoee — aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ica?i?iiy ? iaeaaeiaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa; iaeeai — aeey i?aeo?eiee ?iaioe caaiae?a, oaa?ee,
o?ainii?oo; aaaiaia — aeey ae?iaieoeoaa iaioiaee?oaaiiy; oe?a — aeey
caaacia/aiiy a?i?? i?iaeiaieuenoaii.

Caieoaiiy.

sse ae aaaaea?oa, i?ney aecia/aiiy oaeiai eo?no yeei /eiii iaea
caoaaoeny a?aeaoaeiaa?

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

O aa?aci? 1946 ?. Aa?oiaia ?aaea O?N? caoaa?aeeea i’yoe??/iee ieai
a?aeaoaeiae ? ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia 1946—1950 ??.
Iiaeaeue a?aeaoaeiae ainiiaea?noaa iiai?noth a?aeoai?thaaea aoaie
?iaeono??ae?caoe?? c on?ia ?? iaaeie?eaie. Ia aeoieo aenia?o?a
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, aeey a?aeaoaeiae aoaea iio??aii aeae?eueea
aeanyoee?oue. Aea iaoooth/e iio?aaaie ? iiaeeeainoyie ethaeae, ieai
ia?aaeaa/aa iaioa i?ae ca i’youe ?ie?a a?aeaoaeoaaoe c?oeiiaai? ?aeiie
e?a?ie, a?aeiiaeoe aeiai?iiee ??aaiue i?iieneiaiai e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e iaa?oue eiai ia?aaeueoe.
I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? iaea c?inoe ia 36 %. Ianya eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ca
i’yoe??/eo noaiiaea 65 iei. e?a., ui ia?aaeuoaaei ??aaiue
eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ca o?e ia?aaeai?ii? i’yoe??/ee. Oaeei /eiii,
aeniaaeaia a?eiith ianaeaiiy ciooaia aoei i?aoethaaoe ia iaae? o?ce/ieo
iiaeeeainoae.

Iniaeeaino? a?aeaoaeiae a Oe?a?i?

Cia/i? ianooaae a?aeaoaeia/eo ?ia?o, a?eueoa i?ae o aoaeue-ye?e ?io?e
e?a?i? ?a?iie.

?ic?aooiie eeoa ia aeani? neee e ?ano?ne ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, a ia ia
ciai?oith aeiiiiiao. Oieiaeia a?eiai ?iaeea iaiiaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiy
cao?aeii?, ia?o ca ana aia?eeainueei?, o?iainiai? oa oaoi?/ii? aeiiiiiae

I?e a?aeaoaeia? i??i?eoao iaaeaaaany aaaee?e i?iieneiaino? oa
aia?aaoeoe? (80 % eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue) ca ?aooiie eaaei? i?iieneiaino?,
nioe?aeueii? noa?e oa n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (ia inoaii?
a?aeaiaeeeinue eeoa 7 % eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue).

A?aeaoaeiaa cae?enithaaeany oeaio?ae?ciaaii ca /?oeei aea?aeaaiei ieaiii

Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaeiaoaaeanue ? aeiaoaeiaoaaeanue ia ye
naiino?eiee, caieiooee ? naiiaeinoaoi?e eiiieaen, a ye /anoeia
caaaeueiinithcii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. E??i oiai, caaaeyee ?icaeoeo
iiaeo i?iieneiaeo oeaio??a N?N? ca O?aeii oa a Eacaonoai? aeiey Oe?a?ie
a caaaeueiinithciiio ae?iaieoeoa? cieceeany c 18 % o aeiai?iiee ia??iae
aei 7 % o 1945.

Aaaiia ?ieue iaeaaeaea aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaei?e nenoai?. Naia aiia
aeaea ciiao a noeneee oa?i?y iia?e?coaaoe ? cina?aaeeoe cia/i?
iaoa??aeuei? oa ethaenuee? ?ano?ne ia iaaiiio ia’?eo?.

Iai?iii?oe?eii aaeeea ?ieue ?aeaieia??, yea ciaoiaeeea na?e aeya o
oe?ieiianooaaieo iia?e?caoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo caoiaeao —
nioe?ae?noe/ieo ciaaaiiyo, ?ooao ia?aaeiaee?a oa iiaaoi??a.

Oneeaaeiaiiy a?aeaoaeia/iai i?ioeano aieiaeii 1946-1947 ??.

Ianoa/a ?iai/i? neee, a iniaeeai eaae?o?eiaaii?, no/aniiai onoaoeoaaiiy,
iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?e.

?acoeueoaoe a?aeaoaeia/iai ia??iaeo aoee iaiaeiicia/ieie. C iaeiiai
aieo, aoei caai?ii ?aie a?eie, a?aeaoaeiaaii i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie:
??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa yei? a 1946—1950 ??. ca?eueoeany a 4,4 ?ac ?
ia?aaeuea ??aaiue 1940 ?. ia 15%. I?ioa ianya ae?iaieoeoaa eaaeei?
i?iieneiaino? a 1950 ?. neeaaeaa eeoa 80 % aeiai?iiiai. C ?ioiai — oe?ia
a?aeaoaeiae aoea aeoaea aenieith. Cieaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai ??aiy aeeooy,
oyaee? aeeoeia? e iiaooia? oiiae aoee oa?aeoa?ieie aeey a?eueoino?
ianaeaiiy.

Neanoaaiiy ea?oeiai? nenoaie ?iciiae?eo i?iaeoeo?a e i?iaaaeaiiy
a?ioiai? ?aoi?ie a 1947 ?. iineeeee oyaa? a?aeaoaeiae aeey o?oaeyueo.

?ioei iaaaoeaiei iane?aeeii noaei inoaoi/ia ?ici?aiiy n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ia naeyi, ui io?eioaaee i?ca?io ieaoith, iioe?thaaeenue
nioe?aeuei? aa?aio??, aiie aoee iicaaaeai? i?aaa iaoe ianii?o, a
a?aeiia?aeii — a?eueii ia?anoaaoeny. Oaeiae ?i aeiaiaeeeiny niea/oaaoe
aaeee? iiaeaoee, ui aoee iaeeaaeai? ia i?enaaeeaia ainiiaea?noai. Aeey
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?aoe? eieainiiee?a Noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai
i?iaeiaaeoaaei aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eionia? oa ?ai?aneai? iaoiaee. Oae, 21
ethoiai 1948 ?. I?aceae?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? i?eeiyea oa?iiee Oeac
«I?i aenaeaiiy c Oe?a?inueei? ?N? in?a, ye? ce?nii ooeeythoueny a?ae
o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? e aaaeooue
aioea?iiaaenueeee ia?aceoe/iee niin?a aeeooy». Ca

Oeacii aoei ?ai?aniaaii 12 oen. eieainiiee?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?ai?an??
oa iaaeethaenuee? coneeey naeyi ia e?iaoeue i’yoe??/ee oae ? ia aaeaeiny
aeinyaoe iieaciee?a aeiai?iiiai ?icaeoeo. Aaeiaee ca?? ca?iiaeo o 1950
?. neeaaeaa eeoa 85 % aeiai?iiiai.

Aieiae 1946—1947 ??.

Caieoaiiy ia iiaoi?aiiy.

1) Ne?eueee ?ac?a aeiaaeiny ia?aaeeoe oe?a?ioeyi aieiae ca ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee?

2) *iio aieiaei? ?iee iaceaathoue aieiaeiii?aie?

3) Aei yeeo iane?aee?a aiie i?ecaaee?

?iciia?aeue o/eoaey.

O iiai?iiee /an ia nae? neeaeiny ae?ae iani?eyoeeaa noaiiaeua; ca ?iee
a?eie nei?ioeeenue iin?ai? ieiu?, ciaioeeiny iiaie?a’y ooaeiae, ia
aenoa/aei oaoi?ee, a iniaeeai ?iai/eo ?oe. Aea noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai
ia ia?aaeaa/aei ye?nue ci?ie ia nae?, a iaaiaee — iaei noaoe iaeiei c
aieiaieo aeaea?ae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeaoaeiae. I?ae oeneii Iineae o?yae
O?N? oa OeE EI(a)O ieaioaaa ia 1946 ?, oi?niaaii ca?eueoeoe iin?ai?
ieiu?, a?iaeaei?noue ? oe?aicaaio?aeth.

Iaaani?-oe?oeo 1946 ?. o?noiaaeoeyoue iaeanoae Oe?a?ie a?aceea iinooa.
Ceiia? oa y?ia? eoeueoo?e caaeioee. A oai, aea aiie caeeoeeeny,
o?iaeaei?noue neeaaeaea 2—3 oe/aa (o 1940 ?. —14,6 oe/aa, 1944 ?, — 10,8
oe/aa). Aaeiaee ca?? ca?ia aoa o o?e ?ace iaioei, i?ae O 1940 ?.
Ea??aieee aeayeeo iaeanoae ii/aee iaiieaaeeai caa?oaoeny aei o?yaeo c
i?ioaiiyi ciaioeoe ieaiia? caaaeaiiy oe?aicaaio?ae?, ye? a eeii? 1946 ?.
aoee ca?eueoai? c 340 aei 360 iei ioae?a. A?aeiia?aeaeth ia caa?iaiiy
i?i aeiiiiiao noaee ?ai?aneai? caoiaee. O n?euenuee? ?aeiie ae?oaee
i?aaenoaaieee aeueo i?aai?a ?anioae?ee, iaeanoae, noaeo, i?ieo?aoo?e.
O?eueee ca ia?oee eaa?oae 1947 ?. aei noaeiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aoei
i?eoyaiooi 1,5 oen. ea??aiee?a eieaini?a, 6 oen. eiioi?no?a aoei
i?eoyaiooi aei ia?o?eii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy aeac?aie
ia?o??. A?aeiiaea ae?th «Caeii i?i i’youe eieine?a», ca yeei aoei
canoaeaeaii e oa’yciaii oeny/? naeyi. Naeyie ii/aee o?eaoe a?ae
aieiaeii? nia?o? a a?eueo aeaaiiieo/i? ?aeiie (Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia), i?noa.
Uia oieeiooe iaacethaeiaiiy naea, ea?aeuei? i?aaie ii/aee a?aeooeoaaoe ?
iiaa?oaoe naeyi iacaae. Iacaaaeath/e ia aei?noie? ?ai?an?? aaeaeiny
c?a?aoe eeoa 60 % a?ae ieaio oe?aicaaio?ae? (aeeo/aii aoei iaa?oue
ian?iiee oiiae).

Iinooa caaino?eea ? i?iaeaio ei?i?a, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eeinue ia
oaa?eiieoeoa?. Ii/aany iaae?ae ooaeiae. Uia oeueiio caiia?aoe, aoei
Aeicaieaii caeaaaoe ooaeiao ia caa?e iiiaae ii?ie. Oea i?ecaaei aei
oiai, Ui a aeayeeo iaeanoyo ieai ii caaio?ae? i’yna aoei ia?aaeeiiaii
oaea?/?. O ?acoeueoao? oaa?eiieoeoai ?anioae?ee caciaei aaee/acieo
ae?ao, eiiiainiaoaaoe ye? aeiaaeinue aeineoue aeiaai.

O oie /an, eiee ca iaae? Oe?a?ie aoaeiiaie aeaiceany oe?a (eeoa E?a?ie
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa O?aioe?th aeey i?aeo?eiee ?aaeei?a, ui oai
anoaiiaeeeny, aoei aaceiooiaii aeaacaii 1,7 iei. oiii ca?ia), o e?a?i?
?icii/aany aieiae, aea?oaaie yeiai noaee iaeaea 1 iei. in?a.

Iieieaoenue ia?aae caa?icith eaoano?ioe, ea??aieoeoai Oe?a?ie ia /ie? c
I. O?ouiaei iaiaaaeiny ciaioeoe ?? ianooaae ca ?aooiie cao?aeieo
iaeanoae ? caa?oaiiyi ii aeiiiiiao aei Iineae. O a?aeiia?aeue Noae?i
cayaea O?ouiao: «Oe i’yeio?eee! Oaaa iaaeo?ththoue, aiie a?athoue ia
oai?e naioeiaioaeueiino?. Aiie oi/ooue, uia ie aeo?aoeee Aea?aeaai?
caiane». O aa?aci? 1947 ?. iaaeinoaoiuei «oaa?aeiai» O?ouiaa aoei
cai?iaii ia Eaaaiiae/a. I?ioa aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ianeaii? eaiiai?? aoea
iaaeaia iice/ea a 35 iei. ioae?a ca?ia.

Iane?aeeaie aieiaeo noaei: oneeaaeiaiiy ? aac oiai aaaeeiai i?ioeano
a?aeaoaeiae: nei?i/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a naea oa eiai iiaeeeainoae
iaae?iiy ii?aeueiiai aeooo ianaeaiiy; iaaeeiiaiiy ieai?a i’yoe??/ee ii
a?aeaoaeia? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ioaea, aieiaiei aeioaaooeai o?aoueiai aieiaeiii?o a Oe?a?i? aoei
noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai, yea iaoooaaei aeieath i?eueeii?a oe?a?ioe?a
ca?aaee ?iia?nueeeo ?ioa?an?a

Ii?yae c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie: ao?aoe o a?ei?, i?a?aoe?? ianaeaia
aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo O?N? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, a?aeaoaeiaa —
aieiae 1946—1947 ??. iaa cia/iee aieea ia aeaiia?ao?a noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie.

??aaiue aeeooy oa iiaoo ianaeaiiy

Ca ?iee a?eie Oe?a?ia ao?aoeea aeecueei 3 iei. in?a ia o?iio (iaeaea
eiaeai ae?oaee i?ecaaiee aei eaa a?i??) ? 5,5 iei. o cii? ieoiaoe??. Aei
oeueiai ne?ae aeiaeaoe aeaacaieo ia i?eionia? ?iaioe 2,2 iei, ?c yeeo ia
aaouee?aueio iiaa?ioeiny eeoa 800 oen, (200 oen ca ??cieo ianoaaei ia
iiaaaeaee iiaa?oaoenue).

Caaa?oaiiy aieiaeo ae?e aeaei iiooiao cia/iei i?a?aoe?eiei i?ioeanai.
Iiaa?oaeeny aei ie?ii? i?aoe? aeaiia?e?ciaai? c eaa ?aaeyinueei? A?i??,
aeecueei 2,2 iei. in?a. Iiaa?oaeeny e o?, ooi aoa aeaacaieo /an
aaaeoaoe?? ia No?ae, ? o?, ui ciaoiaeeeenue ia i?eioniaeo ?iaioao aai a
iieii? ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie. Cia/ii aieeaaea ia i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane
aeaii?oaoe?y (i?eioniaa aenaeaiiy c i?no iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy in?a, ui
aoee aeciai? nioe?aeueia iaaacia/ieie). Oaeiae a Oe?a?io i?eaoee
i?aoe?aieee, ia?o?ei? ae?y/? c ?ioeo ?anioae?e N?N?, cae?eniaiiy
a?aeaoaeiae e ?aaeyi?caoe?? cao?aeieo iaeanoae.

Ia aeaiia?ao?/iiio noaiiaeu? Oe?a?ie a?aeaeeenue aoi?/i? ci?ie ui ?o
i?iaiaeeei noae?inueea ea??aieoeoai (aenaeaiiy e?einueea oaoa?, i?ioe?a,
iieye?a, oai?oe?a oa ?ioeo ia?iae?a) oa iieuenueeee o?yae. O ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?? «A?nea» 520 oen. oe?a?ioe?a ia?anaeeeeny c
oa?eoi??? Iieueu? a Oe?a?io.

Oaeei /eiii, /a?ac aeaiia?ao?/i? ci?ie 1940-o ??. ianaeaiiy ?anioae?ee a
1951 ?. noaiiaeei 37,2 iei. in?a, oea ia 4,1 iei. iaioa i?ae o
aeiai?iiiio 1940 ?.

Ci?ieany e aoi?/iee neeaae O?N?. Ciaioeeanue e?eueeicoue oaeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, ye ?a?a?, iieyee, i?ioe?a, iaoii?noue
ca?eueoeeanue /anoea ?in?yi.

Nooo?aee aieea ia aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane iaee a?aeaoaeiaa oa iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie i?iieneiaino?, ye? i?enei?eee i?ioean o?aai?caoe?? ? ni?eyee
nei?i/aiith e?eueeino? n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a. A?eia ? iiai?iia ?ic?ooa
i?ecaaee aei eaoano?io?/iiai iaae?iiy ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy. Ia
aenoa/aei i?iaeiaieuenoaa ? iaeiaiao?aei?oeo ?a/ae. Aino?i iinoaee
i?iaeaia aaci?eooeueieo ae?oae, cei/eiiino?, aeeoeiaa i?iaeaia oiui. Aea
ia ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ca ieaiii /aoaa?oi? i’yoe??/ee aeae?eyeenue
iacia/i? ?ano?ne. Oea i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui ia e?iaoeue i’yoe??/ee
??aaiue ?icaeoeo eaaei? i?iieneiaino? aeinya eeoa 80 % ??aiy 1940 ?. Oea
coiiaeei aino?o ianoa/o iai?ee?ioe? 1940-o ??. iaeiaiao?aei?oeo oiaa??a.
Cia/ia /anoeia aeeoae?a i?no ciooaia aoea aanoe i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai,
uia caaacia/eoe n?i’th i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy.

sse ia aaaeei aoei aeeoe a i?noao, oea ia eoei a i?yea ii??aiyiiy ?c
naeii. Eeoa o eiaeiiio i’yoiio eieaini? i?aoey ia iieyo ? oa?iao
iiea/oaaeany, o a?eueoino? ?ioeo eieaini?a ca a?ae?iaeai? o?oaeiaei?
naeyie io?eioaaee i?ca?io ieaoo, i?iaeeoe ia yeo aoei iaiiaeeeai.

?aeeiei caniaii aeaeeaaiiy aeey naeyi aoee i?enaaeeai? ae?eyiee. Aea a
iiai?ii? ?iee ?icii/aany ianooi ? ia ieo. Ae?eyiee a??caeeny,
cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny iia? iiaeaoee ia ieiaeia? aea?aaa. C? naiai
ainiiaea?noaa naeyiei iaa a?aeaeaoe iaaio e?euee?noue iieiea, i’yna,
oa?no?, y?oeue oiui. ? o?eueee i?ney nieaoe iiaeaoe?a a?i i?a i?iaeaoe
caeeoee.

O 1947 ?. aoa ca?eueoaiee iiaeaoie c ?eieiai? oi?a?ae?, a a 1948 ?. o
2,5 ?aco aoa ca?eueoaiee iiaeaoie c i?enaaeeaiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Oaeei
/eiii, ia 1950 ?. naeyiei niea/oaaa iiaeaoe?a o 4,3 ?aco a?eueoa, i?ae o
1940 ?.

E??i oiai, aea?aeaaia aeaaea «ii?aeiiaiaeoaaea» eieainiieeai «i?iaeaoe»
aea?aeaa? ?oith aeanio ae??aio ooaeiao: e?c, naeiae, iaaoeue. Ia
aaaeath/e a?aeaeaoe ca aacoe?iue nai? iaeii, naeyie aeaoooaaee ianiaee
caa?e ooaeiae (ia an?e oa?eoi??? N?N? aoei caaeoi 2 iei. aie?a Ae??aii?
ooaeiae). Ae?oaoe ?c naea aei i?noa aoei iaiiaeeeai: naeyie ia iaee
ianii?o?a — ?aeeiee aeo?ae aoa o iieiaeeo oeiioe?a, ye? a?aeneoaeeee
a?i?th: aiie iiaee aeaoooaaoeny ia ?iaioo a i?no?.

O a?oaei? 1947 ?. aoea i?eeiyoa iinoaiiaa ?aaee I?i?no??a N?N? oa OeE
AEI(a) i?i a?aei?io ea?oie ia i?iaeiaieue/? e i?iieneia? oiaa?e oa
ia?ao?ae aei i?iaeaaeo ?o o a?aee?eo?e oi?a?ae? ca ?aeeieie Aea?aeaaieie
?icae??aieie oe?iaie. Aiaeii/an c? neanoaaiiyi iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie aoei
i?iaaaeaii a?ioiao ?aoi?io, ui iaea ia iao? e?ea?aeoaaoe iane?aeee a?eie
a o?iainiai-a?ioia?e noa?? oa oii?yaeeoaaoe anth o?iainiao nenoaio. Oe?
?aoi?ie iaee iaiaeiicia/i? iane?aeee. C iaeiiai aieo, neanoaaiiy
ea?oeiai? nenoaie aoei yaeuai iiceoeaiei, yea na?ae/eei i?i iaaio
noaa?e?caoe?th ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, c ?ioiai — oey aeoe?y, yea iaea
cana?ae/eoe ye ianaeaiith, oae ? anueiio na?oo ia?aaaae nioe?ae?cio,
iineea a?eueoa i?iiaaaiaeenonueeee oa?aeoa?. I?ioa i?ney 1947 ?.
ca?ieaoa a?eueoi? /anoeie ianaeaiiy nooo?ai a?aenoaaaea a?ae iiaeo
aea?aeaaieo oe?i, ye? iaeaea ao?e/? ia?aaeuoaaee aeiai?iiee ??aaiue.
Oiane?aeie oeueiai neeaeanue ia?aaeienaeueia neooaoe?y: i?neyai?ii?
i?eeaaee eiieeeny a?ae aeae?eaoan?a (?e?a, ?eaa, i’ynii?iaeoeoe oiui),
ai? /a?a, i? iniaeeaiai iiieoo ia oe? oiaa?e ia aoei.

Iacia/iee aieea ia aeeoo?aee ??aaiue ianaeaiiy iaea ? a?ioiaa ?aoi?ia. C
iaeiiai aieo, aiia i?eaaea a?ioiao iano, ui ia?aaoaaa a ia?ao, o
a?aeiia?aei?noue aei iio?aa ainiiaea?noaa. 3 ?ioiai — i?ecaaea aei
aeeo/aiiy a?ioae o oeo, ooi caiuaaeea iaai? noie. O aeeaaeao a iuaaeieo
eanao o ?ici??? aei 3 oen. e?a. iai?i a?ioiaeo ciae?a cae?enithaaany
1:1, ii aeeaaeao a?ae 3 aei 10 oen. e?a. aoei i?iaaaeaii nei?i/aiiy
caiuaaeaeaiue ia o?aoeio, a iiiaae 10 oen. e?a. — aea? o?aoeie. Iniaeeai
aiey/a ?aoi?ia aaea?eea ii naeyinoao, aiii ciiao aoei iooeaia
aea?aeaaith. A oiiaao iiaii? a?aenooiino? onoaiia Iuaaeaaieo ia nae?
iai?i a?ioae, ui caa??aaeeny o ianaeaiiy aaeiia cae?enithaaany o
?ic?aooieo 1:10.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aeaoaeiaa ia ni?eyea c?inoaiith aeeoo?aiai ?inoo
ianaeaiiy, a?aeeeaea ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ia ianoyiie
aeanyoee?ooy.

CAE??IEAIIss IIAEO CIAIUe.

1) Eiee ii/aeany a?aeaoaeiaa ainiiaea?noaa O?N??

2) Ui oneeaaeithaaei i?ioean a?aeaoaeiae?

3) sse? aaeoc? ainiiaea?noaa a?aeaoaeiaoaaeeny a ia?oo /a?ao?»

4) *ei aoa coiiaeaiee aieiae 1946—1947 ??.?

5) sseeo aeaiia?ao?/ieo ao?ao caciaea Oe?a?ia?

6) Eiee a iniiaiiio aoei caaa?oaii a?aeaoaeiao?

I?AeNOIEE O?IEO

Caeeth/ia neiai a/eoaey.

Oi/a o a?ei? Oe?a?ia ? caciaea cia/ieo caeoe?a (c?oeiiaaii aeiiii?/iee
iioaioe?ae, cia/i? ethaenuee? ao?aoe), caaaeyee aa?i?/i?e ? iaiieaaeea?e
i?aoe? ?? a?iiaaeyi o noeneee oa?i?i aoei a?aeiiaeaii i?iieneiaee
iioaioe?ae. Aea oe?a?ioeyi, ye ? a 1930-o? ??., aaeaeiny ia?aaeeoe
aieiae, iia? aenia?eiaioe iaae naeii, yea noae?inueeee ?aaeei ae??oea
cieueoe auaio.

AeIIAOI? CAAAeAIIss § 13—14

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