O/anoue a?iie/ai a ?on? Iii?o.

Ieai:

1. Anooi

2. Eiioeaio?aoe?ei? oaai?e ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie

3. Oe?a?ioe? o iaoeenonueeeo oaai?ao nia?o?

4. Aeniiaie

5. E?oa?aoo?a

Anooi

O iane?i/aiiiio ieei? ?noi??? o?eueee /an a?aeie?aieth? aieiaia a?ae
ae?oai?yaeiiai, ae??a’yceiaiai, caaaeueiiethaenueea a?ae iniaenoiai.
Aeey o/aniee?a ? no/aniee?a ae?oai? na?oiai?, neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yei?
aoea Aaeeea A?o/eciyia a?eia, aieiaiei noaei ana – no?ao nia?o?,
aeaai?iaeiee ai?a, eeoie?ooy oyaeeeo aei?iaoaaiue ? aaciaaeia ?aae?noue
ia?aiiae. A?eia niiiaeyth/ith aeeneaaeoeath i?iiecaea na?oey ? aeoo?,
iiaeeea eiaeio n?i’th oa inaeth, eiaeia aeeooy. ?? a??ea i?aaaea i?eiee
ia iieeoeoue ian. Naia oiio a?eia e aein? ia cae?i/eeany aeey aaaaoueio.
Aeey o?iioiaee?a aiia – o niiaaaeao, ?aiao ? iaai?iaeao, ye? aeioaia?
ciaoiaeyoue nai?o aa?i?a. Aeey aae?a, iaoa??a ? ae?oae, on?o oeo, ooi ia
aei/aeaany ??aeieo c aeaeaeeo o?iio?a, aiia – o nei?aio? e iaae??
ae?ciaoeny i?i i?noea ?o caaeaae?, iioiaaiiy. Aeey ian a?eia – a?/ii o
iacaani?e iai’yo?. Aaeaea iai’youe – /anoeia aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?iaeo,
eiai iaenayo?oa ?noeia. Oie, ooi iai’yoa?, caaaeaee neeuei?oee, ai
ica?i?iee aeina?aeii ieioeiai. Aeina?aeii ai?ioueae ? iiaeieaiiy
o?oaeiiu?a, naiic?a/aiiy e a?aeaeaiino?, ioaeiino? ? iaiiei?e.

Ca?ac, eiee aiaeeiiee ?noi??? a?ae?aoiao? ia?o? ?iee aeaaaeoeyoue
ia?oiai noie?ooy, ie ana /ano?oa e /ano?oa iiaeoiee aa?oa?iiny iacaae,
aei iaee?iaii?ieeoi?oi? a na?oia?e ?noi??? a?eie. Iaiao?aei?noue oeueiai
coiiaeaia aaee/aciei cia/aiiyi oeo iacaaooi?o iiae?e oa aaaeaiiyi e?aua
c?icoi?oe, eoaee eaeaii oaia? ? ui /aea? ian caao?a.

Oiio, iaeyaeath/e a?eueo i?ae i?anoie?oi?e oeyo, i?ieaeaiee iaoei
ia?iaeii i?ney a?eiiiiiiai 1945-ai, ie ye i?eiee c?eii ? anainyaeii
ni?eeia?ii ia caoueia?aio ?ieaie oa iiae?yie iaii?aio Ia?aiiae ia?iae?a
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco o Aaeee?e A?o/eciyi?e a?ei?, ui noaea neiaieii
iaceaiiino? ia?iaeiiai aeooo, yne?aaith c??eith ia iaainoee? e?eaaaiai,
ae?aiaoe/iiai ? aa?i?/iiai noie?ooy. Inue /iio ia?iaee na?oo, an? /ani?
ethaee Caie? noeeythoue nai? aieiae, aoaiiaoth/e iai’youe iieaaeeo ?
a?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia aeeaei o/anieeai oe???, oaia? aaea aeaeaei?, a?eie,
ye? ?aoiei iiaeaeaii nai?i ? naiia?aeaeaiith i?aoeath caaacia/eee Aaeeeo
Ia?aiiao.

Iieoi’y ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yei? aoea Aaeeea
A?o/eciyia a?eia ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeeo
caaa?aiee?a, iaeaoeio?ei oe?eeo o?noue ?ie?a. O ae? a?eie aoei aoyaiooi
61 aea?aeaao. Aeoae eoee ia oa?eoi??? 40 e?a?i ?a?iie, Ac?? oa Ao?eee,
ia iainyaeieo ii?nueeeo ? ieaainueeeo i?inoi?ao. A?i?? aithth/eo noi??i
ia?aoiaoaaee iiiaae 110 i?eueeii?a /ieia?e. A?eia caa?aea a?eueoa 50
i?eueeii?a aeeoo?a.

sse ? a ?iee ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, Oe?a?ia iieieeany a ai?oeaio??
a?aaionueei? aeoae. Aaea ia na?oaii? 22 /a?aiy 1941 ?. ia ?? caieth
aiaee ia?o? i?iaoeuee? aiiae. Aiaeii/an a?oea??anuee? aeea?c?? aaea?eeny
ia iaoo oa?eoi??th, iethiae?oth/e ana ia nai?io oeyoo. A?eoe? /eieee
aa?i?/iee ii??, aea ia?aaaaa aoea ia aioe? ai?iaa. ?ic?aooiie
iaoeenonueeiai ea??aieoeoaa ?iaeany ia oa, uia, nei?enoaaoenue
?aioia?noth aa?an??, aei?noie?noth, oioaeueieie iaoiaeaie aaaeaiiy
a?eie, ca??y/ei noaaeaiiyi aei ie?iiai ianaeaiiy, ceaiaoe aieth ?
caeaoi?noue iaoi? a?i?? oa ia?iaeo i?ioenoiyoe noaeaa?e a?iaae?
aa?iaooo, /eieoe ii?? „aeu?e ?an?”. Aea a?oea??aoe? aei?noiei
i?i?aooaaeeny. Ai?ia cono??any c ianiaei aa?i?ciii ia?iaeo.

Nia?/ a?eie aea?/? i?ieoiany ii iao?e caie? – a noiiee /an a?aenooio oa
a ia??iae ia?aiiaeii? oiaee aecaieaiiy. Iiiaae 40 i?nyoe?a – c /a?aiy
1941-ai ii aeiaoaiue 1944-ai – iaeaoeio?ea ia oe?a?inuee?e caie? Aaeeea
A?o/eciyia a?eia. Iaaeiiaii oyaeeeo ao?ao caciaa oe?a?inuee?e ia?iae o
o?e no?aoi?e ai?ii?e e?oaiaa?o?, ui ?iciaoaea, iii?aa/eea ? ?icoiioaea
i?eueeiie ethaenueeeo aeieue. Oea ni?aaae? aoea o?aaaae?y. ?? i?eianee c
niaith oaaoiinuee? i?aee, ye? oiioaee iaoo caieth, iaeeee i?noa ? naea,
a?aaoaaee iaae?a, aiaee a i?iaoeueea ?aanoai ae?a/ao ? oeiioe?a,
aaeaath/e ia nai?io oeyoo eiaeiiai, ooi ia oio?a nei?yoeny caaa?aieeai.
Ia a?e eoee iia?e?ciaai? ? aeia?iaieueoe? /ieia?ee ? ae?iee, ?ia?oieee ?
naeyie, eiioi?noe ? aacia?o?ei?, aoa?noe ? a??oth/?, ethaee ??cieo
iieie?iue, iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, i?ioan?e. Ia caoeno ??aeii? caie? anoaee
an?, iaa?oue ae?oe „ai?ia?a ia?iaeo”, iieiaeue, ye?e noaeeeiny aeeaii
aeaeeoe a aieiaeiiio 1933-io, a’yci? noae?inueeeo oaai??a.

Ne?eueee aaciaaeiieo ethaeae caciaee ia/oaaieo oi?oo?, ciouaiue oa
i?eieaeaiue a /eneaiieo eiioeoaai?ao, oth?iao, ia i?eioniaeo ?iaioao oa
ia?aneeueieo ioieoao! Iai’youe i?i oe? aea?oae, i?i ?aoiee ? o?oaeiaee
iiaeaea ia?iaeo ciaia’yco? an?o ian, iei? noueo, i?ieiyoeny
ona?aeiieaiiyi oiai, ui eiee a ia aoei ni?eueii? Ia?aiiae iaae oaoeciii,
iieie?iiy, ui i?eeoee a aeeooy i?ney a?eie, acaaae? a ia ia?iaeeeeny, ?
ia aoei a ia eeoa Oe?a?ie ye noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae, a e oe?a?inueei?
iaoe??, ine?eueee ca ieaiii „Aa?aa?inna” 80% ianaeaiiy cao?aeieo
iaeanoae N?N? i?aeeyaaee cieuaiith, a ?aooa 20% iaee noaoe ?iai/ith
ooaeiaith.

O e?oiien Aaeeei? Ia?aiiae iaa?/ii aienai? ?iaia oeny/ ? oeny/ neaaieo
nei?a ? aei/ie Oe?a?ie. Aithaaee aiie ia ??cieo o?iioao, aeai?thth/e
Ia?aiiao – iaeio ia an?o. Aaaaoi ooi caaeioa. Ia a?aoa? Ia?aiiae Oe?a?ia
iieeaea i?eueeiie ethaenueeeo aeeoo?a. ?o ?iaia aea?aiaaii o a?/i?noue.
Ia?aiiao caeiaoee o?, ooi ca?ac ? noa?oei iieie?iiyi. Aaoa?ainuee? eaae
??aeoathoue c eiaeiei ?ieii. An?eyea oo?aioa i?i ieo, iino?eia oaaaa aei
?yo?aiee?a A?o/ecie oa na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe?? – nayoee iaia’ycie ?
ni?aaa /ano? aea?aeaae, noni?euenoaa caaaeii ? eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia
cie?aia. Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei? aaaaoi ooi c aaoa?ai?a a?eie eeoa?oueny
iaiaeeioe? c? nai?ie i?iaeaiaie. A oeiaea. Oo?aioa i?i ieo — ia i?eioa,
a aeeoo?aa iaiao?aei?noue, ? oea iiaeii? ?icoi?oe an?.

Iiae?? ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ia ia?anoathoue a?aaeaoe neeith ia?iaeiiai
aeooo, aaee//th iiaeaeao i?eueeii?a, ui i?aeiyeeny ia caoeno
Aaouee?aueie, nai?o inaeue ? ?iaeei. Iao a?iiaaeyinueeee iaia’ycie –
oa?/ieoe iai’youe on?o iieaaeeo, caa?aaoe an? iaii??aee oa
ai?iii-?noi?e/i? ?ae?ea??. I?i oea noai?aii oeny/? eiea , e?iio?euei?a,
ea?oei, neioii?e, i?naiue. Iaeiae oaia aa?i?cio a ?iee a?eie
iane?i/aiia, ai ia? a?/ia aeaea?aei, aeoiee yeiai – o ia?iaei?e
iai’yo?, ui caea?aoaaea ?iaia oeo, ooi iie?a a ?i’y Ia?aiiae. Oey
iai’youe iacaania. – aiia o iaoeo na?oeyo.

O oe?e ?iaio? y ni?iaoaaea aeine?aeeoe i?iaeaio a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo a
?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, ye? aeanyoeaie, a oi ? nioiyie oeny/
iio?aieyee aei ?oe ai?iaa. ?yaeia? a?eoe? ? io?oea?e noaaaee aea?oaaie
a?enueeiai? iaeiiiaoaioiino? oa aiethioa?ecio. A eiioeoaai?ao
?aaeyinuee? a?enueeiaiiieiiai? i?aeaeaaaeeny aeoii/aiei ciouaiiyi, ?o
ii?eee aieiaeii ? oieiaeii, iaiineeueiith i?aoeath. A ?iaio? ?
aeieoiaioaeuei? na?ae/aiiy aeeoae?a I. A?iieoe?, /e? aaoueee oa ae?aee
ia?aaeeee ai?iia eeoie?ooy.

Eiioeaio?aoe?ei? oaai?e ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oe uaaa/ooue.Nea?? i’yoa,

Nea?? i’yoa, neiy o?aaa.

Ne?eueee oaeoi ? ?ic?i’yoi,-

Cia? caiey, ye noa?a aaeiaa. A. Iaeeoei

Aac oaeoeo, ii?aiaieo, a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo a?eie ia aoaa?. Oae
aaaeaoueny niieiia?eo. Aeie? oeo, eiai a?eia ?ic/aaeea nai?ie aiaiyieie
eieanaie, iiae?eea ii noo?, aanue e?noye eaae?iai? a?i?? Ca?ieieo nee
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco. I?ae aonaieoeyie i?iaoeueeeo oaie?a aeioee ?ioe e
aaoaeueeiie, a ioi/aii? ? a iieii? iieiyeeny oe?e? aeea?c??, ei?ione e
a?i??… sseui a iai?iiieo aiyo ia?oiai ai?iiiai i?a??//y iieyaee nioi?
oeny/, oi e?euee?noue oeo, ooi iacaaa?ii i?a iicacae?eoe ?i, —
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, aoea iaaaaaoi a?eueoith e noaiiaeea i?eueeiie
/ieia?e.

?icaoaeaiei, aacca?ieiei, /anoi-aonoi eiiooaeaiei ? ii?aiaiei ethaeyi
ia?aiiaeoe? iae?aco ae aeaaaee c?icoi?oe: „Ae i?ooi! Aaoa aeeooy
a?aeiei? i?/iai ia aa?oa”. E ona?aeiieaiiy oeueiai ia caeeoaei oeo, ooi
iio?aieya o i?iaoeueeee caoii?a, oaea i?eiee.

A?ae e?ath aei e?ath Oe?a?ia aoea ae?eoa ia?aaeath eiioeoaai??a aeey
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, aaooi ? oaai??a aeey oeea?eueiiai ianaeaiiy. A
Oe?a?i? ae?yee 106 oaai??a nia?o? aeey a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Aeiey
ai?i?a, ye? iieieeeny a iieii?, noaea o?aaaae??th aaee/aciiai ianooaao.
O iaeac? a?ae 2 eeiiy 1941 ?. A?oea? i?aee?anethaaa:”…aoaeue-yea
ethaeyi?noue ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo noai?i
ia?ane?aeo?oueny”.

A?ae ia?oeo oaeeei iieiiaieo iauaaeii aeee, aae iinoaaeoe ?o o
i?eieceeaa, aaci?aaia noaiiaeua, ?icoiioaoe ethaenueeo a?aei?noue,
iicaaaeoe neee aie? aei iii?o. Ii?oooth/e a?aeiia?aei? i?aeia?iaei?
eiiaaioe??, a?aioe?a eaooaaee ? cieuoaaee. Iieiiaieo /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a ?
eiiaiaee??a ?icaeyaaee aei ni?aeiueiai, ?oi? iaioiaee?oaaiiy ? acoooy
aeei?enoiaoaaee „ aeey iio?aa i?iaoeueei? a?i??”. Ieoiaioe caeo/aee
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo aei ?ic/euaiiy i?iieo iie?a oa ?ioeo iaaacia/ieo
aeey aeeooy ?ia?o. A?aioe?a ia o?eueee ia caaacia/oaaee, ye oeueiai
aeiaaaea no. 7 Aaacueei? eiiaaioe??, „oa?/oaaiiyi, iaeyaii ? i?ei?uaiiyi
ia??ai? c? nai?ie a?enueeaie”, ?o aiaeoaaee iaaeaeeth, o?oiaie eiiae,
ooaeiae, /anoi ae ? cian?i eeoaee iaa?oue aac aiaee, o?eiaee i?inoi
iaaa, i?ae aeiuai ? ni?aii. Ca iaeiaioee iaiineoo ?icno??ethaaee ia
i?noe?, aeoieeenue iaa?oue iaae o?eaie caaeaeeo. Cia/ia /anoeia
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo aeioea i?ae /an o?ainii?ooaaiiy. sse i?aaeei,
iieiiaieo, aeoeeoaaaoe o iane?i/aii? eieiie, i?eioooaaee cae?enithaaoe
i?o? ia?o? ii 50-60 ei. ia aeiao. Oae? aeniaaeeea? ia?aoiaee i?a aeianoe
ia eiaeiee. A a?o?a? caa??any ca?o i?iaoeueeeo oioa?-io?oea??a Oaeueoeey
e Oe?iia?a?a a?ae 12 aeiaoiy 1941 ?. i?i „o?ainii?ooaaiiy” 4200
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, caoiieaieo i?ae Iae?oiiieai. Ia?aae ii/aoeii ia?oo
eiaeai io?eiaa ii /aoaa?oeioe? aooaioey oe?aa. Ieoe i?/iai a aei?iao ia
aeaee. Ca aanue aeaiue ia cono??ee aeiaeiiai eieiaeycy. *a?ac 20 ei
oeyoo ii/aeeny ia?o? i?ioanoe na?aae iieiiaieo. Aeaooi c ieo ia i?a
aeae? eoe /a?ac o?ce/io neaae?noue oa ii?aiai? iiae. Eeoa canoinoaaiiy
neee i?eioneei ?ooeoe oeeo ethaeae aeae?. *a?ac 35 ei aiie nioiyie
iaaeaee e?ae aei?iae. Ia ae?yea iaa?oue iia?ica ?icno??eo. C noo?ieaie
iao?aiiy na?aae iieiiaieo nyaioei oaei? neee, ui iiaeaeueoa i?inoaaiiy
a?aeaoaaeiny aeoaea iia?eueii ? c aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie. Eiio iiuanoeei
ae?noaoeny oaai?o, aoee cian?i aeniaaeai? e iacaeaoi? ianooiiiai aeiy
i?aeaanoeny. Ooi ia iaa neee ?ooaoeny a eieii?, oeo ioi?iia aaeaaea. Oea
i?aaeei ia ciaei aeiyoeo. I?i e?euee?noue oeo, ooi noaaaa
aea?oaith„iino??eo ieeina?aey”, iiaeia noaeeoe c oaeiai i?eeeaaeo: i?ae
/an ?ooo i’yoeoeny/ii? eieiie a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo c n. Noaiai?aia
Eoaainueei? iaeano? ( a?aenoaiue 45 ei. ) ioi?iia aaeea 150 /ieia?e.1

*a?aia? no?ao?oeea? aei?iaoaaiiy ii/eiaeeny c i?eaoooyi aei oaai??a
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Aiie aoee iia’ycai? c? nia?oaeueii iaaacia/iith
aeey aaaaoueio i?ioeaaeo?ith: aeyaeaiiyi iaaeaaiiaae?eieo –
iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith ?aeaieia?/iiai oiio a?eie I?ia//eie c N?N?. Ia
eiaeiiai a’yciy caaiaeeeany iae?eiaa ea?oea c a?aeiia?aeiei iiia?ii.

Oeae aea iiia?, ye oaa?i, aaeeeeie oeeo?aie noaaeee ia ?ooe? aeua eeno?
o?i?/iith oa?aith. E??i oiai, ia niei? oeiae? /e a?iianoa?ee noaaeany
iaaeien oaeith ae oa?aith „EAO”
(„E??naanaaoaiaain”–„a?enueeiaiiieiiaiee”).O aaeeeeo oaai?ao
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ?iciiae?eyee ca iaoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith ia iieee oa
aaoaeueeiie.

________________________________________________________

1.Aacnia?oy-Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie 1941-1945: Iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ia
aeaeaiiy/ Aie. ?aaeeieaa?? ?. I. Aa?aneiia. E.: Iiooeiai-aeaeaaie/a
aaaionoai „Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie”,2000, a?e. 196.

Oa aieiaiith iaoith oaa??ieo niaoeneoaea aoei aeyaeaiiy
iie?oi?aoe?aiee?a, eiioi?no?a, ?a?a?a. Ae?yee ii ??ciiio. *anoi ia
aiaeoaaee ii 4-5 ae?a. Iio?i i?eoiaeea eiiaiaeaio c ia?aeeaaea/ai,
iiia?aaeaeaa: „Aeiee ia aeeaaeaoa an?o eiioi?no?a, eii?na??a, iniaeno?a,
?a?a?a, ?aeo i?ooi ia io?eia?”. Oaea i?yiie?i?ei?noue ia caaaeaee aoea
aoaeoeaiith. *ano?oa aeiaiaeeeiny aaeaaaoeny aei iineoa „nooea/?a”, yeeo
iiaeia aoei iaaa?aoaaoe ca ieneo aaeaiaee. C oaei? eaoaai??? ethaeae c
iano?eeeie i?eioeeiaie ? ia?aeiiaiiyie, ye? i?aeeauoaaeeny aei i?ioe?a,
oi?ioaaeanue ? oaa??ia iie?oe?y. ?? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aeio?eiaiiy
ii?yaeeo na?aae iieiiaieo o iaaeao oaai?o.

O?aa?/iith aoea aeiey a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ia ieoiiaaieo caieyo Oe?a?ie.
A Oe?a?i? aoei noai?aii ia?aaeo aaeeeeo oaai??a nia?o? aeey
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Iaea?eueoeie na?aae ieo aoee Aea?ieoeueeee ?
Ne?aoeueeee o Ee?a?, „Oeeoaaeaeue” o Eueaia?, oaai?e a Oiai?, Iieoaa?,
Iae?oiiie?, Aeiiaoeueeo, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo oa ?i. O?eueee o
”Oeeoaaeae?” caaeioei a?ae aieiaeo ? oai?ia iaeaea 140 oen. /ieia?e, o
Oi?ieuenueeeo oaai?ao – a?eueoa 57 oen. O E?aiai/ooe? a?oea??aoe?
oia?oaeee aieiaeii, oi?oo?aie /a?ac iaaienia ca?aaeaiiy ?ioaeoe?eieie
oai?iaaie 40 oen. nieaeao?a ? io?oea??a, o Aieiaeeie??-Aieeinueeiio – 25
oeny/. O?eueee a Ee?a? aoee aeanyoee noaoe?iia?ieo ? ia?anoaieo
eiioeoaai??a aeey iieiiaieo, iaeaieiai?o? c ieo: Aea?ieoeuee? oaai?e,
Aaaei ss?, oaai?e ia aoe.. Ea?ineii?e, ?inoeooonuee?e, a Aiein??a?, ia
oa?eoi??? Ee?ai – Ia/a?nueei? eaa?e, ia Eo?ai?aoe?, Ne?oe?. A?eueoo
/anoeio iieiiaieo, ye? ia?aaoaaee a ieo, neeaaeaee nieaeaoe ? io?oea?e
a?enuee I?aaeaiii – Cao?aeiiai o?iioo, a iniiaiiio oe?a?ioe?, oi/a
na?aae ieo aoee ? ?in?yie, a?ei?one, ?a?a? oa i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Aaaaoi ?ie?a noiniaii iaeieo c iaeno?aoi?oeo – Aea?ieoeueeeo
eiioeoaai??a – a iaoeiaiio ia?ao c eieae a eieao ia?aoiaeeoue oeeo?a
caaeaeeo oai – 69 oen. /ieia?e. Iani?aaae? eaeaoueny, ye na?ae/aoue
a?o?ai? aeai?, eeoa i?i aeaa c oeeo oaai??a. Iaeei c ieo aoa
?icoaoiaaiee iina?aae e?no, ia ieieeoe? Aea?ieoe?, i?ae aaoiiia?eueiei
oina ? cae?cieoeath. Aeiaaeeia eiai aoea 1.5 ei, oe?eia aeecueei 1 ei.
Ca iieioiii cae?cieoe? a 1943 ?. i?ney aecaieaiiy oeeo i?noeue a?ae
caaa?aiee?a ni?a?ia?oieeaie Iaaecae/aeii? aea?aeaaii? eii?n?? ii
?icne?aeoaaiith cei/ei?a i?iaoeueei – oaoenonueeeo ieoiaio?a aoei
ciaeaeaii /ioe?e yie. Caiey a ieo in?ea. ?ici?? eiaeii? 12 ia 6 i.
Iaiiaeae?e aoea ua iaeia yia ?ici??ii 6 ia 6 i. I?e ?iceiieao iaei??? c
aaeeeeo yi aiia aeyaeeany caiiaiaiith o?oiaie ethaeae, ca na?ae/aiiyi
i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a – aeeeth/ii iieiiaieie, i?e/iio, caeaa?eueoiai
oe?a?ioeyie. I?ae /an iaoaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece ciaeaeaieo o?oi?a a
?oi?o oeoieao ia aoei aeyaeaii aeiaeieo iciae ?ae?. Oiaoi, an? aea?oae
iiia?ee aieiaeiith nia?oth.1

Ae?oaee oaa?? aoa ?icoaoiaaiee ia i?noe? eieeoiueiai aaoi?aiiioiiai
caaiaeo. A oeueiio oaai?? aoea „e?ea?iy” aeey a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Oai??
? ii?aiai?, ca na?ae/aiiyie aoe?e?eeo i/aaeaeoe?a, eaaeaee c iia’yceaie,
e??cue ye? i?ini/oaaany ai?e, a ?aiao caaiaeeeeny o?iaaee. Ca
oa?eoi???th oeueiai oaai?o aoei ciaeaeaii i’youe ?yae?a iiaee, a aeae?
– yie ?ici??ii 6 ia 3 i. An? aiie aoee caiiaiai? o?oiaie. sseui a
oe?eiio i?ae?aooaaoe aea?oae a iacaaieo ioieoao, oi aeoiaeeoue, ui ia
oa?eoi??? e?no a?ey aaeeeiai oaai?o o ciaeaeaieo yiao aoee inoaiee 11
oen. iieiiaieo; ia eeaaeiaeu? ? iiaeeco iueiai – aeecueei 40 oen.;a
?ioeo i?noeyo iaaeiei oeeo aeaio oaai??a – 17 oeny/. Onueiai – aeecueei
68 oen. o?oi?a. A e??i oeeo aeaio oaai??a aoee ua aeaa, a yeeo caaeioei,
ca iaiiaieie aeaieie, iiiaae 60 oen. /ieia?e. Ioaea, a Aea?ieoeueeeo
oaai?ao caaeioei a?ae oai?ia, aecaeooe?e, aieiaeo ? oieiaeo aeecueei 130
oen. ?aaeyinueeeo a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo.2

Oaeei aea no?ao?oeeaei aoa eiioeoaa?? o Ee?a? ia aoe.. Ea?ineii?e. Oeae
oaa?? – no?aoiee neiaie iaethaenueeiai noaaeaiiy oaoenonueeeo ieoiaio?a
aei iieiiaieo. Iaaea?ia naia eiai a?aea?aeaee o aa?ani? 1941 ?. aeaaa
ea?aeueieo i?aai?a I?ia//eie A. A?iiea? ? aaoeyeoa? Oe?a?ie A. Eio, uia
ia aeani? i/? ia?ana?ae/eoenue, ye aeeiiothoueny ?io? aee?aeoeae ii
ieuaiith ia?iae?a ieoiiaaieo caiaeue, o oiio /ene? ? Oe?a?ie.

I?iaeiaaeoth/e oeth neeaaeio ? aieth/o oaio, ne?ae ie?aii coieieoeny ia
o?aaaae?? Aaaeiiai ss?o ? aeie? a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Aaaei ss? – oea
o?aaaae?y ? ?a?aenueeiai ia?iaeo, i?aaenoaaiee?a yeiai ?icno??eyii
iiiaae 150 oen., ? o?aaaae?y ?ioeo ia?iae?a, ai caaaeueia e?euee?noue
caaeaeeo nyaa? 200 oen. /ieia?e, aeeth/ath/e ? a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. I?i
aeieth inoaii?o ne?ae neacaoe, ui e??i caaaeaieo aeua aeecueei 3 oen.
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo c eiioeoaai?o ii aoe. Ea?ineii?e, o Aaaeiiio ss?o, a
oeueiio no?aoiiio i?noe?, cieuaii ua aeanyoee oeny/ a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo
*a?aiii? a?i??.

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1Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie, E., Iiooeiaa aeaeaaie/a aaaionoai „Eieaa iai’yo?
Oe?a?ie”, 2000,a?e.198.

2Oai naii, a?e.198.

Ia iaio ceia?nio neaao na?aae aeeoae?a Ee?aa iaa oaa??
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, ?icoaoiaaiee ia aoe.. ?inoeooonuee?e, 5. Oai
ia?aaoaaei e?eueea oeny/ a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, ye? i?aoethaaee ia
a?aeaoaeiaieo ?iaioao o i?no?. Iaa?oue oeo iieiiaieo, ye? i?aoethaaee ia
ieoiaio?a, inoaii? ia aaaaeaee ca iio??aia aiaeoaaoe iaeaaeiei /eiii.
*a?ac iaaei?aeaiiy ? oai?iae nia?oi?noue aoea iaaecae/aeii aenieith.
O?oie iiia?eeo caeiioaaee ooo aea o aeai??.

Aoaea iiieeeith aaaaeaoe, ui ?aaeyinuee? a?enueeiaiiieiiai?, cie?aia o?,
ui ia?aaoaaee o niaoe?aeueieo oaai?ao ia oa?eoi??? Ee?aa, iie??ii /aeaee
nia?o?, aeeaio?th/e a iaethaenueeeo oiiaao. Aoee ni?iae aoa/,
i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?eey, naaioaaeo. Ai?ie *a?aiii? a?i?? a nai?e
a?eueoino? o?eiaee naaa, ye ni?aaaei? iao??ioe nai?? A?o/ecie. ? nia?oue
aiie oaae cono??/aee, ye ? iaeaaeeoue ni?aaaei?i nieaeaoai. A oeueiio
ca’yceo ia iiaeia ia neacaoe i?i aa?i?/io iiaaae?ieo ia?aae ?icno??eii
100 oe?a?inueeeo ii?ye?a – a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. 10 n?/iy 1942 ?. ?o
aiaee eieiiith a?ey N?iiiai aaca?o aei i?noey ?icno??eo a
o?eaeoeyoea?aaeoniee ii?ic. Aiie eoee ii ni?ao ainii?ae, ?oee o eiaeiiai
neoo? eaioethaaie. Eoee aiaaiaii ? ni?aaee i?nith „?aneeioeinue ii?a
oe?iei”.1

Ii?yae ?c Aaaeiei ss?ii ciaoiaeeany Ne?aoeueeee oaa??. Iniaeea?noth
oeueiai oaai?o aoei e oa, ui i/iethaaa eiai naaeeno ooo?iaaioth?a?
?aaeiinuee?, yeee nai?th ca??y/ith aei?noie?noth a?aaeaa iaa?oue nai?o
eieaa. A?i ?icno??ethaaa a’yci?a ca oa, ui aiie ia oaeeeieo coieieeeny c
aaaeeeie iineeeaie, ca oa, ui iaiaaaeeny caeo?eoe aai ia oae ia?aae iei
noiyee ? o. ?i. Nthaee i?eaiceee ethaeae c ??cieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, aeey
ieo Ne?aoeueeee oaa?? aoa nai???aeiei ia?aneeueiei ioieoii, ooo aiie
ia?aaoaaee e?eueea aei?a, a iio?i ?o cieuoaaee aai a naiiio oaai??, aai
a non?aeiueiio Aaaeiiio ss?o.

Iaei ooi aoe?e?a c /enea a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, ye? ia?aaoaaee o oaai?? ia
oa?eoi??? Ee?ai – Ia/a?nueei? eaa?e. Oai ua ae?oeo 1941 ?. aoa noai?aiee
aini?oaeue aeey a?enueeiaeo. Aaaeothaaoe eiai ia anoeaee. Ii?aiaieo
i?ioe? ia’?aeiaee c iieiiaieie ? ooai?eee oai oaa??.

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1Ei?ieue A. Aaaei ss?. A?aeiia ? iaa?aeiia. Aiein Oe?a?ie. 1991, 14
na?iiy.

Ca i?eaeecieie i?ae?aooieaie, ai oi/ii oea anoaiiaeoe, ia aeaeue,
iaiiaeeeai, ia Ee?auei? io/aieoeueeo nia?oue i?eeiyee aeecueei 250 oen.
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, ia?aaaaeii oe?a?ioe?a.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aoei noai?aii iiiaae 180 oaai??a
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Na?aae ieo noiii – a?aeiieie nai?ie aei?noieeie
oiiaaie aoee, e??i Aea?ieoeueeiai ? Ne?aoeueeiai (a Ee?a?), Aiaoinueeee
(i?ae AEeoiie?ii), „Oeeoaaeaeue”(o Eueaia?), Aieiaeeie? –
Aieeinueeee(Aieeinueea iaeanoue), „Oiainueea yia” (*a?eanueea iaeanoue),
„Oi?ieuenueea yia” (ia Iieoaauei?), ?aaa – ?onueeee (Euea?anueea
iaeanoue), „A?inn – eaca?ao” o Neaaoo? (Oiaeueieoeueea iaeanoue). I?ae
noaoe?iia?i? oaai?e aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia?o? – e?io? i?ei?uaiiy, iaa?oue
iiea i?inoi iaaa, iaianaia e?eueeiia ?yaeaie eieth/iai ae?ioo, /a?ac
yeee i?iioneaany aeaeo?e/iee no?oi aeniei? iai?oae.

Ae?oeo 1941?. o n. Aiaoi?y iiaeeco AEeoiie?a noai?aii oaa??
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, aea c?a?aii aei 100 oen. /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a ?
eiiaiaee??a. Eeoa iacia/ia /anoeia c ieo ?ici?uoaaeany o eai’yieo
aoae?aeyo, a?eueo?noue iiae?eeea aeieth aeeeeo oaa?ei. *a?ac aaeeeo
neoi/ai?noue ethaee ia a ciic? aoee ia o?eueee eaaeaoe, a e noiyoe.
Noiaaoeny a?ae niaee, a?o?o, aeiuo, ni?ao i?aea – oae ? aie?aee,
caaethth/enue iaeei ia iaeiiai.

Oa inoaoi/ii aeiaeoe iaa?eueiee?a, ye? ana ua /?ieyeeny ca aeeooy, iaa
oaeee aaca?aeiiaiee iaoiae, acyoee ia ica?i?iiy oaoenonueeeie eaoaie, ye
aieiaeiii?.

Eiee aei oiai /e ?ioiai oaai?o i?eaoaaea /a?aiaa ia?o?y a?aioe?a, ?o ia
aiaeoaaee ii e?eueea aei?a, ?iiae? oeaeaeaiue, aae cianeeeoe o?ce/ii,
ceaiaoe ii?aeueii. Aieiae caeaoiee aoa i?eai?eaoe aoaeue – yeee i?ioano.
A oie aea /an oa?/oaaiiy aoei ?aeeiith iaae??th a’yci?a ia aeaeeaaiiy.
Aea ui oea aoei ca „oa?/oaaiiy”!

Oaa??ia „o?ii?ea” i?eaaaeo? oae? „aeooeai?” ia?aei? iaith. I?ney
o?eaaeiai, aei oeaeiy, aieiaeoaaiiy ethaeyi aeaeaee ea/aie eaionoe,
ao?ye, eoeo?oaeco ? i?ini, ana o ne?iio aeaeyae?, ca oaeith ii?iith:
iaeia eaionoeia — ia 20 /ieia?e, iaeei ao?ye ? iaeei ea/ai eoeo?oaece –
ia 6 /ieia?e. a ua ?iiae? aeaeaaaee „oe?a”, aeia/aiee niaoe?aeueii aeey
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, iaceaaany „?onueeee”: 50% aeeoi?o aen?aie, 20%
ao?yea,, 20% oeaetheice, 10% nieiie. I?ney oaeeo „ia?ae?a” o i?noeyo
?icoaooaaiiy oaai??a, ocaeiaae oeyo?a, aea i?ioiaeeee eieiie iieiiaieo,
ia caeeoaeiny i? o?aae, i? eenoy ia aea?aaao. Ana, ye na?ae/aoue
i/aaeaeoe?, ii?aeaee aea?oae oaoenonueeiai aieiaeiii?o. Ia a?oio?
aieiaeoaaiue ethaee aiaeaaie?ee, aaeaaaeeny aei o?oii?aenoaa,
uo?i?aenoaa.

Eaothae ia caeeoaee i?e?a/aiei aeiaeieo oain?a ia aeaeeaaiiy.
A?aeaoaaeenue aeaoeea? noeaie i?iaoeueeeo ca??noa. O aeiaoi? 1941 ?.
/a?ac A?iieoeth ?ooaeany aaeeea eieiia a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Ianaeaiith
noaei oea a?aeiii iaia?aaeiaei?. ? eiaeia n?i’y aaaaeaea nai?i
iaia’yceii iaaiaeoaaoe a?aeieao. Ocaeiaae Iaie??anueeiai oina noiyee
aice c i?ia?c??th, oe?aii, o?oeoaie oiui, ae?iee c ai?ueeaie ?
eaaaioeyie aioiai? ?ae?. *aeaiiy aoei aeineoue aeiaaei, a aeaiue –
niaeioiei. Oa inue eieiia ii/aea iaaeeaeaoeny. ?aioii eiiaie eeioany
?icaaiyoe ethaeae, ?iceeaeaoe ?aeo, oiioaoe ?? iiaaie.
A?enueeiaiiieiiai?, iiaa/eaoe ?aeo, i?i?aaee eiiaieia ioi/aiiy ? ooo
ia/aeueiee eiiaith iaaeaa iaeac no??eyoe.1 O iaaaaeaiiio aeiaaeeo
i?iaoeueea ioi?iia no??eyea ii iieiiaieo. Aea /anoi oaoenoe iauaaeii
ea?aee ianaeaiiy ca i?iya ethaeyiino?, oa iaa?oue nia?oaeueia iaaaciaea
ia coieiyea iao??ioe/ii iano?i?ia ianaeaiiy. ? yeui o no?aoi? ?iee
oaoenonueeiai iieiio eiionue ?c a?aioe?a uanoeei aeaeeoe, oi oeei aiie
iiaee caaaey/oaaoe ia?aaeon?i oe?a?inueeiio ianaeaiith, iniaeeai
ae?ieai, ye? iaiaaaeeny a?yooaaoe eiaeiiai. Iauanieo aoaeoaaee i???aaee
ia?aceo?a – ni?aaaei?o ainiiaea??a oaiaeo oaa??ieo i?ei?uaiue . Aio?,
eeiie, aeioe aeiaeaaee o i?yiiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa, iaa?eueiee?a
. sse o?eueee n???ei , cio/ai? ca i?/ ethaee a?aeeny aeoe aioae ,
iniaenoiai ai?iaa eiaeiiai . ? iaa?oue o aa/??i?e /an iiaeeco i?ca?iiai
aeaeo?e/iiai e?ooa?eea th?ieeeny aeanyoee ethaeae, ye? caeiaeeny ana oei
aea .Aaeaea ii o?e-/ioe?e i?nyoe? ia aoei ciiae iiieoeny,
i?iaeaiceo?eoaaoe iaeya. Ioaea, i?iaoeueeeie aeanoyie ooo/ii
noai?thaaeeny oiiae aeey iioe?aiiy nia?oiiinieo iioanieo oai?ia. Oaea c
aa?aniy 1941 ?. o oaai?ao ii/aeeny iania? oeoieia? caoai?thaaiiy,
ia?aaaaeii aeecaioa??y . A c aeiaoiy iaa?aea iaa?o?a ai?aeai?y aeneiiiai
oeoo. Ethaee aeie?aee oe?eeie aa?aeaie. ? ia aeeaii: e?ea?? c
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ia iaee i? iaaeeeaiaio?a, i? ?ino?oiaio?a , a
i?iaoeuee? aneoeaie , yeui e i?eoiaeeee, oi o?eiath/e o ?oeao aeiaao
aea?aeeio , aeeae/a eio?i? iieiiaiee, ooi a a?i ia aoa , ia i?a
i?aeoiaeeoe . I?iaoeuee? aeano? iaaienii aeeeeeaee ai?aeai?/i?
caoai?thaaiiy , aeiaeaath/enue ?oiueiai iioe?aiiy, ai oai?? ia iioani?
oai?iae ia?aaoaaee ?acii ?c caei?iaeie. *a?ac o?niioo e neoi/ai?noue oea
aeeeeeaei ianiaa ca?aaeaiiy ethaeae.

Ceia 1941-1942 ??. noaea aiiaa?i ianiaiai aeie?aiiy a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo
. Nithcieeii oaoenonueeeo iaethae?a noaa ia o?eueee aieiae oa oai?iae, a
e oieiaee, ine?eueee i?ei?uaiiy oaai??a ia iiaethaaeeny.

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1OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie, o.166, ii. 3, ni?.246, a?e.30.

I?ioyaii on??? a?eie a?aeaoaaeiny ia?ai?uaiiy aaee/acieo ian
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo c iia?aoeaieo ?aeii?a a aeeaieee oee . Ia?aaea/a
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo cae?enithaaeany o ia?aneeueieo(aoaiieo) oaai?ao, oae
caaieo eoeaaao, ca?aeee iieiiaieo iai?aaeyee a iino?eii ae?th/? oaai?e
aeey ?yaeiaiai e na?aeaionueeiai neeaaeo, oae caai? ooaeaae, ? aeey
io?oea??a – ioeaae .

Oaa??i? oiiae, ni?yiiaai? eeoa ia oa, uia aeaoaeoe yeiiiaa a?eueoa
a’yci?a, ceaiaoe ii?aeueii oeo, eiio iiuanoeoue aeaeeoe, caeaaaeiny a,
aaoue aeeeth/aee aoaeue-yeee ii?? io/eoaeyi. I?iaoeueea oaa??ia
aaei?i?no?aoe?y iiia?aao a?aeeeaeaea naio iiaeeea?noue i?aai?ciaaii?
ai?ioueae, ie?ai? noeo?ei? niaeaoe iacaaeiaieaiiy iaaaeii e aei?noiei
i?eaeoooaaeeny neeith ca?i?. ? ana ae, iacaaaeath/e ia iaeiia??ii
aaaee? oiiae e caoiaee aaei?i?no?aoe?? ia ?ic’?aeiaiiy a?aioe?a ca
iaoe?iiaeueiith, neoaeaiaith oa ?ioeie iciaeaie, ia ieaiiaa
ia?ai?ooaaiiy ? ia?ao?oooaaiiy eiioeiaaioo, o oaai?ao ciaoiaeeeeny
neeuei?, ioaei? ethaee, eio?? iioae aea/aee, aeiae?aee ? ao?ooaaee ia
caiaiaeeo aeooii. A?oie oaa??iiai iii?o i?iaiaeeee aioeoaoenonueeo
„i?iiaaaiaeo iioaiee”, aae i?aeianoe aieiaee iano??e a’yci?a,
aenoaaeoaaee e cieuoaaee c?aaeiee?a, anoaiiaethaaee ca’ycee c i?noeaaei
i?aei?eeyi. Noaaeeeny aea? iniiai? iaoe: ii-ia?oa, i?aeo?eiaoe e
aeiiiiiaoe aeaeeoe aeecueeei ca iano?iyie ? aeooii „ oiaa?eoai ii
iauanoth” ?, ii-ae?oaa, aiooaaoe e cae?enithaaoe aoa/? iieiiaieo ia
aieth, aei ia?oecai?a.

?iaioo iao??io?a oneeaaeithaaa iaiaeue /ano aeey aea/aiiy ethaeae. Ca
iaeiaioi? i?aeic?e i?ioe? iaaaeii ci?ithaaee aanue neeaae oaai?o,
iiiaethaaee ioi?iio. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao neoaea? aaeaaaeiny aei?aieoe
o na?aaeiaeua iieiiaieo nai?o aaaio?a-i?iaieaoi??a ? cae?enithaaoe
a?aooe.

Iaea?eueoa oain?a ia oni?o aeaaaee aoa/? c „?iai/eo eiiaiae” iica
oaai?aie. Oi/ „Iai’yoea aeey ioi?iie ?iai/eo eiiaiae c ?in?enueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo” aeiaaaea ca iaeiaioi? i?aeic?e no??eyoe „aac
iiia?aaeaeaiiy”, ana ae ethaee eoee ia nia?oaeueiee ?ecee. Aeineoue
iioe?aieie aoee aoa/? i?ae /an o?ainii?ooaaiiy a ii?caeao. Ni?eeaoe?,
?ic?a?aaoe i?aeeiao a oaieoooe?, aeeeaeaeeny aii/? ia iieioii cae?cieoe?
i?ae ?aeeaie.

Iaaaaaoi neeaaei?oa aoei i?aai?coaaoe aoa/o aaciina?aaeiuei ?c
noaoe?iia?iiai oaai?o a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. A i?ioa i?aei?eey, aea aiii
aoei, ?ic?iaeyei ieaie aoa/ ? iaa?oue iianoaiue. *anoi oae? iai??e aoee
ia?aaeueieie, ?iiae? iaa?oue oaioanoe/ieie, aea oea i?aeo?eioaaei
aeooaai? neee a’yci?a, iaae?? ia e?auo aeieth.

Aeiey Aeanithea Ieaen?y Ieoaeeiae/a, yeee ia?iaeeany a 1935 ?. a i.
A?iieoe? oa aa/ea a?eio ia aeani? i/? o iaeaiueeiio na?aea/eo
caea?aoaaea ana, /ei a?i iiae?eeany nueiaiaei? ?c iaie.

Aaoueeo Ieaen?y Ieoaeeiae/a, Ieoaeeo Aiae??eiae/o oaae aaeaeiny aoaeoe
?c eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai oaai?o, ui ciaoiaeeany ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Aei
a?eie a?i aoa oioa?ii, oea aoea aeoaea i?ea?eaeiaaia i?ioan?y, aaeaea a
o? /ane ? iaoei aoei ua aeoaea iaei, ? ea?oaaoe ieie ai?ee eeoa
iaeeieoe?. Iaoe, ?a?aeea, ia i?aoethaaea, aea oea e ia iio??aii aoei, ai
? ia aaoueeiao ca?ieaoo aeeee aeoaea aeia?a. Ioiae, ?c ?aiiueiai
aeeoeinoaa o Ieaen?y Ieoaeeiae/a caeeoeeeny eeoa iaei?e?ii?o? niiaaaee:
n?iaei? iioiaee aei e?iioaao??a, ?a?e c ae?ocyie (aea a?i, /iionue,
caaaeaee aoa iaeiaioaiueeei) . O o? /ane A?iieoey — ??aeia i?noi
iiia?aea/a – neeaeaeany oaeaeoa ia iaeaiueea naei, non?aee ia iaei?e
aoeeoe? aoee acaaae? ye ca ?iaee/?a, aeeee oai ? ?a?a?, ? oe?a?ioe?, ?
?in?yie, ? ooi ia ?, aea i?ooi ia caaaeaa ia iaoe?iiaeuei?noue. Aei
a?eie ethaee ? ia ciaee, ui oea oaea, ? ye oae iiaea aooe.

O 1939 ?ioe? ?icii/aeany O?inueea eaiiai?y ? aaoueea ye aiae?y caa?aee
ia a?eio. Iiaa?ioany Ieoaeei Aiae??eiae/ oe?eei oa iaooeiaeaeaiei.

O?ioe i?ci?oa ?icii/aeany eaiiai?y ii ?aaeyi?caoe?? cao?aeieo iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie ? aaoueea ciiao caa?aee aei a?i??. Oeueiai ?aco a?i i?aoethaaa
aiae??i ia iaoei? oaeaeei? aeiiiiiae. Neaaa Aiao ? oeueiai ?aco ieioeiny
– iiaa?ioany aeeaei ? iaooeiaeaeaiei, i?ea?c aaaao? o?ioa? : oo?aaeee,
noai? oeaiei, oa oooaeueee iaeaiueeiio neio, ye? oie ia oio?a ci?iaoe
iaa?oue ia i?/! O n?i’? ia?iaeeany ua iaeei nei ?, caeaaaeiny, i?/iai ia
ia?aaea?uaei a?aeo, aea … ?icii/aany ianooi a?oea??anueeeo a?enuee ?
ia ?aaeyinueeee Nithc. Oea aoa 1941 ??e, aaoueea caa?aee i?aeoe/ii
c?aco, a n?i’y iieieeany a ieoiaoe??. O i?no? ?icii/aeiny oaea, ui
no?aoii iaa?oue caaaeoaaoe: aiiaa?aeoaaiiy, ?icno??ee. Ethaee iaiaaaeeny
iieeiooe i?noi, a?yooaaoeny. Iioyae, ui eoee ia no?ae a?aee /anoi
i?enooiaie, cano?eaoaaee, oaiath/enue ca ii?o/i?, iia ca inoaiith
iaae?th, ai oea ae?enii aoei oae…A iaeiiai ?aco i?ioe?, ciath/e, ui o
aaaiiao ethaee, a?aee?eee aiaiiue ii iioyao. Iioya iiaa?ioany iacaae aei
A?iieoeueeiai aiecaeo, a io ethaee ca?aeoe oaea ia aeeoee: ?o aeiineee
ia?oaeie.

O i?no? ?icoaooaaeanue ? eieii?aeueia aaei?i?no?aoe?y, ? i?aaie aanoaii
o i?ei?uaii? nueiaiaei?oiuei? oth?ie, i?eaoee oaeiae ? iie?oea?, o?, ooi
i?ci?oa ao?eeoue o aeeooy on? iaeno?aoi?o? ae?iee, nai?ie ?oeaie
a/eieoue iania? aeoe?? aaiioeeaeo iaae i? a /iio ia iiaeiiei ia?iaeii,
eiiaieiee iiee caeiyee iaaey?e.

A neooaoe?y noaaaea ana a??oith ? a??oith, iniaeeai ?c oa?/oaaiiyi.
sseui eieenue ? ia?aiaaeaea yea aa?aaieueea, oi ?? acaaae? ia /enoeee,
aiy/enue ao?aoeoe oi/ eoni/eo. Iaoa?? aeiaiaeeeinue i?iaeaaaoe ona, ui
aaoueei i?ea?c ?c Iieueu?, uia i?ioa?/oaaoenue, a ae?oe ana iaeii a?aaee
aieiaei?. ? io iaeiiai ?aco aei eiiaieiiai iieeo i?eaacee oe?eee oo?aii
a?eiai caiaoiiai oe?aa. ?i, aieiaeiei, caeaaaeiny oiae?, ui aiie
a?ae/oaathoue iaa?oue eiai caiao, neaey/e iaaeaea/ei o ao?’yiao. Oiae?
nieaeao, ui ?icaaioaaeoaaa oo?aii, cai?ei?oea ?o ? ?oi? aieiaei? i/? ?
caaeao?ioa oe?eo aooaieo oe?aa aae aai o ai?iaee! Aiie ?ic??aaee ??
ii??aio ? ?ee oae aeaae?aii, ia/a i?/iai nia/i?oiai ia aoei o oe?eiio
na?o?. I?aaaea ? nieaeaoia? oiae? ia?aiaei aeia?y/a ca oaeo naaaieth
a?ae ia/aeuenoaa.

A i?ae oei ii i?noo oe?eeenue /ooee, ui ?a?a?a aeoiieththoue ?c
aoaeeie?a, ia aoeeoeyo, naaeyoue o iaoeie ? o? aaea a?eueoa i?eiee ia
iiaa?oathoueny. Aiai?eee ? i?i oa, ui nei?i aeiaa?ooueny aei eiaeiiai.

Iaeiiai ?aco, aceieo, oaea 1942 ?ieo, ii/oee nooe?o o a?eii. Ceyeaeenue
aeoaea neeueii, ai i’yi? nieaeaoe, ye? aaee?aeeny aei oao ? ?iaeee ona,
/iai a ?i o?eueee caiaioeiny, noaee ia oie /an oaea cae/iei yaeuai. Aea
oi iiaa?ioany aaoueei, caio/aiee, cii?aiee. Oiai aa/i?a ie ii/oee a?ae
iueiai oaeo ?noi??th: „I?aoethth/e i?e ooaa?, aeiey caeeioea iaia i?ae
Ee?a, aea aei?noie? ai? aaeeny o Aiein??anueeeo e?nao. Iao? a?enueea
oaea ia iiaee aac ?ae? ? iai? iaeacaee i?eaacoe oe?a. ss ?oaa ia nai?e
aaioaae?aoe?, eiee i?yii ia?aae? iiith aeaooioa nia?yae, iaiaee ica?i?i?
i?iaoeuee? aiyee, …oae y iio?aiea o iieii. ?acii ?c oeny/aie
ciaaeieaieo eaooaaany o eaca?iao. Oae ian i?io?eiaee oeaeaeaiue o
o?niio? ? aeooio?, ia?o i?ae aeaee ia?o eiaoe?a aiaee. Ie noaee
a?ae/oaaoe, ui neee ian iieeaeathoue, a iiaeeeaino? aea?aoenue ia
aeaeaaaeinue i?yei?. ? inue oiae? noaee i?eoiaeeoe ? caae?aoe oeo, ooi
ai?a uinue ?iaeoe – noiey??a, oaney??a oa ?i. ss a?aeneaeaeoaaany, a
iio?i ?aioii c?icoi?a, ui iio??aii iaaaeii ?yooaaoenue, ? aoaeue-yeei
oeyoii aeeoe. Oiae iaeiiai ?aco y oaae c?iaea e?ie aia?aae ? iaia
aeaaee, aeaee ?iaioo – ieoe iaoeie (ca?nii, yeae aiie ciaee, ui y ai?th
aiaeeoe, oi i?eiee a oaeiai ia a/eieee).Ieioa /an, y noie?iii i?aoethaaa
? nei?i cae?oaeeany ?c ia/aeueieeii oiai aa?aaea, aea y ? aeea ?
i?aoethaaa. ? io iaeiiai ?aco y aiiaea eiai aeiiiiiaoe iai? ?c
aeieoiaioaie, aac yeeo y a ? ia e?eiiao? ia ao?e. Oie iaae?oeoaaa iai?
yeonue ?icieneo, ? y i?oia aeiaeiio /a?ac i?noa ? naea i?oee. Aae inue
ae?noaany!”

O A?iieoe? aaoueei a?ae?aco aeaoooaaany ia ?iaioo, noaei o?ioe eaaoa.

Aae inue ae?oeo oiai ae ?ieo o i?no? c’yaeeanue ao?oa i?i oa, ui on?
?a?a? oaeiai-oi /enea o oaeee oi /an iathoue c?a?aoeny ia ieiu?
Aeca?aeeinueeiai. Ieoaeei Aiae??eiae/ aeia?a ?icoi?a, aei /iai ana oea,
oiio caai?iiea nai?i ?iaee/ai ?oe, a aeiiiaeany ?c non?aeii, a?aeaeaaoe
eiio ana oe?iia, ui ua aoei a aeii?, ui oie caoiaa? ?o o nai?io
i?aeaae?. Aaaony, iaoe, iaeaiueeee a?aoee ? naiee?oi?e Ieaen?e
i?ineae?ee o nai?e oieiaei?e aiae?e noiaaioe? i?ae an?eyeei iioeioii aei
naiiai aa/i?a. Oa i?/iai ia noaeiny ? an?, ooi i?oee ia ieiuo
Aeca?aeeinueeiai, caeeoeeeny aeeaeie ? caei?iaeie, eeoa ia/aoeo o
ianii?oe io?eiaee. Oa oea aoa no?aoaa?/iee o?ae ieoiaoe?eii? aeaaee,
oeiaea, ui iaei ooi oea c?icoi?a. ? eiee iiae?aia ao?oa c’yaeeany ciiao,
i?oee an?. Eeoa Ieaen?e caeeoeany yeeiinue aeeaii, a yeei? Oiai a?i ?
nai oaea ia iai’yoa?. Iaoe… Iaoe i?oea ? a?eueoa oaea i?eiee ia
iiaa?ioeany. On?o ?o ?icno??eyee ca ia?eii(oaia? ia?e ?i. I. Ai?ueeiai)
iie?oea?. Ethaee aeaaaee a?io?, cieioi, ana, ui aoei, o?eueee a
caeeoeoenue aeeaiio, a o? a?aee ? ae?ie ana ae i?eaiaeeee a ae?th. Oey
/ooea oieiaeiei a?o?ii i?iianeanue iaae i?noii, neueicaie aeeeeanue o
na?oea, oa e ia anth iaeaaeo aeieth iiia?aea/a. Iionoeeany oai?yaa, ?oe
aoei i?eoaee(iaa?oue aei oaoe oaea ia iiaeia aoei iiaa?oaoenue), a a?i
ana noiya a?ey ia?eaio ? ieaeaa, /aeaa, nai ia ciath/e /iai. ? ooo
c’yaeany aaoueei! sse a?i aei/aeaany eiai? ssea neea ao?eiaea eiai ooo
aae aei naiiai i?ciueiai aa/i?a? Iaa?aeiii. Aea iecueeee oee?i o?e nee?!

A oe?e ?iaio? y aea/ath noaiiaeua a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, a ieoaiiy
aieieinoo ? oaiith ie?aiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?c oiai iiiaioo ?icii/iaoueny iaeaaea aeiey iiiaa??yiue ii ??ciei i?noai
? naeai aaoueea ? neia, ?o neea aoea eeoa o oiio, ui aiie aoee ?acii,
o?eiaeeny, ai?ieeny ca aeeooy aei inoaiiueiai, iaa?oue eiee caeaaaeinue,
ui nee ai?ioenue oaea aeaaii iaia?.

Aaoueei aeaooiaoaaany ia ?iaioo aea i?a, ia?aoiaeeee c i?noey ia i?noea
aeoaea /anoi, a iaeiiai ?aco cao?eiaeenue iaaeiaai o nae? AEi?ieu?
?ee?iaoeueeiai ?aeiio, aea aaoueei cono??a Aa?aa?o A?eoi??aio
Aieuenueeo, iaeaooith ia/ooo Ieaen?y Ieoaeeiae/a. Aiia aoea ethaeeiith
aeaniith, noai?ith, oiio iaoa?einueei? eanee Ieaen?e Ieoaeeiae/ oae ? ia
ciaa o nai?io aeeoo?. ”AEeee ie aeoaea ne?ooii, aieiaeii, ona, ui aoei —
c aeaniiai eeaioeea caie?, oae oiai ia iaeei coa aenoa/aei” — caaaeo?
Ieaen?e Ieoaeeiae/. Oea aoa 1943 ??e.

A ca iei i?eeaea oaea iaeaea ia?aiiaeiee 1944=e. Ii/aeiny ca?eueiaiiy
A?iie//eie, a ?ee?iaoeue aoa iiaooi?i ia?oecainueeei oeaio?ii, aiie
ia?aa?aeeny ooaee. Aaoueei ciiao aeaoooaaany oioa?ii(aei ?a/?, inue oae
ca ea?iii a?i ? iii?a o 1967 ?ioe? a?ae anoie, aeanoueny aciaee
cae/aeii, ? i?ae??aaia a ?iee a?eie caei?ia’y), a Ieaen?e i?oia aei
oeiee. Iio?ioo aeeooy ii?iae?co?oueny, oa o?aa iiaeia aoaea iacaaoe oea
aeeooyi?!

Ona ?oi? aeeoeinoai, iieiae?noue ? thi?noue aoee iii?aa/ai?, iaee?auee
oea?o aeeooy iioiioaiee. Aiie ia ciaee eanee nai?o iaoa??a, oo?aioe
aaouee?a…Eeoa a?eue oa ia/aeue ? eeoa iaeia caieoaiiy: „Ca ui?”. *ei
caaeieee oe? ethaee? Oei, ui ia?iaeeeenue iaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiino?? *e
oei , ui ie?ii ? niie?eii i?aoethaaee ia nai?e caie?, /anii ca?iaeyth/e
ia oe?a? Ooi aeanoue a?aeiia?ae? ia oe? caieoaiiy? Ooi caai?oue ?o
aacaeiii? ?aie? Ai iaa?oue /an ia a ciic? oeueiai c?iaeoe. Ooaa ca
iao??’th ua i? ia oaeeeio ca ana aeeooy ia iieeaeaea aa?iy iaoi? ?noi???
– Aeanithea Ieaen?y Ieoaeeiae/a, oa noiaeeoe ia i?noea ?o no?aoe a?i
aein? ia iiaea, ai oea ye aeneiaoe nie? ia oaeo aieth/o ?aio.

Oaeei /eiii, oeyoe ia aieth a?aioeyi oaoenonueeeo oaai??a nia?o? aoee
?ynii iieeo? e?ia’th ? ?oiueith, ? oeo, ooi noaaaa ?i ia aeiiiiiao.

Ia’?eoeaii aeiey ?aaeyinueeeo a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo aoea iaia?aae
aecia/aia ?aeaieia?/iith aeieo?eiith a?eie, ui a i?eioeei? aeeeth/aea
ni?eyoeeaa noaaeaiiy aei nieaeao?a oa io?oea??a a?i?e i?ioeaieea. Ae??
a?oea??anueeiai o?yaeo aoee e?e/ouei ii?ooaiiyi i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa,
iieiaeaiue caaaeueiiaeciaieo Aaacueei? oa AEaiaanueei? eiiaaioe?e, ye?
aeiaaaee iiaiaeeoenue c a?enueeiaiiieiiaieie aoiaiii.

O oe?e aaeueie ae?aiaoe/i?e neooaoe?? iaa i?noea ua e oaeoi?
noa’?eoeaiee, yeee oe?ae oneeaaeithaaa aeaoeeaa noaiiaeua iaa?eueiee?a
oaoecio ? aiaeii/an aeaaaa iiaeeea?noue iaoeenonueeei a?enueeiaei
cei/eioeyi /?ieyoeny ca iueiai ye ca „ae?a?”. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui c naiiai
ii/aoeo a?eie c I?ia//eiith aeyaeeiny, ui nioi? oeny/, a iacaaa?ii ?
i?eueeiie ?aaeyinueeeo a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ia?aaoaathoue iica caeiiii,
i?e/iio ye c i?iaoeueeiai, oae ? c ?aaeyinueeiai aie?a.

Noae?i, aeoiaey/e ciia-oaee c ?aeaieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue, a?aeiiaeany a?ae
i?aeienaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae uiaei i?aa a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo,
aaaaeath/e, ui a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? *a?aiii? a?i?? ia iiaeooue
caeaaaoeny ia eaneo ia?aiiaeoey. A ?ac? caa?ice iieiio aiie iiaeii?
caiiae?yoe nia? nia?oue (i?eiaeii? oey aeiiaa aenoaaeany aei eiiaiaeiiai
neeaaeo). Iaa?oue o a?enueeia?e i?enyc? a caeeth/iiio aacaoe?
iaaieiooaaeiny : „sseui ae /a?ac ceiiaaieniee iai?? y ii?ooo oeth iith
o?i/enoo i?enyao, oi iaoae y caciath noai?i? ea?e , caaaeueii? iaiaaeno?
e i?ace?noaa o?oaeyueo (iiiyooy „ ceiiaaieniee iai??” iiaeia aoei
oeoia/eoe ye caaaiaeii ).

A ianoaiiaoe? ii?acie ia o?iio? o 1941-1942 ??. ? ?icaaeo eaae?iai?
a?i?? Noae?i ia ciaeoia i?/iai e?auiai, ye iaieineoe an?o
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a *a?aiii? a?i??, ye? iio?aieee a iieii,
c?aaeieeaie. O na?ii? 1941 ?. aoei iaa?oue aeaeaii aaci?aoeaaeaioii
aei?noieee iaeac ? 270, o yeiio o?aaaae?y *a?aiii? a?i?? iiynithaaeany
aiyaocoaii oa ceiiaaieniei aeaca?oe?noaii eiineeaaeo, oiaoi iane?aeee
aeaeaaaeeny ca i?e/eie. Iaeac, yeee caeeoaany oa?iiei aae aei 1988 ?.,
aeiaaaa ?icno??ethaaoe ia i?noe? aeiieo eiiaiaee??a, ?ai?aniaoaaoe ?oi?
n?i’? ? o. ?i. ? oi/a a iiaiiio ianyc?, ia uanoy, a?i ia aeeiioaaany,
aeoo eiai aeoaa iino?eii.

Naia c ?i?oe?aoeae Noae?ia iiiyooy „a?enueeiaiiieiiaiee” noaei ia/a
neiii?iii oaeeo no?aoieo y?eee?a, ye „oieaoi”, „c?aaeiee”, „ai?ia
ia?iaeo”. ? oea i?e oiio, ui aaaaoi iieiiaieo ioaeiuei e ianoeoii
iiaiaeeeeny o iieii?, a ae?noaaoe naiaiaeo, aeeeeny o eaae Ca?ieieo
nee, a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o aecaieaii? a?ae oaoeno?a e?a?i ?a?iie. Aei
1 ea?oiy 1944 ?. aei *a?aiii? a?i?? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aoei i?ecaaii
142 oen. eieeoi?o a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ? ioi/aioe?a, yeeo i?ae /an
ieoiaoe?? ia?aoiaoaaei ianaeaiiy.

Iaeaea eiaeia ?iaeeia iaoiai aaaaoino?aaeaeaeueiiai ia?iaeo ia?
?noi??th, i?i yeo aie?ea a ia caaaeoaaoe, oa /e ciiaea? *e ciiaeaii an?
ie caaooe oie aeao ia?aaeeoeo ?ie?a a?eie, ieoiaoe?eiiai ?aaeeio?
Iaiaaia, i?…Oiae iaoae o iaoeo aeooao aeeaa ia eeoa ai?a, a e nayoa
iai’youe i?i oeo, ooi a?eueo ca ana ia na?o? oio?ee a aa/eoe ian,
aeeaeo, oni?oiaieie.

I?aenoiiaoth/e oe? o?aa?/i? noi??iee iaoi? ?noi??? /an?a Aaeeei?
A?o/eciyii? a?eie noiniaii oeo, i?i eiai aeanyoee ?ie?a i?iaiaeeeany
iie?oeea caiia/oaaiiy, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ? iei? ie ia iiaeaii
iinoaaeoe e?aieo ia oe?e aeaoeea?e noaoenoeoe?. Aaaaoi aeieoiaio?a
ao?a/aii. A oe?eiio, a iieii iio?aieei aeecueei 6,2 iei. ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ia an?o oaao?ao ai?iieo ae?e ia oa?eoi??? N?N?. C
ieo caaeioei iiiaae 4 iei., o oiio /ene? ia ieoiiaaieo caieyo Oe?a?ie
aeecueei 1,8 iei. /ieia?e.

Oe?a?ioe? – o iaoeenonueeeo oaai?ao nia?o?.

Ie /iei aeicaiii noeeei

Ia?aae ?eoea?ai — a?eoeai,

Iaae nayuaiieie iiaeeaie

Eeyoao a??iino? neeaaeai.

I. ?eeuenueeee O ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie
I?ia//eia ia?aoai?eeany ia aiaieua i?aeia?iaeiiai ?icaith, aei?noieiai
oa?i?o ? ?aaioi?a?ae?. Iaea?eueo? aeaoe iaioaaee a i?noeyo, iaianaieo
eieth/ei ae?ioii. Oai aoea aaciaaeia aeaaea aanoai?aoe?a. O I?ia//ei?
ae?yei 14033 oaai?e, 506 aaooi, 2071 a’ycieoey.1 Ea?oeia oaai?o –
noi?iaeia? aeoee, ai?ioa ?c ceia?niei iaienii „Eiaeiiio – nai?”, o?oaa
e?aiaoi??th, ui aeeeaea? /i?i? iania aeeio, — iaa?ae’?iia /anoeia
i?iaoeueeiai iaecaaeo /an?a ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.

Oaai?e iaceaaeeny ii-??ciiio: ia?aneeuei?, o?oaeia?, aeey
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo, oo?aoi?, eiioeaio?aoe?ei?… Iaeiae on? aiie
neoaeeee iaei?e iao? – aeieuaiith ia?iae?a ?a?iie, ia?o ca ana
neia’yinueeeo. Oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi, a?ei?on?a a?oea??aoe? aaaaeaee
„oioa?iaioaie”, i?aaenoaaieeaie „ieae/i? ?ane”. C 18 iei. /ieia?e,
aeaacaieo aei I?ia//eie c o?eaeoeyoe e?a?i ?a?iie, 11 iei. caaeioee.2

I?ia//eia aoea aaee/aciith eao?aiath. Aieaiiy ?? aea?oa /oa oaanue na?o,
aiie i?eioooaaee cae?eaaoeny an? oeea?e?ciaai? aea?aeaae. C iniaeeaith
aei?noie?noth a?oea??aoe? noaaeeeny aei ?aaeyinueeeo iieiiaieo,
a?eueo?noue yeeo iio?aieea aei ?o ?oe o ia?oee ??e a?eie, ui oae
o?aa?/ii neeaaeaeany aeey iaoiai ia?iaeo. *a?ac cia/i? i?i?aooiee E.
Noae?ia oa aeayeeo ai?ia/aeueiee?a *a?aiia a?i?y caciaea aaee/acieo
ao?ao. Oe?e? a?i?? oa o?iioe iieieeeny a ioi/aii?. ?aaeyinuee? ai?ie
aeeeny aei inoaiiueiai, aea ai?ia aeyaeany neeuei?oei ? oeo??oei. Inue
ao?aoe ia Oe?a?i? eeoa iieiiaieie a 1941-1942 ??.: i?ae Oiaiith – 103
oen., Ee?aii — 665 oen., Iae?oiiieai -100 oen., i?ae Oa?eiaii – 240 oen.
/ieia?e3.

_________________________________________________________-

1Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie, E., Iiooeiaa aeaeaaie/a aaaionoai „Eieaa iai’yo?
Oe?a?ie”, 2000,a?e.348.

2Oai naii, a?e.348.

3Oai naii, a?e.348.

Caoeniee?a ?aaeyinueei? caie?, iaa?oue iieiiaieo, a?oea??aoe? iauaaeii
cieuoaaee. Ia ?aaeyinueeeo a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo oia?oa aei?iaoaaee aac
„Oeeeeii – A”. Eaoe niinoa??aaee aaii?th aie?ath/eo, aea/aee, ye e?aua
canoiniaoaaoe nia?oaeueiee aac. Iieiiaieo aiaee i?ae aeoeaie aaoiiao?a
ia i?ii? iiey. ?aaeyinueeeo iieiiaieo ia?oeie ii/aee oaa?oaaoe, i?ae
?iai/o ooaeiao. Iaethaee ii/aee ao?ethaaoe a aeeooy ua iaeio
ethaeeiiiaiaaenieoeueeo ?aeath – i?iaaaeaiiy caaaeueii? noa?ee?caoe??.
Aoee aeiaaeee, eiee i?iaoeuee? nieaeaoe, iane?aeoth/e „o?aaeeoe??” nai?o
aieiaie/eo i?aaee?a, aaeaaee iieiaeeo /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a, caoiieaieo o
iieii, ? ieee ?o e?ia, uia aooe, iiaeya, ua neeuei?oeie,
iai?eie?aii?oeie aei nai?o ai?ia?a. O ?aaeyinueeeo iieiiaieo aoa eeoa
iaeei „i?ea?eae”: ?o iica /a?aith a?aei?aaeyee aei aaciaeo eaia?.
Iieiiaieo aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeiae ye aacieaoio ?iai/o neeo. ?o cioooaaee
aeeiioaaoe iaeoyae/? e iaea?oaei?o? ?iaioe. A niaoe?aeuei?e „Iai’yooe?”,
?ic?neai?e ii an?o ai?iieo ie?oaao, iaaieiooaaeiny, ui oiiae i?aoe?
iieiiaieo c ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco iathoue aooe neeaaei?oeie, a iaeie
iaioei, i?ae o iieiiaieo c ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ine?eueee aiie i?ieoee oeieo
a?eueoiaecio, aioia? e o iaaie? i?iaeiaaeoaaoe aeoeaio ai?ioueao, oiio c
ieie „o?aaa iiaiaeeoeny c iauaaeiith noai??noth”.1

A?oueiie?ia Oaoyia Oaaei??aia, aeeoaeueea i. A?iieoe?, ? aein? nayoi
aa?aaea ona, ui ii/oea a aeeoy/? ?iee a?ae aaoueea – Aia?iaa Oaaei?a
Ai?eniae/a, yeiio noaeeeiny oaeiae ia?aaeeoe aeaoe eiioeaio?aoe?eieo
oaai??a aaea a ia?o? ?iee a?eie.. A iineooaoe aoei ui: oyaeea aeiey
aeiaea ia aeieth ?? aaoueea.

Ca ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie a?i aoa ? o/anieeii ai?iieo ae?e ia
I?aaeaiii–Cao?aeiiio o?iio? c eeiiy ii aa?anaiue 1941 ?ieo, aoaeo/e
eiiaiaee?ii i?iii? aaoa?a?; ia Aieoianueeiio o?iio? — c eenoiiaaea 1941
?ieo ii /a?aaiue 1942-ai eiiaiaee?ii i?iii? aeea?c??, a iio?i,
iio?aieaoe a iieii, ua e iiaoaaa o /ioe?ueio eiioeaio?aoe?eieo oaai?ao.

Iaeia?oa aeiey caeeioea Oaaei?a Ai?eniae/a aei Aoaeaeooeo-A??eaiao,
a?aeiiiai ye Anaaioeeoi, a a’yci? iaceaaee eiai i?inoi – Aooaeoe. sse
i?ci?oa iaieoa nai Oaaei? Ai?eniae/ : „Oeae oaa?? a?aeiiee oei, ui
iaeaaeiaiee aoa ca inoaii?i neiaii oaoi?ee. Oai aoei e?eueea
iaoai?ciaaieo ia/ae, aea niaethaaee aaoe?ia?a (a’yci?a) oa oeoaaia?a
(o?eueee-ii i?eaoaoeo). Ia/? i?aoethaaee oe?eiaeiaiai, ?c o?oa eoia
aeiaoee aeei ? iaae?oae ?ice?oaany caiao ai??eiai i’yna oa e?noie”.

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1Oai naii, a?e.348.

Ii?yaeie o oaai?? aoa iano?eueee aei?noeei ? noai?ei, ui i?i oea iaa?oue
aaaeei caaaeoaaoe, aea oi aoei cae/ii aeey an?o oaai??a I?ia//eie.
Iai?aaeyee ooaee a?iiaaeyi, ye? i?aeic?thaaeenue o ai?iaeiio noaaeaii?
aei iaoeenonueeiai ?aaeeio, oeo aea, ooi aoa aee?eoee o oeueiio, oae
naii ye ? ?a?a?a a?aei?aaeyee a e?aiaoi??? ? cieuoaaee iaaaeii.

Iai?aaeaia aei eiioeoaai?o ethaeeia, iacaeaaeii a?ae noao?, a?ae?aco
i?aeaeaaaeanue ia?iaoe? – ia o?e? aeeiethaaee a?aooaionueeee iiia?,
iaeyaaee a oaa??iee iieinaoee niaoeiaeya, i?iaiaeeee nai?oa?io ia?iaeo,
oiaoi ieee oa aeno?eaaee. Iio?i eiaeai c a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo io?eioaaa
nai? i?noea aeey nio. A’yci? 3-5 ?ac?a ia aeaiue i?ioiaeeee iaa/aiiy
oaa??iei caeiiai, a naia – ye iiaiaeeoe naaa i?e cono??/? c oaa??iei
ea??aieoeoaii. Ia oaea iaa/aiiy a?aeaiaeeeinue a?ae 2 aei 5 aei?a.

A ?icii?yaeie aeiy aeey an?o aoa ianooiiei:

· I?aeeii i 6-e aiaeei?;

· I 7-e aeaaiyee ia ?iaioe, ye? o?eaaee a?ae 8-? aiaeeie ?aieo aei 18-?
aa/i?a, ?c ia?a?aith ia ia?ae, aea a’yci? io?eioaaee „aaeaiaeo” oa oe?a
(1 aooaieo ia aeiao ia /ioe?ueio /ieia?e). I?ney cae?i/aiiy ian aiaee
aei oaai?o.

· I 19-e aiaeei? io?eioaaee aa/a?th o aeaeyae? 1 e?o?a „aaeaiaee” ?
eyaaee niaoe. Aa?aee ca/eiyeeny cciai? ia caoai?e, a a?eia —
niaoe?aeueieie noaaiyie. Aaoe?ia iiaeiai aoa ?icaeyaiooenue iiai?noth, a
iaeaaeo neeanoe a noi?ii?, oae uia a?ieaeue (oa?e oaa??iee iiia?) aoa ia
aeaeiiio i?noe?.”

Aoaeoe c oeueiai oaai?o aoei i?inoi ia?aaeueii, e aeoiaoe i?i oaea aoei
aiae?. Aea iaethaenueeeie coneeeyie Oaaei?o Ai?eniae/o oaee aaeaeiny oea
c?iaeoe, ? c 25 na?iiy ii 15 aeiaoiy a?i o?eaa e?naie ? iieyie
yeiaeaeae?. Aaeaea o i?ioe?a aoei oaea iaaeania i?aaeei, ui eiaeiiai,
ooi anoeaaa aoaeoe aeae?, i?ae ia 50 ei, aiie aaea ia iiaa?oaee. Aia?iao
aaeaeiny ia?aiiaoe oeae iaeaea iaiineeueiee ?oa?ae, aea a na?aaeei?
aeiaoiy 1944 ?ieo a?i ciiao iio?aiey? aei eiioeaio?aoe?eiiai oaai?o A?ic
?icai, ?c yeiai aoa/a 21 aeiaoiy 1944 ?ieo. Iao aa?ie iio?aiey? aei
ia?oecainueeeo caaii?a, ui ae?yee o e?nao.

Oiae? o iaoeenonueeeo oaai?ao ae?yea aeiiiaeai?noue i?i oa, ui a’yci?a
iiaeia aeeoiaoe ca a?io? /e oe?ii? ?a/?. Oiio, eiee 11 ethoiai 1945 ?ieo
Oaae?? Ai?eniae/ iio?aieoue aei o?aoueiai eiioeoaai?o I?ooaeueaao, eiai
aeeoieoue i?inoa ?aaeyinueea ae?iea ?c e?niaeo ia?oecainueeeo caaii?a
Ciy Aeaieae?aia – eiai iaeaooiy ae?oaeeia.

Aea iiiaa??yiiy a?iiaaeyieia Aia?iaa ia cae?i/aoueny ? ia oeueiio. Eiai
a?ieaeue, a?/ia eeaeii, noaia i?e/eiith oa’yciaiiy Oaaei?a Ai?eniae/a ?
a/aoaa?oa o eiioeoaai?? I?ooaeueaao Eiiaiaei-Aeue??o. O o? ?iee iao
aa?ie oaea a?ae/oaaa, ui i?aeoe/ii cae?i/oaaeeny neee aeey ai?ioueae
(a?i aaaeea anueiai 29 ea), iaae?e aeaeeoe caeeoaeinue ana iaioa ? iaioa
c eiaeiei aeiai. A?yooaaea eiai ? aaaaoueio iaoeo oeiioe?a ? /ieia?e?a
oiae? oaea i/?eoaaia ? nayuaiia – Ia?aiiaa!

Ie?iieaiee e?ia’th ? neueicaie, ciaeaeaii uiaeaiieeiaee caien Oaaei?a
Ai?eniae/a: „Nueiaiaei? aeaiue aecaieaiiy oaoenonueeeo eiioeoaai??a, aea
ciaiaaaee ? iiie?aee a?ae ianeacaiii aaaeeiai aeeooy nioi? oeny/
a’yci?a…”

A aeae? ii/iaoueny iiaa aeeooy — ae?oaeeia aeoiaeeoue naiai iaeaea
nia?oaeueii caeaoiaaiiai o iaethaenueeeo oiiaao /ieia?ea, a?i iaeoaea?,
ciaeaea ?iaioo, o ieo ia?iaeeoueny aeiiueea. ? i?ae ona aeaaeia?oueny,
aea i?/iai ? i?eiee ia caaoaeaoueny…

I?ney i?iaaeo „ae?oee?eao” a?eia aeey a?oea??anueei? I?ia//eie iaaoea
caoyaeiiai oa?aeoa?o. No?aeiee o?iio aacia?a?aii aeiaaaa iiiiaiaiiy
aeeai? neee. Aei aa?iaooo i?eceaaeeny ana iia? eiioeiaaioe i?ioe?a.
Ianoa/a ?iai/eo ?oe o e?a?i? a?ae/oaaeany ana aino??oa. Aa?oiaiaee
o?aoueiai ?aeoo ae??oeee iiiiaieoe ?o ca ?aooiie ?iicaiieo ?ia?oiee?a. C
on?o e?ioe?a ?a?iie aei I?ia//eie iioyaeeny aoaeiie c iaa?eueieeaie.
Eeoa c Oe?a?ie aoei aeaacaii 2 iei. 400 oen. /ieia?e, ia?aaaaeii
iieiae?, — a?eueoa i?ae c aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? ieoiiaaii? e?a?ie.1 Aiie
iiaeii? aoee iaoe noaoon a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo ? oo?eioaaoeny i?ae
noai?ith ioi?iiith.

Aeaacaiiy oe?a?ioe?a ia eaoi?ao aei I?ia//eie iaaoei ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o
iaaani? 1942 ?ieo. Iie?oe?y oa nieaeaoe aa?iaooo iianthaeii aeaooiaoaaee
iaeaae, caaiyee thiae?a oa ae?a/ao ia ca??i? ioieoe e o cae?eoeo aaaiiao
aacee ia cao?ae. O i?iaoeueeeo i?noao c’yaeeeny iaa?eueieoeuee? ?eiee,
aea aoaeue-yeee eiaaaniee, /eiiaiee /e aaoa? i?a eoieoe ca e?eueea ia?ie
„oiaa?” aei aiiaeiae.

Iniiaia iana aeaacaieo iaa?eueiee?a iio?aieyea ia caaiaee e oaooe,
ii?yae c yeeie c’yaeyeeny oaai?e ca eieth/ei ae?ioii. Ui?aieo ia
na?oaii? a?oe?aeith i?iaoeueeeo i?no nooeio?ee aea?aa’yi? eieiaeee
(cai?noue acoooy) oaa??ieo a’yci?a. Iioio??, cia?i?e? iaee//y, noii?
i/?, ciaiiaeaia oiaea… Oea a?aee i?ae iaaeyaeii eiiai???a ?aae
o?aoueiai ?aeoo. O ieo ia aoei ?iai, eeoa iiia?e, ia a?oaeyo eiaeiiai _
?ici?ciaaaeueiee ciae: ae?ea c aeiaoith ieaioiaeith ? neiaii „Ino”.
I?eioooth/e „inoa?aaeoa??a” oa iieiiaieo i?aoethaaoe aei iiaiiai
aeniaaeaiiy, i?ioe? ae??ooaaee aeai?aeeia caaaeaiiy: aeei?enoiaoaaee ?o
a ?ioa?anao ?aeoo ? aiaeii/an oaeaaee aaaeeith i?aoeath. Oi aoa
aaiioeeae, aeieuaiiy i?eueeii?a aaciaaeiieo ethaeae.

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1Niie?e A. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy.-E.,1996.-a?e.112.

Iaoeenoe a?aeaiaeeee aaeeeo ?ieue eiioeoaai?ai. Ooo a’yci? i?ioiaeeee
an? eiea aeaioiaiai iaeea. Ia?o? iiae?ai? i?noey oa’yciaiiy c’yaeeeny a
I?ia//ei? i?ney i?eoiaeo A?oea?a aei aeaaee. ?o ?ici?uoaaee ia i?ai?/ieo
noeeao a??, aea aeia oieiaeiee a?oa?, ia aieioao ?c caaeooeeaeie
aeia?aie. O?eueee a 1940-1942 ??. c’yaeeiny 9 iiaeo eiioeoaai??a.1
ssne?aaei ao?eaiiyi ethaeiaea?nueeeo ieai?a oth?a?a e oethaeaiei
ae?oeuai A?iiea?a aoa Inaaioeei, ?icoaoiaaiee o oeaio?? ?a?iie,
iaiiaeae?e a?ae E?aeiaa. Oaa?eea nia?o? a?aaeaea nai?i ?iciaoii: 9
aaciaeo eaia?, 50 ia/ae. ?o i?iioneia caeaoi?noue ia aeiao — 10-12 oen.
/ieia?e. Oiano? no?ie e?aiaoi???a iiaeeiaee an?o, ooi iio?aieya o oea
iaeei…

Iaiiaeae?e i?aoethaaee aaeee? i?aei?e?inoaa i?iaoeueeeo eiioea?i?a, aea
a?ae iaiineeueii? i?aoe? aeioee nioi? oeny/ a’yci?a. Inaaioeeinueeee
oaa?? iaoeenoe ieaioaaee ia?aoai?eoe ia aaeaoainueea i?noi ?aa?a —
A?iiea?ooaaeo ?c ianaeaiiyi 3-4 iei. /ieia?e.2

Eiioeoaai?e iaee /eneaii? o?e??. Iaoooaocai, i?ei??ii, aoa eiia?iaoii ii
cieuaiith ethaeae: a?i ia?aoiaoaaa 46 aeiiii?aeieo oaai??a. Iiae?aieie
aoee oaeiae Aeaoao, Aooaiaaeueae, Iaeaeaiae. Onthaee iaioaaea a?oaa,
aei?noiea neea, iaee/ia aeenoeeie?ia, aeeooy a’yciy iiaei ia??aaoeny
uiieo?. Ia eaeueeoeyoi?ao nia?o? iaoeenonuee? /eiiaieee oi/ii
?ic?aoiaoaaee, yeee cene iiaeia iaoe a?ae i?aoe? a’yciy, ne?eueee /ano
a?i i?ioyaia ? ye e?aua aeei?enoaoe eiai inoaiee. Aeaiiee ca?ia?oie
a’yciy ia i?aei?e?inoa? noaiiaea – 6 ia?ie, i?ion 0,6 ia?ee ia eiai
oa?/oaaiiy 0,1 ia?ee ia aii?oecaoe?th iaeyao. *enoee i?eaooie neeaaeaa
5,3 ia?ee. Ca aeaa’youe i?nyoe?a (naia no?eueee uiiaea?eueoa a’ycaiue
aoa caeaoai i?aoethaaoe) -1431 ia?ea. Aei oiai ae i?ney nia?o? a’yciy
i?/iai ia i?iiaaeaei aea?ia – ana eoei a ae?ei. Iaeya ia?oaeo ? naai
(aea?aa’yia acoooy) ia?aoiaeeee ua aeeaei, iiae??aiai? e?noee e iii?e
noaaaee aeia?eaii, cieio? ei?iiee (aea? oiiie ia ??e) ia?aaeaaaeeny aei
?aeonaaieo. A ne?eueee aa?eo?a iaee i?iaoeuee? i?iieneiaoe? a?ae
aei?noiei? aenieoaoaoe?? a’yci?a! O?eueee i?aoey ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo aeaea nea?aieoe? a?oea??anueei? I?ia//eie a?eueo
i?ae 500 iei. ia?ie ( o oe?iao ai?iiiai /ano).3

________________________________________________________________________
____________________

1Enoi?ey Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, 1939-1945.-I.,1973-1982., O 8.-a?e.69.

2Oai naii, a?e. 72.

3Oai naii, a?e.. 73.

Iaeiae i?ye? i?ae?aooiee i?iaoeueeeo „iaeno??a nia?o?” uiaei
„?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy” aeeaeo ? ia?oaeo iaa?eueiee?a ia iiaee
aieeiooe ia aieiaia – aeaaeiao aeeooy, neeo iao??ioecio e iaiaaeno? aei
ai?iaa c aieo a’yci?a eiioeoaai??a. Oe? ?ene i?aeo?eioaaee i?e?a/aieo,
ci?oeithaaee ?o aeoo, aeaaaee ioaei?noue ? no?ee?noue. Aiie ciaoiaeeee a
nia? neee aeey ai?ioueae ca naaa, ca nai?o oiaa?eo?a, i?aaioee e ooo
aeaeaei a?ae o?iioo, caoeiaeeoe ai?iaia?. Nii/aoeo oea aoee aenooie
iaeeiae?a – ethaeae naiia?aeaeaieo, ?iiae? a?ae/aeaeooieo. Aiie ia iiaee
oa?i?oe ciouaiue oaoeno?a, ae?yee ni?eeai e a?aeaa?oi.

Iaei? eoee c aieeie ?oeaie ia ica?i?iiai ioi?iiieea, ae?oa? – e?ea?? oa
nai?oa?e – oiaaee na?aae oai?eo oeo, eiio caa?iaeoaaea nia?oue a?ae ?oe
eao?a, o?ao? ia eeaioyo iaia?o oa?iii iaethaaee noeaie oaa??ieo aeao?a,
niiae?aath/enue, ui eiee-iaaoaeue aiie noaiooue iaaeioaaeueieie aeoaie
i?ioe a?oea??anueeeo naaeeno?a. Aeey iio??aieo a/eie?a iio??aia aoea ia
eeoa iniaenoa ioaei?noue, aea e a??a a iaieio/ee e?iaoeue oaoecio, a oa,
ui oaiy iiaaae?iea noaia i?eeeaaeii aeey ?ioeo, aeeee/a i?aaiaiiy
i?iaeiaaeeoe ii??. Oae ? aoei iani?aaae?. Oe?iei i?aeoeeoaaeinue,
iai?eeeaae, ooeeaiiy a?ae i?eioniai? i?aoe?. Ciaiaaath/e a iaaie?,
a’yci? ca?aaeaee naaa ??cieie oai?iaaie, iniaeeai oe??ieie, eae?/eee
naaa, aae ia iio?aieoe aei ?iai/eo eiiaiae. Ca neioeyoe?th e ooeeyiiy
a?ae ?iaioe aoei caa?aooiaaii a?eueoa 20400 „no?aeieo ?ia?oiee?a”.1 Ca
iaaaaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe a?oea??aoe? aei?noiei ea?aee oeny/? ?aaeyinueeeo
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo.

A oaa??iiio i?aei?ee? ca?iaeaeoaaany aioeoaoenonueeee Ii??, ui ana?eic
iaiiei?ei ea??aiee?a o?aoueiai ?aeoo. I?eeeaaeii naiia?aeaeaii?
ai?ioueae aoa naaioaae a’yci?a oaai?o „I?ooaeueaao-Aei?a”. Noai?aiiy
oeueiai no?aoiiai i?noey oa’yciaiiy iaei naith ia?aae?noi??th. 1943 ?ieo
aa?iaoo caciaa ?yae ii?acie ia no?aeiiio o?iio?. *a?aiia a?i?y iano?eiii
oenioea i?iaoeueeeo caaa?aiee?a. Ia?niaeoeaa ii?acee o a?ei? eyeaea
iaoeenonueeeo aiic. Aiie ana a?eueoa cina?aaeaeoaaee oaaao ia ?ic?iaeao
Aa?ia?a oii A?aoia, yeee caeiaany noai?aiiyi ?aeaoii? oaoi?ee. Ia
ii/aoeo eeiiy a a?oea??anuee?e noaaoe? „Aieueooaioea” oii A?aoia
i?eeiya oth?a?.

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1Enoi?ey Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, 1939-1945., I.,1973-1982.,O.8.,a?e.75.

Aeoae? anan?aoe? aoyaee a cae iaeao ioneiai? onoaiiaee, ia e?iiae?ai?
c’yaeeeny eaae?e oni?oieo caione?a ?aeao. Ooo?iaaioth?a? NN Aa?ia? oii
A?aoi caiaaiea A?oea?a, ui ieia e?eueea i?nyoe?a ? a?i aeanoue
o?aoueiio ?aeoia? ca?ith, caeaoio cieueoe Aiae?th, a a 1948 ?ioe? eiai
?aeaoe aeieaoyoue aei Iueth-Ei?ea oa Aeao?ieoa. Oth?a? aoa o caoaao?.
?aeaoio i?ia?aio iaieineee ia?oi/a?aiaith. Ieaioaaeiny caioneaoe ii
oeny/? ?aeao ia aeiao. Iaoeenoe ae??oeee ?icoaooaaoe ae?iaieoeoai
„/oaei-ca?i?” a aeeaieeo ooieueiyo o ai?ao iaiiaeae?e Ii?aeoaocaia.
Nthaee ii/aee i?eaoaaoe a’yci? a iaaeooi caaeoeo aaaiiao c iaienii
„Iaaacia/ii, oeo!”. Oii/? iauanieo aeaiaeeee c aaaii?a, ? aiie
aacne?aeii uacaee a i?aecaiaee?. Iacaaa?ii ooo aoei nii?oaeaeaii 44
aaee/acieo oeaoe. Ii/aeiny na??eia ae?iaieoeoai e?oae?a — nia?yae?a
Oao-1 oa ?aeao Oao-2. A?n?inio i?iaoeueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aeaioiaeyee aeey
ieo ??ciiiai?oi? aeaoae?, a neeaaeaee ?o o ooieueiyo, i?ae noai?ei
eiio?ieai anan?aoe?a oa aanoaii. A’yci? aeeee a iino?ei?e iai?aoai?ya?,
niaee ia caieyi?e i?aeeic?. Oain?a aeaeeoe ia iaa i?ooi. Iaeni?eea?oa
i??y i?i aoa/o caeaaaeany iacae?eniaiith. Iaeiae iaa?oue o oeeo oiiaao
iao??ioe ??cieo e?a?i ia caeaaaeeny, ae?yee. …Ia noa?oiaiio
iaeaeai/eeo ia?inoa? ao?e?o. Ae?eaeeoue caiey. Aino?iiina ?aeaoa ca
e?/ai? naeoiaee iaae?a? aenioo. O iinia?e /anoei? ?? – iaeiioiiiee
ca?yae iiooaeii? aeaoo?aee. E?eueea oaeeei — ? a Eiiaeii? i?ia?eieoue
no?aoiee aeaoo…Aea ui oea? ?aeaoa ?aioii a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae caaeaiiai
eo?no ? aiaaea? a ii?a. *a?ac aeayeee /an caioneathoue ?ioo, ? aiia
aeaooa? i?yii iaae noa?oiaei iaeaeai/eeii. Ca i?iaoeueeeie aeaieie,
o?eueee c Oao-1 iiae?aia eaoano?ioa noaeany 1006 ?ac?a! Aoa aeiaaeie,
eiee i?ae /an caioneo caaeioei 12 nieaeao?a, ye? ianeoaiaoaaee oaoi?eo.
sse noaei a?aeiii i?ney a?eie, ?c 10800 ?aeao Oao-2 , aeiouaieo ia
Eiiaeii oa Aioaa?iai o ia??iae ?c 7 aa?aniy 1944?. aei e?ioey aa?aciy
1945 ?., a?eueoa iieiaeie ia aeinyaee iaoe. C 8564 Oao-1, ui iaee
c?oeioaaoe a?eoainueeo noieeoeth, a?aeiaaieie aeyaeeenue 6166. Aeey
ea??aiee?a o?aoueiai ?aeoo, e?ao yeiai aaea aoa i/aaeaeiee, oea noaei
ni?aaaei?i eeoii. Cae/aeii, iiaa ca?iy, Noai?thaaia oii A?aiii, iaea
eiino?oeoeai? oa oaoi?/i? aaaee, ? ana ae cia/ia /anoeia „in?/ie” –
i?yiee aeieac naaioaaeo. O?eueee i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy oaeo?a naaioaaeo
a?oea??aoe? no?aoeee 12 oen. a’yci?a. Iiaeaea aac?iaiieo iao??io?a,
iaa?eueiee?a i?iaoeueeeo ooieaiue caneoaiao? ia a?aeia aoaioaaiiy.1

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1Oai naii, a?e..87.

Aeoeaiith oi?iith iii?o aoee aoa/? iaa?eueiee?a c iieiio. ?o ia iiaee
coieieoe i? ica?i?ia ioi?iia, i? nia?oaeueiee ?ecee aooe i?eiaiei.
Iaaaciaea /aooaaea ia ao?ea/?a ia eiaeiiio e?ioe?. Aaeaea ia ia?ao?anoyo
aei??a ? cae?cie/ieo noaioe?yo, ia iinoao iino?eii noiyee iinoe e
canaaee. Eiaeiiai i?aeic??eiai ?iicaioey cao?eioaaee, a?aei?aaeyee aei
aanoaii. *ano?oa ca ?ioeo c iaaie? ae?eaaeeny eieeoi? o?iioiaeee.

sse na?ae/aoue aeai? naieo i?ioe?a, o 1941-1944 ??. ao?ea/?a aoei aei 70
oen. /ieia?e1. Aiie noai?thaaee aeiaeaoeia? o?oaeiiu? aeey iie?oe??,
aeanoaa?e?coaaee ae?iaieoeoai.

?aaeei o a?oea??anueeeo oaai?ao aeaaeae? noai??oaa, noaaaa aei?noie?oei.
Ca ?ino?oeoe??th aa?oiaiiai aieiaiieiiaiaeoaaiiy aa?iaooo an?o
iaiie??ieo oa’yciaieo, o oiio /ene? e i?eiaieo oo?ea/?a, ia?aaeaaaee a
aanoaii.

Aoa/? c i?iaoeueei? iaaie? ii/ano?oaee ia o?aoueiio ?ioe? a?eie.
Ia??aeei aiie cae?enithaaeeny oai, aea ?nioaaea iniaeeaa ioi?iia,
iaioaaa iauaaeiee ?aaeei.

?c i?noeue oa’yciaiiy, ?icoaoiaaieo ia oa?eoi??? O?aioe??, iaaani? 1944
?. aoaeei aaaaoi iieiiaieo, na?aae yeeo aoee e oe?a?ioe?. Ao?ea/?
noai?eee 30 ia?oecainueeeo caaii?a. Iao? caieyee ai?ieeny ie?/-i-ie?/ c
o?aioeocueeeie iao??ioaie. Eiaeai ae?oaee caa?i i/iethaaa oe?a?iaoeue,
iaeaea iieiaeia a?eoe?a o ieo oaae aoea c Oe?a?ie.2

…O?aioeocueea i?noa/ei Aiiai-Eue?oai?. Ia iaae?neo i?e aoiae? ia
oeaeioa? – ?iaia caaeaeeo aa?i?a Iii?o. O oeaio?? oeaeioa?y i?aai?o/
a?ae cia?aaeaiiy ?ici’yoiai O?enoa – iiaeea, a ye?e a?/iei niii nieoue
?aaeyinueeee io?oea? Aaneeue Ii?ee. Aaneeue ia?iaeeany ? ae??n ia
A?iie//ei?, nia?oue cono??a 24-e?oi?i. caaeioa, uia aeeea O?aioe?y .Eiai
aieiaei ae?oaii aoa Ei?aeiiaoeue ?aai Iaca?iae/, yeee ia?iaeeany a 1924
?. a nae? Ieeoeeioe? E?oeinueeiai ?aeiio A?iieoeueei? iaeano? a
n?euenuee?e ?iaeei?. Caaaeo? Naa?oie Oaoyia Aeieo??aia, ieai?iieoey
?aaia Iaca?iae/a, aeeoaeueea i. A?iieoe?…

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1Enoi?ey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu Niaaoneiai Nithca,
1941-1945.-I.,1960-1965.-O 4.-a?e.189.

2Oai naii, a?e.276.

Aaaaoi aei?iaoaaiue aeiaei ia aeieth aeyaeueea. A 1941 ?ioe? a?oea??aoe?
cai?ioi?eee eiai ia eaoi?ao a I?ia//eio, a ca?aeoe a?aei?aaeee o
ieoiiaaio O?aioe?th. Oae iieieany a?i o oaooa?nueeiio naeeu?
Aiiii-ai-A?ooa. Oaa?? „no?aeieo ?ia?oiee?a”, aeniaaeeeaa i?aoey, ooaa ca
Aaouee?aueiith. A’yci? ooo i?ae?a?aeeny ia?aaaaeii c o?ueio non?aei?o
?aeii?a A?iieoeueei? iaeano?.

Oiae ? ciaeoee aiie ni?eueio iiao, oaeaeei ia’?aeiaeeny. O aeiaoi? 1942
?. o oaai?? Aiiii aoei noai?aii i?aei?eueio i?aai?caoe?th. Ianoaa /an
ae?e. A’yci? inoaaee ?ino?oiaio, aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy, iia?o?yi? ianine,
an?eyei naaiooaaee ?icii?yaeaeaiiy eiiaiaeaioa. Aeaiiee aeaeiaooie
aoa?eey ia oaoo? ciaioeany ia 25-30 %. O eeii? 1943 ?. ooo aeiee
ia?oecainueeee caa?i. E?n?a aeiaeiea iaeaea ia aoei, ca’ycie c
i?noeaaeie iao??ioaie iaeaaiaeeoe ye ne?ae ia aaeaeiny. Oiio ia?aee oaeo
oaeoeeo: aii/? iaiii?oii i?iieeaoe /a?ac eieth/ee ae??o ? cae?enithaaoe
aeeaa?n?? ia cae?cieoe?. Iacaaa?ii ionoeee i?ae oe?n aoaeii c aoa?eeyi,
caiaeii – ua aeaa. ?oo ii?cae?a i?eieieany ia oeaeaeaiue. Ia?oecainuee?
caaiie ae?yee ? a ?ioeo oaai?ao. Aeey ca’yceo noai?eee i?ae oaa??iee
eii?oao ia /ie? c Aaneeai Ii?eeii. E?euee?noue aioea?oea??anueeeo aeoe?e
c?inoaea. O 1944 ?. ia?oecaie cieueee aeieoiaioaoe?th a oaai?? Aiiii,
caoiieee ca?ith. Oea aaea aoea a?aee?eoa ai?ioueaa c ai?iaii.
A?oea??aoe? neaaeai?ee. Ca aieiao Aaneey Ii?eea iiia?oeyee aeiaai?iaeo –
i?eueeii i?iaoeueeeo ia?ie. Ii/aeeny iaeaae e iiaii?. Oyaeei ii?aiaiiai
Ii?eea, ia?aoo?, noiieee e eeioee a A??anueeo oi?oaoeth. ?aai
Ei?aeiiaoeue ?acii c oiaa?eoaie aoa i?aai?caoi?ii eaaaiaea?ii?, i?inoi
oaioanoe/ii? aoa/? Ii?eea. ?aai Iaca?iae/ aoa o neeaae? ia?oecainueeiai
caaiio ?aaia Oaaei?oea, yeee io?eiaa iaeac ?ooaoenue a ?ioa i?noea
aeeneieaoe?? aeey ia’?aeiaiiy a aaeeea ia?oecainueea c’?aeiaiiy. Oaoyia
Aeieo??aia aeoaea aeia?a iai’yoa? ?iciia?aeue aeyaeueea… Aea a oiio
iaeac? aoei aaaaoi i?aeic??eiai. E?n, eoaee iaa i?eaooe caa?i, iaeaea
aanue i?iaeyaeaany. E??i oiai, aoea i?aeic?a, ui i?i ieaie ia?oecai?a
iiaee ciaoe i?ioe?. ? inue, i?ae /an coieiee a iaaaee/eiio nae?,
?ica?aeieee iiaa/eee iaoeie c i?ioeyie. Ia?oecaie oaeaeei
i?aeaiooaaeenue aei aith, aea ?aioiai ia ieo iaiaee c oeeo. Ioaea, ai?ia
eoia ii ne?aeao caaiio, /aeath/e c?o/iiai iiiaioo aeey iaiaaeo. Aea
neeueiee aiaiiue ia?oecai?a ( a nae? caa?i Oaaei?oea ia’?aeiaany ua c
aeaiia ia?oecainueeeie caaiiaie, ui aeeiioaaee aiaeia?/ia caaaeaiiy)
canoaaea i?ioe?a caeyaoe. Ia na?oaieo a?oea??aoe? i?oee a aoaeo ?
ioi/eee ia?oecai?a. A oae?e aaciaae?ei?e neooaoe?? aoei ae??oaii
aeoiaeeoe c e?eueoey… ?o a?yooaaei aaeeea ioaie/ia iiea, ca yeei
?icii/eiaany e?n. Aeae?aeenue iiiaeeioe?. ?aai Iaca?iae/, caaeeoath/enue
a?ae a?ao, ?icnoaath/e aono? ioaie/i? eieinee, i?iae?aany aei e?no.
Iicaaeo aoei /ooe i?noieaoi? aeno??ee, ei?ioe? aaoiiaoi? /a?ae, e?eee
oiaa?eo?a, yeeo aeiaiaee ea?aoae?. Iiea ?aioiai cae?i/eeinue ? a?i
iiaa/ea aocueeee eaiae. Caeeioaoe a i/a?ao aaoiiao( iao?iie aaea
cae?i/eeenue), a?i eeioany a aiaeo, aeiieea aei iinoa ? caa?aany i?ae
eiai a?eo.

A ia?ea? aa?aaa aoei aeaeii aeo?ae yei?nue o?oae. E?eee ? aeno??ee
iaaeeaeaeenue. Eoaee ae noiaaoenue? Aeoyaioaoe ?oee, a?i cae?c a o?oao,
iie?o ? neecueeo, aeoaea aaaeei i?inoaath/enue aia?aae. Ii iinoo
caaoiaee i?iaoeuee? /iaioe. Ana, ui caeeoaeinue – oea oaeaeei
i?inoaaoenue aia?aae. O?oaa aeaioeanue, c?iaeaoe iiai?io. Aieine noaaaee
oeo?o?, aea ?aioii ccaaeo ao/ii aaea?eea aaoiiaoia /a?aa: ioe?
aecaiueeioee ii aaoiio. oea i?ioe? i?ino??ethaaee o?oao. Iio?i aeyaeueei
eacaa, ui e?aua aaea a eiai aaeee, a oi ii?aiaiee caeeoeany a o?e o?oa?
iacaaaeaee… Iio?i ianooieea oeoa – i?ioe? i?oee. A?i iiac aeae?, ia
ciath/e eoaee ? /e aoaea o?e o?oa? e?iaoeue ( iacaae aea?aoenue aoei
iaiiaeeeai, oae ye o?oaa aoea aeoaea aocueea ? a i?e ia iiaeia aoei
?icaa?iooenue). I?ioiaeeee oaeeeie, a iiaeeeai ? aiaeeie. Aea ?aioii a
o?oa? noaei na?oe?oa ?, i?aeiyaoe aieiao, aeyaeueei iiaa/ea na?oeo ieyio
Oi aoa aeo?ae! ?aai Iaca?iae/ iieieany ia aa?ac? ae?oaiai eaiaeo.
I?en?aoe, aeaae?aii eiaoath/e /enoa iia?o?y. Ethaeae ia aoei aeaeii, aea
ia ae?oaiio aa?ac? noiya aoaeeiie. A?i nionoeany aei aiaee ? a?aeiea
aee?io a?yctheo, yeith aoa aeiauaiee c aieiae aei i?a. A oeae /an a
iaeiiio ?c a?eii aoaeeieo c’yaeeany ae?iea. Aeo?oooth/e neaoa?oeio, aiia
iice?aea ia iaciaeiioey. Iio?i ii/aea ?aaoe a ei?ceio o?aao. Ia an?i
i?noeaaei aeeoaeyi iiaeia aoei aeia??yoe, aea oiaaoenue aoei aaea i?cii.
AE?iea i?ae?eoea ? iieeeeaea aeyaeueea. A?i ia?aieea eaiae. Iaciaeiiea
ieoaea eiai, ooi a?i ca iaoe?iiaeuei?noth: iieye /e ?oae??oeue. Ii/oaoe,
ui a?i ?in?yiei, aiia ia caeeaoaaeanue ? cai?ineea eiai a aoaeeiie.
I?ia?aoe ia eooith, i?ae?a??ea aiaeo, i?eianea ?ooiee, a?eecio, einothi.
Iaii?ea aeiii, aeaea neaa?aoe. AE?ieo caaee AEaee?i. I?ney anueiai
ia?aaeeoiai a?i canioa. Eiee eiai ?icaoaeeee, oi c ?iaioe i?eeoia
/ieia?e AEaee?i – Iieue. A?i i?ea?oaany ? cai?inea aeyaeueea aei noieo.
A?ae/oaaeinue, ui Iieue noaaeth? ae?? ae?oaeeie. A i?ea?oi?e
o?aioeocuee?e ?iaeei? ?aai Iaca?iae/ i?iaoa e?eueea aei?a, uia o??oee
iaa?aoenue nee. Iio?i o?aioeoce i?iaaee eiai ia aaoinoaioe?th, eoieee
a?eao aei E?ey. ?aai Iaca?iae/ ciaeoia caeeoee naiai, ?icaeoiai i?ioeyie
ia?oecainueeiai caaiio ? i?iaeiaaeea ai?ioueao c ai?iaii. I?ney Ia?aiiae
aoa ia?ai?aaeaiee aei ?aaeyinueeiai nithco. I?e?oaa o ??aeia naei. O
1946?. iae?oaeeany. Iaa o?ueio ae?oae. O 1950 ?. ia?a?oaa c n?i’th a
Iae??aeo Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?, aea i?aoethaaa oaooa?ai. O 1988 ?. iiia?
— aeaeany aciaee aaaeea i?aoey a i?iaoeueeeo oa ?aaeyinueeeo oaooao.
Oioia?ao?e c aeyaeueea iaia?, o?, ui aoee – caa?aei IEAAe, a iaeia a
A?iieoeueeiio e?a?ciaa/iio ioca? ?acii c Aaneeai Ii?eeii.

Ia?aiiae *a?aiii? a?i?? iineaaethaaee neee ai?iaa. A?i ciooaiee aoa
ciaiooaaoe nai? aa?i?ciie e ioi?iii? eiiaiaee a I?ia//ei? oa a
ieoiiaaieo e?a?iao. Ii?? aea, iaaiaee, c?inoaa. A aieiaia – iaaoaaa
ianiaiai, ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. E?euee?noue i?aei?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?e oaeaeei ca?eueooaaeany o oeaio?? o?aoueiai ?aeoo – a
?aeiiao Eaeioeeaa oa Ithioaia, aea iaoeenoe cina?aaeeee aaaaoi
a?enueeiaeo caaiae?a.

28 eeiiy 1944 ?. aieiaia oi?aae?iiy ?NOA c iicia/eith „Aaaeeeai!
Oaaaa!” ?ic?neaei a iie?oeaenuee? oi?aae?iiy o?aoueiai ?aeoo
niaoe?aeueiee iaeyae ?acoeueoao?a noaaeaiiy ca i?aei?eueieie a?oiaie e
i?aai?caoe?yie ?iicaioe?a. Aanoai?anueeeo oiee?a ? aeiiiuee?a ia?aaeon?i
oe?eaaeea ae?yeuei?noue ?aaeyinueeeo iieiiaieo oa „no?aeieo ?ia?oiee?a”.
Aeniiaee aeey a?oea??aoe?a aoee iaao?oieie. Aioeoaoenonueea ai?ioueaa a
oaai?ao ia?inoaea. Eeoa c aa?aciy ii aa?anaiue 1944 ?. aanoaii aee?eei a
38 i?noao a?oie Iii?o oa caa?aoooaaei 2700 /ieia?e. C’yaeeeny iia?
oeaio?e aioeoaoenonueeiai i?aei?eey – Aaiao?a, Oaii?oe, Ith?iaa?a oa ?i.
Aioeoaoenonueea i?aei?eey ?nioaaei oaeiae o eiioeoaai?ao Aooaiaaeueae,
Aeaoao, ?aaaina?the, Iaoooaocai oa ?i1. Ii/aoie eiai aoa aaaeeei /a?ac
aei?noieee oa?i?, ??ciiiai?oiee neeaae oa’yciaieo, /ano? „naeaeoe??” –
a?aea?? ? cieuaiiy neaaeeo oa oai?eo. Aea e o oeeo iaaecae/aeii
neeaaeieo oiiaao noai?thaaeeny iaeaaaeuei? a?oie Iii?o. Ai?ioueaa i?ioe
iaoeenonueeeo eao?a noaaaea ana a?ae/ooi?oith. Ae?oeo 1943 ?. ?ic??ciaia
i?aei?eey a Inaaioeei? ia’?aeiaeiny a ?aeeio i?aeia?iaeio i?aai?caoe?th.
?? ea??aieoeoai iaeaaiaeeei ca’ycee c a’yciyie o?e?e iniiaiiai oaai?o,
iaiaaaeiny cao?ooaaoe neee. O/anieee i?aai?caoe?? aeeiiaee
a?aeiia?aeaeueia caaaeaiiy – ia?aaeaee iieuenueeei ia?oecaiai eii??
oa?iieo aeieoiaio?a c eaioeaey??? Inaaioeeia oa oioici?iee, ia yeeo aoee
caea?aiaai? cei/eie oaoeno?a2. Oaeei /eiii na?oia? noaee a?aeii? oaeoe
aaiioeeaeo, aeieuaiiy nioaiue oeny/ aaciaaeiieo ethaeae. Aoei
ii?eethaeiaii e ?iaia eao?a.

Iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo ni?aa i?aei?eueiee?a a iaoeenonueeeo oaai?ao aoei
aee?eooy aeanianueeeo i?iiaaaiaeeno?a, ye? iaiaaaeeny caaa?aoaaoe
a’yci?a aei oae caaieo „aeia?iaieue/eo” aaoaeueeii?a ?in?enueei?
aecaieueii? a?i?? (?AA). A’yci?a iicaaaeyee aeaiaioa?ieo oiia ?nioaaiiy,
an?eyei caeyeoaaee, iaiaaath/enue c?iaeoe ?o a?eueo i?aeaeaoeeaeie.
Iaeiae a’yci? a?aeiiaeyeeny neoaeeoe i?ioeyi a?aoe aei ?oe ca?ith. Ia
oea eoee o?eueee iiiaeeiie? neaaeiaeoo? ethaee, ye? iaiaaaeeny ca anyeo
oe?io caa?aaoe aeania aeeooy.

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1Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie, E., Iiooeiaa aeaeaaie/a aaaionoai „Eieaa iai’yo?
Oe?a?ie”, 2000.,a?e.357.

2Oai naii, a?e.358.

O 1943 ?. ia?iaeeeany iiaa oi?ia ai?ioueae c ei?e/iaaith /oiith. Aieia?
a?oie aaeaiue ia?aaoaaee a oaai?ao a aii/? caeeoaee ?o ? ae?yee ye
ia?oecaie. Oae aoei, cie?aia, ia i?aii/? O?aioe??, a aeaia?oaiaioao Ii?
oa Ia-aea-Eaea, eoaee a?oea??aoe? i?eaacee aeey ?iaioe ia aoa?eueieo
oaooao aeanyoee oeny/ iaa?eueiee?a, a?eueo?noue – c Oe?a?ie.

A inoaii?e ??e a?eie a ?yae? aaeeeeo i?iaoeueeeo i?no c’yaeeeny
aeeaa?n?ei? a?oie, aei neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeeee ?aaeyinuee?
a?enueeiaiiieiiai? oa „no?aei? ?ia?oieee”. AEeee aiie iaeaaaeueii, iaee
ca?ith, iaiaaeaee ia iaoeenonueeeo /eiiaiee?a oa io?oea??a,
cae?enithaaee cooaae? aeoe??. A nae?aoiiio iaeyae? ?NOA iia?aeiieyeiny,
ui a Aa?e?i? o?eueee a /a?ai? 1944 ?. cao?eniaaii ae?? 79 aieiaee?a. O
iie?oeaenueeiio oi?aae?ii? i?iaoeueei? noieeoe? i?aai?coaaee
niaoe?aeueiee i?ae?icae?e aeey ai?ioueae c i?aei?eueieeaie.

Iaaani? 1945 ?. iaae a’yciyie i?iaoeueeeo eiioeoaai??a iaaenea
nia?oaeueia iaaaciaea. Ona?aeiiethth/e naith iaieio/o ii?aceo, iaoeenoe
ae??oeee cieueoe i?eueeiie iaa?eueiee?a, caianoe ne?aee nai?o
no?ao?oeeaeo cei/ei?a. I?i iai??e a?oea??anueeeo aieiai??c?a ciaee e
nai? oa’yciai?. Aiie ?icoi?ee, ui ana oaia? caeaaeaoeia a?ae ?oiuei?
cao?oiaaiino?, ??oo/ino?. Aiooth/enue aei a?aen?/?, o/anieee ?ooo Iii?o
aeyaeee ni?aaaei?e aa?i?ci. Aiie ?ic?iaeyee ieaie iianoaiue, noai?thaaee
ooo?iia? a?oie, caian aiaiaiaeueii? ca?i? oa a?aiao. A iaeieo
eiioeoaai?ao a’yci? naiiaecaieyeeny, ?io? aecaieyeeny ?aaoey?ieie
a?enueeiaeie /anoeiaie.

A?aeiiaethth/e i?aaaeo ai?iieo e?o, iaiao?aeii neacaoe e i?i ?ioa: i?i
noaaeaiiy ea??aiee?a N?N? aei a’yci?a iaoeecio, ia?aaeon?i –
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. A?oea? aeieuoaaa ?o ye ai?ia?a
iaoe?iiae-nioe?ae?cio. Noae?i ?o iaiaaeae?a ? ia?ane?aeoaaa ye na?aee?a
aaiaaieo ii?acie c eiai aeie. A oaeeo e?a?iao, ye Aiae?y, NOA, Eaiaaea,
eieeoi?o iieiiaieo cono??ee ii-ethaenueee. Aeaeaaaee ieaoith ca /an
ia?aaoaaiiy a iaoeenonueeeo oaai?ao, ao?ea/ai a?o/eee iaai?iaee,
aaaaoueii i?enai?ee /a?aiaa a?enueeiaa caaiiy. I?ooi ?o ia ne?eaaeea, ia
ia?acea. Cian?i ?ioei aoei noaaeaiiy aei ?aaeyinueeeo ethaeae.
Ca?eueiai? c i?iaoeueei? iaaie? aiie ieaeaee a?ae uanoy. Ua a/i?a aiie
/eoaee eeno?aee, oa?iii iioe?thaai? a oaai?ao, a??eee, ui „A?o/ecia
i?eiee ia caaoaea nai?o nei?a ? aei/ie”. Aea iacaaa?ii c’ynoaaeiny, ui
oea caiaaiaiiy aeaeaea a?ae ?noeie. Ea??aieoeoai N?N? caa/anii
a?aeiiaeeiny a?ae nai?o a?iiaaeyi, ciiao i?e?aeei ?o ia ioee ?
no?aaeaeaiiy. Aaea 16 na?iiy 1941 ?. Noae?i aeaeaa ai?aca?niee iaeac ?
270, ca?aeii c yeei on?o iieiiaieo nieaeao?a ? eiiaiaee??a aoei aeciaii
aeioaaooeyie ai?iieo iaaaea/. Aiie i?aeeyaaee noai?iio iiea?aiith, ?o
n?i’? iicaaaeyeeny i?euea. E??i oiai, o?yae N?N? a?aeiiaeany a?ae iineoa
I?aeia?iaeiiai *a?aiiiai O?anoa, yeee aioiaee aoa iaaeaaaoe aeiiiiiao
a’yciyi iaoeenonueeeo oaai??a. Aaea ianooiiiai aeiy i?ney Ia?aiiae, yeo
nayoeoaaa oaanue na?o, Noae?i a?ae ?iai? Noaaee ?ic?neaa eiiaiaeoaa/ai
oanoe o?iio?a oaeaa?aio-?icii?yaeaeaiiy: ia caie?eath/e, noai?eoe 100
o?eueo?aoe?eieo oaai??a aeey ia?aa??ee ?aaeyinueeeo a?iiaaeyi –
iaa?eueiee?a o?aoueiai ?aeoo, ca?eueiaieo *a?aiiith a?i??th oa
nithcieeaie. ?o ia?aa??yee, canoiniaoth/e a?oao neeo e i?iaieaoe?ei?
caniae ne?aenoaa, ni?a?ia?oieee IEAN, IEAeA, Nia?oo. Iniaeeai o?aa?/ieie
aoee ?acoeueoaoe oeeo ia?aa??ie aeey eieeoi?o iieiiaieo. ?o aaaaeaee
c?aaeieeaie Aaouee?aueie. Oeny/? ?o canoaeaeaii ia 25 ?ie?a eaoi?ae aai
aei ?icno??eo, 346 oen. ?yaeiaeo oa na?aeaio?a iio?aieee aei ?ia?oie/eo
aaoaeueeii?a Ia?eiiaoo iai?iie, ?aooa – o Ai?eooo, Iaaaaeai, ia
aoae?aieoeoai cae?cieoeue. Ne??cue iio??aia aoea aea?iiaa i?aoey. Aei
oiai ae noae?inueeee ?aaeei i?inoi ia i?a ?nioaaoe aac ia?aco ai?iaa.
Aei a?eie N?N? ia?aoiaoaaee i?eueeiie „ai?ia?a ia?iaeo”, i?ney a?eie –
nioi? oeny/ „c?aaeiee?a Aaouee?aueie”. O?, ooi no?aaeaeaa o i?iaoeueeiio
iieii?, iaa?oue i?ney ca?eueiaiiy ?c noae?inueei — aa???anueeeo oaai??a
o na?aaeei? 50-o ??. ua aeiaai iineee aaiaaia oaa?i c?aaeiee?a. ?o
ooeneoaaee, a?aeiiaeyee o aeai?? i?ioan??, i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy, ?iaioe. A
aoiinoa?? iaaeia??’y e i?aeic??eino? o?eaaeee /an aeeee e eieeoi?
„no?aei? ?ia?oieee”.

A ne?eueee ?aaeyinueeeo ethaeae ia iiaa?ioeiny aeiaeiio! Ne?eueeio
ia?aiieiee aei?ia iaoeenonueeiai oa?i?o! Ao?aoe na?aae a’yci?a
eiioeoaai??a aein? oi/ii ia aecia/aii. ?in?enuee? aeine?aeieee
iaceaathoue oeeo?o a?ae 3,3 aei 4 iei. /ieia?e, oiaoi 57-70 % a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iieiiaieo. C 235473 aia?eeaioe?a ? aiae?eoe?a, ye?
iio?aieee a i?iaoeueeee iieii, iiia?ei 8348 /ieia?e, aai 3,5 %. No?eueee
nieaeao?a ? eiiaiaee??a *a?aiii? a?i?? uiaeiy aeioei a oaai?ao i?ioyaii
aeaa’yoe ia?oeo i?nyoe?a a?eie ( c ieo o?aoeia – oe?a?ioe?)1. Iaae oaeei
ii??aiyiiyi aa?oi caieneeoeny!

________________________________________________________

1Eieaa iai’yo? Oe?a?ie, E., Iiooeiaa aeaeaaie/a aaaionoai „Eieaa iai’yo?
Oe?a?ie”, 2000., a?e.362

Aeniiaie

„Oe?a?ia a iai?” – oaeei, ca aeneiaii aeaeaoiiai ienueiaiieea ?
e?ii?aaeena?a Ieaenaiae?a Aeiaaeaiea, noaa aeey iaoiai ia?iaeo ia??iae
1944-1945 ?ie?a. Oaea c ia?oeo aei?a a??ieiiiiai iaiaaeo a?oea??aoe?a ia
?aaeyinueeee Nithc Oe?a?ia iieieeany a ai?oeaio?? ianiaaieo oaea??a
aa?iaooo. Nia?oiiinia eaaeia, cieuoth/e ana aeeaa, caeeoath/e ii nia?
caa?eua ? ?o?ie, e?ia ? neueice, i?ieioeeany oa?aiaie Oe?a?ie. Oeae
no?aoiee aiieae?inen OO noie?ooy iaeaoeio?a ia oe?a?inuee?e caie? 1225
aei?a ? ii/ae. AEi?ia ai?iieo ? iiai?iieo eeoie?oue noa?ee c iaoi? caie?
aaaaoi n?e ? ?iaeei, a c ieie eaioea o a?/i?noue ? iai’youe i?i eiaeio
eiie?aoio ethaeeio.

Aaeee? aea?oae iiianee neie an?o ia?iae?a oiae?oiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco, eio?? iai?iiyee, a i?ci?oa aecaieyee Oe?a?io. Oa iao?e
?anioae?oe? aeiaea o?aa?/ia aeiey aaiiie?oe/iiai oeaio?o ai?iieo ae?e.
A?aeiiee cao?aeiee iie?oee O?inoii *a?/?eeue ienaa: „C-iii?ae on?o
ia?iae?a, ye? iieieeeny i?ae aeaaeith I?ia//eie, /e ia iaea?eueoa
iino?aaeaeaa oe?a?inueeee. Aea, ?acii c oei, a?i oe?iith i?eueeii?a
nai?o i?aaenoaaiee?a c?iaea aaee/aciee aianie o ia?aiiao iaae iath…”

Iaia/a naia ?noi??y c ainueie aecaieueieo o?iio?a caaa?oaeueiiai aoaio
Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? /ioe?e iacaaea „Oe?a?inueeeie”. A iaeiiio c ieo –
Ia?oiio – ieoiia aaaa oe?a?ioe?a nyaaea 80 a?aenioe?a. Naia eiio aeiaea
?noi?e/ia i?n?y cae?enieoe Ee?anueeo ianooiaeueio iia?aoe?th ? aecaieeoe
noieeoeth Oe?a?ie. Oiae? ae aoei caniiaaii i?aeai oneaaeaiiai
oe?a?inueeiai aaoueiaia Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, yeei
iaai?iaeaeoaaeeny an? eaoaai??? iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?i?? ? oeioo,
ia?oecaie.

?noi??y aein? ia ciaea oaeeo oaeo?a ? iioea?a, eiee ??oaiiy ? ae??
eiaeiiai c i?eueeii?a caoeniee?a A?o/ecie ni?aniaoaaeenue o ?aeeiee
aaeeeee iiaeaea a ?i’y Ia?aiiae. ?noi??y ia ciaea oaeiai ianiaiai
aa?i?cio ? aea?oiaiino? ia iie? aith. ?noi??y ia ciaea oaei?
naiia?aeaeaiino?, yeo i?iyaeee i?eueeiie o?oae?aiee?a ia oaa?eeao ?
caaiaeao, iieyo ? oa?iao, caaacia/oth/e a?i?th an?i iaiao?aeiei.
O?aeooth/e oa?i?i „ A?o/eciyia a?eia” ye oaeee, ui icia/a? ca?eueiaiiy
aeanii? oa?eoi??? a?ae caaa?aiee?a, caaaeaeii i?i i?eueeiie oe?a?ioe?a,
aeaacaieo ia eaoi?aei? ?iaioe aei ?aeoo. Aeey ieo, „inoa?aaeoa??a”,
Oe?a?ia aoea e i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoenue A?o/eciith. Nayuaiiee
iaia’ycie ai?i?a iieyaaa o aecaieaii? nai?o caieye?a c i?iaoeueeiai y?ia
oa iiaa?iaii? ia Aaouee?aueio. Inue /iio oey a?eia aoea A?o/eciyiith,
oi/ ? o?eaaea iaaiee /an iica iaaeaie Aaouee?aueie, ia oa?aiao e?a?i
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, caaa?aaieo a?oea??aoeyie.

Ethaenuee? ao?aoe Oe?a?ie o Aaeee?e A?o/eciyi?e a?ei? aaee/aci?. ?,
ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui an? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, yeeie iineoaiaoaaeany
?aaeyinueea oa ca?oa?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y, aoee iaoi/ieie, a?aeaa?oi
eaaeo/e, ?noioii caieaeaieie. Noaeiny oea c aeaio i?e/ei: aaoi?e
nie?aeeny ia iaiaaeai? aeieoiaioaeuei? aeai?, ?noi?ee?a acaaae? na?aeiii
iicaaaeyee i?aaa ia iiaia aeei?enoaiiy ? anaa?/ia aea/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae. Ea?oaaeeny, ye i?aaeei, noaoenoe/ieie aeeeaaeeaie, ui
ii?eethaeithaaeeny ea??aieeaie aeueo eaiie aeaaee ? aacaiaeyoe?eii
aaaaeaeeny aacnoii?aieie. Ioiae, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ?c i?eciao
1939-1941 ?ie?a caaeioea aaea ia ia?oiio /e ae?oaiio ?ioe? a?eie.
Iaea?eueoa ae?oae Oe?a?ie iieyaei ia ??aei?e caie?. ?ynii anoaeai?
e?noeaie iaoeo ae?ae?a oaeiae ?in?y, A?ei?onue, I?eaaeoeea. Nioi? oeny/
oe?a?ioe?a nieyoue a?/iei niii ia oa?eoi??? I?ia//eie, Iieueu?,
Oai?ueie, ?oioi??, Aieaa???, *ao??, Neiaa//eie, THaineaa??, o aeaeaeeo
Iiiaie??, Eeoa? oa Ei?a?.

Eiee ae ?aeaoueny i?i anth aeeaeio ae?aiaoecio, ia?aaeeoiai oe?a?inueeei
ia?iaeii oi?iaeiaae ai?iieo 1939-1945 ?ie?a, oi ioneii eiinoaooaaoe
iacaia?a/iee oaeo: i?aaaeeaa, ia’?eoeaia, iicaaaeaia oaeueneo?eaoe??,
?noi??y Oe?a?ie ia??iaeo ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie iiee ui ia iaienaia.
Eeoa inoaii?i /anii c’yaeeeny ae?oeii ie?ai? iiiia?ao?? e ca??ieee, ui
a?aee?eaathoue ia?aae iaie no?aoi? ea?oeie o?aaaae??, yei? caciaea
Oe?a?ia, aoyaiooa o e?eaaaee ae? na?oiai? aiei?. Noaee aeinooiieie aeey
ian ? i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a, iaoeiaoe?a c oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e.
*eiaei ?noi?e/ieo ?ica?aeie, aeieoiaio?a oa iaoeiaeo eiiaioa??a aei ieo
c’yaeeinue inoaii?i /anii a oe?a?inuee?e ia??iaeeoe?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aia?a?eia, ianooiaeueia ? iaiieaaeeaa i?inoaaiiy aei ?noi?e/ii? i?aaaee.

„I?ooi ia caaooee, i?ui ia caaooa”- oaeee anaia?iaeiee caeeee-eeyoaa, ui
cacao/aa iae?aco i?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie, inue oaea a?eueo ye i?aa?eo
aeeaa ? ao?eth?oueny a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ooaeiaei?o oai?ao, o
iai’yoieeao ? iaii??aeao. Iiiaae 28 oen. a?aonueeeo ? iiiaeeiieeo iiaee,
aeecueei 50 oen. iai’yoiee?a, nii?oaeaeaieo aaey/ieie iauaaeeaie – a?/ia
na?aeioeoai oiai, yeith oe?iith caeiaooa Ia?aiiaa. Aei oiai /ano, eiee
ia iioiaaiee inoaii?e caoeniee A?o/ecie, ia a?aecia/ai? an? iai’yoi?
i?noey ?aoieo ? o?oaeiaeo caa?oaiue ia?iaeo — ie ia iiaeaii neacaoe, ui
ana c?iaeee aeey oa?/iaiiy iai’yo? iieaaeeo, iiaeaeao ia?iaeo o ?iee
Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie.

Ieiathoue ?iee, aea caaaeaee ia ne?eaeaeyo ?noi??? caeeoaoueny ?iaia
oeo, ooi o a??ciee /an anoaa ia caoeno ??aeii? caie?, ooi o iaeaaeiio
aeaiaith oe?iith aeaniiai aeeooy a?aenoiya niieiia?/ia i?aai ethaeeie ia
naiaiaeo ? aeeooy. O iei?oi?e ? i?eeaeaoi?e /an iieiaea iieie?iiy
ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie iieeeeaia c iao??ioe/iei aiooc?aciii aea/aoe ?
ia?aeiaoeny aacnia?oiei iiaeaeaii nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a.

?c eiaeiei aeiai ana iaioa caeeoa?oueny na?aae ian aaoa?ai?a Aaeeei?
A?o/eciyii? a?eie. Iinea?e? ? cianeeai? ?aiaie ieioeeo ai?a,
iaaeinoaoiuei caaacia/ai? a iei?oi?o e?eciaeo oiiaao aeiiii?ee, aiie
i?aaiooue ia?aaeaoe no/ani?e iieiae? aeoo iioei?cio, aeeoo?no?eeee
oa?aeoa?, ciaiiy e aeina?ae, ethaia aei iaoi? iaoa?? — Oe?a?ie. Iiaeaea
? i?eeeaae aaoa?ai?a iiaeii? i?iiecoaaoe ana iaoa aeeooy, aooe e?eoa???i
on?o iaoeo ??oaiue, a/eie?a ? ae?e. Iao nayoee iaia’ycie ia?aae na?oeith
iai’yooth caaeaeeo ca aieth ??aeii? A?o/ecie iieyaa? a oiio, uia
caa?aaoe /a?ac aeine?aeaeaiiy iai’youe i?i aacnia?oiee iiaeaea
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, Ia?aiiao a ?iee Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie ?
ia?aaeaoe iai’youe i?i iueiai no/aniei ? i?eeaeaoi?i iieie?iiyi.
Iaeaooi?i iieie?iiyi, niaaeei?ioeyi neaae aa?i?a Ia?aiiaa a?o/eea
iaeoe?ii?oa – iaoeo ethaeoe Aaouee?aueio e ia?aiaaaoe ai?ia?a. Ia ?oi?
iea/? eyaa? oyaa? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca niie?eiee ? a?eueiee caao?aoi?e
aeaiue A?o/ecie. ? aaaeeeai, uia ianee aiie oeae oyaa? a?aeii.

Anooieaoe a iiaa, o?ao?, oeny/ie?ooy, na?oiaa ni?eueiioa i?iaieioo?
nai?i iaia’yceii iinaaeeoe ca?ia e?auiai iaeaooiueiai ia a?oio? a??eiai
ieioeiai. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaino? noiniaii aea?oa iaoeecio
?iaeoueny iaiaei. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? i?aeia?iaeiee oi?oi c
aieieinoo, ui a?aeaoany o Ee?a? a aa?ani? 2006 ?. Aenooiath/e ia
oi?oi?, oe?a?inueeee I?aceaeaio A?eoi? THuaiei iaaieinea: „Iiaeo
aiai?eoe nueiaiaei? a?ae ?iai? ua iaei??? ethaeeie – THuaiea Aiae??y
Aiae??eiae/a, iiai aaoueea, a’yciy Inaaioe?ia, ia o?e? yeiai iaa?ee
caeeoeany oaa??iee iiia? 11367. A?i oae naii, ye ? i?eueeiie oe?a?ioe?a,
i?ieoia on? eiea iaeeo aieieinoo. Neiaieii cei/ei?a iaoeecio aeey ian
noaa Aaaei ss? o Ee?a?, aea aoei cieuaii iiiaae 100 oen. /ieia?e ??cieo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, c yeeo a?eueoa iieiaeie aoee i?aaenoaaieeaie
?a?aenueei? iaoe??. O?aaaae?y Aaaeiiai ss?o aoea ? caeeoa?oueny ai?ai ?
niooeii ia eeoa oe?a?inueeiai ?a?aenoaa, a e onueiai oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, iaei??th c iaenoii?oeo noi??iie Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.
Oioae?oa?i? ?aaeeie caaaeaee no?aoieo caeoe?a on?i ia?iaeai ?a?iie,
iicaaaeyth/e ?o ia eeoa aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aa ? naiaiae, a e naiiai i?aaa
ia ?nioaaiiy. Oey a?eia caa?aea aeeooy a?eueoa 5 iei. oe?a?ioe?a,
c?oeioaaea iiiaae 700 oe?a?inueeeo i?no oa oeny/? n?e. Aea ua ?ai?oa, o
1932-1933 ?ieao, aeecueei 7 iei. oe?a?ioe?a iiia?ee a?ae ooo/iiai
aieiaeo aiane?aeie ?ai?an?e, i?aai?ciaaieo noae?inueeei ?aaeeiii. Ioaea,
ie aeia?a cia?ii, ui oaea aaiioeeae. Naia aeey oiai, uia i?eiee a?eueoa
ia iiaoi?eeany iiae?aia o?aaaae?y, iaiao?aeii aea/aoe ? oe?iei
?ic’ynithaaoe ?noi??th aieieinoo”…

Ia ia?ao?anoyo ?noi??? ethaenoao oi/aoueny caaeyiooe a iaeaooi?,
ae?ciaoenue, yeei aiii aoaea, iiaeoiaoe, ui acyoe c niaith a oea
iaeaooi? ?c nueiaiaeaiiy. Oiio caa?aaeaiiy a oeae /an o?ie?a ? caiia?o?a
Ia?aiiae ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy.

A?/ia Aai neaaa ? iecueeee Aai oee?i, o/anieee ? oai?oe? Ia?aiiae –
aaoa?aie aieiaeo ? o?oaeiaeo caa?oaiue!

E?oa?aoo?a:

1. Aacnia?oy. Eieaa Iai’yo? Oe?a?ie. 1941-1945: Iaoe.-ioae?oeeno.
aeaeaiiy. Aie. ?aaeeieaa?? ?. I. Aa?aneiia-E.: Iiooeiai-aeaeaaie/a
aaaionoai „Eieaa Iai’yo? Oe?a?ie”, 2000.

2. Enoi?ey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu Niaaoneiai Nithca, 1941-1945 aa.
— A 6-e o .- I.: Aiaiecaeao, 1960-1965.

3. Enoi?ey Aoi?ie Ie?iaie aieiu, 1939-1945 – A 12-e o. – I.: Aiaiecaeao,
1973-1982.

4. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie: iiaa aa/aiiy – O 2-o o. I?ae ?aae. A.A.Niie?y – E.:
Oe?a?ia, 1996.

5. Ei?ieue A. Aaaei ss?. A?aeiia ? iaa?aeiia. Aiein Oe?a?ie. 1991, 14
na?iiy.

6. Eieaa Iai’yo? Oe?a?ie. A?iieoeueea iaeanoue. – O 9-e o. – E.: Iaoeiaa
?aaeaeoe?y aieiaii? ?aaeaeoe?eii? eieaa?? Eieae Iai’yo? Oe?a?ie i?e
aeaeaaieoeoa? „Oe?a?inueea aioeeeeiiaae?y” ?i.. I.I.Aaaeaia, 1994-1997.

7. Eieaa nei?aioe Oe?a?ie. A?iieoeueea iaeanoue. –O.1. Aie. ?aaeeieaa??
Oanoiiaethe I.A. – A?iieoey: iaeania ?aaeaeoe?eia eieaa?y Eieae Iai’yo?
Oe?a?ie, 2001.

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