OA?EOI??AEUeIA A?IIAAeA A OE?A?I?:

?NOI?E*I? AEOIEE OA NO*ANI?NOUe

A?????y a O??? ????? ????i ???y???y, ????iy ?th ??????? O??? ?i ?n??
???y???y ???th? ????y???o ?e ? ??????i-???a ? ?????a ?????iy ???????? o
??? ?????y, ?????iy ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????ue ?ae ??????
????e ???? ??e, ??????y ??????? ?y????, ???? ? ?????? ?? ??????iy ???a
????i ???y???y.

O??????a ???a a O??? c ?? ??ay? ? ????y? ?? ??? ???i? ???e. Ae???? ???e
a O??? ?.*????e ??? ??a: «… ?i ???e ????iy ??? ???? ? ? ????i ???
????? ? a ????o, ? a i??? ?????? ?i’y??. C ???th e?????th ??a ???, ?
???? ???e ???e ? ?o ??a, ?? ??’y??? ???a, y? ??ey? ????th ????-?o??o
??ue, ? ? ?? ?’???? a ???? ni??e ?ae ????th ??ith ?????a».1 A?eth?th
??????? ???e a ??? E???? ??? ?????? I. A?????. A?i ????a ??? ????
??o????? ???e, ???th? c ??i ? ??a, ? ???a, ye ? ???o ??? ?c??o ????
?’y?e ???? ? ???th??ny «??? ??????? ?????, ????a, ?????? ??????? e
??????», ye ????e ??? ??i «??? ???? ??/ ?? ???e, ? ????, ye ?????ny e
???ny ??? ???, ? ??eo ?????o i????e ?? ??ie, ?’y?? ?????iyi ? ???e
???o».2 Ca I. A?????, «????e ??? «??a» — ??? ??? ???i ?????? ???a ???i?
I??e — «??ue». A?a, c ??? ??, ia ???? ? ???, ? ?? ??? ? ??o ???a ?
a?????? ? ????, ???? ? ?? ?????, c ???i ?? — ? ?thc ?????, ?? ??e ??
???y?ath? ??th ? ???th? ?ae ??th ??e». 3

???a I??a» ?a ??? ????i ??eth?? ?y???ue ??? (??????? ???e). O ???? ?a???
?????, ? «???a I??a» ?y? ???? ?i ??ue ?i ?? ?? ? ??? o 15 ??oyo. O ?o ??
???i ????y ye ??????a ?????y ????? ????y c ????i ?????e ???y?. Ia ?
????i o??? ???a ????y, y? ??? ??ue, ? ?????i a «????e I???».4 O ????
??oyo «???a I??a» ???? ?????o ????????ue ? ???e, ???? ? ????? ???, ????
? ????o ??o — ???oey, a ??ue ?????? ?? o??, ?? ?? ? ????.5 A ?, ?
a????????ue ?????ny o ??????o ??????? o ??y? ???, ????, ? ????a ??a, ??
???, ?? ?????o ???????ue. I.A??????-A???, ?y?thth? ???i «??ue» ??a: «…
? ?? ???y ?????-a??? ?ae?? ye o ????o ? a ????? ??yo ?????ny ??’th (???
??a ????e ????????e worf). O?e ??e ???? ?????th? ? ??e «??y» ? ??? a
????, ?a ? a ????????o ???». C??i, ye ????th? N.TH?ia, «??ue — ? ?????
????o, y?e a ???? ???o ???o ???i ?a ???? c ????i ????? ????. C???ue ???
??e ???y?? ???? ??a?».6 A?eth?y ??????? ???e a O??? ?e?? ????y?. ??ue ?
???iy ???e ??? ?? ????e a ??????o ??????. I????? XIX ?. ??i O??i,
??????th? ?ae ???iyi ??? o ?????o ??? ???e, ??a:»… ?? ??? ??o, ??? ??,
??a ???a ?????ny c ??? — ????o ? ???o, ? ?a ?ii ??a ? ?????? ??? ?o, ?
???yth? ???ith, ?ay?, ????, ???a ? ?? ??, ?a ??a ??y???e ? ???e ???e
y????a ?????e ? ????, ?a ???o ???th. Ai ?ee ???a ?a ??y???a, ??a, ??a ?
?? a ?? ?????y, ? ???ii, ? e ??ue» ?????e ? ?e ??yae? ????e, ???? ?
????e ? ?? ?? ????».7 I?oy?i ??? ??i ????iy ??????a ???a a O??? ???ith??
??o ???? ???e, ? ??????e ????y???ue ?? ? ??a. N?? ?o ??????: ?????iy
????y?o ? n??e ?????, ???a ??o ???a ???e ? ????iy ???? ? ????? ??a, a
??ae ??????, ?????i ???o, ????i-??????a ????. O?, ?y ?????iy ????y?o a
????, ???e ?? ???a, ????iy ??a o ??o oa ??? ???th?? ?????o ?????o ???.
O????? ???? ????y?o ?? ??ae ??a ??a, ??? a O??? ??thae? ? c ??a ?????
???e ???e ?ae ?????? ???. E.Eaa???, y?e ???eya ???????e ???? ??? ??o, o
??e ??? «I? ??i ?????e…» ??a, ?, ???i c ?????i n???i, «??a ??a ???a ??
?????e ?ae ??e ? ??? (?ae A???iy ? I???) c 12 ?ae. ??? ? 5 ?ae. ?i?, a
??? ? ????? (?ae I??? ? A???iy) — c 11 ?ae. ??? ? 6 ?ae. ??o». Aey?yth?
????y ?????? ??y?o, ???? ????a, ? ?? ??ey?ny ???, ?? ????? ???i, ??a ???
o ???o ??o ?i ??? ??i? o ?? n???i. A?????a ???y ??????? ???e ?????y ??
?????? ???? ?????a ? ????/?th ??th. O??????? ???e ???? ????e ? ???.
A????? ???? ????y ? ?’??e, ???? c y?o ?? ? ???e e ???e ??o ??n???a —
???a ???e, a ?????i ??? — ??, ? ???e ???o ???? ???e. Nth? ?i?? «???a
????ue» (?? ???, ????, ????, ???, ???, ??, ???, ?a?) ? ???? (????? ??,
??a, ??aa, ????y, ???, oth?a, ????, ??, ?????y ??). Aei ???? ???? ?ae???
??? XVIII ?. ???? ????? ???? — ???? ???a ?y ?????? ???? ????i ? ???i
????, ??? ? ??e O???, ???? a ?? ???. O ???a???o ??? ?????a ????a ????e,
???e ??i ??’y??? ???i ??? ???????. O??-????e ??? ?? ????iy ? a ????
?????a?, ?? ?ya ??’y?e ???? ??? ??i ??. C ??i ?e ??’y?e o??????ny o
?????? ??? o ???? ??????? ????o ??e. O?a ???????ue ?ay??ny ???i, a ??
??e ???e ????e ??????? ??ith ??th ye ??’y?e. 8

I???ith ??ith ??????? a ???a???e ?y???? ??????? ???e ??a ???e ??y?. A?a
????? o o????e ???? ?? ?????a (????? ???a), y? ? ?? ????? ????? ????
???, a ?? ?? ???? ?? c’????e ? ?n ??? ??o. E?i ??y?, ?????ith ??ith
??????? ?ae ?n ????y ?????o ?i ??????o ??o ?? ???. Oey ??a ??? ? ????th
a ???? ???a ? ?i?? ??, ?????, c ?y?th ???e. No???y ? ??? ????? ??y
?????? ????iy ????y?. Ia ?? ? ??? — ???? ???? ????y.9 A O??? ???th ????i
???e ??a, ??, ???? ??, ????? ???? (???, ??o, «???» ??).

C??o ?? o ??????e ?y???? ?????e ????? ????? ??, ? i?nth?i ??? ???????ny
a A???? o ???e ???? XIX ?. O?? ????? ?n ???????ny ?-???o: o E???o ? ???e
???o ?????? ?? ? ????e, a ???? ????o ??? ? ?ey??? ????e. Ia ???o 70-o
??a XIX ?. ??? o Ae????? ??? ?ii??? ?? ??????? a 22 ????o ???o, a a ??o
??o, ye A?y?, O??y, E??y?a, I?y?oey, ????e, ?o ??e ????e 5233 ?e. ????.
O 90-o ??o ?i? ?????o ?n n. A???e A??ae ??i?? 1476 ?e. ?i., n. A???e
ss??a — 2160 ?e. ?i., n. AE?’?? — 24237 ?e. ?i.10

A??oth? ????o ? ????i-????th ????, ??????? ???e ????e ??? ???o ???. A???
????? ?? ? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?y??, y? ? ??a ???-????? ????y ??? ???o
????a ? ?y??ny ?a?? ???ith ????iy ???? ?ey??? ?????a. A??? ????e, ? ? ?
1875 ?. a A???? ???? ?? ??i ???y? e ????e ???? ??? a ??o ??o ????. Oea
?? ?iy??i ????a ??i, y? ?????ue ????i ua e ??y ????iy ???e ??a 30 ??a, a
o ????? ???? ? ??? ?a?. ?c ????iyi ???e ?ey? ???? ?? ?????e ?????th
????i ????i, y? ?? ??i ??????, ?, ye ?c??? ???aei?e, ????? ???e ? ????o
??yo ?a ?oy???, ??ae ?y ??? ?????e. Ca ?????th ???? ?ey? ????e ????i 66
?i. ?e. ?e???. 11

O ?’y?o c ?i o ???????ue?o ??? ? ??o ?????ny ??? ???? c ?y??i. O ??? XIX
?. o ??o ????o ????o ?????ny ?????a ? ???? ?????, ? ????????? ??? ?????y
????? ? ???e «I????», «???a ??», «A?????y». O???o? ????? o ??o ?????
??????? ?e ???? ? ???? ?? ??? ?????, ????ae, ? ???o XX ?. o N??o E??
????? ?’????i 2 ?n. ???e, o I??o Eeth?? (E?????) — 300 ?e. 12

??’y?th??? ??? ??ae ?eyi ?ee, ?????, ?y???, a ??ae ????. Nay??ee ???????
?y ??o ???yi ??y? «?ae ???e», «?th? ?????». O ???? ??o A???e ???? ?ae ?n
???iy ???o ??y?? ? A???? ?i ????iy ?????. A??? ?????????o? ???a ?y ??,
?a ???e ?eyi c ??o ????a, ????? ?i?ue ???, ??? ?th??o ???, ??? ????y
?y?? ? ??? ????? y?u. C???, ? ??o ?y??? e ???? i??????? ???? ? ???
????????n?? ??e, a ???iyo — ????e ??????? ???. I???ith ?? ?? ??? ??????a
??? ?y??? E??a A??????i ?c n. Ae???a ? O??????. A?i ????a ??e ???e ????
???, ??ath? ?ae ????i ???a ??, ? ?????? — ?????a ??? ? ?th A???o ??o
????a ? ?????a, ?i ????i ???a ???? ??o ????. Nay??e N??i O???e ?????a
??????e ?? o n. E???? (N????a), ? ? ?e ???? ?eyi, ? ??? ?? ??a ??e ? ??e
????, ???? o E??? ? ??? ???e? ???. Ia No???? ??? ???? ? ?????ue ?a ?y??e
E?? I?????? (??? ???? ?????a I?? I??????i). E?i ??i??e, ?i ???a ??i ???
??ey?? ???? ? ?? ???? c ?y??i, ???a ? ????? ?ith ?i’th. 13 I??a?o ????a
o ????? ? ??? ?? ???.

O???? ??????? ??? ? ???? ?????? ? a ?o ?n, ??e ??e? ????o ???a ???? O???
?? ? ?ath? ?i ??????o ???o, ?? ??, ????o, ??????? ? ????? ???. ??y???
??? ?a ??? ????? ????, ??????? ???e ???? ???? ?????th ??, ? ???y???y ??
??????. O?????? ??i ? ?a ??? ? ????o ??? ???? ???yae??iy. ? ??? E?????y
O???, ??iy? 26 ??iy 1996 ??, ????a ??????o ???o a O???. E?????y O??? (?.
140) ?????: «I???a ???y???y ? ??? ??????? ???e — ???a ?? ? ???????
?’???iy o ???? ???o ???a ??eio ?e, ??? ? ??a — ?????i ????? ???y ?n???
???iy a ??o E?????? ? ?e??a O???».14 Ia ??, ????ny ??????, ? ???????y
?????y a O??? ?????y ????i, ?????y ???a ???????i ??? a ???e ? ???
???????ny ????iyi ?y???? a ??’y??? ????o ? ????o ???i, a ?????y ???e
??????i ? ????i ???y???y ? ? a ???e ?? a?????? ???i ??????? O???.

E?????y O??? ? ??????i, ??????e ?????iy ?ae ???? ??e ? ????? ???? ???
??????i ???o, ? a ???e ?? ???oth? ? ????? ???, y? ???ath?ny a ?i??o
??????y, ?????i ??????? ? ???? ?????o ?????ue, ??? ? ?? ???? ????iy c
????iyi ???? ????? ???? o ??? ????? ?????y. Oea ???? ?????? ?????
???y??? ???? ??????i-?????eo ??i a O??? ? ???? ??’y?iiy ???i ???????,
?a?????i ?????y ? ????i ???y???y a ????? ???o, ????iy ?? o ?c???? ??y??a
?y???? c ??????y ?????y. A ??? ???? ? ??o ?n?th??ny ?? ?????? ???a
?????y a ???? ?????y ???ith. A O??? ?????a ?????y ??eth? ?a ???: ????
?????a ?????y, ???a ???y???y. I???iy a ??? ??? ????? ???????i ?????y ?
????i ???????y ???? ? ?y ????? ??i, ???th?? ???th c ia??????o ???i ????
? ???? ?????y. O?a ?’?? ?????y ?? — ????y, — ???? ????o ???a ?????y ?
???a ????i ???y???y ??? ss?i ??? ????oth? ?????th ????ue?o ????e ? ?????
?ny??iy ?i????o ????? ??, ? ??? ?th? a ????? ????y, y? ?o ????.

A ???? ????e ?o ?????ue ? ??? ????i ???y???y ?????i ?e?y?i a ??? 1985 ??
??i ?????? ??y «?????? O??y ?i ???a ???y???y». I???e ????e ? ???th??
??????, ????o, ???o ???o, E?n???y O??? ????? ???i , ???i c y?i «a O???
????ny ? ?????ny ???a ???y???y» (?.7). C?? «I? ???a ???y???y a O???»
??i?? ??? ????? ??????? ???, ???e ? ??e. A???? ??? ?????i ?????y —
???ue, ??i, ??? ???y???y — ??i, ??, ???. ??? c ?i ????, ? ?????iy
????i-???? i?? ????? ?????y ? ?noe??i ???y???y ????? ?y ?????y ?????i
?????y ????y?, ???? ????iy ? ?????? ???? ???o ?????a ????i ?????y. Oe??
??a ?ny?e ?y?i ?????, ????i ????thth? ???? ???e ????i, a o?o ???
???????, ?????y a N??/?? O??o A???, O????, I?????, A???e A????, I??? ?
??? ???o. I???? ???? ??i ?????iy ? : ?????y ????i ?????y a ????? ???o,
???? ?? ??? ????i na??y???y, ????a ?? ??????? ?????y, ??????? ???e
?y???? ???a ????i ?????y I?? c ???? ??y?a ???????? ???e a O??? ?? ??e
??????y ???e ??????? ?????? ??e, ?a’y?? c ?????th ???e ???? ???a a?????
??e ? ???e ????i ???yae??iy, ????th ????????th e ????????th ?????y ?
????ith ????th ???e ? ?????ue ????? ??e ? ??e ?????? ????i ???y???y.

A???th? ???o ????i ???y???y ye ?????o ??o ????? ??e ??????? ???e,
E?????y O???, C?? O??? «I? ???a ???y???y a O???» ????thth? ???? ?? ????,
??????? ? ????? ???????. O ?ith ??o ???a ??????ue ????i ???y???y ?a’y??
ye c ??????th ?????iy ???e ? ?????ue ????i ???y???y ?????? ?y?i, ??? ?ae
?????ue ???a ????? ??e, ?e ? c ??? ??????? ??aaee, ???a ????i ???y???y
??a?e ??? ?????-???? ?? — ?? ??a?? ???y???y (?????? ??) (I?ae ??? ????i
???y???y ??ae ???? a??? ??? ??????? ?a’??a ???i? ???y???y, y?e ?????i ?
??? ??eth? ????e o ??? ????i ???y???y ?y?i ?????iy, ??? ? ???? ???? ??).
?????y ?i? ??a ? ????? ???i ????ey?? ??????? ???e, ???e ????i ???y???y.
N??y 144 E?????? O??? ????, ? ??? ????i ???y?a?iy a ??o ?????ue, ?????
???i, ???th? ???y, y? ? ??’y???e ?y ????y ? ??????e ?????. C?? O??? «I?
???a ???y???y a O???» (?.7) ??ae ????th? ??i ??????? ???e ???? ??’y???
?y ????y ???y ? ???? ??????. O?? ??i, ?? ????i ???y??iiy, ??yae ?c
E??????th ? ???? O???, ??????e ?????-????e ?????e (????ae ??????th
????th ????i ???y???y), ???e I????a O??? ? ?????e E???? I????a O???, ???
???a ????? ??e ???ath? ???? ? ????? ????i ???? ??? ????i ???y???y. A?e
???thth? ?i???o ????? ?aec???o ?????o ??a a O???, ???????ue y?? ?????
?i, ? ??? ????i ???y???y ???i ?.5 E?????? O??? ? a?aey? ? ???e ???a
????? ??e. A??e ????i ???y???y ????thth?ny ??’y??? ?y ???iiy, ???a, ???a
? ?????e a ??o ?????? ????? ??e ??a. I???? ?o ??a ??? ?? ??? ???y ???o
???a ? ????o ??a ????i ???y???y, ?????? ?o ?y????, ?????y ?????th ????th
? ???o ???o ?’???a ?????? ?????, ??a?o ????a ? ???a, ??? ???yi ? ?o
?’???ue o ?????? ?????ue ????i ???y???y ??. N??? ?? ?? ????i ???y???y
??? ????e a ?? ????iy ???????? ? i??????? ???, ?? ???? ???a a ??????
??eth??? ??? ?????? ?????y a ???? ????i ???y???y.

AeAEA?AEA OA E?OA?AOO?A

1. *??n?? ?. A????? (???) ?ae ? O???-??? XVI – XVIII ?.: I?? ????. – E.,
1928. – N. 45;

2. A????? I. ????y O???-??e: A 11 o. – E., I?e. ??a, 1991. – N. 352;

3. O? ??. – N. 360;

4. Ae???a ?????y, ???? ??? ? ???a ???y???y: I????y/ E?.?o.; Ca ?a.
??.-??. I.TH.I?????i. – O?e????: ????y”, 1999. – N. 236;

5. I??a ???ay. – I.; E.: E?-? AI NNN?, 1940. – o.1 (O??u). – N. 404;

6. O???i E. C???, ?a’y?? c ????iyi ???? // I???a ???y??i ? ?? ????e ?
O???. – E., 1996. – N. 73-74;

7. O??i ?. Ui o?a ???a ? ?i ?? ???a ??? // C??. ???a: O 50 o. – E.,
1985. – O. 44. ?.1. – N. 175;

8. A??ue A. A??aey??? ??o ????? ????y O????? E??o (O?O – 30-? ?? OO ?.).
– E.: I?e. ??a, 1993. – N. 121;

9. TH?? N.A. ???ay I??a: ??????a, ????e, ? ????. – I., 1950. – N. 87;

10. E?????y O???. ??iy? ? i’y?e ??? A???? ??e O?a?? 28 ??iy 1996 ?. —
E., I????, 1996. –N. 66;

11. Ae???a ?????y, ???? n??a ? ???a ???y???y: I????y/ E?.?o.; Ca ?a.
??.-??. I.TH.I?????i. – O?????e, 1999. – N.69;

12. O? ??. – N.87; 13. O? ??. – N. 92; 14. O? ??. – N.102.

Похожие записи