Реферат з англійської мови

Swift Jonathan

Born HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_30» \o «November
30» 30 November HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1667» \o
«1667» 1667 (1667-11-30) HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«cite_note-Thackeray-0» \o «» [1]

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin» \o «Dublin» Dublin ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland» \o «Ireland» Ireland
1

Died HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_19» \o «October
19» 19 October HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1745» \o
«1745» 1745 (aged 77)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland» \o «Ireland» Ireland

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment» \o «Employment»
Occupation HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satire» \o
«Satire» satirist , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essay» \o
«Essay» essayist , political HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamphleteer» \o «Pamphleteer» pamphleteer
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poet» \o «Poet» poet ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priest» \o «Priest» priest

Notable work(s) HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulliver%27s_Travels» \o «Gulliver’s
Travels» Gulliver’s Travels

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Modest_Proposal» \o «A
Modest Proposal» A Modest Proposal

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Tale_of_a_Tub» \o «A Tale of
a Tub» A Tale of a Tub

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drapier%27s_Letters» \o
«Drapier’s Letters» Drapier’s Letters

Jonathan Swift ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_30»
\o «November 30» November 30 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1667_in_Ireland» \o «1667 in Ireland»
1667 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«cite_note-Thackeray-0» \o «» [1] – HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_19» \o «October 19» October 19 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1745_in_Ireland» \o «1745 in
Ireland» 1745 ) was an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Irish» \o «Anglo-Irish» Anglo-Irish
cleric, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dean_%28religion%29»
\o «Dean (religion)» Dean of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Patrick%27s_Cathedral%2C_Dublin» \o
«St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin» St. Patrick’s , Dublin, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satire» \o «Satire» satirist ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essay» \o «Essay» essayist ,
political HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamphleteer» \o
«Pamphleteer» pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poet» \o «Poet» poet .

He is famous for works like HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulliver%27s_Travels» \o «Gulliver’s
Travels» Gulliver’s Travels , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Modest_Proposal» \o «A Modest Proposal»
A Modest Proposal , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_Journal_to_Stella&action=ed
it&redlink=1» \o «A Journal to Stella (page does not exist)» A Journal
to Stella , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drapier%27s_Letters» \o «Drapier’s
Letters» Drapier’s Letters , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_the_Books» \o «The Battle of
the Books» The Battle of the Books , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Argument_Against_Abolishing_Christianit
y» \o «An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity» An Argument Against
Abolishing Christianity , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Tale_of_a_Tub» \o «A Tale of a Tub» A
Tale of a Tub . Swift is probably the foremost prose satirist in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language» \o «English
language» English language , and is less well known for his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry» \o «Poetry» poetry . Swift
originally published all of his works under HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudonym» \o «Pseudonym» pseudonyms —
such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemuel_Gulliver» \o
«Lemuel Gulliver» Lemuel Gulliver , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Bickerstaff» \o «Isaac Bickerstaff»
Isaac Bickerstaff , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drapier%27s_Letters» \o «Drapier’s
Letters» M.B. Drapier — or anonymously. He is also known for being a
master of two styles of satire; the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horace» \l «Satires» \o «Horace» Horatian
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juvenal» \l
«The_Satires_and_their_Genre» \o «Juvenal» Juvenalian styles.

Contents

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Biography» 1 Biography

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Youth» 1.1 Youth

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «The_writer» 1.2 The
writer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Maturity» 1.3 Maturity

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Epitaph» 1.4 Epitaph

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Works» 2 Works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Major_prose_works» 2.1
Major prose works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Essays.2C_tracts.2C_pamphlets.2C_periodicals» 2.2 Essays, tracts,
pamphlets, periodicals

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Poems» 2.3 Poems

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Correspondence.2C_personal_writings» 2.4 Correspondence, personal
writings

Biography

Youth

Jonathan Swift was born at No. 7, Hoey’s Court, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin» \o «Dublin» Dublin , and was the
second child and only son of Jonathan Swift (a second cousin of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dryden» \o «John Dryden»
John Dryden ) and wife Abigail Erick (or Herrick), paternal grandson of
Thomas Swift and wife Elizabeth Dryden, daughter of Nicholas Dryden
(brother of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sir_Erasmus_Dryden%2C_1st_Bar
onet&action=edit&redlink=1» \o «Sir Erasmus Dryden, 1st Baronet (page
does not exist)» Sir Erasmus Dryden, 1st Baronet ) and wife Mary
Emyley. His father was Irish born and his mother was born in England.
Swift arrived seven months after his father’s untimely death. Most of
the facts of Swift’s early life are obscure, confused and sometimes
contradictory. It is widely believed that his mother returned to England
when Jonathan was still very young, then leaving him to be raised by his
father’s family. His uncle Godwin took primary responsibility for the
young Jonathan, sending him with one of his cousins to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilkenny_College» \o «Kilkenny College»
Kilkenny College (also attended by the philosopher HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Berkeley» \o «George Berkeley»
George Berkeley ).

Jonathan Swift at Trinity

In 1682 he attended Dublin University ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_College%2C_Dublin» \o «Trinity
College, Dublin» Trinity College, Dublin ), receiving his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachelor_of_Arts» \o «Bachelor of Arts»
B.A. in 1686. Swift was studying for his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master%27s_degree» \o «Master’s degree»
Master’s degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_Revolution» \o
«Glorious Revolution» Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for
England in 1688, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary
and personal assistant of Sir HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Temple_%28British_politician%29»
\o «William Temple (British politician)» William Temple at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moor_Park%2C_Farnham» \o «Moor Park,
Farnham» Moor Park, Farnham . Temple was an English HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diplomat» \o «Diplomat» diplomat who,
having arranged the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_Alliance_of_1668» \o «Triple
Alliance of 1668» Triple Alliance of 1668 , retired from public service
to his country estate to tend his gardens and write his memoirs. Growing
into confidence with his employer, Swift «was often trusted with matters
of great importance.» Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple
had introduced his secretary to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_III_of_England» \o «William III of
England» William III , and sent him to London to urge the King to
consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments.

When Swift took up his residence at Moor Park, he met HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Johnson» \o «Esther Johnson»
Esther Johnson , then 8 years old, the fatherless daughter of one of the
household servants. Swift acted as her tutor and mentor, giving her the
nickname «Stella» and the two maintained a close, but ambiguous
relationship for the rest of Esther’s life.

Swift left Temple in 1690 for Ireland because of his health, but
returned to Moor Park the following year. The illness, fits of vertigo
or giddiness — now known to be HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9ni%C3%A8re%27s_disease» \o
«Meniere’s disease» Meniere’s disease — would continue to plague Swift
throughout his life. During this second stay with Temple, Swift received
his M.A. from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertford_College» \o «Hertford College»
Hertford College , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_University» \o «Oxford University»
Oxford University in 1692. Then, apparently despairing of gaining a
better position through Temple’s patronage, Swift left Moor Park to
become an ordained priest in the Established HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Ireland» \o «Church of Ireland»
Church of Ireland and in 1694 he was appointed to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prebendary» \o «Prebendary» prebend of
Kilroot in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocese_of_Connor» \o «Diocese of Connor»
Diocese of Connor , with his parish located at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilroot» \o «Kilroot» Kilroot , near
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrickfergus» \o
«Carrickfergus» Carrickfergus in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Antrim» \o «County Antrim» County
Antrim .

Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated
in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and
influence. While at Kilroot, however, Swift may well have become
romantically involved with Jane Waring. A letter from him survives,
offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and
never return to Ireland if she refused. She presumably refused, because
Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple’s service at Moor
Park in 1696, and he remained there until Temple’s death. There he was
employed in helping to prepare Temple’s memoirs and correspondence for
publication. During this time Swift wrote HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_the_Books» \o «The Battle of
the Books» The Battle of the Books , a satire responding to critics of
Temple’s Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1690). Battle was
however not published until 1704.

In the summer of 1699 Temple died. Swift stayed on briefly in England to
complete the editing of Temple’s memoirs, and perhaps in the hope that
recognition of his work might earn him a suitable position in England.
However, Swift’s work made enemies of some of Temple’s family and
friends who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs. His next
move was to approach HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_III_of_England» \o «William III of
England» King William directly, based on his imagined connection
through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This
failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and
chaplain to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Berkeley» \o «Baron Berkeley» Earl
of Berkeley , one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. However, when he
reached Ireland he found that the secretaryship had already been given
to another. But he soon obtained the living of Laracor, Agher, and
Rathbeggan, and the prebend of Dunlavin in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Patrick%27s_Cathedral%2C_Dublin» \o
«St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin» St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin.

At Laracor, a mile or two from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trim%2C_County_Meath» \o «Trim, County
Meath» Trim, County Meath , and twenty miles (32 km) from Dublin, Swift
ministered to a congregation of about fifteen people, and had abundant
leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal (after the Dutch
fashion of Moor Park), planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage. As
chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and
traveled to London frequently over the next ten years. In 1701, Swift
published, anonymously, a political pamphlet, A Discourse on the
Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome.

The writer

The title page to Swift’s 1735 Works, depicting the author in the Dean’s
chair, receiving the thanks of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland» \o «Ireland» Ireland . The motto
reads, «I have made a monument greater than brass.» The ‘brass’ is a
double entendre, for Wood’s half-pence (alloyed with brass) is scattered
at his feet. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherubim» \o
«Cherubim» Cherubim award Swift a poet’s laurel.

In February 1702, Swift received his Doctor of Divinity degree from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_College%2C_Dublin» \o
«Trinity College, Dublin» Trinity College, Dublin . That spring he
traveled to England and returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Johnson» \o «Esther
Johnson» Esther Johnson — now twenty years old — and his friend
Rebecca Dingley, another member of Wm. Temple’s household. There is a
great mystery and controversy over Swift’s relationship with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Johnson» \o «Esther Johnson»
Esther Johnson nicknamed «Stella». Many hold that they were secretly
married in 1716. Although there has never been definite proof of this,
there is no doubt that she was dearer to him than anyone else and that
his feelings for her did not change throughout his life.

During his visits to England in these years Swift published HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Tale_of_a_Tub» \o «A Tale of a Tub» A
Tale of a Tub and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Battle_of_the_Books» \o «The Battle of
the Books» The Battle of the Books (1704) and began to gain a
reputation as a writer. This led to close, lifelong friendships with
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Pope» \o «Alexander
Pope» Alexander Pope , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gay» \o «John Gay» John Gay , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Arbuthnot» \o «John
Arbuthnot» John Arbuthnot , forming the core of the Martinus
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scriblerus_Club» \o «Scriblerus
Club» Scriblerus Club , (founded in 1713).

Swift became increasingly active politically in these years. From 1707
to 1709 and again in 1710, Swift was in London, unsuccessfully urging
upon the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Whig_Party»
\o «British Whig Party» Whig administration of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Godolphin» \o «Lord Godolphin» Lord
Godolphin the claims of the Irish clergy to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Anne%27s_Bounty» \o «Queen Anne’s
Bounty» First-Fruits and Twentieths («Queen Anne’s Bounty»), which
brought in about F2500 a year, already granted to their brethren in
England. He found the opposition HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tory» \o «Tory» Tory leadership more
sympathetic to his cause and Swift was recruited to support their cause
as editor of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Examiner» \o
«Examiner» Examiner when they came to power in 1710. In 1711, Swift
published the political pamphlet «The Conduct of the Allies,» attacking
the Whig government for its inability to end the prolonged war with
France. The incoming Tory government conducted secret (and illegal)
negotiations with France, resulting in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Utrecht» \o «Treaty of Utrecht»
Treaty of Utrecht (1713) ending the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Spanish_Succession» \o «War of
the Spanish Succession» War of the Spanish Succession .

Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government, and often
acted as mediator between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_St_John%2C_1st_Viscount_Bolingbroke»
\o «Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke» Henry St. John (Viscount
Bolingbroke) the secretary of state for foreign affairs (1710–15) and
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Harley%2C_1st_Earl_of_Oxford_and_Mo
rtimer» \o «Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer» Robert
Harley (Earl of Oxford) lord treasurer and prime minister (1711–1714).
Swift recorded his experiences and thoughts during this difficult time
in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, later collected and
published as The Journal to Stella. The animosity between the two Tory
leaders eventually lead to the dismissal of Harley in 1714. With the
death of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_of_Great_Britain» \o «Anne of Great
Britain» Queen Anne and ascension of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_I_of_Great_Britain» \o «George I of
Great Britain» George I that year, the Whigs returned to power and the
Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting secret negotiations
with France.

Also during these years in London, Swift became acquainted with the
Vanhomrigh family and became involved with one of the daughters,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Vanhomrigh» \o «Esther
Vanhomrigh» Esther , yet another fatherless young woman and an
ambiguous relationship to confuse Swift’s biographers. Swift furnished
Esther with the nickname «Vanessa» and she features as one of the main
characters in his poem Cadenus and Vanessa. The poem and their
correspondence suggests that Esther was infatuated with Swift, that he
may have reciprocated her affections, only to regret it and then try to
break it off. Esther followed Swift to Ireland in 1714, where there
appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson.
Esther Vanhomrigh died in 1723 at the age of 35. Another lady with whom
he had a close but less intense relationship, was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Long_%28c.1681-1711%29» \o «Anne Long
(c.1681-1711)» Anne Long , a toast of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kit-Cat_Club» \o «Kit-Cat Club» Kit-Cat
Club .

Maturity

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:St._Patrick%27s_Cathedral_Swift_bust
.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

Bust in St. Patrick’s Cathedral.

Before the fall of the Tory government, Swift hoped that his services
would be rewarded with a church appointment in England. However, Queen
Anne appeared to have taken a dislike to Swift and thwarted these
efforts. The best position his friends could secure for him was the
Deanery of St. Patrick’s, Dublin. With the return of the Whigs, Swift’s
best move was to leave England and he returned to Ireland in
disappointment, a virtual exile, to live «like a rat in a hole».

Once in Ireland, however, Swift began to turn his pamphleteering skills
in support of Irish causes, producing some of his most memorable works:
Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture (1720), Drapier’s
Letters (1724), and A Modest Proposal (1729), earning him the status of
an Irish patriot.

Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, Travels into
Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver,
first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships, better known as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulliver%27s_Travels» \o
«Gulliver’s Travels» Gulliver’s Travels . Much of the material reflects
his political experiences of the preceding decade. For instance, the
episode when the giant Gulliver puts out the Lilliputian palace fire by
urinating on it can be seen as a metaphor for the Tories’ illegal peace
treaty; having done a good thing in an unfortunate manner. In 1726 he
paid a long-deferred visit to London, taking with him the manuscript of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulliver%27s_Travels» \o
«Gulliver’s Travels» Gulliver’s Travels . During his visit he stayed
with his old friends, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Pope» \o «Alexander Pope»
Alexander Pope , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Arbuthnot» \o «John Arbuthnot» John
Arbuthnot , and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gay» \o
«John Gay» John Gay , who helped him arrange for the anonymous
publication of his book. First published in November 1726, it was an
immediate hit, with a total of three printings that year and another in
early 1727. French, German, and Dutch translations appeared in 1727 and
pirated copies were printed in Ireland.

Swift returned to England one more time in 1727 and stayed with
Alexander Pope once again. The visit was cut short when he received word
that Esther Johnson was dying and Swift rushed back home to be with her.
On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_28» \o «January 28»
January 28 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1728» \o «1728»
1728 , Esther Johnson died, though he prayed at her bedside, even
composing prayers for her comfort. Swift could not bear to be present at
the end, but on the night of her death he began to write his The Death
of Mrs. Johnson. He was too ill to attend the funeral at St. Patrick’s.
Many years later, a lock of hair, assumed to be Esther Johnson’s, was
found in his desk, wrapped in a paper bearing the words, «Only a woman’s
hair.»

Death became a frequent feature in Swift’s life from this point. In 1731
he wrote HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verses_on_the_Death_of_Dr._Swift» \o
«Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift» Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift ,
his own obituary published in 1739. In 1732, his good friend and
collaborator HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gay» \o
«John Gay» John Gay died. In 1735, John Arbuthnot, another friend from
his days in London, died. In 1738 Swift began to show signs of illness
and in 1742 he appears to have suffered a stroke, losing the ability to
speak and realizing his worst fears of becoming mentally disabled. («I
shall be like that tree,» he once said, «I shall die at the top.») In
order to protect him from unscrupulous hangers on, who had begun to prey
on the great man, his closest companions had him declared of «unsound
mind and memory.» In 1744, Alexander Pope died. Then, on October 19,
1745, Swift died. After being laid out in public view for the people of
Dublin to pay their last respects, he was buried by Esther Johnson’s
side, in accordance with his wishes. The bulk of his fortune was left to
found a hospital for the mentally ill, originally known as St. Patrick’s
Hospital for Imbeciles, which opened in 1757, and which still exists as
a psychiatric hospital.

Epitaph

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:St._Patrick%27s_Cathedral_Swift_epit
aph.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

Epitaph in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Patrick%27s_Cathedral%2C_Dublin» \o
«St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin» St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin near
his burial site.

Text extracted from the introduction to The Journal to Stella by George
A. Aitken and from other sources)

Jonathan Swift wrote his own epitaph:

Hic depositum est corpus

JONATHAN SWIFT S.T.D.

Huyus Ecclesiae Cathedralis

Decani

Ubi saeva indignatio

Ulterius

Cor lacerare nequit

Abi Viator

Et imitare, si poteris

Strenuum pro virili

Libertatis Vindicatorem

Obiit 19 Die Mensis Octobris

A.D. 1745 Anno AEtatis 78

which HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Butler_Yeats» \o
«William Butler Yeats» William Butler Yeats translated from the Latin
as:

Swift has sailed into his rest.

Savage indignation there

cannot lacerate his breast.

Imitate him if you dare,

world-besotted traveller.

He served human liberty.

Works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Wikisource-logo.svg» \o
«Wikisource»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikisource» \o «Wikisource»
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Jonathan_Swift» \o
«s:Author:Jonathan_Swift» Jonathan Swift

Swift was a prolific writer, famous for his satires. The most recent
collection of his prose works (Herbert Davis, ed. Basil Blackwell,
1965-) comprises fourteen volumes. A recent edition of his complete
poetry (Pat Rodges, ed. Penguin, 1983) is 953 pages long. One edition of
his correspondence (David Woolley, ed. P. Lang, 1999) fills three
volumes.

Major prose works

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jonathan_Swift_-_Project_Gutenberg_e
Text_18250.jpg» \o «Enlarge»

Jonathan Swift at the Deanery of St. Patrick’s, illus. from 1905 Temple
Scott edition of Works

Swift’s first major prose play, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Tale_of_a_Tub» \o «A Tale of a Tub» A
Tale of a Tub , demonstrates many of the themes and stylistic techniques
he would employ in his later work. It is at once wildly playful and
funny while being pointed and harshly critical of its targets. In its
main thread, the Tale recounts the exploits of three sons, representing
the main threads of Christianity, who receive a bequest from their
father of a coat each, with the added instructions to make no
alterations whatsoever. However, the sons soon find that their coats
have fallen out of current fashion and begin to look for loopholes in
their father’s will which will allow them to make the needed
alterations. As each finds his own means of getting around their
father’s admonition, they struggle with each other for power and
dominance. Inserted into this story, in alternating chapters, Swift
includes a series of whimsical «digressions» on various subjects.

In 1690, Sir HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Temple»
\o «William Temple» William Temple , Swift’s patron, published An Essay
upon Ancient and Modern Learning a defense of classical writing (see
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quarrel_of_the_Ancients_and_the_Moderns»
\o «Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns» Quarrel of the Ancients
and the Moderns ) holding up the Epistles of Phalaris as an example.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wotton» \o «William
Wotton» William Wotton responded to Temple with Reflections upon
Ancient and Modern Learning (1694) showing that the Epistles were a
later forgery. A response by the supporters of the Ancients was then
made by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Boyle%2C_4th_Earl_of_Orrery» \o
«Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery» Charles Boyle (later the 4th Earl
of Orrery and father of Swift’s first biographer). A further retort on
the Modern side came from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Bentley» \o «Richard Bentley»
Richard Bentley , one of the pre-eminent scholars of the day, in his
essay Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris (1699). However, the
final words on the topic belong to Swift in his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Books» \o «Battle of the
Books» Battle of the Books (1697, published 1704) in which he makes a
humorous defense on behalf of Temple and the cause of the Ancients.

In 1708, a cobbler named HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Partridge_%28astrologer%29» \o «John
Partridge (astrologer)» John Partridge published a popular HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almanac» \o «Almanac» almanac of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrological» \o «Astrological»
astrological predictions. Because Partridge falsely determined the
deaths of several church officials, Swift attacked Partridge in
Predictions For The Ensuing Year by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Bickerstaff» \o «Isaac Bickerstaff»
Isaac Bickerstaff , a parody predicting that Partridge would die on
March 29th. Swift followed up with a pamphlet issued on March 30th
claiming that Partridge had in fact died, which was widely believed
despite Partridge’s statements to the contrary.

Drapier’s Letters (1724) was a series of pamphlets against the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monopoly» \o «Monopoly»
monopoly granted by the English government to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wood_%28Mintmaster%29» \o «William
Wood (Mintmaster)» William Wood to provide the Irish with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper» \o «Copper» copper coinage. It
was widely believed that Wood would need to flood Ireland with debased
coinage in order make a profit. In these «letters» Swift posed as a
shop-keeper—a draper—in order to criticize the plan. Swift’s writing
was so effective in undermining opinion in the project that a reward was
offered by the government to anyone disclosing the true identity of the
author. Though hardly a secret (on returning to Dublin after one of his
trips to England, Swift was greeted with a banner, «Welcome Home,
Drapier») no one turned Swift in. The government eventually resorted to
hiring none other than Sir HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton» \o «Isaac Newton» Isaac
Newton to certify the soundness of Wood’s coinage to counter Swift’s
accusations. In «Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift» (1739) Swift recalled
this as one of his best achievements.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulliver%27s_Travels» \o
«Gulliver’s Travels» Gulliver’s Travels , first published in 1726, is
Swift’s masterpiece. As with his other writings, the Travels was
published under a pseudonym, the fictional Lemuel Gulliver, a ship’s
surgeon and later a sea captain. Some of the correspondence between
printer Benj. Motte and Gulliver’s also-fictional cousin negotiating the
book’s publication has survived. Though it has often been mistakenly
thought of and published in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowdlerized» \o «Bowdlerized» bowdlerized
form as a children’s book, it is a great and sophisticated satire of
human nature based on Swift’s experience of his times. Gulliver’s
Travels is an anatomy of human nature, a sardonic looking-glass, often
criticized for its apparent misanthropy. It asks its readers to refute
it, to deny that it has not adequately characterized human nature and
society. Each of the four books—recounting four voyages to
mostly-fictional exotic lands—has a different theme, but all are
attempts to deflate human pride. Critics hail the work as a satiric
reflection on the failings of Enlightenment modernism.

In 1729, he published HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Modest_Proposal» \o «A Modest Proposal»
A Modest Proposal For Preventing The Children Of Poor People In Ireland
Being A Burden To Their Parents Or Country, And For Making Them
Beneficial To The Public, a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satire» \o «Satire» satire in which the
narrator, with intentionally grotesque logic, recommends that Ireland’s
poor escape their poverty by selling their children as food to the rich:
”I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in
London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most
delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food…” Following the satirical
form, he introduces the reforms he is actually suggesting by deriding
them:

Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients…taxing our
absentees…using [nothing] except what is of our own growth and
manufacture…rejecting…foreign luxury…introducing a vein of
parsimony, prudence and temperance…learning to love our
country…quitting our animosities and factions…teaching landlords to
have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants….Therefore I
repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, ’till he
hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty
and sincere attempt to put them into practice.

According to other sources [citation needed], Richard Steele uses the
personae of Isaac Bickerstaff and was the one who wrote about the
«death» of John Partridge and published it in The Spectator, not
Jonathan Swift.*

Essays, tracts, pamphlets, periodicals

«A Meditation upon a Broomstick» (1703–1710): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.blackmask.com/books41c/medbroomdex.htm» \o
«http://www.blackmask.com/books41c/medbroomdex.htm» Blackmask

«A Critical Essay upon the Faculties of the Mind» (1707–1711)

The Bickerstaff-Partridge Papers (1708–1709): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/swift/jonathan/s97b/» \o
«http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/swift/jonathan/s97b/» U of
Adelaide

» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Argument_Against_Abolishing_Christianit
y» \o «An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity» An Argument Against
Abolishing Christianity » (1708–1711): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/swift/jonathan/s97ab/» \o
«http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/swift/jonathan/s97ab/» U of
Adelaide

The Intelligencer (with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Sheridan» \o «Thomas Sheridan»
Thomas Sheridan ) (1710-????): Text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13169» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13169» Project Gutenberg

The Examiner (1710): Texts: HYPERLINK
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/examiner/index.htm
» \o
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/examiner/index.htm
» Ourcivilisation.com , HYPERLINK
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13169» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13169» Project Gutenberg

«A Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English
Tongue» (1712): Full texts: HYPERLINK
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/proposal.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/proposal.html» Jack Lynch ,
HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607794346&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«On the Conduct of the Allies» (1713)

«Hints Toward an Essay on Conversation» (1713): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/8.html» \o
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/8.html» Bartleby.com

«A Letter to a Young Gentleman, Lately Entered into Holy Orders» (1720)

«A Letter of Advice to a Young Poet» (1721): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/10.html» \o
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/10.html» Bartleby.com

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drapier%27s_Letters» \o
«Drapier’s Letters» Drapier’s Letters (1724, 1725): Full text:
HYPERLINK «http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12784» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12784» Project Gutenberg

«Bon Mots de Stella» (1726): a curiously irrelevant appendix to
«Gulliver’s Travels»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Modest_Proposal» \o «A
Modest Proposal» A Modest Proposal , perhaps the most famous satire in
English, suggesting that the Irish should engage in cannibalism.
(Written in 1729)

«An Essay on the Fates of Clergymen»: Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/other_swift/fates.html» \o
«http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/other_swift/fates.html»
JaffeBros

«A Treatise on Good Manners and Good Breeding»: Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/9.html» \o
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/9.html» Bartleby.com

«On the Death of Esther Johnson»: Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/11.html» \o
«http://www.bartleby.com/27/11.html» Bartleby.com

«An Essay On Modern Education»: Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/other_swift/moded.html» \o
«http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/other_swift/moded.html»
JaffeBros

Poems

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:International_Mag_Jonathan_Swift.jpg
» \o «Enlarge»

An 1850 illustration of Swift.

«Ode to the Athenian Society» 1692 (first published work)

Poems of Jonathan Swift, D.D. Texts at Project Gutenberg: HYPERLINK
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14353» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14353» Volume One , HYPERLINK
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13621» \o
«http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13621» Volume Two

«Baucis and Philemon» (1706–1709): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.blackmask.com/books41c/baucphildex.htm» \o
«http://www.blackmask.com/books41c/baucphildex.htm» Blackmask

«A Description of the Morning» (1709): Full annotated text: HYPERLINK
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2062.html» \o
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2062.html» U of Toronto ; Another
text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607746679&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«A Description of a City Shower» (1710): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607759837&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«Cadenus and Vanessa» (1713): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.blackmask.com/view_descript.php?id=7524» \o
«http://www.blackmask.com/view_descript.php?id=7524» Blackmask

«Phillis, or, the Progress of Love» (1719): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/swift01.html» \o
«http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/swift01.html» theotherpages.org

Stella’s birthday poems:

1719. Full annotated text: HYPERLINK
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2065.html» \o
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2065.html» U of Toronto

1720. Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607768675&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

1727. Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2066.html» \o
«http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2066.html» U of Toronto

«The Progress of Beauty» (1719–1720): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap2.htm»
\o
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap2.htm»
OurCivilisation.com

«The Progress of Poetry» (1720): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/swift01.html» \o
«http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/swift01.html» theotherpages.org

«A Satirical Elegy on the Death of a Late Famous General» (1722): Full
text: HYPERLINK
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2064.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2064.html» U of Toronto

«To Quilca, a Country House not in Good Repair» (1725): Full text:
HYPERLINK «http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2063.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2063.html» U of Toronto

«Advice to the Grub Street Verse-writers» (1726): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2060.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2060.html» U of Toronto

«The Furniture of a Woman’s Mind» (1727)

«On a Very Old Glass» (1728): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html» \l «glass» \o
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html#glass» Gosford.co.uk

«A Pastoral Dialogue» (1729): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html» \l «pastoral» \o
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html#pastoral» Gosford.co.uk

«The Grand Question debated Whether Hamilton’s Bawn should be turned
into a Barrack or a Malt House» (1729): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html» \l «bawn» \o
«http://www.gosford.co.uk/swift.html#bawn» Gosford.co.uk

«On Stephen Duck, the Thresher and Favourite Poet» (1730): Full text:
HYPERLINK «http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2067.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2067.html» U of Toronto

«Death and Daphne» (1730): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap3.htm»
\o
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap3.htm»
OurCivilisation.com

«The Place of the Damn’d» (1731): HYPERLINK
«http://www.geocities.com/soho/nook/7255/damned.html» \o
«http://www.geocities.com/soho/nook/7255/damned.html» Full text

«A Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed» (1731): Full annotated text:
HYPERLINK «http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/nymphbed.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/nymphbed.html» Jack Lynch ;
Another text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607752257&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«Strephon and Chloe» (1731): Full annotated text: HYPERLINK
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/strephon.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/strephon.html» Jack Lynch ;
Another text: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607775280&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«Helter Skelter» (1731): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap5.htm»
\o
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap5.htm»
OurCivilisation.com

«Cassinus and Peter: A Tragical Elegy» (1731): Full annotated text:
HYPERLINK «http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/cassinus.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/cassinus.html» Jack Lynch

«The Day of Judgment» (1731): HYPERLINK
«http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Nook/7255/judgement.html» \o
«http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Nook/7255/judgement.html» Full text

«Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift, D.S.P.D.» (1731–1732): Full annotated
texts: HYPERLINK
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/verses.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/verses.html» Jack Lynch ,
HYPERLINK «http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2068.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2068.html» U of Toronto
; Non-annotated text:: HYPERLINK
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=607701505&textreg=
3&query=&id=» \o
«http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/engl
ish/modeng/p U of Virginia

«An Epistle To A Lady» (1732): Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap7.htm»
\o
«http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/swift/verse/chap7.htm»
OurCivilisation.com

«The Beasts’ Confession to the Priest» (1732): Full annotated text:
HYPERLINK «http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2061.html» \o
«http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/rpo/display/poem2061.html» U of Toronto

«The Lady’s Dressing Room» (1732): Full annotated text: HYPERLINK
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/dressing.html» \o
«http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/dressing.html» Jack Lynch

«On Poetry: A Rhapsody» (1733)

«The Puppet Show» Full text: HYPERLINK
«http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/shortstories/thebattle
ofthebooksandothershortpieces/chap7.html» \o
«http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/shortstories/thebattle
ofthebooksandothershortpieces/chap7.html» Worldwideschool.org

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«http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/shortstories/thebattle
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