Iioiaeaeaiiy

oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi, a?ei?on?a oa ?oi?o iia

ANOOI

1. «Eaaeaoue a?ee, iie?eo? ieeii…»

2. «? ?ic?eoeeny neiaaie ii caie?…»

3. Neie Aeaaeaiae?, Naa?iaa aioee

4. Aeoiee oe?a?inueeiai aoiino

5. Iaeaeaai?o? ?ene oe?a?inueei? iiae

6. Ee?anueea ?onue — ?aiiueioe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa

7. Aeaaiuei?onueea ia?iaei?noue: ?noi?e/ia ?aaeuei?noue /e ?aeaieia?/ia
aeaaaeea?

8. I?i «ni?eueio eieeneo», «noa?oiai» oa «iaioeo» a?ao?a

9. «?onue», «?in?y», «Aaeeei?in?y», «Iaei?in?y»?

10. Iiaia neooaoe?y a Ee?anuee?e ?on?

11. AEeao/a iiieeea Eiiiiiniaa

12. «Oe?a?ia» — oea ia «ie?a?ia»

13. Ui aoei a, yeae

14. E?OA?AOO?A

15. AeIAeAOIE

Ee?anueea ?onue — ?aiiueioe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa

I?ioyaii VII-VIII no. o i?ioean? aeaeueoi? aeiiii?/ii?, eoeueoo?ii? ?
iiaii? eiinie?aeaoe?? a?aeaoaaeiny ia?a?inoaiiy ie?aieo
aoi?/ii-iie?oe/ieo ni?eueiio (oae caaieo «nithc?a ieaiai») o oaiaeaeuei?
eiyc?anoaa, Oaeeo oaiaeaeueieo eiyc?anoa aoei aeanue 12-14. Oiane?aeie
?o iinooiiaiai ia’?aeiaiiy ia ?oaaae? VIII-IX no. aeieeea iiaooiy
aea?aeaaa ?onue, yea a ?noi??ia?ao?? XIX no. ae?noaea iacao Ee?anueea
?onue. Nii/aoeo Ee?anueea ?onue neeaaeaeany eeoa c Ee?anueei?,
*a?i?a?anueei? oa Ia?ayneaanueei? caiaeue, oiaoi aiia ia aeoiaeeea ca
iaae? i?ioioe?a?inueei? aoiiiiaii? oa?eoi???. Ia oe?e aea oa?eoi???
i?noeany e iie?oe/iee, aeiiii?/iee oa eoeueoo?iee oeaio? aea?aeaae —
Ee?a. Ia 60-o? pp. IX no. Ee?anueea ?onue oaeiae ia’?aeioaaea eeoa
oe?a?inuee? ieaiaia — iieyi, aea?aaeyi, i?aaeaiieo ae?aaiae/?a oa
/a?i?a?anueeo /anoeio n?aa?yi. A inoaii?e /aa?o? IX no. aeaaea
ee?anueeiai eiycy iioe?eeany ia iiei/ai ? niieainueeeo e?eae/?a, a i?ney
oiai, ye o 882 p. Ee?a caoiiea iiaai?iaenueeee eiycue Ieaa, aei
Ee?anueei? ?on? aoei i?e?aeiaii e caie? ineianueeeo e?eae/?a oa
?eueiainueeeo neiaai?a. Ianooiiee Ieaaa eiycue ?ai? i?aeei?ea oee/?a ?
oeaa?oe?a. I?ioyaii O — ii/aoeo XII no. aei Ee?anueei? ?on? oa?eoee an?
caie? no?aeieo neia’yi ? aaaaoueio ianeia’yinueeeo ieaiai
(o?iii-oai?nuee? ieaiaia io?iia, ia?y, aanue, aaeo?enueea aieyaeue,
oth?enuee? oi?ee ? aa?aiaea? oa ?i.). Oaeei /eiii, oaea ia ii/aoie O no.
Ee?anueea ?onue noaea iano?eeith eiioaaea?aoe??th «ieai?iieo eiyae?iue»,
aeaiiino?oth/e, ca neiaaie I. A?ae/aanueeiai, ae?aiaoe/ia ia?aieaoaiiy
aeioeaio?iaeo ? a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e. Ui oea aoea ca aea?aeaaa ?
yeee ia?iae ia? i?aenoaae iaceaaoe ?? nai?th? Ieoaiiy aoi?/ii?
iaeaaeiino? Ee?anueei? ?on? aeaaii aeeeeea? caiaee? noia?a/ee e noaei ia
o?eueee iaoeiaith, aea e iie?oe/iith i?iaeaiith. ?noi?eee oea?nueei?
?in?? oaa?aeeee, ui aea?aeaao ?onue canioaaee ?in?yie. Aiie i?aeoi aoee
iaeaeaai?oei neia’yinueeei aoiinii, a oe?a?ioe? e a?ei?one, ca oe??th
eia?eith, a?aeaaeoceeeny a?ae ?in?yi i?ci?oa. Ua a «Neiiinen?» ?. A?caey
(aeeoia ae?oeii 1674 ?. o Ee?ai-Ia/a?nuee?e eaa?? e aeaeaaaany aeecueei
30 ?ac?a, inoaii? aeaeaiiy — 1836 ?.), yeee aae aei ii/aoeo XIX no. aoa
o ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? iniiaiei i?ae?o/ieeii c ?noi???, Ee?anueeo ?onue
i?iaieineee ia?oei aoaiii ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Ia?oith
?in?enueeith aea?aeaaith aaaaeaa Ee?anueeo ?onue ? a?aeiiee ?in?enueeee
?noi?ee I. Ea?aic?i (1776-1826), yeee o 12-oiii?e «Enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa
?inneeneiai» (1816-1829 pp.) iacaaa eiyaeee Ee?a «iaoa?ueth ai?iaeia
?onneeo», ?icoi?th/e oea ye «?in?enueeeo». Eiioeaioe?th I. Ea?aic?ia
i?iaeiaaeea o na?aaeei? XIX no. ?in?enueeee ?noi?ee ? aeo?iae?no ca
oaoii aeaae. I. Iiaiae?i (1800-1875). A?i noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui a aeaaiueiio
Ee?a? e ia Ee?auei? a /ane canioaaiiy ?onueei? aea?aeaaiino? ? aei
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? iaaaee 1240 ?. aeeee ?in?yie oa ?oi? i?aaeee. I?ney
caaithaaiiy Ee?aueie iiiaiei-oaoa?aie ?in?yie i?aeoi ai?a?oaaee ia
Na?aaeith Ieo e Aa?oith Aieao, a ia nionoioaio Ee?aueio i?eeoee c
I?eea?iaooy oe?a?ioe? ia ?ai?oa e?ioey XV no. Oeth aioeiaoeiao
eiioeaioe?th a?aoiaioiaaii ni?inooaaa a?ae?aco ae i?ney ?? iiyae
oe?a?inueeee o?eieia, ?noi?ee ? oieueeei?eno I. Iaeneiiae/ (1804-1873),
a caiaeii — anana?oiuei a?aeiiee o?eieia A. E?einueeee (1871-1941). Iei?
?? iaiaaathoueny ?aai?ioaaoe aeaye? iie?oe/i? eiea a ?in?? oa ie?ai?
oia?i?noe/i? i?aaenoaaieee ?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioeie a Oe?a?i?.
Aea ia oe? iia?oi?o aeinyaiaiue iiaiciaanoaa, a?oaieia??, aio?iiieia??,
?noi??? oae? ni?iae ni?eeiathoueny ye iaoeiaa iaa?aeanoai aai iie?oe/ia
oa?eaoainoai. Ca /an?a N?N? aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueeo e a?aeaa?oi
oia?i?noe/io a?iioaco I. Iiaiae?ia ?aaeyinuee? ?aeaieiae aeaui
iii’yeoeee, aeaaaeaaoe eiioeaioe?th ie?aiiai aeaaiuei?onueeiai aoiino —
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, yea i?aeoi noaea aoi?/iith iniiaith
?in?yi, oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a, i?i ui aeaoaeuei?oa eoeiaoueny aeae?.
Ia i?ioeaaao oeueiio, ua c e?ioey XVIII no., ii/eiath/e a?ae iaa?aeiiiai
aaoi?a «?noi??? ?on?a», iao??ioe/ii iaeaooiaai? oe?a?inuee? a/ai?
aaaaeaee ? aaaaeathoue, ui aea?aeaao ?onue ooai?eee oe?a?ioe?, a Ee?a
niieiia?/ia aoa oe?a?inueeei i?noii. Ooi ae ia? ?aoe?th? Uia ciaeoe
i?aaeeueio a?aeiia?aeue ia oea caieoaiiy, ne?ae a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae
aiioe?e, eiino?othaaiiy caiie?oe-ciaaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo noai ? nie?aoeny
aeeeth/ii ia ?noi?e/i? oaeoe. ?noi?e/ia caeiiii??i?noue ooai?aiiy
iie?oe/ieo ia’?aeiaiue — aea?aeaa (? iaoe?iiaeueieo, ei?aeiie yeeo a
iniiaiiio ca?aathoueny c iaaeaie a?aeiia?aeieo aoi?/ieo oa?eoi??e, ?
?iia??e, aei yeeo aoiaeyoue ??ci? ia?iaee) iieyaa? a oiio, ui
caii/aoeiao? ?o iaeei eiie?aoiee aoiin, yeiio e iaeaaeeoue oey
aea?aeaaa, iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeeea? ?icoe?aiiy ?? oa?eoi??? a
iaeaooiueiio ca ?aooiie caiaeue ?ioeo aoiin?a. Oae aoei ia o?eueee c
iaoe?iiaeueieie aea?aeaaaie (O?aioe??th, I?ia//eiith, *ao??th oa ?i.),
aea e c? na?oiaeie ?iia??yie iai?eeeaae. A?caio?enueeith, Iniainueeith,
?in?enueeith, aea aea?aeaaioai?/eie aoiinaie aoee a?aeiia?aeii a?aee,
oo?ee, ?in?yie). Noiniaii aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino? aeaa iuei? ?on? oaaao
iaoia?aaeaeaiiai aeine?aeieea ia? i?eaa?iooe ianaiia?aae oa, ui oey
aea?aeaaa nii/aoeo ioiiethaaea eeoa caie? ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?,
oiaoi aiia ia aeoiaeeea ca iaae? oa?eoi???, ia ye?e aeeee
i?ioioe?a?ioe?. I?ci?oa oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a (/an?a Eica//eie,
Aaoueiaiueie ? no/anieo oe?a?ioe?a) noi?ioaaeany ia eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?yo i?aaeaiii-?onueeeo (oiaoi i?ioioe?a?inueeeo) e?oiienieo
ieaiai (iieyi, aea?aaeyi, aieeiyi, n?aa?yi, oee/?a, oeaa?oe?a, a?eeo
oi?aao?a) ? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Iai?eeeaae, o?aaeeoe?eia aa?aiiy
oe?a?inueeeo naeyiie — aeiaaa aeoeoa aai ia?aaeaia ni?i/ea,
niaaoe?aeueiiai e?ith ieaooa, iai?oea (o ae?a/ao — a?iaoeue), iinoiee —
aa?a ii/aoie ua a??ae iaeyao ieai?iieo ia ?aeiaiue VIII an., caa??aaeiny
a iiaoo? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? ?on? e ianooiieo aiio ?
iaeaea a iaci?iiiio aeaeyae? ae?eoei aae aei XX no.(I?eiea?aa O., Ua?a?e
?. Ia?iaeiee iaeya // Eoeueoo?a ? iiaoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. — E., 1991. —
N. 59, 99.). Oae naii /ieia?/a aa?aiiy O no. aoei aaea oaea, ye ? a
oe?a?ioe?a i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y. ?oneie iineee a?e? ni?i/ee,
eiaeooe, naeoe, iiai/?. Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae ee?anueeiai eiycy Nayoineaaa
?ai?iae/a (942-972), iienaiee a?caio?enueeei ienueiaiieeii ae?oai?
iieiaeie O no. Eaaii Aeeyeiiii (a?ea ni?i/ea, aieaia ai?iaea, aeiaa?
aona, inaeaaeaoeue, na?aaeea o aon?), iaeaea ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
i?ci?oiai caii?icueeiai eicaea. Oa e naia eicaoeoai ye noni?eueia
aa?noaa caoeniee?a nai?? a?o/ecie ii/aei oi?ioaaoeny ua a Ee?anuee?e
?on?: oea e aiaaoe?nuee? canoaae ia iaae? c ai?iaeei Noaiii, ? eiie?aoi?
aiaaoe?? c aeeei ee?anueeiai oeeeeo, e ica?i?i? ae?oaeeie ee?anueeeo
eiyc?a, ? a?euei? aaoaae aiye?a (a?iaeieee oa aa?eaaeieee), ye?, e??i
a?eie c? noaiiaeeaie, oi?aoaaee, iaee ieneeanuee? e ?eai? i?iienee a
caieaaao Aei?i?a oa eiai i?eoie. Aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue oaeeo aiye?a
i?auo?aie eicae?a (Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. —
N. 133-134.). Aaeaea eicaoeoai i?iaeiaaeeeii a?enueeia? o?aaeeoe??
ee?anueeeo eiyc?a, o yeeo oaea aoee eoeueo ia/a, eiiy ? oaae?, iaeeiia?
noyae, aoaioaaiiy aa?oiaieo iie?iaeoae?a — nayoiai TH??y, Nayoi? Iie?iae
oiui. Iaa?oue oe?a?inuee? eiaca?? i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y iaee nai?o
iiia?aaeiee?a o Ee?anuee?e ?on? — oaeeo, ye a?uee ni?aaoeue Aiyi ? eiio
iiae?aieo. Eicaoeuee? aeoie ca no?oeoo?ith, oi?iith ? ci?noii aeoaea
noiae? c ee?anueeeie aiaaoe?nueeeie aeeeiaie oa ae?oaeeiiei aiinii, a?ae
yeiai aei ian ae?eoei eeoa «Neiai i?i ?ai??a iio?ae». O iueiio aeoaea
aaaaoi iiac??, i?eoaiaiii? oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei?o. «Neiai i?i ?ai??a
iio?ae» ? nooi oe?a?inueeei ia o?eueee /a?ac oa, ui aiii aoei noai?aia
ia oe?a?inuee?e oa?eoi???, ? iiae??, ciaeueiaai? a iueiio,
a?aeaoaathoueny ia aaouee?auei? oe?a?ioe?a aeaeaei a?ae ?in?enueeeo
caiaeue, aea e ca eiai aeooii, ooaeiaeiuei-ia?aciith nenoaiith,
iiaiinoee?noe/ieie caniaaie, na?oini?eeiyooyi ? niiniaii ieneaiiy eiai
aaoi?a. Oeae iiaoe/iee oaaeaa? ia iiaeia, one?ae ca ?in?enueeeie
aeine?aeieeaie, i?iaieiooaaoe iaeaeaai?oei oai?ii ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e
ua e oiio, ui i?ae /an iaaaeaeiai iioiaeo ia iieiaoe?a 1185 p.
i?aaeaiieo ?onei?a (oiaoi oe?a?ioe?a) ia /ie? c iiaai?iae-n?aa?nueeei
eiycai ?ai?ai Nayoi-neaae/ai ?in?enueea Nocaeaeueueia aoea iaeaeeae/ei
nithcieeii iieiaoe?a o ai?iouea? c Ee?aii. Ioaea, noc-aeaeueoe? ii noo?
iieieeeny o ai?iaeiio oaai?? e ia iiaee ia o?eueee ini?aoaaoe
a?enueeiaee aioeiieiaaoeueeee iio?ae, aea iaa?oue ? acyoe a iueiio
o/anoue (Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N. 124.).
Aiae?coth/e «Neiai i?i ?ai??a iio?ae», a?aeiiee ?in?enueeee e?eoee XIX
no. A. A?e?inueeee a?aecia/aa, ui aiii «iineoue ia nia? a?aeaeoie
iiaoe/iiai e ethaenueeiai aeooo I?aaeaiii? ?on?, yeee ua ia ciaa
aa?aa?nueeiai y?ia oaoa?ueie ? aoa /oaeee a?oaino? e aeeeino? I?ai?/ii?
?on?… ? uinue oaiea, aeaai?iaeia e ethaenueea o aca?iieo noinoieao
ae?eiaeo in?a oe??? iiaie. Ona oea, iiaoi?th?ii, a?aeaoeo?oueny
I?aaeaiiith ?onnth, aea e iei? ua oae aaaaoi ethaenueeiai ?
aeaai?iaeiiai a ?iaeeiiiio iiaoo?, aea noinoiee noaoae ??oioothoueny ia
eioaii?, a ae?iee ei?enoothoueny i?aaaie nai?? noao?. Ona oea
i?ioeeaaeia I?ai?/i?e ?on?, aea ?iaeeii? aoinoiee a?oa?, ae?iea —
aeiiaoiy ooaeiaeia, a eioaiiy cian?i noi?iiiy ni?aaa i?e oethaao;
ii??aiyeoa iiaoo iaei?in?enueeeo ioaeee?a c iiaooii ?in?enueeeo
ioaeee?a, i?uai, eoioe?a, a /anoeiai e ?ioeo noai?a, ? ae ia?aeiia?oany
a ni?aaaaeeeaino? iaoiai aeniiaeo i?i i?aaeaiia iioiaeaeaiiy «Neiaa i?i
?ai??a iio?ae»… Ia iiaeia ia iii?oeoe /iainue ni?eueiiai i?ae «Neiaii
i?i ?ai??a iio?ae» ? eicaoeueeeie iaei?in?enueeeie i?niyie» (Aaeeineee
A. A. Ni/eiaiey / Ecae. O. Iaaeaieiaa. — O. 2. — NIa, 1902. — N. 359.
Aeea. oaeiae: Aaeeineee A. A. Iiieiia nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. — O. 5. — I.,
1954. — N. 332-333, 348-349.). Oaeei /eiii, iaoa??aeueia ? aeooiaia
eoeueoo?e i?ci?oi? Oe?a?ie ae?inee aaciina?aaeiuei c eoeueoo?e
i?aoe?a?inueeeo nithc?a ieaiai ? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Oe?a?inueea
ethaei?noue XVI-XVIII no. ona?aeiiethaaea naaa i?yiei iauaaeeii
Ee?anueei? ?on?. Oeth aaciina?aaei?noue ?noi?e/ii? na?aeiiino? ia
ia?a?aaee i? iiiaiei-oaoa?-nueea iaaaea, i? aacaea?aeaai?noue
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino a XIV-XVI no. C ?ioiai aieo, iaoa??aeueia eoeueoo?a
(ea?ai?ea, aeeoeiaoae?aieoeoai, o?aaeeoe?eiee iaeya, i?ee?ane oiui)
i?aa?ei?on?a oa i?a?in?yi XI-XIII no. cia/ii a?ae??ciyeany a?ae
eoeueoo?e i?aoe?a?ioe?a. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?aa?ei?one ?
i?a?in?yie oi?ioaaeeny aeaeaei a?ae Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie —
iie?oe/iiai e eoeueoo?iiai ina?aaeeo ?onn? e caciaee aieeao eoeueoo?
i?noeaaeo aaeonueeeo oa o?iii-oai?nueeeo eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e.
Iai?eeeaae, ?in?yie caiice/eee c o?inueei? o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
iiioey?i? e aeiiei? iaeueiai?, ee/aee («eaioe»), /ieia?/o
ni?i/eo-einiai?ioeo, ae?ii/ee eieioiee, ?in?enueeo «aaith», iao-?ueioeo,
eacee i?i aaaeiaaey (nayuaiio oaa?eio o?i?a) — «einieaiiai Ieoeo», ye?
a?aeaeaathoue aeaai?e eoeueo aaaeiaaey a ?in?yi (ia?ac «?onneiai
Iaaeaaaey» — ia?iaeiiai aoi?/iiai neiaieo ?in??, ia a?aei?io a?ae
i?ci?oiai ?iia?nueeiai aeaiaieiaiai i?ea, caiice/aiiai i?ney iaae?iiy
Eiinoaioeiiiiey a 1453 ?. e iae?oaeaiiy iineianueeiai eiycy ?aaia III c
ieai?iieoeath inoaiiueiai a?aoeueeiai ?iia?aoi?a Nio??th Iaeaieia,
caaaeyee ye?e a?caio?enueeee aeaiaieiaee i?ae noaa aea?aeaaiei aa?aii
Iineiaueie). E??i oeueiai, aieeaii o?inueeiai noano?aoo aeine?aeieee
iiyniththoue oaeiae /eiaei niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?in?enueei? iiae,
oaeeo ye: iayai?noue aeaiiy e ?aaeoeoe?? aieinieo a oniiio iiaeaii?,
ia?i? neiaa oeio noaaeee-aei?iaeee, ?oee-iiae, aeea-caei?ia,
oaeie-nyeie, iaaeaeaiii-iaaaaeaiii, anoue-ieoue oa ?i., iiaiee cai?io o
iaiy anoue (cai?noue a?eueo oa?aeoa?iiai aeey neia’yinueeeo iia cai?ioo
y iath), o?a caieia?/i? ae?ace aeee-aue, aeeouea-auouea,
aeeoue-iiaeeaaoue, eae iiaeaony?, eae aeeaaoa-iiaeaoa?, caiice/ai? c
o?inueeeo iia eaenaie eiaueyoue, eieao.ue (ieieaoue), Iineaa oa ?i.
Cae/aeii, ia iiaeia caia?a/eoe oiai oaeoo, ui eoeueoo?a Ee?anueei? ?on?
noaea aaaeeeaei i?ae??oioyi iaoa??aeueii? e aeooiaii? eoeueoo?
?in?enueeiai oa a?ei?onueeiai ia?iae?a.

Iaeiae yeui oe?a?ioe? aoee i?yieie iauaaeeaie ethaeiino? Ee?aa, Aaee/a,
*a?i?aiaa, Ia?ayneaaa oa ?ioeo i?ioioe?a?inueeeo oa?eoi??e, oi
?in?enuee? e a?ei?onuee? aoi?/i? iniaeeaino? aoee i?iaeoeoii ?oiueiai
naii?icaeoeo a oiiaao aeanieo aoi?/ieo oa?eoi??e aeaeaei ca iaaeaie
ia?a?nii? ?on? (Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N.
129, 138, 144, 146).

On? iaaaaeai? oaeoe (a ?o iiaeia ciaeoe cia/ii a?eueoa) aeathoue
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui Ee?anueea ?onue aeieeea ye ?aiiy oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaa. Eeoa cia/ii i?ci?oa aiia noaea aaee/aciith e oeiiaith
na?aaeiueia?/iith ?iia???th a?ae Nyio aei Aieae, aea ?? aea?aeaaioai?/ei
? eiinie?aeoth/ei, aoiinii aoee i?aaeaii? ?oneie, oiaoi i?aoe?a?ioe?. A
oiiaao ni?eueii? aea?aeaae, oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, a?aeaoaaeeny iii?oia
?oeioaaiiy ieai?iii? caieiooino?, caeeaeaiiy ? eiinie?aeaoe?y ??cieo
ieaiai ? ia?iae?a. I?ioa nooi?iue oe??? eiinie?aeaoe?? oa ?? iane?aeee ?
aein? aeeeeeathoue aeaaa? aeeneon??.

Aeaaiuei?onueea ia?iaei?noue: ?noi?e/ia ?aaeuei?noue /e ?aeaieia?/ia
aeaaaeea?

Ca?aeii c oaa?aeaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a, yea ua iaaeaaii aoei
iaii?ooiith aen?iiith, ca aeiae Ee?anueei? ?on?, a naia i?ioyaii IX-O
no. oiane?aeie caeeaeaiiy ? ceeooy aaaaoueio no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ieaiai
noi?ioaaeany aoi?/ia ? iiaia ?aei?noue — aeaaiuei?onueea ia?iaei?noue.
Aiia, ye ? aoaeue-yea ia?iaei?noue ca a?aeiiei noae?inueeei aecia/aiiyi,
i?aeoi iaea ni?eueio oa?eoi??th, iiao, ni?eueia aeiiii?/ia aeeooy ?
ni?eueiee ineoieia?/iee neeaae, ui aeyaey?oueny o ni?eueiino? eoeueoo?e.
Oey aeaaiuei?onueea ia?iaei?noue i?aeoi ?nioaaea aeayeee /an ? i?ney
?iciaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? — o ia??iae oaiaeaeueii? ?icae??aiaiino?, ?
eeoa caiaeii, i?ney iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? iaaaee, eiee ie?ai? /anoeie
Ee?anueei? ?on? iieieeeny a ??cieo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiiyo, ii/aany
?iciaae aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? ia o?e /anoeie, ye? a XIV-XV no.
ia?aoai?eeeny ia o?e no?aeiineia’yinuee? ia?iaeiino?: ?in?enueeo,
oe?a?inueeo oa a?ei?onueeo. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ? ?aeeia
aeaaiuei?onueea iiaa ?iciaeany ia o?e no?aeiineia’yinuee? iiae. Ioaea,
ca?aeii c io?oe?eiith aeieo?eiith, ?noi??y oe?a?ioe?a ? ?oiuei? iiae
ii/aeany ia ?ai?oa XIV-XV no. Aoaeue-ye? ni?iae ooeaoe iao? ei?ai?
aeeaoa aaaaeaeeny i?aenooiaie «oe?a?inueeeo ao?aeoacieo iaoe?iiae?no?a»
? aei?noiei ia?ane?aeoaaeeny. I?ioa i?e aeaoaeuei?oiio ? aaeoieea?oiio
aiae?c? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? eoeueoo?ieo iniaeeainoae
aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae aeyaey?oueny, ui a/aiiy i?i aeaaiuei?onueeo
ia?iaei?noue (/e, ye oaia? aeaooi iaceaa?, aoiiiiaio ni?euei?noue) c
on?ia ?? iaiao?aeieie iciaeaie — oea ia a?eueoa, i?ae ?aeaieia?/iee i?o.
Ne?ae neacaoe, ui aeaeaei ia an? ?in?enuee? ?noi?eee e ia caaaeaee
aeio?eioaaeeny oaei? aioeiaoeiai? iiceoe??. Ua eeanee ?in?enueei?
?noi?e/ii? iaoee A. Eeth-/aanueeee (1841-1911) aaaaeaa, ui ?in?yie
c’yaeeeny ia ?noi?e/i?e a?ai? eeoa i?ney ?iciaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?, oiaoi
ia ?ai?oa ae?oai? iieiaeie XII no. Oaeoe/ii c iiceoe?e I. A?ooaanueeiai,
aia?oa aeeeaaeaieo o eiai i?aoe? «Cae/aeia noaia ?onueei? ?noi??? ?
ni?aaa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai oeeaaeo ?noi??? no?aeiiai neia’yinoaa» (1904 ?.),
?icaeyaeaea aoi?/i? i?ioeane a Ee?anuee?e ?on? e io?oe?eia ?aaeyinueea
?noi?e/ia iaoea ia /ie? c aeaae. I. Iie?ianueeei — aae aei iia?iio eiai
oeiee a 1936 ?. Oey oeiea ii/eiaea ?in?enueeo ?noi??th c
Ai-eiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueeiai eiyc?anoaa, ioaea, Ee?anueeo ?onue o ia?
ia aeeth/aea. Neooaoe?y ??cei ci?ieeany, eiee 1946 ?. a Eai?ia?aae? aoea
iioae?eiaaia i?aoey A. Iaa?iae?ia «Ae?aaiyy ?onue (I?ienoiaeaeaiea
?onneiai ia?iaea e ia?aciaaiea Eeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa)». O i?e aac
iaeaaeii? iaoeiai? a?aoiaioaoe?? aoei i?iaieioaii, ui «Eeaaneay ?onue-
yoi ia/aeueiue yoai a enoi?ee anao o?ao a?aoneeo nea- ayineeo ia?iaeia
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, eiathueo iaeiiai i?aaeea — ?onneee ia?iae eeaaneeo
a?aiai, ae?aaia??onneoth ia?iaeiinoue» (n. 309). Aeae? a oe?e i?aoe?
i?aee?aneth?oueny aaee/acia ?ieue, ui ?? a ?noi??? no?aeieo neia’yi
a?ae?a?aa «aaee/anoaaiiue i?ioeana iauaaeeiaiey ainoi/iineaayineeo e
anneieee?oaiuo eie ieaiai a aaeeioth ae?aaia?onneoth ia?iaeiinoue» (n.
310). Oeth naio oaco A. Iaa?iae?i iiaoi?ea ? a ianooii?e nai?e i?aoe?
«Ia?aciaaiea aaeeiiai ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa» (E., 1951): «Iauaaeeiaiea
ainoi/iuo neaayi, neiaeeaoeony a aaeeiue ?onneee ia?iae, aeieaeii auoue
ii?aaeaeaii eae ia?iaeiinoue… Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii n/eoaoue
onoaiiaeaiiui, /oi ai a?aiaia Eeaaneiai ainoaea?noaa ainoi/iineaayineee
ie? neiaeeeny a aaeeiue ?onneee ia?iae, eee, eiie?aoece?oy, a aaeeioth
?onneoth ia?iaeiinoue» (n. 215). Oae? aacaeieacia? oaa?aeaeaiiy i?eiaee
aei aeoo? oiae?oi?i ?aaeyinueeei ?aeaieiaai ? ae?noaee ioae?/io
i?aeo?eieo c aieo oiai/anieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea,
iiceoe?y A. Iaa?iae?ia nii/aoeo ia ciaeoea ?icoi?iiy na?aae iineianueeeo
?noi?ee?a oa o?eieia?a. Cie?aia, ia ii/aoeo ethoiai 1951 ?. a ?inoeooo?
?noi??? AI N?N? a?aeaoeany oai?aoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y c i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy
?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? ? noaiiaeaiiy ?? a iaoe?th. Iniiaio aeiiia?aeue
ia oe?e eiioa?aioe?? c?iaea A. Iaa?iae?i, c i?eaiaeo yei? a?aeaoeany
oe?iea iaoeiaa aeeneon?y. ??ceo e?eoeeo c aieo ?noi?ee?a A.
Iiainaeuenueeiai, A. Naiaea?aa, I. Cei?ia, A. Iaoooi, I. Iaaeianueeiai
oa o?eieia?a A. Neaei?iaa, I. Eociaoeiaa ae?noaea oaca A. Iaa?iae?ia i?i
oa, ui «a VIII-IX aa. a nayce n ?aniaaeii ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy e
?acaeoeai oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, i?eaaaeoeo e ia?aciaaieth Eeaaneiai
ainoaea?noaa, ieaiaia ainoi/iuo neaayi neiaeeeenue a aaeeioth
ae?aaia?onneoth ia?iaeiinoue n iauei aeey anaai ainoaea?noaa ycueii». Ia
iaeiinoaeio aeoieo o/aniee?a aeeneon??, /anoeia aeiiia?ae? A.
Iaa?iae?ia, i?enay/aia aeaaiuei?onueeiio ia??iaeo, a?iioaoe/ia e
iaeiia?aeiieeaa. O oiae? aeeneon?? i?aee?anethaaeiny, ui yeae a
Ee?anuee?e ?on? ieai?ii? a?aei?iiino? e ae?aeaeoe noa?eeny aei iaaiiai
i?aaethth/iai ??aiy, oi i? iiiaieuenueea iaaaea, i? oaiaeaeueia
?icae??aiai?noue ia ciiaee a ni?e/eieoeny aei aeae?eaiiy c ?aeeii?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? o?ueio oi/ ? nii??aeiaieo, aea ??cieo
ia?iaeiinoae. Iani?aaae? ae o Ee?anuee?e ?on?, ia aeoieo o/aniee?a
aeeneon??, ?nioaaee o?e ie?ai? no?aeiineia’yinuee? ?aeiino?, ye? a
ianooiieo a?eao aeaee ii/aoie o?ueii ia?iaeiinoyi: ?in?enuee?e,
oe?a?inuee?e oa a?ei?onuee?e. Aeeneon?y oaeiae iieacaea, ui ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie aoiiaaiaco ?in?enueeiai oa ?ioeo ia?iae?a iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi
eeoa ia’?aeiaieie coneeeyie ?noi?ee?a, e?iaa?no?a, aoiia?ao?a,
ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a. O caeeth/iiio neia? A. Iaa?iae?i iiaiaeeany c
ieceith i?eioeeiiaeo e?eoe/ieo caoaaaeaiue ? iaa?oue ia?oeya ia?aaeyiooe
nai? iiaeyaee (?ioi?iaoe?eiee ca?o i?i oeth eiioa?aioe?th aoa
iaae?oeiaaiee o aeo?iae? «Aii?inu enoi?ee». — 1951. — ? 5. — N.
137-139.). I?ioa ia?aiiaea iia iaoea, a iie?oeea. O eiioeaioe?? A.
Iaa?iae?ia oiae?oi? ?aeaieiae ciaeoee /oaeiaa ?aeaieia?/ia ia??oiooaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa, yea, oi/ ? aoea
i?ee?eoa aeaiaaia?/iith o?acaieia??th, ii noo? i?iaeiaaeoaaea
aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueeo iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo oea?nueei? ?in??. Aaeaea
aeciaiiy ni?aaaeiueiai i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? c XII
no. o iaaeao Aieiaeeie?i-Noc-aeaeuenueeiai eiyc?anoaa ?iaeee
i?iaeaiaoe/ieie i?aoaic?? ?in?? ia o?eueee ia oa?eoi??aeueio, aea e ia
eoeueoo?io niaaeueio Ee?anueei? ?on?, a aeeth/aiiy Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo
?in?enueei? ?iia??? iaei aeaeyae ia ni?aaaaeeeaiai iiaa?iaiiy Iinea?
aeaai?o ?in?enueeeo caiaeue, a caaa?aaiiy caiaeue non?aeiueiai ia?iaeo.
?ioa ??/, eiee iaiieyaaoe ia ?nioaaii? ie?aii? aeaaiuei?onueei?
ia?iaeiino?, yea i?aeoi noai?eea Ee?anueeo ?onue ? noaea aoi?/iith
iniiaith i?ci?oeo ?in?yi, oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a. O oaeiio ?ac? iiyao
oeeo o?ueio ia?iae?a iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ee?ee ?noi?e/iee ce?ca?, ye
iaaaoeaia yaeua, coiiaeaia ceith aieath iiiaiei-oaoa?, eeoiaoe?a oa
iieye?a, ye? c?oeioaaee ni?eueio no?aeiineia’yinueeo aea?aeaao ?onue ?
?aeeiee aeaaiuei?onueeee ia?iae. Oiae aoaeue-yea ia’?aeiaiiy ?in?yi,
oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a a ?aeei?e aea?aeaa? ia? ni?eeiaoeny ieie ye
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Ioae i?aeoi nooi iaoeiaa
eiioeaioe?y aeaaiuei?onueei? ni?eueiioe noaea neoaeeoe iie?oe/i?e ni?aa?
?anoaa?aoe?? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oi/ ae a iaaeao oa?eoi???
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a. *a?ac oea e ia aeeaii, ui eiioeaioe?y A.
Iaa?iae?ia aoea noaaeaia OeE EI?N e io?oe?eii i?iaieioaia a «Oacao OeE
EI?N aei 300-??//y aicc’?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie c ?in??th», iaae?oeiaaieo o
aacao? «I?aaaea» ca 10 n?/iy 1954 ?.: «?onneee, oe?aeineee e aaei?onneee
ia?iaeu aaaeoo naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea io aaeeiiai ei?iy — ae?aaia?onneie
ia?iaeiinoe, nicaeaaoae ae?aaia?onneia ainoaea?noai- Eeaaneoth ?onue».
Oeeie oacaie aoei iieeaaeaii e?ae iaoeia?e aeeneon?? c i?eaiaeo
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, ? iaaeciaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? ia?o??th
aeieo?eie ?icoe?ithaaeiny ye iie?oe/ia iac??e?noue, a ?? e?eoeea
i?e??aithaaeany aei aea?aeaaiiai cei/eio. Ca oaeeo oiia A. Iaa?iae?i
aeyaeany «ia eii?» e ia o?eueee ia ia?aaeyioa nai?? iiceoe?? uiaei
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, aea e aeaeaa ia ?? caoeno ua aea? eieaeee:
«Ia?aciaaiea ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa e oi?ie?iaaiea ae?aaia?onneie
ia?iaeiinoe» (I., 1971) oa «I?ienoiaeaeaiea ?onneiai ia?iaea» (E.,
1978). E?eoeeo eiioeaioe?? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? i?iaeiaaeeee
eeoa ?noi?eee oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a Eaiaae? oa NOA (?noi??th iiyae
eiioeaioe?? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? iiaea?ii ca i?aoeath: Cae?ciye
E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N. 137-139.). Iaeiae oeae
i?aenooiiee ?nooi?e/iee i?o iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino? ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
eoaee i?aeoi aoiaeyoue ye eieaeuei? a?aeaaeoaeaiiy ?in?enueei? iaoe?? e
oe?a?ioe? oa a?ei?one, ni?eeiyee oaeiae ? i?ia?aei? iie?oeee, e iaa?oue
o/ai? Caoiaeo ?, ia aeaeue, aein? eiai aeio?eiothoueny, iacaaaeath/e ia
?iciaae ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco oa e?ao ?iia?nueei? ?aeaieia??. Ua e iei?
cao?aei? ?noi?eee, iiaiciaaoe?, e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?, ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?,
a?oaieiae aaci?aenoaaii i?eienothoue ?in?yiai ?noi?e/ia ieioea, aei
yeiai aiie iai?e/aoi? (E?ei’yeaae/ ?., Aeieueieoeueeee I. ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1990. — N. 223.). Canoa??e?noue aeieo?eie i?i
aeaaiuei?onueeo ia?iaei?noue i/aaeaeia aaea c oiai, ui iei? yaii
iio?aaothoue ooi/iaiiy nai? iiiyooy aoiin, ia?iae, ia?iaei?noue, iaoe?y,
ine?eueee no/ania iaoea iia?o? oaeeie iiiyooyie, ye iaioaeuei?noue,
aoi?/ia na?aeii?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue oiui, e, i/aaeaeii,
aoei a aeioe?eueii, uia aiie yeinue o?ao?oaaee ? a no/aniiio aecia/aii?
aoiino, ia?iaeiino? oa iaoe??. Aea ie iiee ui aano?aao?iiny a?ae oeeo
iaaei?a/iinoae ?, aeoiaey/e c aein? ?nioth/iai aecia/aiiy ia?iaeiino? e
iaoe??, ni?iao?ii c’ynoaaoe, /e ni?aaae? aoee aeanoea? oae caai?e
aeaaiuei?onuee?e ia?iaeiino? an? iaiao?aei? aeey ia? /ioe?e iciaee.
Uiaei ni?eueiino? oa?eoi??? ia ia?oee iiaeyae noii?a?a i?aeoi iaia?:
aeaaiuei?onueea aea?aeaaa Ee?anueea ?onue ni?aaae? caeiaea eiiiaeoio
oa?eoi??th. Aea ae oea aoea ni?eueia oa?eoi??y aea?aeaae, a ia
ia?iaeiino?. C aoi?/iiai iiaeyaeo oey aea?aeaaa noaiiaeea eiiaeiia?ao
??cieo ieaiai ? ia?iae?a — ia eeoa neia’yinueeeo, aea e aaeonueeeo,
oth?enueeeo, o?iii-oai?nueeeo. Aeaaiuei?onueea oa?eoi??y aoea canaeaia
ia ??aiii??ii, ie?ai? ?? /anoeie ?ic/eaiiaoaaeeny aeoaea oe?ieeie ?
iaeaea iai?io?aeieie e?naie oa aieioaie. *e iiaee no?aei? neia’yie ca
oaeeo oiia a?ae/ooe ni?euei?noue nai?? oa?eoi??? a?ae Ea?iao ? Iaae?inny
aei Ineiaa e ?inoiaa? Iiaeeeai, oea a?ae/oaaee o?aa ui ii??aiyii
ia/eneaii? o?yaeiaoe?, ui aoee iia’ycai? c eiyc?anueeith
aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa ?ioeie aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie e /an a?ae /ano
iiaei?iaeoaaee ii an?e aea?aeaa?, cae?ath/e ?ac ia ??e iiaeaoee ?
aeeiioth/e ?io? aea?aeaai? ooieoe??. Aea iniiaia iana ianaeaiiy, yea
oaeoe/ii e noaiiaeoue naio ia?iaei?noue, o?aa iiaea ona?aeiiethaaoe
yeonue ?aei?noue oa?eoi??? i?e oiae?oi?o i?ei?oeaieo o?ainii?oieo
caniaao ? oeyoao niieo/aiiy, i?e aaee/acieo i?e?iaeieo ia?aoeiaeao, ui
oaeoe/ii aoee nai???aeiith «cae?ciith caa?nith»? Cae/aeii, i?! O
eiaeiiio ?aa?ii? ethaee iaee «naith» oa?eoi??th. Neaae?ii, Na?aaeiy
Iaaeaei?i?yiueia aoea niieiia?/iith aeey iieyi; ooo aiie iaee aeeaiea
?noi?e/ia ei??iiy, nai?o i?aaee?a ? iauaaee?a, ooo a?aeaoaaeany ci?ia
iieie?iue, oi?ioaaeeny ?oi? cae/a?, iaoa??aeueia ? aeooiaia eoeueoo?e, ?
ia ia?aeiaeeny aiie eeiiioaie iiaai?iaeoe?a aai ineiae/?a, oa e iaa?yae
/e ciaee i?i ?oi? ?nioaaiiy acaaae?. Oae naii neia’yie Iiaai?iaeueie,
Io?ii-ueie /e ?inoianueei? caie? ia iaee aeiaeiiai noinoieo aei
Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, ? iaa?yae /e niaaeaei ?i ia aeoieo aaaaeaoe o? aeaeae?
caie? nai?ie. Ioiae ?aei?noue aeaaiuei?onueei? oa?eoi???
ona?aeiiethaaeany eeoa ia ??ai? aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, oa e oi a oiiaao
iai?aeii-oaaea?aoe??, eiee Iiaai?iae iino?eii i?ioenoiya Ee?ao, eiio ae
ia oio?a ei?eoeny Iieioeuee, eiee ee?anueeei eiycyi aanue /an
aeiaiaeeeiny aoeoiie?thaaoe iaiie??- ieo ia?eoa??eieo eiyc?a, oey
?aei?noue oa?eoi??? iaea aeineoue nai???aeiee ? a?aeiiniee oa?aeoa?, ?
?? ?ieue aoea yaii ia o??th, ui i?ci?oa — a aiioo ie?aieo
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ia?iaeiinoae ? iaoe?e. Caaaeueii?onueeo
na?aeii?noue iiaea iaoe eeoa i?aaey/a aa?o?aea oa iaeaeua aeooiaainoai.
?nioaaiiy ia?iaeiino? iaiiaeeeaa e aac ni?eueii? aeey an?o ?? ?aa?ii?a
iiae. *e aoea oaea iiaa a Ee?anuee?e ?on?? I?i iiaio neooaoe?th ia ?on?
aeaoaeueii eoeiaoueny aeae?. Ooo ie eeoa a?aecia/eii, ui ni?eueiith aeey
an??? oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? ?on? (oi/ ? c aeayeeie i?noeaaeie
a?aei?iiinoyie) aoea aeaaiueiee?anueea ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa. Aea ae
aiia aoea iaaeae?aeaeoiith, cia/iith i??ith ooo/iith, aeey a?eueoino?
i?inoiai ia?iaeo aeineoue aeaeaeith ? iaa?oue /oaeith, eiee ie?ai? ??
noee? aoee uaae?i ia?aneiai? oea?eiaiineia’yinueeeie neiaaie,
a?aiaoe/ieie oi?iaie oa noee?noe/ieie eiino?oeoe?yie. Oi/ o aeayeeo
aeaaiuei?onueeeo th?eaee/ieo aeieoiaioao, ui a?aeaeaathoue o?aaeeoe??
cae/a?aiai i?aaa, aai a ooaeiaei?o oai?ao ?c cia/iei oieueeei?iei
no?oiaiai niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia iaaeeaeaiiy aeaaiueiee?a-nueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae aei ia?iaeii?, aoei a ia?aiith ?ethc??th
ioioiaeithaaoe oe? iiae ? aaa/aoe a aeaaiueiee-?anuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e
iia? XI-XIII no. a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy i?inoiia?iaeiiai iiaeaiiy. Oe?eeii
c?icoi?ei, ui i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia ?ieue iiae i?eiouoaaii? aeaaiuei?onueei?
ia?iaeiino? ia? i?aenoaae ia aeaaiueiee?anueea ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia ? ia
oea?eiaiineia’yinueea (iiaa i?aaineaaii? oea?eae), a aeeaa
ia?iaeii?iciiaia iiaa. Aea /e ? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i ?aeeio
aeaaiuei?onueeo ia?iaeii?iciiaio iiao ye iciaeo aeaaiuei?onueei?
ia?iaeiino? e ?icoyaoaaoe ia??iae ?? ?nioaaiiy aeanue aae aei XIV no.?
O?aaeeoe?eia a?aeiia?aeue iaeiicia/ia: oae, ?. Aeey oeueiai i?aeoi ? e
a?aeiia?aei? a?aoiaioe: iayai?noue ni?eueiino?aeiineia’yinueeeo iiaieo
?en (iiaiiaieinny -i?i-, -??a-, -aea-, caoeiniieo/aiiy ca-, oea- o
neiaao oeio ca?caea, oea?o cai?noue eieeoi?o gv-, kv-, ia?ao?ae
ii/aoeiaiai iaiaaieioaiiai je a i ia?aae neeaaeii c aieinieie ?, a o
neiaao oeio ica?i, in?iue, i?ioenoaaeaiiy i?eaieinieo ca oaa?ae?noth-
i’ye?noth, aeecuee? nenoaie neiai- ? oi?iioai?/eo i?ao?en?a oa noo?en?a,
ni?eueiee o nai?e ia?aaaaei?e /anoei? eaene/iee oiiae oiui), iaeaea
iiaia a?aenooi?noue o ?aii?o no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iai’yoeao i?noeaaeo
ae?aeaeoieo iniaeeainoae, a yeui aiie e o?aieythoueny, oi ?o
?ioa?i?aoothoue ia ye ae?aeaeoi? ?ene, yeeo i?aeoi iaeaea ia aoei ? ia
iiaei aooe, a ye iienee eieaeiee?a. I?ioa, ye iieaco? iiaeeaeaiee
aiae?c, o?aaeeoe?ei? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue ?nioaaiiy ?aeeii?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeii?iciiaii? iiae oenoe? e iaia?aeiieea?. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iayai?noue ni?eueieo no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iiaieo ?en
i?/iai ia aeiaiaeeoue. Ii-ia?oa, caaaeath/e ia iniaeeaino? ?icnaeaiiy e
iayai?noue oe?ieeo ? iai?io?aeieo iacanaeaieo i?inoi??a aaaeei
i?eionoeoe, ui an? ni?euei? no?aeiineia’yinuee? iiai? iniaeeaino?
aeieeee neio?iiii ia an?e no?aeiineia’yinuee?e oa?eoi???. A??ia?aei?oith
aeaea?oueny iiyaa ie?aieo ae?aeaeoieo ?en nii/aoeo ia iaiaaeaieo
oa?eoi??yo c i?ci?oei iioe?aiiyi ia ?io? ae?aeaeoi? a?aaee. Ii-ae?oaa,
ni?euei? ?ene aoaeue-yei? a?oie nii??aeiaieo iia ia iaia’yceiai ionyoue
aooe niaaeueiith ?aeeii? i?aiiae. Iai?eeeaae, caaaeueiia?aeiii, ui
no/ani? cao?aeiineia’yinuee? iiae a?aecia/athoueny ieceith ni?eueieo
oiiaoe/ieo, a?aiaoe/ieo ? eaene/ieo iniaeeainoae, oi/ yei?nue
cao?aeiineia’yinueei? i?aiiae i?eiee ia aoei. Ia?iaeia iiaeaiiy a aiioo
Ee?anueei? ?on? yaeyei niaith noeoii?noue aaaaoueio
aeecueeinii??aeiaieo, aea ae?acii a?aei?iieo i?ae niaith ae?aeaeo?a, ye?
ia noaiiaeee ?aeeii? no?aeiineia’yinueei? iiae. Oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
aeaaiuei?onueeo ia?iaeii?iciiaio iiao ye iiao aeaaiuei?onueei?
ia?iaeiino? ia iathoue i?ae niaith ?aaeueiiai iaoeiaiai ? oaeoe/iiai
??oioo. I?i ni?euei?noue aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aeaaiuei?onueeiai
noni?euenoaa ye i?aeoi iaiao?aeio iciaeo i?eiouoaaii? aeaaiuei?onueei?
ia?iaeiino? neacaoe i?/iai, ai ni?eueiee ?eiie oi?io?oueny ia a iaaeao
aoiino /e ia?iaeiino?, a a iaaeao aea?aeaae iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai,
ne?eueee a i?e aoiin?a. Ia?aoo?, i?i ?aei?noue aeaaiuei?onueei?
eoeueoo?e, ia yeo oae /anoi iineeathoueny, uia aeiaanoe ?nioaaiiy
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?. Ni?aaae?, iiaeia ciaeoe /eiaei a?aoiaio?a
ia ei?enoue oeueiai iieiaeaiiy (iai?eeeaae, ni?eueia o?enoeyinueea
i?aaineaaia a??a, ?nioaaiiy ni?eueieo ?en a a?o?oaeoo??, iaey?noa?,
eieaeeiaiio ienoaoeoa?). Iaeiae iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a /iionue
caeeoa?oueny oie caaaeueiia?aeiiee ? iacaia?a/iee oaeo, ui a Ee?anuee?e
?on? aoei oaeoe/ii aea? eoeueoo?e. Iae- ia c ieo — io?oe?eia,
iaaeiaoe?iiaeueia, noai?thaaia aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie ? ni?yiiaoaaia
oea?eiaiith (o?enoeyinueeith) ?aeaieia??th. Oey ee?eei-iaoiae??anueea
o?enoeyinueea eoeueoo?a, oi/ ? c aeayeeie i?noeaaeie iniaeeainoyie, aoea
ni?eueiith ia o?eueee aeey ?on?, aea e aeey o?enoeyinueei? Aieaa???,
Ii?aa??, ?oioi??, Neiaa//eie oa A?caio??. Oe?eeii ynii, ui oaea
eoeueoo?a ia iiaea i?eaanoe aei oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai aoiino ? noaoe
eoeueoo?ith naia aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?. E??i oiai, ne?ae ocyoe
aei oaaae e oie iacaia?a/iee oaeo, ui aeaaiuei?onueea o?enoeyinueea
eoeueoo?a aoea ia ?acoeueoaoii ni?eueieo coneeue on?o
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ieaiai a?ae Ea?iao aei Aieae ? a?ae A?eiai ii?y aei
Oiooa?aeai?, a oai?eeany ia?aaaaeii a Ee?a? oa ?ioeo i?noao I?aaeaiii?
?on? ? c ee?anueei? iao?iiie?? iioe?thaaeany ia i?ai?/ oa i?ai?/iee
no?ae ?acii c ia?anaeaioeyie-eieii?noaie. ?aiiueioe?a?inueea ee?anueea
eoeueoo?a a aioiaiio aeaeyae? i?euaiethaaeany ia cia/ii a?aenoae?oeo o
eoeueoo?ii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeia? i?ai?/ieo oa?eoi??yo, a aeaye? ??
aeaiaioe noaaaee c?aceii aeey oai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueii? eoeueoo?e i?noeaaeo
ieaiai. I?i caaaeueiiaeaaiuei?onueeo ni?euei?noue o?enoeyinueei?
eoeueoo?e aiai?eoe ia aeiaiaeeoueny ua e oiio, ui ?in?yie c’yaeeeny ia
?noi?e/i?e a?ai? eeoa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XII no., eiee oey eoeueoo?a
aaea ?nioaaea, ioaea, aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a ?? oai?aii? aiie ia
a?aee e ia iiaee a?aoe. Ae?oaa eoeueoo?a Ee?anueei? ?on? — oea eoeueoo?a
i?inoeo ethaeae, ui aeyaeyeany a ia?iaeieo cae/ayo, ia?yaeao, iiaoo?,
oieueeei??. Oea aoea cian?i ?ioa eoeueoo?a, yea ??cei a?ae??ciyeany a?ae
io?oe?eii?, ai aiia e aeae? aacoaaeany ia yce/ieoeueeeo o?aaeeoe?yo, a
ia ia o?enoeyinoa?. Ioaea, oea aoea ni?aaae? ia?iaeia eoeueoo?a, yea
iiaea a noaoe iciaeith i?eioooaaii? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, yeae
aoea ni?eueiith aeey an?o caiaeue Ee?anueei? ?on?. Aea ae o eiaeiiio
?aa?ii? ethaee iaee nai? eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??, a?eia?/i? cae/a? oa
ia?yaee nai?o i?aaee?a, na?e oieueeei? ? oe?eee aeooiaiee na?o.
I?aaethth/i-ia’?aeioaaeueiei /eiieeii ia noaei iaa?oue o?enoeyinoai:
aiii ooaa?aeeeiny ye iai?aia ?ae?a?y eeoa a i?noao, a naea c
ia?aaaaeath/ith e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy ii/aee ianiai o?enoeyi?coaaoeny
eeoa i?ney iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? iaaaee. O nai?e Ee?anuee?e ?on?
aeioeaio?ia? ?aea? aeieeaee a noieeoe? e iino?eii i?iiaaoaaeeny an?ia
oiae?oi?ie caniaaie, i?ioa iiaiiai ?icoi?iiy aiie ia ciaoiaeeee, a
aeaye? ?aa?iie aoee iano?i?i? i?ioe oeeo ?aeae iai?eoiaaia ai?iaea. Oa
?aei?noue ?on?, yeo i?aeoi ona?aeiiethaaee e iaeoe?o? ia?iaei? iane ?
i?i yeo ie cia?ii c aeaaiuei?onueei? e?oa?aoo?e (?aei?noue i?iiaaoaaee,
ini?aoaaee, aei ?aeiino? caeeeeaee), — oea ?aaeoa yaeua, iioe?aia a
aea?aeaaiiio aeeoo? aaaaoiaoi?/ieo ? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo
ooai?aiue, eiee i?aaey/? eiea i?aaiooue ceeoe oea ethaenueea ?icia?ooy a
iaeio aaceeeo n??o iano ca i?eioeeiii «a iaei?e aea?aeaa? — iaeei
ia?iae», a io?oe?ei? ?aeaieiae aeaeathoue aaaeaia ca ae?enia. Oae aoei a
Ee?anuee?e ?on?, oae o?eaaei i?ioyaii on??? ?noi??? ?in?enueei? ?iia???
c ?? iino?eiith i?iaeaiith «ia?onaiey eii?iaeoeaa», oea ae naia
niinoa??aaeiny ? a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? (caaaeaeii iiioey?iee o o? /ane
inaaaeiiaoeiaee iinooeao i?i «iiao ?noi?e/io ni?euei?noue ethaeae —
?aaeyinueeee ia?iae», oi/ nueiaiaei? aaea iaa?yae /e ooinue
noii?aa?oueny a oiio, ui oea aoa /eno?n?iueeee i?o). Ioaea, aeaai?
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ?aeeio ?onue ne?ae ni?eeiaoe ye ae?aaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? oeaio?enonueei? ?aeaieia??, a ia ye aeieac ?aaeueiiai
?nioaaiiy iaeii??aeiiai aeaaiuei?onueeiai aoiino o oi?i?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?. Oaeei /eiii, aeiaanoe, ui aeaaiuei?onueea
ia?iaei?noue iaea an? iaiao?aei? aeey ia? iciaee ca?aeii c o?aaeeoe?eiei
aecia/aiiyi ia?iaeiino? (ni?eueio oa?eoi??th, iiao, ni?eueia aeiiii?/ia
aeeooy ? ni?eueio eoeueoo?o), i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Ona oea aeiaiaeeoue
i?ioeeaaeia: i?yei? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? i?eiee ia aoei! Ia
?yoo? noaiiaeua e ni?eueia naiiiacaa ?onue, ine?eueee ie aeinoaiaiii ia
cia?ii, ui naia aeeaaeaee a oeth iacao ?? iin?? o ??cieo ?aa?iiao ?on?:
/e aoi?/ia iiiyooy, /e eeoa naith iaeaaei?noue aei aea?aeaae «Ee?anueea
?onue». I?i aeaaiuei?onueea noni?euenoai ne?ae aiai?eoe ia ye i?i ?aeeio
ia?iaei?noue, a ye i?i a?aeiinio ni?euei?noue aaaaoueio
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo aoiiiiaieo a?oi a iaei?e aea?aeaa? c ?aeeiith
io?oe?eiith ?aeaieia??th ? ?ae?a??th. Ia ne?ae ieooaoe iiiyooy
aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaaiino?, yea ?aae?coaaeany a ooai?aii? Ee?anueei?
?on?, c a?aeiia?aeiith ia?iaei?noth, yea i?aeoi iaieio/a iaea a
noi?ioaaoeny a oe?e aea?aeaa?, oi/ iani?aaae? aiia ia anoeaea /e iaa?oue
? ia iiaea noi?ioaaoeny a oeo eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao. ia c ieo —
io?oe?eia, iaaeiaoe?iiaeueia, noai?thaaia aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie ?
ni?yiiaoaaia oea?eiaiith (o?enoeyinueeith) ?aeaieia??th. Oey
ee?eei-iaoiae??anueea o?enoeyinueea eoeueoo?a, oi/ ? c aeayeeie
i?noeaaeie iniaeeainoyie, aoea ni?eueiith ia o?eueee aeey ?on?, aea e
aeey o?enoeyinueei? Aieaa???, Ii?aa??, ?oioi??, Neiaa//eie oa A?caio??.
Oe?eeii ynii, ui oaea eoeueoo?a ia iiaea i?eaanoe aei oi?ioaaiiy
?aeeiiai aoiino ? noaoe eoeueoo?ith naia aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?.
E??i oiai, ne?ae ocyoe aei oaaae e oie iacaia?a/iee oaeo, ui
aeaaiuei?onueea o?enoeyinueea eoeueoo?a aoea ia ?acoeueoaoii ni?eueieo
coneeue on?o no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ieaiai a?ae Ea?iao aei Aieae ? a?ae
A?eiai ii?y aei Oiooa?aeai?, a oai?eeany ia?aaaaeii a Ee?a? oa ?ioeo
i?noao I?aaeaiii? ?on? ? c ee?anueei? iao?iiie?? iioe?thaaeany ia i?ai?/
oa i?ai?/iee no?ae ?acii c ia?anaeaioeyie-eieii?noaie.
?aiiueioe?a?inueea ee?anueea eoeueoo?a a aioiaiio aeaeyae?
i?euaiethaaeany ia cia/ii a?aenoae?oeo o eoeueoo?ii-aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeia? i?ai?/ieo oa?eoi??yo, a aeaye? ?? aeaiaioe noaaaee c?aceii
aeey oai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueii? eoeueoo?e i?noeaaeo ieaiai. I?i
caaaeueiiaeaaiuei?onueeo ni?euei?noue o?enoeyinueei? eoeueoo?e aiai?eoe
ia aeiaiaeeoueny ua e oiio, ui ?in?yie c’yaeeeny ia ?noi?e/i?e a?ai?
eeoa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XII no., eiee oey eoeueoo?a aaea ?nioaaea,
ioaea, aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a ?? oai?aii? aiie ia a?aee e ia iiaee
a?aoe. Ae?oaa eoeueoo?a Ee?anueei? ?on? — oea eoeueoo?a i?inoeo ethaeae,
ui aeyaeyeany a ia?iaeieo cae/ayo, ia?yaeao, iiaoo?, oieueeei??. Oea
aoea cian?i ?ioa eoeueoo?a, yea ??cei a?ae??ciyeany a?ae io?oe?eii?, ai
aiia e aeae? aacoaaeany ia yce/ieoeueeeo o?aaeeoe?yo, a ia ia
o?enoeyinoa?. Ioaea, oea aoea ni?aaae? ia?iaeia eoeueoo?a, yea iiaea a
noaoe iciaeith i?eiouoaaii? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?, yeae aoea
ni?eueiith aeey an?o caiaeue Ee?anueei? ?on?. Aea ae o eiaeiiio ?aa?ii?
ethaee iaee nai? eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??, a?eia?/i? cae/a? oa ia?yaee
nai?o i?aaee?a, na?e oieueeei? ? oe?eee aeooiaiee na?o.
I?aaethth/i-ia’?aeioaaeueiei /eiieeii ia noaei iaa?oue o?enoeyinoai:
aiii ooaa?aeeeiny ye iai?aia ?ae?a?y eeoa a i?noao, a naea c
ia?aaaaeath/ith e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy ii/aee ianiai o?enoeyi?coaaoeny
eeoa i?ney iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? iaaaee. O nai?e Ee?anuee?e ?on?
aeioeaio?ia? ?aea? aeieeaee a noieeoe? e iino?eii i?iiaaoaaeeny an?ia
oiae?oi?ie caniaaie, i?ioa iiaiiai ?icoi?iiy aiie ia ciaoiaeeee, a
aeaye? ?aa?iie aoee iano?i?i? i?ioe oeeo ?aeae iai?eoiaaia ai?iaea. Oa
?aei?noue ?on?, yeo i?aeoi ona?aeiiethaaee e iaeoe?o? ia?iaei? iane ?
i?i yeo ie cia?ii c aeaaiuei?onueei? e?oa?aoo?e (?aei?noue i?iiaaoaaee,
ini?aoaaee, aei ?aeiino? caeeeeaee), — oea ?aaeoa yaeua, iioe?aia a
aea?aeaaiiio aeeoo? aaaaoiaoi?/ieo ? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo
ooai?aiue, eiee i?aaey/? eiea i?aaiooue ceeoe oea ethaenueea ?icia?ooy a
iaeio aaceeeo n??o iano ca i?eioeeiii «a iaei?e aea?aeaa? — iaeei
ia?iae», a io?oe?ei? ?aeaieiae aeaeathoue aaaeaia ca ae?enia. Oae aoei a
Ee?anuee?e ?on?, oae o?eaaei i?ioyaii on??? ?noi??? ?in?enueei? ?iia???
c ?? iino?eiith i?iaeaiith «ia?onaiey eii?iaeoeaa», oea ae naia
niinoa??aaeiny ? a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? (caaaeaeii iiioey?iee o o? /ane
inaaaeiiaoeiaee iinooeao i?i «iiao ?noi?e/io ni?euei?noue ethaeae —
?aaeyinueeee ia?iae», oi/ nueiaiaei? aaea iaa?yae /e ooinue
noii?aa?oueny a oiio, ui oea aoa /eno?n?iueeee i?o). Ioaea, aeaai?
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ?aeeio ?onue ne?ae ni?eeiaoe ye ae?aaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? oeaio?enonueei? ?aeaieia??, a ia ye aeieac ?aaeueiiai
?nioaaiiy iaeii??aeiiai aeaaiuei?onueeiai aoiino o oi?i?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?. Oaeei /eiii, aeiaanoe, ui aeaaiuei?onueea
ia?iaei?noue iaea an? iaiao?aei? aeey ia? iciaee ca?aeii c o?aaeeoe?eiei
aecia/aiiyi ia?iaeiino? (ni?eueio oa?eoi??th, iiao, ni?eueia aeiiii?/ia
aeeooy ? ni?eueio eoeueoo?o), i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Ona oea aeiaiaeeoue
i?ioeeaaeia: i?yei? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? i?eiee ia aoei! Ia
?yoo? noaiiaeua e ni?eueia naiiiacaa ?onue, ine?eueee ie aeinoaiaiii ia
cia?ii, ui naia aeeaaeaee a oeth iacao ?? iin?? o ??cieo ?aa?iiao ?on?:
/e aoi?/ia iiiyooy, /e eeoa naith iaeaaei?noue aei aea?aeaae «Ee?anueea
?onue». I?i aeaaiuei?onueea noni?euenoai ne?ae aiai?eoe ia ye i?i ?aeeio
ia?iaei?noue, a ye i?i a?aeiinio ni?euei?noue aaaaoueio
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo aoiiiiaieo a?oi a iaei?e aea?aeaa? c ?aeeiith
io?oe?eiith ?aeaieia??th ? ?ae?a??th. Ia ne?ae ieooaoe iiiyooy
aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaaiino?, yea ?aae?coaaeany a ooai?aii? Ee?anueei?
?on?, c a?aeiia?aeiith ia?iaei?noth, yea i?aeoi iaieio/a iaea a
noi?ioaaoeny a oe?e aea?aeaa?, oi/ iani?aaae? aiia ia anoeaea /e iaa?oue
? ia iiaea noi?ioaaoeny a oeo eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao.

I?i «ni?eueio eieeneo», «noa?oiai» oa «iaioeo» a?ao?a

Ca /an?a oioae?oa?iiai eiioi?noe/iiai ?aaeeio iniaeeaiai iioe?aiiy a
noni?euenoa? iaaoea aa?n?y i?i Ee?anueeo ?onue ye eieeneo o?ueio a?aoi?o
ia?iae?a — ?in?enueeiai, oe?a?inueeiai oa a?ei?onueeiai. Oey aa?n?y
noaea /anoeiith io?oe?eii? ?aeaieia?? uiaei ?icoi?iiy ?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano aeieeiaiiy no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ia?iaeiinoae oa ?oi?o iia.
Oaeueoea?noue ? iani?iiiaei?noue oeueiai «a/aiiy» i/aaeaei?, ai aiii ia
aeo?eio? iaa?oue aeaiaioa?ii? e?eoeee e noia?a/eoue caei?iaiio
aeocaeia?. Ia?ac «ni?eueii? eieenee» iaaaeaeee oaea oi/ ae oiio, ui
i?ooi c ii?iaeueieo ethaeae ia iieeaaea a iaeio eieeneo aae o?ueio
ae?oae. E??i oiai, oe? ae?oe iaee a aooe aeeciyoaie, a, ca io?oe?eiith
?aeaieia??th, ?in?enueeee a?ao i?iaieiooaaany noa?oei, yeee ?acii c
aeaiia iieiaeoeie /iionue iieieany a iaei?e eieenoe?. Aea /e ? a?i
noa?oei a?aoii iani?aaae?? Caa?i?iiny aei ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a. sse aoei
aaea neacaii, neia’yie o No?aei?e ?a?ii? nii/aoeo canaeyee eeoa
oa?eoi??th a iaaeao no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai Iie?nny oa E?ninoaio. Oea —
no?aeia /anoeia aeaaiuei? i?aaaouee?aueie neia’yi, o iaaeao yei? ?c
na?aaeeie ? oen. i. a. ii/aa oi?ioaaoeny oe?a?inueeee aoiin. Ine?eueee
oeth oa?eoi??th i?ney ?iciaaeo i?aneia’yinueei? aoiiiiaii? ni?eueiino? ?
aeae? canaeyee aeecuee?, aea ana ae oaee ??ci? a?oie neia’yinueeeo
ieaiai — a?eueo /eneaii? neeaaeie e iaioa a?oia aio?a — i?ioioe?a?inueea
oa?eoi??y aoea ia iaeii??aeia ? oae naii, ye iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? iieiaeie
? oen. i. a., ae?acii ae?eeeany ia aeaa aoiia?ao?/ia ?, a??ia?aeii,
ae?-aeaeoii a?aei?ii? ianeae: i?ai?/iee ? i?aaeaiiee. I?ai?/iee ianea,
ui ioiiethaaa Iie?nny, Aieeiue, Iaaeaei?no?yiueio ? I?eea?iaooy, o
caaaeueieo ?enao ni?aa?aeiineany c oa?eoi???th ?icnaeaiiy aeaai?o
neeaae-i?a. I?i ieo ?iciia?aeaa o VI no. aionueeee ?noi?ee Ei?aeai.
Iauaaeeaie neeaaei?a aoee /eneaii? ieaiaia, ui caiaeii ia’?aeiaeeny a
ieai?ii? nithce aeoe?a?a, aieeiyi, aea?aaeyi, ae?aaiae/?a, i?ai?/ieo
iieyi ? /anoeiai — n?aa?yi. I?ai?/iee ae?aeaeoiee ianea nooaa o
iaeaooiueiio iniiaith i?ai?/iiai ia??//y oe?a?inueei? iiae. I?aaeaiiee
i?ioioe?a?inueeee aoiiiiaiee ianea noi?ioaaany ia ii/aoeo VI no. i. a. a
e?ninoaiao Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, aeeth/ath/e e na?aaei? oa/??
Noee, Inea oa Ai?neee, a oaeiae o Iaaeii??aeae?, ii Aei?i?o i?ae
Oynieiii ? ?innth oa a I?oonueei-Aei?no-?ianueeiio iaaee??//?. Eiai
aea?aaeaioii a a?oaieia?? aaaaea?oueny iaiuee?anueea eoeueoo?a. Aiia
i?i?nioaaea a?ae VI aei ae?oai? iieiaeie VII no. i. a. A?aae
iaiuee?a-nueei? eoeueoo?e /?oei ca?aa?oueny c oa?eoi???th ?icnaeaiiy
aio?a, i?i yeeo iia?aeiieythoue Ei?aeai oa I?ieii?e Eanna??enueeee. O
i?aaeaiiiio ae?aeaeoiiio a?aae?, ia iniia? yeiai caiaeii noi?ioaaeiny
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeia ia??//y, aeieeea ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oiiaoe/ieo
?en, oa?aeoa?ieo eeoa aeey oe?a?inueei? iiae. Iauaaeee aio?a ? neeaaei?a
ia e?iaoeue VII no. i?aeiyeeny aei ia?aaeaea?aeaaiiai ??aiy i?aai?caoe??
noni?euenoaa. Ooai?thaai? a oeae /an nithce ieaiai nii/aoeo aoee,
i/aaeaeii, oei/aniaeie eiiaeiia?aoaie ??cieo ieaiai aai nithcaie
ae?oaeeiiee?a ??cieo ieaiai i?ae /an a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a, aea c /anii
noai?thaaeeny aeaaeae? noaa?euei?o? nithce non?aei?o ieaiai, ye?
iinooiiai ia?aoai?thaaeeny ia oaiaeaeuei? eiyc?anoaa. Eiee oe?
eiyc?anoaa oa?eoee aei neeaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?, iiaiiai e inoaoi/iiai
ceeooy eieeoi?o nithc?a ieaiai a iaeei aoiin ia noaeiny, ai ethaee aoee
i?oeii i?ea’ycai? aei nai?? caie? o?aaeeoe?yie i?aaee?a ? iine?aeiaii
caa??aaee nai? aoi?/i? e ae?aeaeoi? iniaeeaino?. Aca?iica’ycee ?
aca?iiaieeae a oie /an a?aeaoaaeeny ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, a ia?oo
/a?ao i?ae non?aeaie. Oiio ii?yae c eiinie?aeaoe??th an??? aea?aeaae
cia/ii ?ioaineai?oa a?aeaoaaeiny ?aa?iiaeueia ia’?aeiaiiy ie?aieo ??
/anoei: a?aeie?aieaieo e?naie e aieioaie Iaaeaei?no?yiueie, Iie?nny,
I?eea?iaooy e Aieei?; iieioeueei-niieainueeiai ?aa?iio;
Ineianueei-iiaai?iaenueei? caie?, a caiaeii — ? ?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueei?.
Oaeei /eiii, aeieeiaiiy ie?aieo no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ia?iaeiinoae,
cie?aia e oe?a?inueei?, a?aeaoaaeiny ia aiane?aeie iiae?eo oae caaii?
aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino? ia o?e /anoeie, a oeyoii eiinie?aeaoe??
e?eueeio noi?aeieo ? aeecueeinii??aeiaieo a?oi no?aeiineia’yinueeeo
oa?eoi??aeueii-ieai?iieo ia’?aeiaiue o eiiiaeoi? eoeueoo?ii-aoiia?ao?/i?
ianeae. O oiae? aeaeueoi? eii- nie?aeaoe?? aiie iinooiiai ia?a?inee a
oe?a?inueeo, ?in?enueeo oa a?ei?onueeo ia?iaeiino?. Iaeiae
eiinie?aeaoe?y no?aeiineia’yinueeeo oa?eoi??aeueii-ieai?iieo ia’?aeiaiue
a?aeaoaaeany ia neio?iiii. sse na?ae/aoue a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea,
??cieoey a iaoa??aeuei?e ? aeooiai?e eoeueoo?ao i?ae ie?aieie
i?aoe?a?inueeeie ieai?iieie nithcaie I?aaeiy ii/aea cieeaoe ua a
ia?aaeaea?aeaaiee ia??iae o VIII-IX no., ? a XI-XII no. Eoeueoo?a oeeo
ieaiai oaea noaiiaeea a?aeiinii iiiie?oio oe?e?ni?noue. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
ia?, e?oiieni? ieaiaia e?niai? I?aii/? No?aeii? ?a?iie caa??aaee naith
aoiieoeueoo?io nai???aei?noue aae aei ?iciaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? o XII no.
Ioaea, aoi?/i? i?ioeane ia i?aaei? ?on?, yeee ia?aaoaaa aeeae/a aei
a?caio?enueeeo oeaio??a oeea?e?caoe?? ? caciaaaa ?oi?o aieea?a,
?icaeaaeeny oaeaeoa, i?ae ia i?aii/?. *a?ac oea oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
aoiino a?aeaoeiny ?ai?oa, i?ae o a?ei?on?a oa ?in?yi (Cae?ciye E. A?ae
neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N. 101.). A aiioo oaiaeaeueii?
?icae??aiaiino?, ui ianoaea ia ii/aoeo XII no. i?ney ?iciaaeo Ee?anueei?
?on?, ia ?? oa?eoi??? aeieeee iaeia ca iaeiei naiino?ei?
eiyc?anoaa-aea?aeaae — Ee?anueea, *a?i?a?anueea, Ia?ayneaanueea,
Aaeeoeueea, Aieiaeeie?i-Aieeinueea, Oo??anueea, Niieainueea, Iieioeueea,
Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueea ? Iiaai?iaenueea oaiaeaeueia ?anioae?ea.
A?aaee oeeo iie?oe/ieo ooai?aiue a iniiaiiio ca?aaeeny c aeaai?i
ieai?iiei /eaioaaiiyi no?aeiineia’yinueei? aoiiiiaii? oa?eoi???. Ia
oa?ai? Oe?a?ie eiinie?aeaoe?y noi?aeieo aeecue-einii??aeiaieo a?oi
i?ioioe?a?inueeeo oa?eoi??aeueieo ieai?iieo ia’?aeiaiue o eiiiaeoi?
eoeueoo?ii-aoiia?ao?/i? ianeae a oeae /an a?aeaoaaeeny o aeaio a?aaeao:
ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? (yae?i Ee?anueei? ?on? — Ee?aueia,
Ia?ayneaaueia ? *a?i?a?aueia) ? a Aaee/ei? oa ia Aieei?
(Aaeeoeueea-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai). Eiee o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XII no. Ee?a
noaa caiaiaaeaoe, na?aae oe?a?inueeeo eiyc?anoa ona a?eueoiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaaa Aaee/. Ca eiycthaaiiy ?iiaia Inoeneaae/a (1199-1205) oa Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai (1202-1264) Aa-eeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai aeinyaei
iaeaeui? iiaooiino?. Aeaieei Aaeeoeueeee ae?noaa oeooe ei?iey ?on?,
coi?a ia i?aeei?eoeny aeaae? iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? Cieioi? I?aee.
Aaeeoeueei-aieeinueea aea?aeaaa ia’?aeioaaea o?eue- ee aoiia?ao?/ii
oe?a?inuee? caie?, ? /a?ac oea a ?? eoeueoo?? oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeuei?
i?eeiaoe aenooiaee neeuei?oa, i?ae o eoeueoo?? Ee?anueei? ?on?. I?ney ??
caiaiaaeo Aaeeoeueei-aieeinueea aea?aeaaa i?iaeiaaeeea ia oe?ea noie?ooy
?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? e noaea iniiaiei iie?oe/iei
oeaio?ii on??? Oe?a?ie. ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aaea ia e?iaoeue XII
no. oe?a?inueea ia?iaei?noue o oiio ?icoi?ii?, aei yeiai ie caeeee ua c?
oe?eueii? eaae, a iniiaiiio noi?ioaaeany ? iaea aea? a?eee:
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeo (aiia caa?aaea ca niaith o?aaeeoe?eio iacao ?onue)
? iaaeaei?i?yinueeo, aeey yei? c e?ioey XII no. c’yaey?oueny iacaa
Oe?a?ia. Iniaeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy a?ei?onueeiai aoiino iieyaaea a oiio,
ui ia no/ani?e a?ei?onuee?e aoiiiiai?e oa?eoi??? niieiia?eo aeeee ia
neia’yie, a aaeoe, a?ae yeeo iioiaeyoue no/ani? eeoiaoe? ? eaoeo?.
Aaciina?aaei?ie i?aaeeaie a?ei?on?a aoee e?eae/?, ae?aaiae/? e /anoeiai
— ?aaeeie/?. O VIII — ia ii/aoeo IX no. ia oa?eoi??? no/anii? A?ei?on?
ae?acii aeae?eyeeny aea? aaeee? e ??ci? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
aoi?/ii-ieai?ii? a?oie no?aeieo neia’yi. Iaeio c ieo,
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeio, ui caeiaea Iie?nny oa noi?aei? caie?, noaiiaeee
ia?aaaaeii ae?aaiae/?. Aiia aoea o?nii iia’ycaia c i?ai?/iioe?a?inueeeie
ieaiaiaie (aieeiyiaie, aea?aaeyiaie, iieyiaie); ae?oaa a?oia —
i?ai?/ii-no?aeia — ioiiethaaea ieai?iiee nithc e?eae/?a (ye ie aaea
a?aecia/aee, ?oi? i?aaeee i?eeoee ia i?ai?/ No?aeii? ?a?iie c i?aaeaiii?
Aaeoeee). Ae?aaiae/? noi?ioaaeeny aiane?aeie ia?anaeaiiy /anoeie aieeiyi
oa aea?aaeyi ia i?ai?/i?o? oa?eoi??? ca I?ei’yooth, canaeai? aaeoaie.
Oea ia?anaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny iinooiiai e iia?eueii. O VII no. iai’yoee
i?acueei? eoeueoo?e, ia iniia? yei? noi?ioaaeeny aiee-iyie oa
aea?aaeyie, c’yaeeeny ia e?aiio aa?ac? I?ei’yo?, aea caiaeii aeiee
ieai?iiee oeaio? ae?aaiae/?a — Oo??a ? aaaeeeaee aeiiii?/iee oa
eoeueoo?iee oeaio? Ieinuee. O VIII-IX, no. aieeiyie e aea?aaeyie
i?inoioeeny ia aaeonuee? oa?eoi??? ua aeae? — aae aei Aa?oiueiai I?iaio,
Aieeiyie canaeeee oaeiae no/anio Aa?anoaeueio (A?anonueea iaeanoue
?anioae?ee A?ei?onue). Aieea aaeonueeiai noano?aoo ia neia’yinueeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a aeyaeyany ii-??ciiio, aea iineethaaany a i??o i?inoaaiiy
aieeiyi oa aea?aaeyi oaeea aaeonueeeo oa?eoi??e. Ia Aa?anoaeuei? e?iaa e
eoeueoo?a aieeiyi ia caciaee ?noioieo ci?i (a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a ?
aeiiei? iaaea i?ae oe?a?ioeyie oa a?ei?onaie a oeueiio ?aa?ii?
i?ioiaeeoue ii ??/eao ssnaeueaea — I?ei’youe — ae?ei Ai?ei?). O
i?ai?/i?oeo a?aaeao aieea aaeo?a ia neia’yi aoa iano?eueee ?ioaineaiei,
ui ci?iea iaa?oue neia’yinueeee (iie?nueeee) aio?iiieia?/iee oei:
ae?aaiae/? aaea iaeaaeaee aei aaeaeaenueeiai aio?iiieia?/iiai oeio, yeee
aaaaea?oueny aaeonueeei (Naaeia A. A. Ainoi/iua neaayia a VI-XII aa. —
I., 1982. — N. 118; Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??.
— N. 105.). Aei iueiai ae iaeaaeaoue ? no/ani? a?ei?one. Ia i?aii/?
No?aeii? ?a?iie e?eae/? c aanaeio ?. Aaeeei? ia ?oaaae? VI-VIII no.
ii/aee ?ioaineaii ?icnaeyoeny ia cia/ieo oa?eoi??yo o
A?oaanueei-Iieioeueeiio Iaaeaea?ii? ? ia Niieainuee?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?
(iaeaooi? Iieioeueea ? Niieainueea eiyc?anoaa), canaeaieo aae-oaie.
I?ioyaii VIII-IX no. oiane?aeie anei?eyoe?? i?noeaaiai aaeonueeiai
ianaeaiiy noi?ioaaeany ie?aia aoiia?ao?/ia a?oia e?eae/?a —
iieioeueei-niieainueea. *anoeia e?eae/?a,, ui canaeeea caie? ii ?.
Iieioa, ca?aeii ?c na?ae/aiiyi e?oiieno, iaceaaeany iiei/aiaie.
?ioaineaia ia?anaeaiiy e?eae/?a ia niieiia?/i? caie? aaeo?a o?eaaei ? a
IX-O no., a a XI no. aiie canaeeee anth no/anio oa?eoi??th A?ei?on? aei
oiiaii? e?i?? ?cyneaa — Ai?enia — I?oa. I?ioyaii IX- XIII no. ineianuee?
e iieioeueei-niieainuee? e?eae/? ?icaeaaeeny ye naiino?ei? aoi?/i?
a?oie, aea i?ae iieioeueeeie ? niieainueeeie e?eae/aie aaea i?yei?
aoiia?ao?/ii? ??cieoe? ia aoei. Ieai?iiee oeaio? iiei/ai — Iieioeuee
oia?oa caaaeo?oueny a «Iia?no? ieioeeo e?o» i?ae 862 ?. C e?ioey IX no.
a?i oaea aoa o neeaae? Ee?anueei? ?on?. O O no., oiaoi i?eaeecii /a?ac
noie?ooy i?ney aeieeiaiiy ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?
?aiiueioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae — ?on?, iieioeuee? e?eae/? noai?eee
Iieioeueea eiyc?anoai. Iieioeuee ? Niieainuee a?ae?a?aaaee aaaeeeao
?ieue o oi?aiaaeuei?e nenoai? Ee?anueei? ?on? — ia ??/eiaiio oeyoo «?c
aa?ya o a?aee»: aiie eiio?iethaaee ei?aaaeuei? aieiee i?ae Aa?oi?i
Aei?i?ii, Aea?iith oa Aieoiaii. E??i oiai, Iieioeuee aoa iia’ycaiee
Aea?iith c Aaeo?enueeei ii?ai, caaaeyee /iio iiei/aie ciiaee iaeaaiaeeoe
naiino?eio oi?a?aeth ?c Caoiaeii. Ona oea noai?thaaei ni?eyoeeaee ??oio
aeey aeyaeaiiy a ii-ei/ai aeoaea ?aii?o naiino?eieoeueeeo i?aaiaiue.
Oae, ua ia ii/aoeo i?aae?iiy Aieiaeeie?a Aaeeeiai (oiaoi o 80-o pp. O
no.) iieioeueeee eiycue ?iaaieiae c?iaea ni?iao aeeoe c-i?ae aeaaee
Ee?aa, ? a?aeoiae? oe? i?aaiaiiy ia i?eieiyeeny aae aei e?ioey XI no.
Aeaiiino?oth/e aeanio a?aei?noue, iiei/aie a na?aaeei? XI no. caoaeoaaee
one?ae ca eeyiaie na?e Nio?enueeee niai?. Iieioeuee? eiyc? aithaaee c?
Ineiaii oa Iiaai?iaeii ? iaiaaaeeny i?e?aeiaoe ?o aei naiai eiyc?anoaa.
Iai?ee?ioe? XI no. Iieioeuee ia?oee c aeaaiuei?onueeeo i?no aeinyaioa
oaeoe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? a?ae ee?anueeiai eiycy(Cae?ciye E. A?ae
neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N. 112.). Iieioeueea eiyc?anoai
i?i?nioaaei aei e?ioey XIII no., aae iiee a 1307 ?. ia oa?eoei aei
neeaaeo Eeoianueeiai eiyc?anoaa. Ia aeoieo a?ei?onueeeo ?noi?ee?a,
Iieioeueea caiey noaea ina?aaeeii aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a?ei?onueeiai
aoiino e iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?. Aeaii aoi?/iei a?oiai
i?ioia?ei?onueeeo ieaiai a?aeiia?aeaee aeaa ae?aeaeoi? ianeae (= aea?
iiae) — iie?nueeee ? e?eaeoeueeee, ye? a?ae??ciyeeny aaaaoueia
oiiaoe/ieie, a?aiaoe/ieie e eaene/ieie iniaeeainoyie. Cie?aia, aeey
iie?nueeiai ae?aeaeoiiai ianeao («iie?nueei? iiae») aoee oa?aeoa?i?: a)
aeeooiiae; a) ci?ia iaiaaieioaiiai a > a (i?naoe, iiiaoue, ouna/a); a)
?aoeaenaoe?y o& > a (ean, eaoa, aecaae); a) ia?ao?ae a > i i?ney
oeiey/eo oa j ia?aae oaa?aeeie i?eaieinieie ? a e?ioe? neiaa (aeaia,
iaoiio, /a-ou?u); ?) iayai?noue o?eeaoeaiiai a (o); ae) a?eaa?aeueiee w
(aaoe, aeaoa?, caea?aoa, e?io, i?aoaea); a) noaa?ae?eee ? (ao?ae, ci?ea,
caa?, ?iaao, ?o?ue); ?) oaa?ae? oeiey/? ae, /, o ? naenoy/ee oe
(aeaeeoaecue, aey?aeea, /a?iu, /oaeu, oaeii, oc?aaae?, e?uiua, ianyoe)
oa ?i. Ae?aeaeoe e?eae/?a («e?eaeoeueea iiaa») iaee oae? iaeoa?aeoa?i?o?
?ene: a) ia?ao?ae iaiaaieioaiiai a > i i?ney i’yeeo ia?aae oaa?aeeie
i?eaieinieie: aiycaei — ai?caeu, ayae?a — a?ae?u, nyeae — n?eu,
caaeyi?oeu — cye?iu; a) i?i?eaiee g: naga, ganaed, Oapoga; a)
aoaii-coaiee a; a) caeeaeaiiy ? ca?a naenoy/eo ae, /, o — c, oe, n
(«/ieaiiy» ? «oeieaiiy»): iaoeue «ia/», oioeo «oi/o», oei-eia?e
«/ieia?e», a ?o/a «a ?ooe?», iiaai?iaeaoeue «iiaai?iaeaoeue»; ?) oaa?ae?
oeiey/? ae, /, o ? naenoy/ee oe; ae) ca?a c’ — ae’, n’ — o’: iieace
«iieaaee», aaneo «aaoeo», aea?iae «ca?ii», iiiaaeaoe «iiiacaoe»; a)
niieo/aiiy ae, ee ia i?noe? i?aneia’yinueeeo dl, tl: aea?aaei, ii/eaei;
?) a?aenooi?noue aoaeoo ae?oai? iaeaoae?caoe?? caaeiueiyceeiaeo
i?eaieinieo (oiaoi caa?aaeaiiy niieo/aiue aa, ea cai?noue i/?eoaaieo ca,
oea: aaacaea «ca?caea», eaao «oea?o», eaaeeoue «oe?aeeoe» oa ?i. Oi/
oeeie aeaiia iiaaie-ae?aeaeoaie ei?enooaaeeny aaiaoe/ii ??ci? a?oie
neia’yi, ?o iaooeeueii e iine?aeiaii caeeaeoaaee ae?aeaeoi? ?ene, ui
aeieeaee i?ae aieeaii ni?eueiiai aeey iaio aoiiiiaieo a?aae?a
aaeonueeiai i?ae??oioy (noano?aoo). sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, naia
aieeaii oeueiai noano?aoo iaeia?aeiieea?oa iiyniththoueny oae?
niaoeeo?/i? ?ene a?ei?onueei? iiae, ye iiaia (iaaeenei?eyoeaia) aeaiiy,
yea aeieeei, a??ia?aeii, o VII-VIII no. ia caieyo ae?aaiae/?a,
?aaeeie/?a ? a cao?aeiiio a?aae? e?eae/?a oa a’yoe/?a, aecaeaiiy ?
oeaeaiiy (iiaeeeai, aia?oa c’yaeeiny a ae?aeaeoao ?aaeeie/?a ua o
neeaae? aeoe?anueeiai ieai?iiiai nithco), a oaeiae ni?eueiee
a?ei?onueei-aaeonueeee neiaieeiaee oiiae ? neiaa c? ni?eueieie ei?aiyie
— iniaeeai a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e, ?eaaeuenuee?e oa ai?oieoeuee?e
eaeneoe?, yea iaeaaeeoue aei noa?e iaeaeaai?oi? ethaenueei?
ae?yeueiino?. A aiioo i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y eiinie?aeoth/eie
aeaiaioaie ia?iaeiinoae noaee ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?i? iiae, a a
iaoe?iiaeueiee ia??iae ia ia?oee ieai aenooia? iaioae?oao ye iiaee ?
iaeaeuee oei aeooiaiino?, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, ye? aeyaeythoueny
neeuei?oeie ca ae?aeaeoi? iniaeeaino?. Oea i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui a iaeei
iaoe?iiaeueiee iiaiee eiiieaen iiaee aeeth/aoeny e a?aei?ii?, a ?iiae? e
aaiaoe/ii ??ci? oa no?oeoo?ii aeineoue aeaeae? aiai?e. *a?ac oea e
eieeoi? iie?nuee? oa e?eaeoeuee? a?ei?onuee? aiai?e noaee ?aeeiei
a?ei?onueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei aoiiiiaiei eiiieaenii. Aeoaea neeaaeiei ?
noia?a/eeaei aoei oi?ioaaiiy iaeiieiaeoiai no?aeiineia’yinueeiai aoiino
— ?in?enueeiai. O na?aaeei? ? oen. i. a. oa?eoi??th iaeaooi?o ?in?yi ua
canaeyee o?iii-oai?nuee? e /anoeiai aaeonuee? ieaiaia. Ia?oeie
neia’yiaie ia oeeo caieyo aoee ineianuee? e?eae/? e ?eueiainuee?
neiaaie. Ia?anaeeaoenue o VI no. c I?aaeaiii? Aaeoeee ia aa?aae
Ineianueeiai ica?a ? a aanaei ?. Aaeeei?, i?aaeee ineianueeeo e?eae/?a
c?oeioeeny ooo ?c cao?aeiio?inueeei ianaeaiiyi, ui iaei aaaaoi
aaeonueeeo iniaeeainoae, ? iinooiiai anei?ethaaee eiai, iaaoaath/e i?e
oeueiio niaoeeo?/ieo, aeanoeaeo e?eae/ai aoiiiiaieo ?en. *a?ac aeayeee
/an aiie inai?ee oaeiae aa?o?a’y Cao?aeii? Aea?ie, aanaeie Aa?oiuei? ?
Na?aaeiuei? Eiaao? oa ?aeii aa?oiuei-aiecueeeo ica?. Ieai?ii? ae?aeaeoe
ineianueeeo e?eae/?a noaee iniiaith nai???aeieo ineianueeeo aia??ie,
yne?aa? i?noeaa? ?ene yeeo cana?ae/ai? a ienaiieo iai’yoeao aeaaiueiai
Ineiaa XIV-XVI no. Caiaeii ineianuee? caie? oa?eoee aei neeaaeo
Iiaai?iaenueei? ?anioae?ee. Non?aee e?eae/?a — i?aaeee neiaai?a, ye?
oaeiae ia?anaeeeeny nthaee a VII no. c i?aaeaiii? Aaeoeee ? inai?ee
oa?eoi??th iaeaooiuei? Iiaai?iaenueei? caie?, c?oeioeeny c i?noeaaei
i?eaaeo?enueei-o?inueeei ianaeaiiyi (ieaiaiaie aiaeue, aanue, ?aei?a) e
iinooiiai ?o anei?ethaaee. Oiane?aeie oeueiai ooai?eeany nai???aeia
aoiia?ao?/ia a?oia — e?oiieni? neiaaie c? nai?i ieai?iiei oeaio?ii
Iiaai?iaeii (oia?oa caaaeo?oueny a e?oiien? i?ae 859 ?.). I?ioyaii IX-O
no. neiaaie iioe?eeeny ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae ? i?ai?/iee no?ae,
aeinyaioaoe y?ineaanueeiai e eino?iinueeiai Iiaieaey, a oaeiae ia
i?aaeaiue — aei Aieai-Ienueeiai iaaee??//y. ?acii c e?eae/aie oa ?ioeie
no?aeiineia’yinueeeie ieaiaiaie ?eueiainuee? neiaaie a?aee o/anoue a
inai?ii? y?ineaanueeiai e eino?iinueeiai Iiaieaey oa
Aieai-Eeycueieinueeiai iaaee??//y (oa?eoi??y iaeaooiuei?
?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueei? caie?), anei?ethth/e i?noeaa? o?iii-oai?nuee?
ieaiaia. Iai?ee?ioe? IX no. (882 ?.) Iiaai?iae c iaaeieeoi?ie caieyie
oa?eoia aei neeaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?, noaaoe ae?oaei (i?ney Ee?aa) ??
iie?oe/iei ? eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii. I?ney ?iciaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? a 1136
?. aeieeea naiino?eia Iiaai?iaenueea oaiaeaeueia ?anioae?ea, iaeiae ??
o?ni? ca’ycee c Ee?aii ia ia?a?eaaeeny. Aiia aaea oni?oi? a?eie i?ioe
i?iaoeueeeo ? oaaaenueeeo aa?ani??a. Iiiaiei-oaoa?ai ia aaeaeiny
caoiieoe Iiaai- ?iaenueeo ?anioae?eo, aea aiia aeciaea naaa aanaeii
Cieioi? I?aee e ieaoeea ?e aeaieio. I?ioyaii IX-XIV no. ia
Iiaai?iaenuee?e caie? a?aeaoaaeeny aoiiaaiaoe/i? i?ioeane o iai?yi?
oi?ioaaiiy ie?aiiai aoiino, i?ioa a na?aaeei? XV no. aiie aoee ooo/ii
ia?a?aai?. Iiaai?iaenueea ?anioae?ea noaea ia?aoeiaeith aeey ia’?aeiaiiy
?in?enueeeo caiaeue iaaeiei Iineae, ? a 1478 p. Iiaai?iaenueea caiey
aoea caaa?aaia Iineaith e ianeeueii aeeth/aia aei neeaaeo Iineianueei?
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. I?ney oeueiai oa?eoi??y Iineiaueie a?ae?aco
ca?eueoeeany aae o n?i ?ac?a, ui ua a?eueoa ?iciaeeei ?? aa?aneai?
aiaoeoe. Oea? ?aai III iaeeaa ianaeaiiy Iiaai?iaenueei? caie?
a?aa?aeieoeueeith eiio?eaooe??th ? aeaii?ooaaa 72 oen. ethaeae o
Iineiaueio. Aea e iio?i ua iiiaae noie?ooy iineianuee? oea?? aaeaaaeeny
aei ianiaeo cieuaiue ? aeaii?oaoe?e iiaai?iaeoe?a, aae iiee iai?ee?ioe?
XVI no. aiie iiai?noth aoee anei?eueiaai? iineiaeoaie, oi/ ae?aeaeoi?
iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai iiaeaiiy ana ae oaee caa?aaeeny. ?in?enueea
ia?iaei?noue oi?ioaaeany i?ioyaii XII- XV no. o no?aoaa?/ii aea?aeiiio
?aa?ii? i?ae Na?aaeiueith Ieith ? Aa?oiueith Aieaith ia ia?ao?ano?
aaeeeeo oi?aiaaeueieo oeyo?a. Oeae ?aa?ii o na?aaeei? ? oen. i. a.
canaeyee ei??ii? o?iii-oai?nuee? ieaiaia — ia?y, aanue, aiaeue, io?iia,
a a aanaei? Aa?oiuei? Iee ? Aa?oiueiai Aeiio aeeei aaeonueea ieai’y
aieyaeue. Neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy ooo ii/aei c’yaeyoeny ia ?ai?oa VIII
no. O VIII no. ia caie? aaeoiiiaii? aieyae? a aanaei? Aa?oiuei? Iee c
«eynueeiai» cao?aeiiai e?ath (iiaeeeai, c oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai
ii?oa?aeaey) i?eeoee neia’yinuee? ieaiaia ia /ie? c yeeiinue A’yoeii
(A’y/an-eaaii). Oiane?aeie ?o ci?ooaaiiy c i?noeaaith aieyaeaeth e
?ioaineaieo anei?eyoe?eieo i?ioean?a ooai?eeany iiaa aoiia?ao?/ia
ni?euei?noue — e?oiieni? a’yoe/?. Iauaaeee aa?oiueiienueeeo a’yoe/?a a
aiioo iioiae?a ia ieo ee?anueeiai eiycy Nayoineaaa (X no.) ii/aee
?ooaoeny ii Ioe? aei ?ycai?, aeo?niyth/e aai anei?eueiaoth/e ??aeea
i?noeaaa o?iiiiiaia ianaeaiiy ? noai?thth/e aoi?/io iniiao iaeaooiueiai
?ycainueeiai eiyc?anoaa. Neia’yinueea ianaeaiiy oeueiai ?aa?iio /an a?ae
/ano iiiiaithaaeiny e oe?a?ioeyie ?c Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, yea
ooeaei niieith a aeaeaeeo e?ayo, oo?eath/e c ianiie?eieo i?aaeaiieo
ieieeoeue Ee?anueei? ?on?. A?aae iaeaooiuei? ?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueei?
caie? a O no. inaithaaee ?eueiainuee? neiaaie, ineianuee? e?eae/? ? aaea
neia’yi?ciaaia a?eica?nueea aanue. C ?inoiai-Noc-aeaeueueie e?eae/?
caiaeii iioe?eeeny aeae? ia i?aaeaiue ? canaeeee oa?eoi??th non?aeiuei?
Io?iinueei? caie?. E??i oeueiai, aei Aieai-Eeycueieinueeiai iaaee??//y ?
aanaeio Aa?oiuei? Iee ia?anaeeeany /anoeia niieainueeeo e?eae/?a. O
oiae? neia’yi?caoe?? i?noeaaeo o?iii-oai?nueeeo ieaiai, cie?aia
e?oiienii? ia??, i?ioyaii XI-XII no. ooo noi?ioaaeiny i?noeaaa
no?aeiineia’yinueea oa?oiiaaiiy, yea noaei /anoeiith ?in?enueei?
ia?iaeiino?. Iaaea aeaio eieii?caoe?eieo iioie?a ia iaeaooi? ?in?enuee?
caie? c i?aii/? ? i?aaeiy noaea caiaeii iaaeath i?ae ?ycainueeith ?
?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueeith caieyie. Oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy a?aeaeoa ua e iei? a
iaae? i?ae aeiiaith aeaooiaiai g (i?ai?/) ? o?eeaoeaiiai o (i?aaeaiue).
O?iii-oai?nuee? ieaiaia Na?aaeiueiai Iiaieaey, ye ? aaeoe oa o?iii-oa?e
No?aeii? I?eaaeoeee, iath/e cia/ii /enaeuei?oa ianaeaiiy e a?aeiinii
aenieee nooi?iue noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, noi?ioaaeeny a naiino?ei?
ia?iaeiino?. Nai???aeiee aoiiiiaiee eiiaeiia?ao, yeee ooai?eany a
aanaei? Aa?oiuei? Aieae e Na?aaeiuei? Iee, ia’?aeioaaany ni?eueiei o?iii
oai?nueeei noano?aoii. Oi/ oa?eoi??th a’yoe/?a Aieiaeeie? Aaeeeee
i?e?aeiaa aei Ee?anueei? ?on? a 981 p., a ?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueeo caieth-
a 982 p., aiie aeoaea neaai caeaaeaee a?ae aeaaee ee?anueeiai eiycy.
Oa?eoi??y no/anii? oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iiaenueei? ?in?? a O-XIII no. aoea
aeaeaeith aeooith i?ia?ioe??th Ee?anueei? ?iia???, a?aeae?eaiith a?ae
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? ?on? aaee/aciei ianeaii iai?io?aeieo oau?a, a?ae
yeiai ua e iei? caeeoeeeny ciaiaieo? a?yinuee? e?ne. *a?ac oea ia
Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? oo aeaeaeo oa?eoi??th aae aei XV no. iaceaaee
Cae?nueeith, Cae?nnyi, «Caeanueea caiey» («caiey, ui i?noeoueny ca
e?nii»). ?iceeaeai? ii e?nao oa aieioao, cae?nuee? iinaeaiiy ua aeiaai
caa??aaee aoiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? i?noeaaeo o?iii-oai?nueeeo ieaiai,
ianaiia?aae io?iie, ia?? ? aan?. O oeueiio a?aae? e a?aeaoaaeany
?aa?iiaeueia eiinie?aeaoe?y ??cieo ieaiai. *a?ac no?ieaoee aoi?/iee
neeaae ianaeaiiy oeae i?ioean aoa iia?eueiei ? aeiaaio?eaaeei. O O no. a
iaaee??//? Iee oa Aieae aeieeei ?inoiaa-Nocaeaeuenueea eiyc?anoai. Eiai
iie?oe/ieie oeaio?a- ie aoee nii/aoeo ?inoia, c ii/aoeo XII no. —
Nocaeaeue, a c ae?oai? iieiaeie XII no. — Aieiaeeie?. Ia XII no. ia
?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenuee?e caie? a?aeaoeeny ?noioi? ci?ie. ??cei
ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy caaaeyee eiai i?eieeao c ?ioeo
?aa?ii?a Ee?anueei? ?on?, aeieeee iia? i?noa (Aieiaeeie?,
Ia?ayneaa-Caeanueeee, TH?’?a oa ?i.), iaeaaaeeea?oei na?aae yeeo noaa
Aieiaeeie?-ia-Eeycuei?, caniiaaiee i?e Aieiaeeie?ia? Iiiiiaoo.
?ino?ai-Nocaeaeueueia iaea i?yi? oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee c Oeaio?aeueiith
Ac??th ??/eiaei oeyoii /a?ac Aieao e Eani?enueeei ii?ai, ui iaeeaei
iaaiee a?aeaeoie ia eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie oeueiai e?ath.
Iie?oe/ia aaaa ? cia/aiiy ?inoiai-Iocaeaeuenueei? caie? ??cei c?inea a
?iee eiycthaaiiy TH??y Aeieai?oeiai — iieiaeoiai neia Aieiaeeie?a
Iiiiiaoa ? caniiaieea Iineae (1147 ?.). Iae?oaeeaoenue ?c iieiaaoeueeith
eiyaeiith, a?i caii/aoeoaaa i?oeiee ? o?eaaeee aioeoe?a?inueeee nithc
aieiaeeie?i-nocaeaeuenueeeo eiyc?a ?c iieiaoeyie. Naia Nocaeaeuenueea
caiey a?ae na?aaeeie XII no. i/ieeea eiae?oe?th Iiaai?iaea, Iieioeueea
oa Niieainueea ca a?aeie?aieaiiy a?ae Ee?aa(Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a
aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. — N. 114.). I?ioa TH??e Aeieai?oeee ua ia
ia?a?eaaa ca’yce?a c Ee?aii ? iaa?oue iaiaaaany caeiaooe nia? ee?anueeee
i?anoie. Cian?i ?ioo iie?oeeo iia?a nei TH??y Aeieai?oeiai Aiae??e
Aiaiethanueeee (1157-1174). A?i ae??n ia Nocaeaeueuei?, aaaaeaa ??
nai?th aaouee?aueiith. Oe?a?ia aoea aeey iueiai aaea /oaea. Nii/aoeo
TH??e Aeieai?oeee iinaaeea Aiae??y ia i?anoie o Aeoai?iae? a?ey Ee?aa,
aea a?i oa?iii ao?e ca?aeoe aei Nocaeaey, caa?aaoe c niaith ??ci?
eiooiaiino?, a na?aae ieo — ? neaaiica?nio Aeoai?iaenueeo ?eiio
Aiai?iaeeoe?, ui noaea iniiaiith nayoeiath Aieiaeeie?a-ia-Eeycuei?, a
caiaeii — ? Iineae. Oea aoa a?aeaa?oee ? aeaiiino?aoeaiee ?ic?ea c
Oe?a?iith, ii/aoie naiino?eii? iie?oeee iieiaei? Aaeeei?on?. Aiae??e
oaea ia a?aa o/ano? o ni?eueieo iioiaeao eiyc?a i?ioe iieiaoe?a, oio?a
iaa?oue i?iaanoe ?ic?ea ia oea?eiaiiio ??ai? e canioaaoe ie?aio
ieo?iiie?th aeey i?ai?/ieo caiaeue. A?i ia?ai?n noieeoeth eiyc?anoaa ?c
Nocaeaey aei Aieiaeeie?a, ? c oeueiai /ano eiyc?anoai noaei iaceaaoeny
Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueeei. Iiaeeco i. Aieiaeeie?a o n. Aiaiethaiaa
eiycue Aiae??e iiaoaeoaaa eiyc?anueeee caiie (/a?ac oea eiai e i?icaaee
Aiaiethanueeei). Naia Aiae??y Aiaiethanueeiai ne?ae aaaaeaoe caniiaieeii
?in?enueei? aea?aeaaiino?. I?ioe Ee?aa a?i a?a aei?noieo ai?iaeo
iie?oeeo. Aeaeaoiee ?in?enueeee ?noi?ee A. Eeth/aanueeee ienaa, ui «a
inia? eiycy Aiae??y aaeeei?in oia?oa aenooiaa ia ?noi?e/io noeaio», a
nocaeaeuenuee? i?noa/ea «noaiiaeee oiae? iniaeeaee na?o, c a?aeiineiaie
e iiiyooyie, yeeo ia ciaee a noa?eo iaeanoyo ?on?»(Eeth/aaneee A. I.
Ni/eiaiey: A 8 o. — O. 1. — Eo?n ?onneie enoi?ee. — *. 1. — I., 1956. —
N. 324-325.). O 1169 ?, ia ao?o/aiiy Ee?aa o ni?aae Iiaai?iaea Aiae??e
Aiaiethanueeee, i/aaeaeii, aaea aaaaeath/e an? i?ai?/i? caie? nai?ie,
a?aeiia?a a?eiith. A?i ae?ooea ia Ee?a c aaeeeith a?i??th iaeeiaaeoeyoe
i?ai?/ieo eiyc?a, caeiaoa i?noi ? aeoaea eiai c?oeioaaa. sse a?aecia/a?
e?oiien, «ia aoei ieeina?aey i?eiio i?ca?aeee, oea?eae ai??ee, o?enoeyi
oaeaaee, ?ioeo a?aee a iaaieth». Nocaeaeueoe? iia?aaoaaee Aeanyoeiio
oea?eao oa Nio?th, caa?aee ?eiie, eieae ? an? eiooiaiino?. Aein? ua
i?ooi e i?eiee oae ia ieuea noa?i? noieeoe?. Oaeiai ae nionoioeeaiai
iaiaaeo Ee?a caciaa ? 1203 ?., eiee nocaeaeuenueeee eiycue Anaaieiae
?acii c iieiaoeyie iia?aaoaaa ? niaeea noieeoeth ?on?. Ethoue ?
iaiaaenoue, ?c yeeie nocaeaeueoe? ieueee eeyi, ye ? ia iaio aei?noie?
aeoe?? o a?aeiia?aeue, na?ae/aoue ii oa, ui oea aoea aaea ia
o?aaeeoe?eia i?aeoniaia ai?ioueaa, a i?aeaoi?/ia ai?iaeia/a. Nai?i
iai?nieeii o Ee?a? Aiae??e Aiaiethanueeee iinaaeea naiai a?aoa, a nai
caeeoeany o Aieiaeeie??. Oea ciaiaioaaei inoaoi/iee caiaiaae Ee?aa. Eiai
?ieue ye iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o Ee?anueei? ?on? ia?aeoea aei
Aieiaeeie?a-ia-Eeycuei? e aei Aaee/a (ia no/ani?e ?aaii-O?aie?auei?). Ia
ii/aoeo XIII no. Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueea eiyc?anoai ?iciaeiny ia
oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa: ?inoianueea, ss?ineaanueea, Ia?ayneaanueea,
Iineianueea oa ?i. O 1238 ?. ia Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeueueio iaiaee
iiiaiei-oaoa?e ? caaithaaee Cae?nny. Iiiaiei-oaoa?nueea y?ii (eiai
iaceaaee «?aii») i?ecaaei aei inoaoi/iiai a?ae/oaeaiiy Cae?nny a?ae
?on?, ? a?aeoiae? iie?oe/ia ?noi??y oeeo aeaio oa?eoi??e inoaoi/ii noaea
?icaeaaoeny ??cieie oeyoaie. A?ae na?aaeeie XIII no. ia
Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenuee?e caie? oaeaeei ii/aei i?oei?oe ? i?e?aeioaaoe
aei naaa non?aei? caie? Iineianueea aaeeea eiyc?anoai — ia?oa aeania
?in?enueea aea?aeaaa. Aiii caeiaei aea?aeia aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy ia
aaaeeeaeo oi?aiaaeueieo oeyoao ? noaei i?e?iaeiei oeaio?ii ?in?enueeeo
caiaeue. Non?aei? eiyc?anoaa, a oaeiae e?ne e aieioa, ui ioi/oaaee
Iineianueea aaeeea eiyc?anoai, iaa??aaee eiai a?ae iaiaae?a
iiiaiei-oaoa? ? eeoianueeeo a?enuee. Oea ni?eyei c?inoaiith aeiiii?/iiai
e iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa ye oeaio?o oi?ioaaiiy
?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino?. Iineianuee? eiyc?, ii/eiath/e c ?aaia ? Eaeeoe
(1325-1340), ai?ei aeei?enoiaoaaee aeaaeo iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeeo oai?a aeey
nai?? iaoe. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIV no. a?aeaoaaeiny aeiiii?/ia
i?aeianaiiy i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ieieeoeue eieeoiuei? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Aiii
noai?eei iaoa??aeueio aaco aeey ai?ioueae i?ioe iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai
iiiaaieaiiy. Ia?aiiaa iineianueeiai eiycy Aeieo??y Aeiinueeiai iaae
iiiaiei-oaoa?aie a Eoeeeianuee?e aeoa? (1380 ?.) ci?oeieea ea??aia
noaiiaeua Iineae na?aae ?ioeo ?in?enueeeo eiyc?anoa, yea noaea
a?ae?a?aaaoe ae??oaeueio ?ieue o iie?oe/iiio ia’?aeiaii? ?in?enueeeo
caiaeue oa oi?ioaaii? ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino?. I?ioyaii XIV-XV no.
iniiai? ?in?enuee? caie? aoei ia’?aeiaii iaaeiei Iineae. Iai?ee?ioe? XV
no. Iineianueea eiyc?anoai i?e?aeiaei aei naaa ss?ineaanueea,
?inoianueea eiyc?anoaa, Iiaai?iaenueeo oaiaeaeueio ?anioae?eo, Oaa?nueea
aaeeea eiyc?anoai. A’yonueeo ? /anoeiai ?ycainueeo caie?, ? aiane?aeie
oeueiai neeaeany ?in?enueea oeaio?ae?ciaaia aea?aeaaa. O 1480 ?.
Iineiaueia inoaoi/ii ca?eueieeany a?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai y?ia.
Aaeeeee eiycue ?aai III Aaneeueiae/ (1462-1505) noaa Ainoaea?ai ?aeeii?
?in?enueei? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. Aea iiiaieioaoa?nue-ea
iiiaaieaiiy caeeoeei aeeaieee ne?ae ia o?eueee o na?aeiiino? ethaeae.
Aiii aieeioei ia an? noi?iie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy iieiaei?
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae, iaaiei /eiii a?aeaeeiny e ia iaioae?oao?
?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino?. Ia aeiaaeeiai ae I. Aa?aeyaa iaceaaa ?in?th
«o?enoeyi?ciaaiei oaoa?nueeei oea?noaii». Iineianueeee oea? — aeaaa
eieeoiueiai I?ai?/ii-No?aeiiai oeono Cieioi? I?aee — c ?iciaaeii ?iia???
*eia?noaia ni?eeiaany ? iineiaeoaie, ? oaoa?aie ye caeiiiee
niaaeei?iaoeue iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? aea?aeaae. Ia aeoieo I.
O?oaaoeueeiai, «Iineianueea aea?aeaaa aeieeea caaaeyee oaoa?nueeiio ?ao.
?in?enueeee oea? aoa niaaeei?ioeai iiiaieuenueeiai oaia. Iiaaeaiiy
oaoa?nueeiai ?aa caaeiny aei cai?ie oaoa?nueeiai oaia i?aaineaaiei
oea?ai ? aei ia?aianaiiy oainueei? noaaee aei Iineae. Iaa?oue
ia?niiaeueii cia/iee a?aenioie aiy? oa ?ioeo neoaeeeeo ethaeae
iineianueeiai oea?y noaiiaeee i?aaenoaaieee oaoa?nueei? ciao?.
?in?enueea aea?aeaai?noue… iioiaeeea a?ae oaoa?nueei?, ? iaa?yae /e
iathoue ?aoe?th o? ?noi?eee, ye? caiethuothoue i/? ia oeth ianoaaeio aai
iaiaaathoueny i?eiaioeoe ?? cia/aiiy» (O?oaaoeeie I. N. E i?iaeaia
?onneiai naiiiiciaiey. — [A.i.], 1927. — N. 49. ). Iineianuee? eiyc? oa
?ioa ciaaoue ioi/a ?iaee/aeeny c oaoa?nueeeie aaeueiiaeaie, aaaaeath/e
ca /anoue a?aoe nia? ca ae?iie yeui ia ?iaee/ie oai?a, oi a e?aeiueiio
?ac? ciaoieo ae?aeoeue c I?aee (Iiainaeueoeaa A. E. O?enoeainoai, eneai
e eoaeaeci a no?aiao Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e Eaaeaca a n?aaeiea aaea //
Aii?inu enoi?ee. — 1989. — ? 9. — N. 31. ). ?acii c oei ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui iineianuee? (ye ? ?io? no?aeiineia’yinuee?) caie? i?ae
aeaaeith Cieioi? I?aee caeeoeeeny o?enoeyinueeeie. A?eueoa oiai, ia
aeoieo ?noi?ee?a, ? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ye?ac o ia??iae
iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai iaioaaiiy o?enoeyinoai noaei ii-ni?aaaeiueiio
?ae?a??th iineiaeo?a, 90% yeeo aae aei XIX no. aeeth/ii noaiiaeee
naeyie. Ia a?eueo?e /anoei? Iineiaueie i?inoee ethae ia ?aeaioeo?eoaaa
naaa i? c yeei aoiinii ? ia iaa iaaiiai aoiii?ia, aea iaceaaa naaa
o?enoeyiaie. Naia oeei ? iiynith?oueny oie aeineoue aeeaiee oaeo, ui
iacaa naeyi o ?in?enuee?e iia? iioiaeeoue ia a?ae i?noey ?oiueiai
i?iaeeaaiiy ia nae? (ye a oe?a?ioe?a, a?ei?on?a), a ca ?ae?a?eiith
iciaeith: e?anoueyiei < e?anoeyiei < o?enoeaiei. A?ae o?iii-oai?nueei? iacae noieeoe? ie?aiiai eiyc?anoaa Iineaa, yea aia?oa ye iaaaeeea naei caaaeo?oueny eeoa a 1147 ?., aoei iacaaii oe?eo aea?aeaao. ?? i?aaeoae? iaceaaee naaa eiycyie (caiaeii - aaeeeeie eiycyie, i?ci?oa - oea?yie) iineianueeeie, a nai?o i?aeaeaieo - iineianueeeie ethaeueie. Iacae "Iineaa", "Iineiaey", "Iineianeia ainoaea?noai" aoee io?oe?eieie o?yaeiaeie iacaaie aea?aeaae. Oae ?? iaceaaea ? any ?a?iia, e?a?ie Noiaeo, oo?ee, a?aae oa ?io? ia?iaee, a iaoeaioe?a Iineiaueie ?iaioaaee "iineaeiaie", "iineaeoyiaie", "iineiaeoaie", "iineiaeoyiaie"(Aeea.: Iaeeaaeei Oe. N. I/eia Caoiaeo. ?aoeaioe?y Oe?a?ie a Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? XI-XVIII no. - E., 1998. - N. 362.). Oe?a?ioe? a?ae XV no. nai?o i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo non?ae?a iine?aeiaii iaceaathoue iineaeyie, a ?oith e?a?io - Iineia??th. sse aa/eii, noaiiaeaiiy ?in?enueeiai aoiino a?aeaoaaeiny aeaeaei a?ae Ee?aa e on??? ia?a?nii? ?on? - Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie ? ia ia? aei ia? aeiaeiiai noinoieo. Aaaaoiaoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy ? nai???aei?noue ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, ui i?ioyaii cia/iiai /ano o?eaaa a oiiaao iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai y?ia, ni?e/eieeeny aei oiai, ui oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? ?icoyaioeiny a?eueoa i?ae ia o?e noie?ooy (ae?oaa iieiaeia XII - e?iaoeue XV no.) ? i?ieoei aeae?eueea aoai?a. Iinooiiai c?inoaea oa?eoi??y aea?aeaae, a?aeaoaaany aeiaaio?eaaeee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? iiae, ci?ithaaeeny aeooiai? i??i?eoaoe ? eoeueoo?a caaaeii, a ana oea oi?ioaaei e iiao iaioaeuei?noue on??? ia?iaeiino?. Oey iaioaeuei?noue aoea aeineoue nai???aeiith ii??aiyii c? na?oini?eeiyooyi i?aaeaiieo ?onei?a-oe?a?ioe?a. ?in?yie a aiioo ?aaia A?iciiai aaea aoee iaei /ei noiae? ia ?in?yi /an?a Aiae??y Aiaiethanueeiai. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? aoei oa, ui a ia? aeeany aaeeeee no?oi?iue o?iii-oai?nueei? ? /anoeiai aaeo?enueei? e?ia?. ?noi?e/io ?ieue o?iii-oai?nueeiai noano?aoo o oi?ioaaii? aio?iiieia?/iiai oeio ?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo oa aeayeeo iniaeeainoae eiai iiae e aoiia?ao?/ieo ?en aeciathoue ? nai? ?in?enuee? aeine?aeieee (I. Iie?ia-nueeee, A. Aeaenaaa, O. Aeaenaaaa, ?. Ai?thiiaa, A. Aea-aaoeue, I. Eaa?i, O. O?ioeiiaa oa ?i.). Ioaea, iayaiee o ?icii?yaeaeaii? a/aieo oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeiaiaeeoue, ui "?in?enueeee a?ao" ca a?eii cian?i ia "noa?oee", a iaeiieiaeoee. Oa e o ni?euei?e eieenoe? a?i i?eiee ia aoa, ai iiee ia?iaeeany, "eieenea" aaea ?icaaeeeany. Aei Ee?anueei? ?on? ?in?yie iathoue oo aeioe/i?noue, ui ?oi? caie? aeayeee /an iai?aoi?iaeueii aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo oe??? aea?aeaae, ? iaeaooi? ?in?yie canai?ee o?enoeyinueeo eoeueoo?o Ee?anueei? ?on? c aaaaoueia oe?a?inueeeie aieeaaie, ine?eueee oai?oeai Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae aoa oe?a?inueeee aoiin, a oaeiae ia?aeiyee aoi?/io iacao - ?onue. Iiai?noth ia? ?aoe?th a?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee E. Cae?ciye, a?aecia/eaoe, ui "i?aaa Iineae ia ?noi?e/io oa eoeueoo?io niaaeueio eiyaeiai Ee?aa ia a?eueo? ? ia iaio?, i?ae i?aaa Iaae?eaea, E?naaiia, Ia?eaea oa Aooa?anoa ia ?noi??th oa eoeueoo?o eaoeinueeiai ?eio. sse ?iiainuee? ia?iaee oniaaeeoaaee iaai? iaaeaaiiy ?einueei? eoeueoo?e, oae ? a?ei?one oa ?in?yie oa?a?aee o na?e aoii-aecia/aeueiee eiiieaen iaai? aeaiaioe eoeueoo?e eiyaeiai Ee?aa. Iaeiae, ye ia?o? ia aoee aaciina?aaei?ie oai?oeyie eaoeinueei? eoeueoo?e ?eio, oae ? ae?oa? iathoue iiina?aaeeiaaia a?aeiioaiiy aei oai?aiiy eoeueoo?e Ee?anueei? ?on?. Aaeaea ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeaiaio?a inoaiiuei? iinoaea a iaaeao I?aaeaiii? ?on?, iaoae ? i?ae ciai?oi?i aieeaii eoeueoo?e A?caio??. Aei oiai ae, noaeiny oea cia/iith i??ith ua aei iiyae a?ei?on?a oa ?in?yi ia ?noi?e/i?e a?ai? No?aeii? ?a?iie"(Cae?ciye E. A?ae neeaaei?a aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. - N. 123.). "?onue", "?in?y", "Aaeeei?in?y", "Iaei?in?y"? Iioiaeaeaiiy iaca ?onue, ?onueeee inoaoi/ii ia c'yniaaia. C oeueiai i?eaiaeo aaea iiiaae aea?no? ?ie?a aaaeaoueny aeaaaa aeeneon?y e ?nio? oe?iea iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a c ?icia?oeie, /anii, iiey?ii i?ioeeaaeieie iiaeyaeaie ia oeth i?iaeaio a/aieo ??cieo iieie?iue. Aoee ni?iae iiynieoe iacao ?onue ye caiice/aiiy ? ooeaoe ?? aeoiee oi a Neaiaeeiaa?? (o aa?ya?a), oi na?aae ??aii-iiaieo ia?iae?a (na?iao?a). ?io? a/ai? aaaaeathoue oeae aoiii?i niieiia?/ia i?noeaaei ? eiai ei??iiy ooeathoue ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?. Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aoeiieia?? neiaa ?onue ia? nooi iaoeiaa cia/aiiy. Aeey noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iaei ia iioiaeaeaiiy oeueiai aoiii?ia (ii?iainueea, ??ainueea, aaoiooiiia /e yeanue ?ioa), a ?noi??y eiai aaeeaaiiy a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? ??cieo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue ? a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a. Neiai ?onue iaei ca??ia cia/aiiy (ye ciaoue, iacae ieaiai /oaeue, na?aue, a oaeiae /a?iue, /aeyaeue oa ?i.), a iaeeie/ia cia/aiiy - ?onei (iiiae. ?oneie), ye /oaeei, aieaa?ei oa ?i. Aeaye? aeine?aeieee oaa?aeyoue, ui a na?aaeei? ? oen. i. a. ?nioaaei ie?aia no?aeiineia'yinueea ieai'y ?on?a. Aea oea i?eiouaiiy iaeieiia??ia, ai ?one, yeae aiie ni?aaae? aoee ye ie?aia ieai'y, iaee a oaea aeineoue aenieo iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o, yea ia iiaea a cieeiooe aacne?aeii. Iaeiae aeiaeieo ne?ae?a oae caaieo ?on?a a?oaieiae aein? ia aeyaeee. I?i oaea ieai'y i?/iai ia neacaii ? a "Iia?no? ieioeeo e?o", yea ia?a?aoiao? an? iniiai? no?aeiineia'yinuee? ieaiaia oa ?oi? nithce. Aoiii?i ?on (hrus) oia?oa caaaeo?oueny a ne??enuee?e o?ii?oe? VI no. i. a. noiniaii yeiainue ianaeaiiy a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?'? (iiaeeeai, ie?aiiai ieaiai?), aoi?/ia ao?eaooe?y yeiai iaa?aeiia. Oe?eeii a??ia?aeii, ui ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yuei? oeae aoiii?i iaa oaeiae ia?aeaeueio oi?io ?in, a?aeia?aaeaio aae aeiiei? a oiiii?i?oe? oeueiai ?aa?iio. Ooo oa/ooue ??/ee ?inue c ?? i?eoieaie ?'inueea oa ?inaaa, yea ia? i?eoieo ?inaa eo, a oaeiae ?inoaaeoey (?inoaaeoey). Ca i?eiouaiyi aeayeeo ?noi?ee?a, o aeaaieio ?innth iaceaaeany ? yeanue ??/ea ia *a?i?a?auei?, i?i yeo a ?iaonueeiio nieneo e?oiieno i?ae 1187 p. neacaii: "O oie aea ??e ionoioea [oai] Eii/ae ii [??oe?] ?in? c iieiaoeyie. A i?ney oeueiai noaee aiie /anoi ionoioeoe ii ?in? a *a?i?a?anuee?e aieino?" ("E?oiien ?onueeee", n. 343). Iaea??ia?aei?oa, ui ?ine (?one) a na?aaeei? ? oen. aei i. a. - oea iaeia c ??aiiiiaieo na?iaoi-aeainueeeo ieaiai Na?aaeiuei? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, yea, iiaeeeai, aoiaeeei a aionueeee ieai?iiee nithc. Iacaa ?ine - ?one o nai?e iniia? iiaea iaoe iaeiaioaaiiy ??/ee. Aonoeinueeee e?oiien na?ae/eoue, ui iacaa ?onue - "io ?aee aeaaieaiay ?inue" (Iiee. nia?. ?onne. eaoii., o. II, NIa, 1843, n. 236). O i?ioean? neia'yi?caoe?? i?noeaaiai ??aiiiiaii-ai ianaeaiiy aoiii?i ?in (?on, ?onue) ?acii c ?ioeie iiaieie aeaiaioaie aoa ni?eeiyoee neia'yiaie. Ia?aeaeueia aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a c ei?aiyie ?in ? ?on cana?ae/aia ? a aeaai?o ?noi?e/ieo aeieoiaioao. O no?aeieo aeaea?aeao ia?aaaaea? oa?i?i ?one, o a?caio?enueeeo - ?ine, o cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo - ?one (aea ?iiae? e ?in, ?ine), a a aeaaiuei?onuee?e ienaiiino? ia?aaa aeathoue iacae ?onue, ?onueeee, oi/ c??aeea o?aiey?oueny e ?inueneee ("I?aaaea ?inueneay"). Iaeiae, e?ae, o yeiio aeeee ?one (/e ?ine), iaa iacao eeoa ?onue. sseee oa?i?i aeaai?oee - ?inue /e ?onue - ? aein? ia anoaiiaeaii. Iaei? oao?aoe? aaaeathoue aeaai?oei ?onue (I. Oeoiie?ia), ?io? - ?inue (A. ?eaaeia), aea iaeaea? iacae, aac noii?ao, aeoaea aeaai? e nyaathoue ia?oeo noie?oue iaoi? a?e ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui ?onnth nii/aoeo iaceaaeeny aionuee? aiyee-ae?oaeeiieee, a a?ae ieo oey iacaa caiaeii ia?aeoea ia iaei?aaeaii?oee i?ioioe?a?inueeee nithc ieaiai - iieyi o o?eeooieeo i?ae Aei?i?ii, ??iaiai oa ?innth (e?oiienaoeue a?aecia/a?: "iieyia, yei iuiu ciaiiay ?onue"). Ia /an ooai?aiiy aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae (i/aaeaeii, i?ioyaii VIII-IX no.) iacaa ?onue iioe?eeany ia anth Na?aaeith Iaaeaei?i?yiueio, oi/i?oa - ia Ee?aueio, *a?i?a?aueio ? Ia?ayneaaueio, ye? noaee yae?ii Ee?anueei? ?on?. Caiaeii ?onnth noaee aaaaeaoe anth Ee?anueeo ?iia??th. O aeaaiuei?onueeeo aeaea?aeao oa?i?i ?onue ia? iiaea?eia cia/aiiy: ?onue ia?a?nia, iaaeaei?i?yinueea ? ?onue - ony Ee?anueea aea?aeaaa ?acii c i?e?aeiaieeie aei ia? caieyie ianeia'yinueeeo ieaiai ? ia?iae?a. Iiaea?eia ?icoi?iiy iacae ?onue aoei iioe?aia ia o?eueee na?aae no?aeieo neia'yi, aea e ca ?oaaaeai, cie?aia o A?caio??. Iai?eeeaae, o oai?ao a?caio?enueeiai ?iia?aoi?a O no. Einoyioeia Aaa?yii?iaeiiai eaeaoueny i?i "aeaeaeo ?onue" ? i?ioenoaaethaaio ?e "aeecueeo ?onue" o ia?a?niiio, iaeaeaai?oiio cia/aii? oeueiai oa?i?ia - ye no?aeiineia'yinuee? caie? iaae Aei?i?ii. Ioaea, ?onnth niieiia?/ia iaceaaee no/anio oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, a i?eeiaoiee ?onueeee aaeeaaany ye naiiiaceaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a. Uii?aaaea, o "Neia? i?i ?ai??a iio?ae" cana?ae/aiee oaeiae aoiii?i ?one/?. Aea a?i o?aiey?oueny eeoa a oeueiio oai?? ye aaoi?nueeee iaieia?ci, "nai???aeia oi?ioea aenieiai noeeth noa?i?onueeiai iiaoa"(Eiaaeaa A. O. Yoiiieiey neaayineeo ycueia. Iiieiaoeey e neiaiia?aciaaiea. - Ai?iiaae, 1991. - N. 46.) ? i?eiee i?aeeoe/ii a?eueoa ia aaeeaaany. Aoi?/ia aecia/aiiy ?onueeee o ?icoi?ii? "oe?a?inueeee" aacia?a?aii caa??aaeiny i?ioyaii aaaaoueio noie?oue. ?oneiaie iaceaaee naaa oe?a?ioe? o Aaeeeiio eiyc?anoa? Eeoianueeiio, a o euea?anueeeo i?nueeeo eieaao a?ae 1599 p. iaa?oue aeei?enoiao?oueny oa?i?i "?onueea iaoe?y" (Natio Ruthenica). Oiai/ani? aeaea?aea ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/othoue, ui ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa A?ei?on? /?oei a?aeie?aiethaaei naaa a?ae iineiaeo?a. O /ane Eica//eie aeey oe?a?ioe?a oaeiae i?e?iaeiith ? cae/iith aoea noa?a iacaa ?oiueiai e?ath - ?onue, a ?o naieo - ?oneie. Oa e ony Cao?aeia ?a?iia i?ioyaii aaaaoueio a?e?a ia icia/aiiy Oe?a?ie aaeeaaea iacao "?onue". Iniaeeai no?eeith oey iacaa aeyaeeany a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie. Iaa?oue o XIX no. i?eeiaoiee ?onueeee (oiaoi "oe?a?inueeee") ua aoiaeea aei iaca ??cieo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, e?oa?aoo?ieo ? iaoeiaeo oa?oiiaaiue, aeueiaiao?a, ie?aieo i?aoeue oiui. Iai?eeeaae: "Aieiaia ?onueea ?aaea" - ia?oa oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia i?aai?caoe?y a Aaee/ei?, ui aeieeea o Eueaia? 2 o?aaiy 1848 p., i?ina?oi? oiaa?enoai "Aaeeoeueei-?onueea iaoeoey", "Niai? ?onueeeo o/aieo" (1848 p.), "?onueea o??eoey" (oe?a?inuee? ienueiaiieee I. Oaoeaae/, ?. Aaaeeaae/, ss. Aieiaa-oeueeee), /ioe?eoiiia "?noi??y e?oa?aoo?e ?onueei?" (oiaoi oe?a?inueei?) I. Iaiiianueeiai oa ?i. C aoiii?iaie ?onue, ?onueeee iia'ycaia ? naiiiacaa ?onei, ?oneie, eei iaceaaee (a iiaeaeoaee e aein? iaceaathoue) naaa i?eea?iaonuee? e caea?iaonuee? oe?a?ioe?. Oeth ae iacao caa??aa? ei??iia oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy Neiaa//eie, Iieueu?, THaineaa??, ?oioi??, ia a?aei?io a?ae ai?a?aio?a-oe?a?ioe?a. Oaeei /eiii, aoiii?ie ?onue, ?onueeee, ?oneinueeee - aeaai? e i?aai?/i? aeey oe?a?ioe?a iaeiaioaaiiy. Aea /a?ac iani?eyoeea? iie?oe/i? ianoaaeie e a?aenooi?noue oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? i?ney ?iciaaeo Ee?anueei? ?on? e caiaiaaeo Aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa oa?i?i ?onue ia noaa iie?oe/iith ao?eaooe??th ia oe?a?inuee?e oa?eoi???. Eiai i?enai?ee nia? iao? i?ai?/ii-no?aei? non?aee - ?in?yie. Eiee ae ? ye oea noaeiny? *an, i?e/eie, aoaie ? iane?aeee aeey oe?a?ioe?a ao?aoe aeaaiuei? iacae ?oiueiai e?ath ?onue ? iinooiiaa cae??ieaiiy ?? o oi?i? ?in?y ca Iineianueeith aea?aeaaith aeeaiei ? anaa?/ii ?ice?eo? a iiiia?ao?? (ia aeaeue, iaeia?aeii?e oe?ieiio /eoaoeueeiio caaaeia?) euea?anueeiai aeine?aeieea ?. Iaeiia/iiai "Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?o neie noaee oe?a?ioeyie" (Euea?a, 1998, 162 n., oe?aae 700 i?ei.). 3 oe??? i?aoe? aeia?aeo?iiny, ui i?enai?iiy Iineia??th aeaaiueiai ?iai? Oe?a?ie - ?onue a?aeaoeiny a XIV--XV no. ? aoei coiiaeaia ianaiia?aae aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueeeie aia?oe?yie iineianueeeo oea??a. I?ioa ?noioio ?ieue o oeueiio a?ae?a?aee e eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeee iao??a?o oa eiai oea?eiaia aaei?i?no?aoe?y. sse a?aeiii, i?ney io?oe?eiiai i?eeiyooy 988 ?. eiycai Aieiaeeie?ii o?enoeyinoaa a?caio?enueeiai ia?yaeo ia ?on? ?icii/aeany i?aai?caoe?y oea?eae oa ?icaoaeiaa ?? ???a?o??. ?onueea i?aaineaaia oea?eaa i?aeeyaaea aeaae? eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa - aeaae an?o i?aaineaaieo o?enoeyi. A?i iniaenoi aenay/oaaa ieo?iiieeoa, yeee c 1051 ?. noiya ia /ie? ?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae (aae aei XV no. ee?anueeeie ieo?iiieeoaie, ca iacia/ieie aeiyoeaie, ? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ?ieneiiaie aoee o?eueee a?aee). Aeaaa ?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ae?noaa oeooe "ieo?iiieeoa Ee?anueeiai ? an?y ?on?", yeee caa??any a Oe?a?i? aae aei iaoiai /ano. Ee?anueeiio ieo?iiieeoia? i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny ?onuee? ?ieneiie, a ?i, o naith /a?ao, - nayuaieee oa /ai?oe (iiiaoe). Naia ae oea?eaa iaceaaeany ?onueeith, ine?eueee aoee ua a?aoeueea, aieaa?nueea, na?anueea oa ?io? i?aaineaai? oea?eae. Oaeei /eiii, e??i aoi?/iiai e iie?oe/iiai, oa?i?i ?onue iaaoa ua e oea?eiaiiai cia/aiiy. C ?icoe?aiiyi aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaae ia?a?nii? ?on? e ooai?aiiyi Ee?anueei? ?iia??? oea?eiaia th?enaeeeoe?y ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa iioe?thaaeany ia an? iiaii?e?aeiai? oa?eoi???. Iath/e neeueio oea?eiaio aeaaeo e i?oei? iiceoe?? a noni?euenoa?, ee?anuee? ieo?iiieeoe /anoi aeicaieyee nia? ia a onueiio ei?eoeny Eiinoaioeiiiieth, ui aeeeeeaei iino?eia iacaaeiaieaiiy a?caio?enueeeo iao??a?o?a. *a?ac oea, eiee ia Cae?nn? ooai?eeiny e ci?oei?ei ?inoiai-Nocaeaeuenueea, a caiaeii ? Iineianueea eiyc?anoai, iie?oeea e ?aeaieia?/i? canaaee yeeo aacoaaeeny ia i?oeieo i?aeaaeeiao i?aaineaa'y, i?aaeoae? oeeo eiyc?anoa caeiaoee a eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeeo oea?eiaieo ???a?o?a iniaeeao i?eoeeuei?noue ? neiiao?th. I?ney caaithaaiiy Cae?nny iiiaiei-oaoa?aie iiceoe?? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ia oeo caieyo ua a?eueoa ci?oei?ee, ? eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeee iao??a?o ia?aeiiaany, ui ia nocaeaeuenueei-iineianueeeo oa?eoi??yo a?caio?enueea i?aaineaa'y ia? iaei?oei?oo iii?o, a ee?anueeee ieo?iiieeo oai aoaea neooiyi?oei. Oae aeieeea ?aeay ia?aianaiiy ?aceaeaioe?? ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa aei Aieiaeeie?a-ia-Eeycuei?, uia "i?ia/eoe" Ee?a ca eiai /anoo iiiceoe?th aei A?caio??. O 1299 ?. ca iaeacii anaeainueeiai iao??a?oa ee?anueeee ieo?iiieeo Iaenei, ca iioiaeaeaiiyi a?ae, ia?aae?a?oueny ia Nocaeaeueueio, a oeon Cieioi? I?aee. Aei oeueiai i?eoeeueii iinoaaeany ? cieioii?aeeinueeee oai. Ia?anaeeaoenue ia Cae?nny, ee?anuee? ieo?iiieeoe ? oai iaceaaeeny "?onueeeie". Iaei? c ieo ?iaioaaee naaa "ieo?iiieeoaie an?y ?on?", ?io? - "ieo?iiieeoaie Ee?anueeeie ? an?y ?on?"(Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - Euea?a, 1998. - N. 24, 31-35.). Oi?aae??iiy ?onueeith i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith c aieo a?caio?enueeeo aeoo?aiee?a a?aeaoaaeiny o oi?i? aeaaaiai eenooaaiiy i?ae eaioeaey??yie eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa oa ?onueeeo ieo?iiieeo?a. C ia?aianaiiyi ?aceaeaioe?? ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa aei Aieiaeeie?a-ia-Eeycuei? a oea?aa?aaenueei? oea?eiaii? - aaei?i?no?aoe?? aeieeea iio?aaa ?ic??ciyoe aeania ?onue (oiaoi oa?eoi??th oiae?oi?o Ee?anueeiai ? Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei-ai eiyc?anoa) oa O? eieeoi? eieiie - Cae?nny ? Iiaai?iae. Aei ?a/?, iiae?aia neooaoe?y eieenue aeieeea ? a aioe/i?e A?aoe??. Ii?o/ c iao?iiie??th Aeeaaeith ooai?eeeny /eneaii? eieii?? a ?oae??, Ia?aaei?e Ac??, i?aaeaii?e ?on? oa a ?ioeo ?aeiiao Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai aanaeio, /anoi c ae?i?ciaaiei ("ia?a/aiei") ianaeaiiyi. O ca'yceo c oeei o?aaa aoei oa?i?iieia?/ia ?ic??ciyoe iao?iiie?th ? eieii??. Aeeaaeo (oiaoi aeania A?aoe?th) iacaaee I?e?a Aaeean ("Iaea A?aoe?y"), a ?iceeaeai? ii ii?nueeeo ocaa?aaeaeyo eieii?? - Iaaaea Aaeean ("Aaeeea A?aoe?y"). Ine?eueee oea?eiai? eieaeieee ooai?thaaee aaia?ao?/i? iacae, iie?oe/i? oa?i?ie ? oeooee ia iniia? a?aeiieo ?i ?noi?e/ieo aiaeia?e oa i?aoeaaeaio?a, aiie oae i?ae?eoee ? aei ?ic??ciaiiy aeaaiuei? ?on? oa i?ci?oa i?e?aeiaieo aei ia? caiaeue. Ia Neiiae? eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa a 1303 p. i?ae /an ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy i?i ooai?aiiy Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? oea?eiaii? ieo?iiie?? aoei ooaaeaii iaceaaoe oiae?oi? Ee?anueea ? Aaeeoeueea-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoaa I?e?a ?in?y ("Iaea ?in?y", oiaoi "?onue noa?oa, ii/aoeiaa, iniiaia, aeaai?oa"), a Cae?nny e Iiaai?iaeueio - Iaaaea ?in?y ("Aaeeea ?in?y", ui icia/aei "?onue i?ci?oa, iio?aeia, iiainoai?aia"). Ine?eueee o A?caio?? caeaaia cae??ieeany iacaa iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo neia'yi c ei?aiai ?in ("ia?iae ?in"), aiia a?aeaeeany ? a oa?i?i? ?in?y, yeee inoaoi/ii ooaa?aeeany ia e?iaoeue XV no. Ioaea, oa?i?ie ?in?y (?inney), Iaei?in?y, Aaeeei?in?y oa an? iio?aei? a?ae ieo neiaa noi?ioaaeeny a oea?eiaieo eaioeaey??yo anaeainueeiai iao??a?oa. Nii/aoeo ? oeooe "an?y ?on?", ? iacae Iaea ?in?y oa Aaeeea ?in?y aaeeaaeeny eeoa a oea?eiai?e i?aeoeoe? e ia iioe?thaaeeny ia na?onueea ae?eiaiaenoai. O noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei i?ioyaii O-XIII no. ?onnth aaaaeaeany eeoa Iaaeaei?i?yinueea ?onue. sse aeaeii c oiai/anieo e?oiien?a, yeui ooinue ?c Iiaai?iaea, ?inoiaa /e Nocaeaey ae?ooaa aei Ee?aa, *a?i?aiaa aai Ia?ayneaaa, oea ni?eeiaeiny, ui a?i "?aea ia ?onue". Oaeei /eiii, ia oa?eoi??? iaeaooiuei? Iineiaueie i?ae iiiyooyi "?onue" ?icoi?ee no/anio oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie. Iiaai?iaeueia, Cae?nny oa aeaye? ?io? i?ia?ioe?? Ee?anueei? ?iia???, ine?eueee ieie oi?aaeyea ?onueea eiyc?anueea oa oea?eiaia aaei?i?no?aoe?y, aaaaeaeeny "?onueeeie caieyie", aea nai? aiie ?onnth i?eiee ia iaceaaeeny. I?ney a?aeie?aieaiiy Cae?nny a?ae ?onueei? aea?aeaae, eiee aiii aoei caaieiaaia iiiaiei-oaoa?aie e oa?eoei aei neeaaeo Cieioi? I?aee ye ?? cao?aeiee oeon, iacae ?onue, ?onueeee iiaoooaaee ia?aaaaeii na?aae oea?eiaieo eieaeiee?a, aeey yeeo neiii?iii aei iiiyooy "i?aaineaaia oea?eaa" aoea iacaa "?onueea oea?eaa". Iaeiae o?ioe caiaeii, eiee Iineianueea eiyc?anoai, aeie?aieaoenue o ia?o?e iieiaei? XIII no. c Aieiaeeie?i-Nocaeaeuenueeiai, iaaoei cia/ii? aeiiii?/ii? iiaooiino? e iie?oe/ii? aaae, ia'?aeiaei iaaeieeoi? caie? a iaeio oeaio?ae?ciaaio aea?aeaao, iineianuee? i?aaeoae? caoio?ee ii/oaaoe naaa i?e/aoieie aei iie?oe/ii? oa eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie Ee?anueei? ?on? e iaiaaaeeny iane?aeoaaoe ?? o?aaeeoe??. A??iii?aeaeaiee aanae ? ?aoaeueiee neoaa iiiaieuenueeeo oai?a, aei?noieee ? i?aenooiiee iineianueeee eiycue ?aai Eaeeoa, yeee ca ?oi?i iaeacii aithaaa i?ioe Oaa??, Ineiaa oa Niieainueea, ca aeiyoeia? caneoae ia?aae Cieioith I?aeith ae?noaa a?ae ?? oaia (oea?y) Ocaaea oeooe aaeeeiai eiycy "an?y ?on?" (1328 ?.). I?ioa oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui oie oeooe ia iioe?thaaany ? ia i?a ii- oe?aiaaoeny ia anth ?onue. Iaeany ia oaac? eeoa ?onue oaoa?nueea, a ye?e ?nioaaea "?onueea" (oiaoi i?aaineaaia) oea?eaa, a oa?eoi??y ?onueei-Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae iiiaiei-oaoa?ai aoea iai?aeaeaaeia, ioaea, e aeey aeaaee iiainia/aiiai eiycy "an?y ?on?" iaaeinyaeia. Ca oaeeo oiia oeooe "an?y ?on?" i?ecia/aany eeoa aeey aeiiaoiueiai aaeeoeo e icia/aa "aieiaiee oaoa?nueeee aanae", aieiaiee oaoa?nueeee cae?a/ iiaeaoe?a iaa Cae?nn?". Oeae aenieee oeooe c oaeei iaiaaeaiei cia/aiiyi oiae? ia i?euaieany, ? i?i iueiai oaeaeei caaoee. Cian?i ?ioee ci?no o ia?o?e iieiaei? XIV no. iaa oeooe "on??? ?on?" a Aaeeoeueei-aieeinuee?e aea?aeaa?. Oeae oeooe ?acii c ei?ie?anueeith ei?iiith ae?noaa a?ae iaie ?einueeiai a 1253 ?. ua Aeaieei ?iiaiiae/, yeee ni?aaae? oiae? iaioaaa iaae on??th ?onnth a aeaaiueiio ?icoi?ii? ?? aoiia?ao?/iiai a?aaeo. A?aeoiae? an? aaeeoeueei-aieeinuee? eiyc?, i?iaeiaaeoth/e oeth o?aaeeoe?th, iaceaaeeny eiycyie ? ainiiaea?yie "?onueei? caie?" aai "an??? ?onueei? caie?", a ia ia/aoeao aoa a?aeia?aaeaiee oeooe "ei?iey ?on?" (Rex Russiae). Aaeeoeueeee eiycue ?iiai Inoeneaaiae/, yeee c?a?aa on? aoiia?ao?/i? caie? ?onei?a, o e?oiien? iaceaa?oueny "naiiaea?aeaaoeai on??? ?on?". Ia Cae?nn?, a Iineiauei?, aei oeooeo "an?y ?on?" iiaa?ioeeny ciiao iai?ee?ioe? XV no. Ia oeae /an (c 1448 p.) ?onueea i?aaineaaia oea?eaa inoaoi/ii iiae?eeeany ia aea? ieo?iiie?? - ee?anueeo oa iineianueeo. Oea?eao ?on? oa A?ei?on? (ca oiae?oiueith oa?i?iieia?ueth - Eeoae) i/iethaaa "ieo?iiieeo Ee?anueeee, Aaeeoeueeee ? an?y ?on?", a ia /ie? naiii?iaieioaii? iineianueei? ieo?iiie?? noiya na?e ieo?iiieeo, yeee, uia ia aooe ieae/ei ia?aae ieo?iiieeoii ee?anueeei, oaae ii/aa aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?ioeo "ieo?iiieeo iineianueeee ? an?y ?on?". O naith /a?ao, aaeee? aia?oe?? ?iciaeeeeny ? a iineianueeiai eiycy ?aaia III. Caaa?oeaoe ia'?aeiaiiy cae?nueeeo caiaeue iaaeiei Iineae e inoaoi/ii ca?eueieaoenue a?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai iaioaaiiy, a?i, n-a aiaeia??th aei ieo?iiieeoa, i?iaieinea naaa "Ainoaea?ai e naiiaea?aeoeai anay ?one" (1492 ?.), oi/ i? ieo?iiieeo, i? eiycue ia Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e ?on? i?/ei ia aieiae?ee e cian?i ia iaee i?aenoaa a?aoe ia naaa oeooe "an?y ?on?". Oeae oeooe aeei?enoiaoaaee iio?i ? ianooiieee ?aaia III, oi/ aei iacae e?a?ie a?i ia iaa aeiaeiiai noinoieo, ai Iineianueea aea?aeaaa aae aei 1721 ?. i?eiee io?oe?eii ia iaea iacae "?onue", yea, a naith /a?ao, ye iacaa aea?aeaae i?ney caaeaae? Ee?anueei? ?iia??? i?eiee e i?aea ia iiiiaethaaeany. ? a i/ao oiae?oi?o cao?aeieo ?a?iiaeoe?a Iineiaueia oaeiae ia ioioiaeithaaeany c oe?iei a?aeiiith a ?a?ii? ?ooai?ath (oiaoi Oe?a?iith), a iineiaeoe - c ?ooaioeyie. C iiae?eii ?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ia ee?anueeo oa iineianueeo ieo?iiie?? caii/aoeiaaia eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeith oea?eiaiith aaei?i?no?aoe??th o?aaeeoe?y aeei?enoiaoaaoe iacae Iaea ?in?y ? Aaeeea ?in?y ua a?eueoa ci?oei?ea. I?ae ?? aieeaii aaeeoeueeee eiycue TH??e II (iiia? 1340 ?.) ye ni?aaaei?e niaaeei?iaoeue ?onueei-Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae ii/eiaa a?aiioe oi?ioeith: "Ie, TH??e, c Aiaei? eanee i?e?iaeaeaiee eiycue onay Iaeey ?in??..." (1331 ?. oa ?i.). ? a a?aiioao eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeeo iao??a?o?a, ii/eiath/e c 1347 ?., Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea eiyc?anoai /anoi iaceaa?oueny Iaeith ?in??th ye i?ioenoaaeaiiy iineianueeei caieyi, oiaoi Aaeee?e ?in??. O XV-XVII no. oe?a?inuee? eieaeieee e aenie? oea?eiai? ???a?oe noaee aaeeaaoe oa?i?i "?in?y" ? ieooaoe eiai c iacaith "?onue". A io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao oiai /ano cana?ae/ai? oae? oeooee: "Ieo?iiieeo E?aaneiai i?anoiea e anay ?in?e" (ieo?iiieeo Iena?e, 1476 ?.), "ieo?iiieeo Eeaauneee, Aaeeoeueeee e anay ?innee" (ieo?iiieeo ?iao?e Iio?e, 1605 ?.) oa ?i., a ?oneie (oe?a?ioe? oa a?ei?one) ?iiae? iaceaaee naaa "?in?enueeei" aai "?inueeei" ia?iaeii, i?aee?anethth/e oei naiei naith iaoe?iiaeueio a?aei?ii?noue a?ae iineianueeeo "?onneeo". O nai?e Iineiauei? oa?i?ie ?iney, ?inney ia iicia/aiiy e?a?ie ii/aee aaeeaaoeny a XVI no.: iacaa ?inney aia?oa cana?ae/aia a iineianuee?e a?aiio? 1517 ?., a a iaae?oeiaaiiio 1577 ?. o Iineianuee?e Neiaiae? "Inaeoe??" aia?oa aaeeoi iacao "Aaeee?y ?in?e". A?ae na?aaeeie XVI no. ?inneae noaee iaceaaoe anth noeoii?noue caiaeue, ui oa?eoee ia oie /an aei Iineianueei? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. I?ioyaii XVI-XVII no. c'yaeeeny oaeiae i?eeiaoieee ?inneee, ?inneeneee. sse a?aecia/ea I. Einoiia?ia, "neiai ?inn?y aai ?in?y, ?inneeneee aoei ia ii/aoeo eieaeiei, ?eoi?e/iei, iiae?aiei aei oiai, ye O?aioe?y iaceaaeany Aaee??th, Iieueua- Na?iao??th, I?ia//eia - Aa?iai??th, Oai?ueia - Iai-iii??th ? o. ae. C iieiaeie XVII no. aiia noaea io?oe?ic- iith, aea caaaeueiiaaeeaaiei ia?iaeiei neiaii ia c?iaeeany aei i?ci?oeo /an?a" (Einoiia?ia I. E. Aeaaii ee Iaeay ?onue noaea ienaoueny Iaei?inneath? // Caienee Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa a Ee?a?. - E., 1928. - O. XXVII.). O na?aaeei? XVII no. iineianueeee oea? Ieaen?e Ieoaeeiae/, caeiaoaoe i?ney Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee 1654 ?. i?ioaeoi?ao iaae oae caaiith Aaoueiaiueiith, aeei?enoaa noa?o oea?eiaii-aaei?i?no?aoeaio oa?i?iieia?th eiinoaioeiiiieuenueei? iao??a?oi? eaioeaey??? ? a 1655 ?. i?eeiya ia naaa oeooe "anay Aaeeeay, Iaeay e Aaeay ?one naiiaea?aeaoe". A?ae ae?oai? iieiaeie XVII no. ? aei ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. Iaei?in?y iaiaaeoaaeany eeoa E?aiaa?aaeiith Oe?a?iith, oiaoi Aaoueiaiueiith (Iieoaaueia, *a?i?a?aueia, a oaeiae i. Ee?a), ii?yae c yeith aoee oaeiae caie? A?enueea Caii?icueeiai (noaiiaa Oe?a?ia) oa Neia?aenueea Oe?a?ia. Aeey caiaeue A?enueea Caii?icueeiai (i?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia) oea?nueeee o?yae aeaaaeaa ooo/io iacao "Iiai?inney". Neiaiaeaiueia, yea a o?yaeia?e iia? o?eaaeee /an iaceaaeany "Neiaiaeneay Oe?aeia", ioiiethaaea an? no?aei? aoiia?ao?/i? caie? oe?a?ioe?a, oiaoi no/anio Oa?e?aueio, /anoeio Noiueie, Aeiia//eie, Eoaaiueie, a oaeiae i?aaeaiue A?eai?iaenueei?, Ai?iiacueei?, Eo?nueei? ? /anoeiai ?inoianueei? iaeanoae ?in??. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?noi?e/ia Aaoueiaiueia ("Iaei?inney") ? Neiaiaeaiueia ("Neiaiaeneay Oe?aeia") aoee canaeai? iaeiei ia?iaeii - oe?a?ioeyie, oe? caie? o?eaaeee /an iaee a oea?nuee?e ?in?? ??ciee aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee noaoon: Aaoueiaiueia aei ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII no. caa??aaea aeaye? i?eeiaoe aaoiiiiii? aea?aeaae (oi/ ? i?ae caa?oi?noth ?in?enueeiai ?iia?aoi?a), a Neiaiaeaiueia a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo iaeaaeaea aei Iineianueei? aea?aeaae ye ?? i?aaeaiia i?ia?ioe?y. ??cieoeth i?ae oeeie oa?eoi??yie a?ae/oaaee e oe?a?inuee? ienueiaiieee e?ioey XVIII - ii/aoeo XIX no., ye? iiaee iaa?oue i?ioenoaaeyoe Neia?aenueei-Oe?a?inueeo aoaa?i?th Aaoueiaiuei?, a A. Neiai?iaea iaceaaa "Iaei?in?th" nai?th iao??'th, a "Oe?a?io" (Neiaiaeaiueio) - o?oeith. Iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. io?oe?eia ?in?enueea iacaa "Iaea ?in?y", "Iaei?in?y" ii/aea iioe?thaaoeny e ia iiaii?e?aeiai? aei ?in?? (i?ney iiae?e?a ?a/? Iinii- eeoi? a 1772, 1793 ? 1795 ?ieao i?ae ?in??th, Aano???th oa I?onn??th) i?aaiaa?aaei? oe?a?inuee? caie?. C 1832 ?. oea?nueeee o?yae cai?iaaaeea aeey I?aaiaa?aaeaey eieii?aeueio iacao "THai-Caiaaeiue e?ae". Iacaaaeath/e ia an? iiooae oea?nueeeo /eiiaiee?a, ooo/ia iacaa "Iaei?in?y" a Oe?a?i? ia i?eaeeeany ? i?eiee ia aaeeaaeany na?aae i?inoiai ia?iaeo. Oae naii ? a Iineiauei? aiaeia?/iee a?aoeueeee aeoa?? "Aaee-ei?in?y" iiaoooaaa eeoa a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao, a ia a oniiio iiaeaii?. Uia oieeiooe oa?i?ia "Iaei?in?y", yeee oea?nuee? eieii?caoi?e aeei?enoiaoaaee ye iaeei c anei?eyoi?nueeeo cania?a, oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?ia ae?oa a XIX no. aaeeaaea aecia/aiiy "THaeiay ?onue", "thaeii?onneee" (iai?eeeaae, "Caienee i THaeiie ?one" I. Eoe?oa, "Aoeaa?ue thaeii?onneee" O. Oaa/aiea oiui). Eieii?aeueia iacaa "Iaei?in?y" ?acii c aoiii?iii iaei?in, iaei?ine iinooiiai iaaoaa? ia?aceeaiai aeey oe?a?ioe?a caaa?aeaiiy ye iciaea /iainue ieae/iai e iaio aa?o?niiai. Ia ??ai? iaei?in?enoaa ?iia?nueea Iineaa ai?iaeiaae noie?oue iaiaaaeany caii?iceoe iao iaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie, ui ?e cia/iith i??ith aaeaeiny c?iaeoe ia caaa?aaieo iath no?aeieo ? i?aaeaiieo oa?aiao Oe?a?ie. O Aaee/ei?, I?eea?iaoo? e ia Caea?iaoo?, eoaee ia nyaioea caa?aaoua iineianueea ?oea, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue oe?a?ioe?a iaaaaaoi aeua (Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - Euea?a, 1998. - N. 30-41, 75-90. Aeea. oaeiae: Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee ?. ?noi?e/i? ana. - O. ?. - E., 1994. - N. 44, 248.). Ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. a?aeaoeany ci?ia iacae Iineianueei? aea?aeaae. Oea? Iao?i ? iaiaaaany cieueoe ii/oooy naiiaooiino? a oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a ii??aiyii c iineiaeoaie, a oaeiae ? Iineiaueio i?eeo/eoe aei ?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??. C oe??th iaoith a?i iaa?oue iaa iai?? ia?aianoe noieeoeth aei Ee?aa. ? aeey oeueiai aoee iaai? i?aenoaae. "Oe?a?ia oeueiai /ano yaeyea yne?aaee eiio?ano aei Iineia?? ia o?eueee aenieei ??aiai ina?oe ? iioe?aiiyi ?? a iaeoe?oeo ia?iaeieo ianao, aea e a?aei?ii?noth caaaeueiiai aeooo eoeueoo?e, iiaooo ? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Oiae? ye Iineia?y a?aeai?iaeaeoaaeany a?ae Caoiaeo "eeoaenueeei io?ii" ? i?ioenoaaeyeany ?a?ii?, Oe?a?ia c e?ioey XVII noie?ooy iineeaea cia/io e?eue- e?noue nai?? iieiae? o aeu? oeiee e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie" (Aieoaaiea I. Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y o na?oe? eoeueoo?ieo aca?iei. - E., 1993. - N. 129.). Oi ae ia aeeaii, ui Iao?i ?, i?aaio/e iaaeeceoe ?in?th aei ?a?iie, ii/aa nie?aoeny ia eoeueoo?iee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie, yea a?aeoiae? o?eaaeee /an aeeaeea Iineiaueio ?ioaeaeooaeueieie neeaie. "Oaea naia iaeaaei?noue aei oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueiino? aoea iaaiei aoanoaoii aeey ia?eiaiiy aeniei? iinaaee a Iinea?" (Iaea?neee I. Iaoea e eeoa?aoo?a a ?innee i?e Iao?a Aaeeeii. - NIa, 1862. - N. 2.). O XVIII no. a ?in?? ia aoei aeiaeii? noa?e ?ioaeaeooaeueii? e aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?, a ye?e ae ia a?aee aeoeaii? o/ano? aeo?aeoe? c E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Oey ae?yeuei?noue aoea aeoaea ie?aeiith e ?acoeueoaoeaiith a iie?oeoe?, iaooe?, ina?o?, e?oa?aoo??, eoeueoo??, ioceoe?, aeo?iae?noeoe?, ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa? e iniaeeai a oea?eiaiiio aeeoo? (ca Iao?a ? any aeua oea?eiaia ???a?o?y neeaaeaeany aeeeth/ii c oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a). Na?aae iaea?aeii?oeo iinoaoae, ye? c Oe?a?ie iio?aieee aei ?in??, - nei eicaea Ie?ai?iaenueeiai iieeo Oaaei?a *aeee Iao?i Oaaei?iae/ *aeea (o ?in?? a?i ia?a?iaea nai? i??caeua ia *aeeianueeiai) - ae?ae a?aeiiiai eiiiiceoi?a Iao?a ?ee?/a *aeeianueeiai, A?eai??e Iieaoeea (oeeaa ii??aiyeueiee neiaiee o?noueia iiaaie - ?in?enueeith, aeaaiueia?aoeueeith, eaoeinueeith, o?aioeocueeith, i?iaoeueeith, aiae?enueeith), Oaae?? Ai?i (ca/eiaoaeue iiaiai e?oa?aoo?iiai aeai?o a ?in?? - ?in?enueeiai ?iiaio), oaeaiiaeo? ooaeiaeieee A. Einaiei, Ae. Eaaeoeueeee, A. Ai?iaeeianueeee, ?. Ia?oin, anana?oiuei a?aeii? eiiiiceoi?e I. Aa?acianueeee oa Ae. Ai?oiyinueeee ? nioi? ?ioeo eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a. C Oe?a?ie aei Iineae i?eeoee e ia?o? a?aiaoeee oa neiaieee oea?eiaiineia'yinueei? iiae, ?noi?e/i? oai?e oa ??ciiiai?oia e?oa?aoo?a ?ioeo aeai??a. I?a?aoe?y oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a o Iineiaueio ia caaaeaee aoea aeia?ia?eueiith, a aeineoue /anoi e i?eioniaith ?c canoinoaaiiyi ae?aeii?anueeeo iaoiae?a (iniaeeai noiniaii iaiiaiie?oi?o oeiioe?a, yeeo nenoaiaoe/ii iaae?aee aeey ni?aaoeueei? eaiaee i?e oea?nueeiio aeai?? e ianeeueii, /anoi iacaaaeaee, ?iceo/aee ?o c aaoueeaie). O? ae, ooi ia?aae?aany aei ?in?? aeia?ia?eueii, ea?oaaee- ny ??cieie iioeaaie: iaei? ooeaee oai /ei?a, iaai?iae, ii/anoae ? neaae, ?io? ia?aii niiae?aaeeny ieoeueoo?eoe oo "aa?aa?nueeo" e?a?io, i?aeiyoe ?? aei oe?a?inueeiai ??aiy. I?ioa ia ieioei e i?anoie?ooy, ye ianoaei a??ea ?ic/a?oaaiiy. ?icaeoie ?in?enueei? ?iia??? i?oia ia oae, ye oiai oio?ee ee?anuee? eieaeieee, a ca?aeii c iie?oeeith ? caeiiaie iai?aii? ?in?enueei? iaoe??. "I?e/eie ii?acee oe?a?ioe?a o ?o ciaaaiiyo ia eoeueoo?iiio iie?, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?aoi?ioaaiiy Iineianueei? aea?aeaae ? iaaeeaeaiiy ?? aei ae?enieo eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e Ee?anueei? ?on?, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e - aei oe?a?inueeeo o?aaeeoe?e, iiyniththoueny i?e/eiaie aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ii?yaeeo. Iiaa ?in?enueea aea?aeaaa nai?i noeeai ? nai?ie ii?yaeeaie aoea iineianueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? ia iiaea aooe ia?aoai?aia eeoa eoeueoo?ieie caniaaie ? eoeueoo?ieie neeaie ?ioiai ia?iaeo. ? oiio aoei ooii??th oo aea?aeaao eoeueoo?ii caaithaaoe ? ?aoi?ioaaoe a aeon? ? noee? cian?i ?ioiai ia?iaeo e ?ioi? eoeueoo?e. sse? a ia aoee aaeee? oe?a?inuee? aieeae a ?in?enuee?e eoeueoo??, ?in?enueea aea?aeaaa aani?aoaaea o?eueee oa, ui a?aeiia?aeaei ?e ? ineoieia?? ?in?enueeiai ia?iaeo. Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a ia iiaea ia?aiiaoe oaiaeaioe?e ? o?aaeeoe?eiiai eaaeo ?in?enueeiai ethaeo, ai aiia aoea ?e /oaeith ? oiio /eieea ni?ioea, yeee i?ci?oa ia?aeoia o ianooi ? ieuaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e an?ia aaei?i?no?aoeaieie, iie?oe?eieie caniaaie aea?aeaae" (Aieoaaiea I. Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y o na?oe? eoeueoo?ieo aca?iei. - Iueth-Ei?e - Ia?eae - Oi?iioi. - 1987. - N. 288. Oeeo. ca i?aoeath: Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - Euea?a, 1998. - N. 86.). Aei oeueiai ne?ae aeiaeaoe, ui iine?aeiaia, o?eaaea ? oe?eani?yiiaaia ai?ioueaa ?in?enueeiai oea?ecio i?ioe anueiai oe?a?inueeiai aoea ni?yiiaaia ia o?eueee ia ieuaiiy aaaaoia?eiaeo eoeueoo?ieo caeiaooe?a iaoiai ia?iaeo, aea e ia ci?io eiai iaioaeueiino?, ia?aoai?aiiy eiai a ianeaia "noaaei aa?aiia". Aaoiaii (?ai?aneaieie caoiaeaie) uiaei i?inoiai ethaeo ? i?yieeii (?icaeaaaiiyi i?ea?ea?a, aeai?yinueeeo caaiue, iaai?iae, i?anoeaeieo ? aea?aeieo aea?aeaaieo iinaae, ia?oe?a c e??iaeaie) noiniaii eieeoiuei? eicaoeueei? noa?oeie oa ?? iauaaee?a ?in?enuee?e oea?nuee?e aeaae? cia/iith i??ith aaeaeiny aeinyaiooe nai?? iaoe - ciae?iaeoe oe?a?inueeo ae?oo, cieueoe a i?e ii/oooy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? e nie?aea?iino? ? a oaeee niin?a iaacaeaaeoe oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai. Aeey Oe?a?ie oea iaei oaoaeuei? iane?aeee. Aaeaea eiee a XIX no. o aaaaoueio ia?iae?a ?a?iie ii/aany ?noi?e/iee aoai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ? a ieo (cie?aia, o cao?aeieo ? i?aaeaiieo neia'yi) iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/i? ?ooe i/ieeee iaea?eueo caiiaei?, ina?/ai? ? aieeaia? aa?noae noni?euenoaa, a Oe?a?i? ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a iai?aieo eean?a (aeai?yie, ao?aeoac?y) aaea aoee iano?eueee aeaiaoe?iiae?ciaai?, ui ni?eeiaee oe?a?inueeo ?aeath aaeaeoaea, a oe?a?inueea iiaa, yea noaea iiaith ia?aaaaeii iaina?/aieo naeyi, eoeueoo?a e iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo caaaeii aeey ieo oaea aoee aeaeaeeie, /oaeeie ? iaa?oue ai?iaeeie. *a?ac oea a ai?iouea? c oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei ?ooii aeaiaoe?iiae?ciaaia oe?a?inueea noni?eueia ae?oa, ca iacia/ieie aeiyoeaie, ii noo? aenooieea nithcieeii oea?ecio. O 1721 ?. ca oeacii Iao?a ? Iineianueea aea?aeaaa ae?noaea iacao "?inneeneay eiia?ey", yea ia'?aeiaea, e??i aeania ?in?enueeiai, oaeiae e ?ioiaoi?/i? oa ?ioiiiai? ia?iaee. Iio?aeiee a?ae ?iaiieea ?inney i?eeiaoiee ?inneeneee noaa icia/aoe iaeaaei?noue aei ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Ci?ithth/e iacao nai?? aea?aeaae, Iao?i ? i?aaioa oaeei /eiii ia o?eueee cieueoe ii/oooy ie?aiino? oe?a?ioe?a oa a?ei?on?a noiniaii iineiaeo?a, aea e i?enai?oe aaee/aci? iie?oe/i? oa eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy Ee?anueei? ?on?. Iaeiae iinoa? ieoaiiy: /iio a oaeiio ?ac? a?i ia aeei?enoaa o?aaeeoe?eiiai oa?i?ia ?onue ("?onneay eiia?ey"), a caiice/ea a?aoeueeee oa?i?i ?inney? ??/ o oiio, ui neiai ?onue o Iineiauei? na?aae i?inoiai ethaeo ia aaeeaaeiny. ? oai, ? a on?e ?a?ii? ciaee, ui ?onue - oea e?ae, yeee eaaeeoue i?ai?/i?oa *i?iiai ii?y iaae Aei?i?ii, Aei?no?ii, Aoaii ? Nyiii. sseae ?onnth aoei iacaaii e Iineianueeo aea?aeaao, oea ne??cue iiaei a ni?eeiaoeny, ui aiia noaea /anoeiith niieiia?/ii? ?on?-Oe?a?ie. Uia c'?aeiaoe Oe?a?io e Iineiaueio a iaeio aea?aeaao, a ye?e aaiiie?oe/-iei oeaio?ii ni?eeiaeany a iineianueea oa?eoi??y, a Oe?a?ia aenooiaea a ye i?eaeaoie aei ia?, Iao?i ? ? aaea any aei ooo/iiai, aea ia oie /an aeineoue iioe?aiiai oea?eiaiiai oa?i?ia ?in?y, ?inn?y (Aeaoaeuei?oa aeea.: Oeaaaeunueeee E. Ca?aeee acyeeny ? ui cia/aoue iacae "?onue" ? "Oe?a?ia"? - Euea?a, 1907. - N. 57. Aeea. oaeiae: Iaeiia/iee ?. Cacia/, i?aoey. - N. 87.). Aeaai?e oa?i?i ?onue, ocyoee a oe?a?ioe?a, o oi?i? i?eeiaoieea ?onneee a?ae XVI no. a Iineiauei? ii/aa nii?aaee/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey iacae ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino?. Aa?oi caa?iooe oaaao ia iacae/io ao?eaooeaio oi?io oeueiai aoiii?ia. Aaeaea naiiiacae an?o neia'yinueeeo ia?iae?a ? noanoaioeaieie e a?aeiia?aeathoue ia ieoaiiy ?iaiieea ooi? (oe?a?iaoeue, a?ei?on, iieye, /ao, neiaae, oi?aao), a ia i?ena?eiiai i?eeiaoieea /ee? ?in?yie ae, ia a?aei?io a?ae caeiiii??ii? naiiiacae oe?a?ioey o /ane Ee?anueei? ?on? - ?onei (ooi?), eiee eaeaoueny i?i ?oith iaoe?iiaeueio iaeaaei?noue, a?aeiia?aeathoue ia ieoaiiy /ee? ("?onneee"), oiaoi oaeoe/ii noaa?aeaeothoue, ui eaeaoueny i?i oeo, eio?? iaeaaeaoue ?oneiai (Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - N. 90-91. ). I?ioa ? e ?ioa oeoia/aiiy oeueiai aoiii?ia. Ia aeoieo aeayeeo aeine?aeiee?a, naiiiacao ?onneea ne?ae aaaaeaoe ?ae?eoii eieii?aeueii? eee/ee neia'yi?ciaaii? /oae?. sse a?aeiii, i?ioyaii O- XII no. ee?anuee? oa iiaai?iaenuee? eoeueoo?o?aaa?e o i?ioean? o?enoeyi?caoe?? oeeo ieaiai iaa'ycaee ?i aiaineoaeaiao iiao Ee?aa ? iacao, yea aeacoaaea ia iaeaaei?noue ?o aei ?on? ("?onneea") (Eeia TH. I?ecia/aiiy Oe?a?ie. - Iueth-Ei?e, 1953. - N.153. ). Ca ?ioith aa?n??th, ao?eaooeaia oi?ia oa?i?ia ?onneee iiynith?oueny iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeei aieeaii. O i?aeaeaaeiiio iiiaiei-oaoa?ai Cae?nn?, ca?aeii c ?oi?ie oyaeaiiyie i?i aea?aeaaiee ono??e, aoaeue-yeee i?aeaeaiaoeue ao?a/aa naith iniaeno?noue, iaa?oue iaoe?iiaeueio iaeaaei?noue, ? noaaaa ??//th, aeani?noth i?aaeoaey, yeee iiaea iei aeia?eueii ?icii?yaeaeaoeny. Cie?aia, /oaenueeee ca iioiaeaeaiiyi i?aeaeaiee, ui aoa aeani?noth ?onueeiai eiycy, aeey iiiaie?a oaae noaaaa ?onueeith ethaeeiith, a ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith iniaeno?noth. I?e /anoeo ia?aienao i?eeiaoiee ?onneee cae??ieany na?aae ianaeaiiy Cae?nny ia icia/aiiy aoiii?ia (ia?iaeiiai ?iai?) (Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - N. 93. ). *a?ac oea e iiaa oeueiai ia?iaeo noaea iaceaaoeny "?onneei ycueii", a ia "?inneeneei" (oi/ I. Eiiiiinia iacaaa naith i?aoeth "?inneeneay a?aiiaoeea"), ai oea icia/aei a "iiaa an?o ia?iae?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae". A io?oe?eiiio aaeeoeo aoiii?i ?onneee cae??ieany iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no., eiee oea?eoey Eaoa?eia II "auni/aeoei iiaaeaieai" inoaoi/ii iaeacaea iineianueeiio ia?iaeia? iaceaaoeny "?onneeie" ? caai?iieea eiio aaeeaaoe iacao "iineiaeoyia". Iaeiae aoiii?i ?onneea /e ?onuee? cian?i ia ni?eeiaee non?aei? c Iineiaueiith ia?iaee - a?ei?one, iieyee ? oei a?eueoa oe?a?ioe?, ye? ia iiaee cie?eoeny c oei, uia ?oiy aeaaiy naiiiacaa aoea ia?aianaia ia iineiaeo?a. Ia?oeie ia eiii?ii?n i?oee iieyee ye iaeiaio caoe?eaaeaia noi?iia: uiaei iineiaeo?a, ye? noaee iaceaaoe naaa ?onneeie, aiie ii/aee aaeeaaoe iio?aeiee a?ae a?aoeueeiai neiaa "?in?y" oa?i?i ?in?yie (Rosjanie, Rosjanin, Rosjanka). One?ae ca ieie oeae oa?i?i o ienaii?e iia?, a iio?i ? a oniiio iiaeaii? ii/aee aeei?enoiaoaaoe e oe?a?inuee? oa a?ei?onuee? aaoi?e, ? a oe?a?inuee?e iia? a?i noaa e?oa?aoo?iith ii?iith. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai, a a?ei?onuee?e iia? aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a ?one?, ?an?ene? caiaeii aoei i?enoiniaaia aei ii?i aaeeaaiiy ?in. ?onneee, ?inneeneee. Aeaicia/i?noue ? iaei?aeoi?noue i?eeiaoieeiai? oi?ie aoiii?ia ?onneee aoee i/aaeaei? e aeey naieo ?in?yi. I?ioyaii XVIII-XIX no. aiie ?iaeee ni?iae aei?aaeoe oeae oa?i?i, cai?iaaaeeaoe cai?noue iueiai noanoaioeaiaai? oi?ie ?innu, ?inn?yia. Iaeiae oe? oi?ie, ii?iaeaeai? aenieei "ooeeai", noaee ni?eeiaoeny ye a?oa?/i? e ia i?eaeeeeny (Aaaaaa ?. No?aiu e ia?iaeu: I?ienoiaeaeaiea iacaaiee. - I., 1990. - N. 152; Iaeiia/iee ?. Oe?aaaeaia ?i'y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. - N. 92. ). O ?in?enueeiio i?eeiaoieeo ?oonneee ceeeeny aeaa iiiyooy: ?onueeee (oiaoi "oe?a?inueeee") ? ?onneee "?in?enueeee", a oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaii?icoi?iue ? iaa?oue aei iie?oe/ieo niaeoeyoe?e. O no/anieo ?in?enueeeo caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaa?oue o aeayeeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iiiyooy ?onueeee aiioe Ee?anueei? ?on?, ui iaeiicia/ii icia/a? "oe?a?inueeee", ia?aaea?oueny neiaii ?onneee ? o?aeoo?oueny ye "?in?enueeee". I?iiiceoe?y aeaaeai?ea Ae. Eeoa/aaa oaanoe a ?in?enueeo iiao i?ee- iaoiee ?onueneee a?ae ?iaiieea ?onue, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?onneee o cia/aii? "?in?enueeee", ia ciaeoea i?aeo?eiee c aieo ?in?enueeeo o/aieo ? ?in?enueei? a?iiaaenueeino?. A?eueoa oiai, iei? noaei iiaeiei iaa?oue i?aei?iyoe iiiyooy Ae?aaiyy ?onue, ae?aaia?onneee (oiaoi "iaeaaeiee aei ia??iaeo Ee?anueei? ?on?") i?ino?oeie ? aeaeiio aea?aei?oeie ?onue (o ?icoi?ii? "?in?y"), ?onneee. A ca?aene - aeaeaeinyaei? aeniiaee: Ee?anueea ?onue - oea oa naia, ui e ?in?y, a aeaaiuei?onueea iiaa - oea "?onneee ycue". Ioaea, aeoiaeeoue oae, ui iei?oiy ?in?enueea iiaa cao/aea o cieioiaa?oiio noieueiiio a?aae? Ee?a?, a oea cia/eoue, ui aeaaiuei?onuee? iaoeaioe? Ee?aa (oa e ona neia'yinueea ianaeaiiy Ee?anueei? ?on?) aoee ?onneeie, oiaoi ?in?yiaie. Eiee ? ca?aeee acyeeny ooo oe?a?ioe?, aeey aaaaoueio oe?a?iioia?a caeeoa?oueny caaaaeeith. Aeey ?? ?icaaaeee aeaooi ?iaeoue ni?iao a?ae?iaeeoe noiiica?nio a?iioaco na?aaeeie ieioeiai noie?ooy aeaae. I. Iiaiae?ia, ue?i a??y/e, one?ae ca iei, ui a aeaaiueiio Ee?a? e ia an?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? niieiia?/ia aeeee ?in?yie, a oe?a?ioe? i?aeoi i?eeoee nthaee c-i?ae Ea?iao ? canaeeee nionoioai? iiiaiei-oaoa?aie i?inoi?e aae iai?ee?ioe? XV no. sse ie aaea a?aecia/aee, iani?iiiaei?noue oe??? a?iioace ia?aeiieeai aeia?a ua I. Iaeneiiae/ a?ae?aco ae i?ney ?? iiyae. A?aeoiae? ieioei iiiaae noie?ooy, ? aeine?aeieee aeaaiuei?onueei? ?noi??? e aeaaiuei-ee?anueei? ienaiii? iiae aeinyaee aaee/acieo oni?o?a. On? i?ci?o? nooae?? ienaiiino? Ee?anueei? ?on?, ui aacoaaeeny ia aea/aii? naieo aeieoiaio?a ? oaeo?a, a ia ia eii'thieoo?ieo ianoaiiaao, i?aeoaa?aeeee neooi?noue a?aoiaioaoe?? I. Iaeneiiae/a i?i aaoiooiii?noue oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ia Na?aaei?e Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? e, cie?aia, o Ee?a?, ?ice?eee ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? nai i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?aii?o no?aeiineia'yinueeeo ia?iaeiinoae, i?ney /iai a?iioaca I. Iiaiae?ia ni?eeia?oueny ye i?ee?a iaii?icoi?iiy. Aaeaea iaa?oue iei?oiy aeaiaioa?ia oe?eueia i?ia?aia c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie caaacia/o? i?i?ioi ciaiue aeey i?aaeeueii? i???ioaoe?? a aoiiiiai?e neooaoe?? o Ee?anuee?e ?on?, ? eiaeai oeiey? ia? ciaoe, ui Ee?anueea ?onue - oea ia ?in?y, a ?onueea iiaa - oea ia ?in?enueea iiaa. Iai?ioethaaiiy oa?i?iaie ?onue, ?onneee, ?inney a iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?anao ia iaiaaeo?oueny eeoa iiaiae?inueeith a?iioacith. Aaeaea iacaa e?a?ie ?in?y cana?ae/aia... o "A(a)eania?e eiec?", ui a aeina?ae/aiiai /eoa/a aeeeeea? iaaaeyea caeeaoaaiiy. Oeth eieao, iaienaio ia aea?aa'yieo aeiua/eao, a?ae yeeo /a?ac ai?ii? eeoie?ooy aeine?aeieee iathoue eeoa oioieii?th iaei??? c ieo ? o?aine?oa?iaaiee oa ia?aeeaaeaiee TH. Ie?iethaiaei ia no/anio ?in?enueeo iiao oaeno on?o caa?aaeaieo aeiua/ie, aeaye? aiaoi?e iaoi? noa?iaeie aaaaeathoue iaeaeaai?oith iai'yoeith Oe?a?ie-?on? e a?aeiinyoue ?? aei V-IX no. I?ioa o?eieiae-neaa?noe oe?eeii ia??oioiaaii noii?aathoueny a aaoaioe/iino? "A(a)eaniai? eieae", ai a i?e iao?aiey?ii ia aaaaoi ??cieo iaaeieaaeiinoae o ci?no? e oi?i? aeeeaaeo, ui aaniethoii noia?a/aoue caaaeueiia?aeiiei ? aacnoii?aiei ?noi?e/iei oa iiaiei oaeoai. E??i aaee/acii? e?eueeino? (iiiaae 400) noa?ineia'yinueeeo (oiaoi noa?iaieaa?nueeeo) ? ooo/ii neiino?oeiaaieo i?ae noa?ineia'yinuee? oiiaoe/ieo oa eaene/ieo eiiiiiaio?a (ye naia aiie iiaee iio?aieoe a "oe?a?inueeo" iai'yoeo yce/ieoeueei? aeiae, iaa?aeiii, ai aei i?eeiyooy o?enoeyinoaa ia ?on? aoei ua aeoaea aeaeaei), "iiaiiai a?iaa?aoo" c oeia?ii ci?oaieo aeaiaio?a iaeaea an?o neia'yinueeeo iia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo ia??iae?a ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo, ui yaey? niaith nai???aeiee "caaaeueiineia'yinueeee no?aeee", o "A(a)eania?e eiec?" aeoaea ianoi?iaeo? ?? ae?acia i?i?in?enueea ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue. Aiii?iiee aaoi? oeueiai oai?o aaaaeaa, ui neia'yie iioiaeyoue c ?iae??, ?oith iniiao noaiiaeee ?in?yie, a?ae yeeo a?aeaaeoceeeny an? ?io? neia'yinuee? ia?iaee. A?i oaa?aeeoue, ui iaeia?o? i?noa aeieeee a ?in?? ("io ?inaue"), ui "?onuee?" (oiaoi ?oneie-oe?a?ioe?) i?eeoee oaeiae c ?in?? ("iae ?in??") ia iaaeaei?i?yinuee? caie?, ? oai Eee canioaaa i?noi Ee?a (nii/aoeo aiii iaei iacao ?iae?ee?a). I?eeoiaoe c ?iae??, neia'yie ua ia aoee o?enoeyiaie, aea aaea aoee aioia? aei ni?eeiyooy o?enoeyinoaa. Iaeiae ni?aaaei? o?enoeyinoai - oea eeoa i?aaineaa'y, ai cao?aei? neia'yie iathoue oeaio a??o (eaoieeoeueeo). Ine?eueee neia'yie eieenue aoee ?aeei?, oaea ?aei?noue ia? aooe a?aeiiaeaia aeey oiai, uia on? aiie noai?eee ?aeeio aaeeeo ? iiaooith ni?eueiineia'yinueeo aea?aeaao i?ae aaaaiii??th ?in??. Aeoaea aeeaii, ui oeae caianeiaaiee i?ae noa?iaeio iie?oe/iee iaioeao yeiainue ?in?enueeiai aaeeeiaea?aeaaieea-oia?i?noa XVIII aai XIX no. aeaooi iaceaa? "ne?eaeaeyie aoooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo", ienaiiith iai'yoeith, yeith ne?ae ieoaoeny, yeiaeoe?oa ?? iiioey?ecoaaoe ? iaa?oue aeeth/aoe ?? aei oe?eueii? i?ia?aie. Oaea naia iaei?aeoia, iaaei?a/ia aaeeaaiiy iacae ?in?y a iai'yooe? i?aeoi V-IX no., eiee oeueiai oa?i?ia ia aoei ? ia iiaei aooe (a?i c'yaeany ia ii/aoeo XIV no.), iacaia?a/ia na?ae/eoue (?acii c aaaaoueia ?ioeie aeieacaie) i?i oa, ui "A(a)eaniaa eieaa" - oea a iniiaiiio oaeueneo?eaoe?y, oi/ aeaye? aeiua/ee iiaee aooe aeaai?ie (aai neii?eiaaieie c i?ea?iae?a). Oe?eeii i/aaeaeia e iaia?ciai?noue ?? aaoi?a c ?noi???th oiiii?i?a ?onue, ?in?y, /ei a?i aee?ea nai naaa ye oaeueneo?eaoi?. Iaeiae ia iiaeia aeeeth/aoe e oiai, ui aaoi?-i?ae?iaethaa/ "A(a)eaniai? eieae" aeei?enoaa yeeenue iaa?aeiiee aeaai?e aeieoiaio (e?oiien, o?ii?eo, eaaaiaeo), noai?aiee ia?a?niei ee?eee/iei ienueiii, oiaoi iai'yoeo a?ae oiai ia??iaeo, yeee aein? a iaooe? aaaaea?oueny aacienaiiei, aea aiia, yeui ni?aaae? aoea, ia ae?eoea aei iaoiai /ano. Iiaia neooaoe?y a Ee?anuee?e ?on? ?icaeyaeath/e iiai? i?iaeaie a Ee?anuee?e ?on?, ne?ae /?oei ?ic??ciyoe aeaa ??ai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae a aeaaiuei?onueeiio noni?euenoa? - ae?aeaeoiee ? e?oa?aoo?iee. O Ee?anuee?e ?on? ?nioaaee aea? oi?ie onii? iiae (onia ia?iaeia ae?aeaeoia iiaeaiiy oa onii-e?oa?aoo?i? eieia, oiaoi "ni?euei? ae?aeaeoe" aeey aaaaoueio aa?noa ianaeaiiy) ? aea? ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?i? iiae - aeaaiuei-ee?anueea (aeaaiuei?onueea) ? oea?eiaiineia'yinueea. Iaeiioe?ai?oith oi?iith ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae a aiioo Ee?anueei? ?on? aoei onia ia?iaeia iiaeaiiy, yea ?aae?ciaoaaeiny a /eneaiieo ae?aeaeoieo aa??aioao. N?euenueea ae?aeaeoia iiaeaiiy a a?eueoino? ?aa?ii?a a?aecia/aeiny e?iaa?noe/iith /enoioith e aaiethoe?eiith ianooii?noth, ui coiiaethaaeiny ??ceei i?ioenoaaeaiiyi o oie /an naea ? i?noa. Ia a?aei?io a?ae i?no c ?oi?i ??ciiaoi?/iei ? ??ciiiiaiei ianaeaiiyi, iai?aiith o?enoeyinueeith ?aeaieia??th oa eoeueoo?ith, naei caa??aaei niieiia?/io ia?iaeio eoeueoo?o, iiao e oeny/ie?oi? yce/ieoeuee? o?aaeeoe??. Aea n?euenueea ia?iaeia iiaeaiiy i?eiee ia aoei iaeii??aeiei iaa?oue ia ?aii?e (i?ioioe?a?inuee?e) oa?eoi???, a oei a?eueoa - ia an?e oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Oi/, iai?eeeaae, aieeiyiei ? iaaeaei?i?yiaoeue /e i?eea?iaoaoeue ? ia?ayneaaaoeue oe?eeii iiaee ii?icoi?oeny i?ae niaith, ?oi? iiaeaiiy iii?oii a?ae??ciyeiny ? oiiaoeeith, e ie?aieie neiaaie, ? aeayeeie iiaieie cai?ioaie. Ua a?eueoa iiaia ??cieoey aoea iii?oia i?ae a?aeaeaeai?oeie oa?eoi??yie - iai?eeeaae, i?ae iiaith naeyi Ee?aueie ? Iiei//eie oa Niieaiueie aai Ineiaueie ? Iiaai?iaeueie. Naia a iia? oiai/anieo naeyi o ??cieo ae?aeaeoieo a?aaeao oi?ioaaeeny ? ?icaeaaeeny o? oiiaoe/i? e a?aiaoe/i? ?ene, ye? noaee ye ni?eueiei iaaeaaiiyi, oae ? ?ic??cithaaeueieie iniaeeainoyie oe?a?inueei?, ?in?enueei? oa a?ei?onueei? iia. I?i noai ? iniaeeaino? aeaaiuei?onueeiai iiaeaiiy aeiaeieo i?yieo na?ae/aiue ie ia ia?ii, ai iaai?oioii?a oiae? ua ia aoei ? aeeai? ia?iaeii? aia??ee i?ooi ia i?a cao?enoaaoe. I?ooi ia caeiaaaeaany e aeaoaeueii iienaoe iniaeeaino? oiai/anii? ia?iaeii? iiae. I?i oea iiaeia i??eoaaoe eeoa ia iniia? ienaiieo iai'yoie, aea i?e anoaiiaeaii? /ano iiyae ie?aieo ae?aeaeoieo ?en ca aeaai?ie ienaiieie oaenoaie o?aaa aooe aeoaea iaa?aaeiei ? noaaeoeny aei ieo e?eoe/ii. Aaeaea aei ian ae?eoee ienaii? iai'yoee, ii/eiath/e c ae?oai? iieiaeie XI no., oiaoi iaeaea /a?ac noie?ooy i?ney i?eeiyooy o?enoeyinoaa (i? c X, c? c ia?oi? iieiaeie XI no. i?yeeo ienaiieo aeaea?ae ie ia ia?ii, oi/ aiie iaiaaia aoee, aea caaeioee a /ane eeoie?oue). E??i oiai, /an o?enaoe?? a ienaiieo oaenoao iaaiiai ae?aeaeoiiai yaeua iiaeia aoei a aaaaeaoe e /anii eiai aeieeiaiiy a aeeaiio ia?iaeiiio iiaeaii? eeoa a oiio ?ac?, yeae aeaaiueiee?anuee? eieaeieee iaee nai?i caaaeaiiy noaaeeoe ca iiyaith iiaeo ?en oa iniaeeainoae o ia?iaeieo ae?aeaeoao e iaia'yceiai aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o o ienaii?e iia?. Iani?aaae? ae ona aoei iaaiaee: eieaeieee na?aeiii oieeaee aoaeue-yeeo i?inoiiiaieo ia?iaeieo ?en, ai ea?oaaeeny io?oe?eiith ianoaiiaith i?i oa, ui aeeaa ia?iaeia iiaeaiiy ia ne?ae aeiioneaoe o nayuaii? eieae - oea aaaaeaeiny aethci??noaii. ?ic?ea i?ae e?oa?aoo?iith ? ia?iaeii-ae?aeaeoiith iiaaie a aiioo Na?aaeiueia?//y aoa aeoaea ?noioiei, ? i?i oea ne?ae iino?eii iai'yoaoe. Oiio ia iiaeia, iai?eeeaae, oeeooaaoe o?eaie c "Iia?no? ieioeeo e?o" aai c? "Neiaa i?i ?ai??a iio?ae", iaienaieo oiae?oiueith e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith c aaaaoueia oea?eiaiineia'yinueeeie ?enaie, ? ia o?e i?aenoaa?, ui aiia ia noiaea ia no/anio oe?a?inueeo iiao, ?iaeoe aeniiaie, i?aeoi i?yei? oe?a?inueei? iiae a oie /an ua ia aoei. Aea ae aiia ?nioaaea a oniiio, ia?iaeii?iciiaiiio aa??aio?. I?e o?iioaeueiiio ianoaaeaii? oea?eiaiineia'yinueeeo iai'yoie ae?oai? iieiaeie XI no. ? i?ci?oeo, oaeeo ye Ino?iie?iaa ?aaiaae?? 1056-1057 pp.. Ca??ieee Nayoineaaa 1073 ? 1076 pp., A?oaiaaeuenueea ?aaiaae?? 1072 ?. oa ?ioeo eiea ee?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, noai?aieo oea?eiaiineia'yinueeith iiaith, ciaoiaeeii na?aae oea?eiaiineia'yinueei? iiaii? noeo?? aeanyoee e nioi? i?eeeaae?a a?aeaeooy iiaieo ?en, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeeai? oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oea - niaoeeo?/iee ai?oaiiee caoe h cai?noue aeaooiaiai g, niaoeeo?/ii oe?a?inueeee aieiniee caoe e, ui aeiee oiane?aeie ceeooy aeaai?o u, ?, aca?iii iaaeeaeai? iaiaaieioai? aieini? a" oa e'', aieiniee ? ia i?noe?, aeaaiueiai o. ("yoy"), /eiaei i?eoaiaiieo oe?a?inuee?e iia? ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, i?noeaa? neiaa, oae? ye aaaaoue?, aaaii, aae, aea/ee, a?aaey, aeaaeaoe, aeeoi, ci?y, eiaeoo, e?eieoey, eaciy, iaieiiue, iieiieia, ooeeoeny, oiaaoeny, y? oa /eiaei ?ioeo. Ua a?eueoa aeeaiiiaieo oe?a?inueeeo ?en cana?ae/othoue aeaaiueiee?anuee? iai'yoee na?onueeeo aeai??a. Iai?eeeaae, o "Neia? i?i ?ai??a iio?ae" (e?iaoeue XII no.) a?aeaeoi iiaiiaieinny (ai?ioa, aieiaa, aieinu. iieiiai?, oi?ia?ia), cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa? (-?a?) a aeaa. a?aei?ieo ?iaiiee?a /ie. ?iaeo (Aeoia?a?, Eai?aa?, ?iiaiia?, ei?ieaa?), eee/iee a?aei?iie ?iaiiee?a (Aiyia, ae?oaeeii, eiyaea, Anaaieiaea, ainiiaeeia), oi?ie ae??ne?a oaia??oiueiai /ano c i'yeeie cae?i/aiiyie -oue (aaeeoue, iea/ooue, ?aeooue) ? aaaaoi ?ioeo. I?noeaa? ae?aeaeoi? ?ene aeieeaee ? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao Ee?anueei? ?on? - ia Iiei//ei? e Niieaiuei?, ia Iiaai?iaeuei? e Ineiauei?. Iai?eeeaae, iiaai?iaenuee? ienaii? iai'yoee ua c e?ioey O no. a?aeaeaathoue oae caaia "oeieaiiy" ? "/ieaiiy", oiaoi ci?ooaaiiy o aeiia? i'yeeo i?eaieinieo oe ? /, a a ineianueeeo, iai'yoeao c XII no. a?aeia?aaeaii ia?ic??ciaiiy i?eaieinieo c - ae, n - o. Ioaea, an? a?aecia/ai? ae?aeaeoi? ?ene ia oe?a?inuee?e oa ?ioeo oa?eoi??yo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XI - o XII no. aoee aeey iiaeaiiy oiae?oi?o eieaeiee?a iano?eueee cae/ieie, ui ieiiaie?, anoia?a/ on?i ianoaiiaai aeio?eioaaoeny o?aaeeoe?e, ona ae oaee i?iieeaee a ienaii?noue, ? iena?? ?o iaa?oue ia iii?/aee. Ia?aienoth/e eieaeeo, aiie iiaeoiee i?iaiai?thaaee oaeno nai?th ??aeiith aia??eith, /a?ac ui ?iaeee iiieeee, ? /eiaei ae?aeaeoieo ?en iio?aieyei aei oiae?oi?o eiea. Aeieeaee ae oae? ?ene iaaaaaoi ?ai?oa, caaeiaai aei ooai?aiiy Ee?anueei? ?on? e i?o?/ii? aeaaiuei?onueei? ia?iaeiino?. Ia aeoieo a?aeiiiai ?noi?eea ?in?enueei? iiae I. ?oneiiaa, i?ae /anii aeieeiaiiy ae?aeaeoii? ?ene ? ?? ia?oith o?enaoe??th ieiaei uiiaeiaioa noie?ooy, a a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao - ? aeae?eueea noie?oue. Ie a?aecia/eee aaeeeo e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo ae?aeaeoieo iniaeeainoae, ye? a O-XI no., aac noii?ao, aaea ?nioaaee. I?ioa aiie ua ia noai?thaaee no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiaii? nenoaie. ?e a?aeoaaei oe?ei? iecee oiiaoe/ieo ?en, ui aoee iane?aeeii caiaiaaeo c?aaeoeiaaieo (oiaoi aeoaea ei?ioeeo) aieinieo i oa a, ye? ia ienuei? iicia/aeeny a?aeiia?aeii /a?ac u oa ue. I?ioyaii XI-XIII no. c?aaeoeiaai? aieini? caiaiaee a on?o no?aeiineia'yinueeeo ae?aeaeoao. O ?aiiuei-oe?a?inueeeo aiai?ao oeae i?ioean a?aeaoany iae?ai?oa (a XI - ia?o?e iieiaei? XII no.) ? ni?e/eieany aei iiyae iiaeo oiiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oae, oiane?aeie caiaiaaeo c?aaeoeiaaieo u oa u a oe?a?inuee?e iia? aieini? i, a a iiaeo cae?eoeo neeaaeao ia?aeoee a ? (ai-eu -> a?e, ei-iue -> e?iue, ii-/ue -> i?/), cai?noue
aeaai?o niieo/aiue -?u-, -?ue-, -eu- c’yaeeeny niieo/aiiy -?e-, -ee-
(e?uaaaue -> e?eaaaee, a?uei?..oe -> a?ei?oe, aeuoaoe -> aeeoaoe);
i?eaieiniee e o iaaieo iiceoe?yo ia?aeoia o ei?ioeee caoe o (aioia,
aioe, iioiee, oionoee, iio/aoe, ye? ia ienuei? ia?aaeathoueny ye aiaia,
aiae, iiaiee, oianoee, iia/aoe); a?aeaoeiny iii’yeoaiiy noo?ena -neee o
-nueeee, iiaeiaaeaiiy i?eaieinieo o neiaao oeio naiaeea -> naiaeuea ->
ca?aeaey, caeea -> caeuea -> c?eey, aeeoea -> aeeouea -> aeeooy, noaeey
-> noaeuey -> noaeaey, ii/eth -> ii/ueth -> i?//th oa ?i. Oaeei /eiii,
?oa?ae XI-XII no. iiaeia oiiaii aeciaoe /anii caaa?oaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae ? ii/aoeii iiaiai aoaio ?? ?noi???, eiee aiia a
ia?iaeii?iciiaiiio aa??aio? aaea iaaoea a iniiaiiio an?o i?eoaiaiieo ?e
iiaieo ?en. Oaeee aeniiaie ca?aa?oueny ? c iiaeyaeaie oe?a?inueeeo
iiaiciaaoe?a XIX — ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no. ia /an aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iiae. Iai?eeeaae, I. AEeoaoeueeee ua a 1876 ?. ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui
nenoaia aieinieo caoe?a oe?a?inueei? iiae aecia/eeany aaea o XII-XIII
no. Ia aeoieo I. Iioaai?, oe?a?inueea iiaa ca /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? aaea
?nioaaea. Anana?oiueia?aeiiee o/aiee aeaaeai?e A. E?einueeee,
aeine?aeeaoe aaee/aciee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, eaoaai?e/ii oaa?aeea, ui
aeeaa oe?a?inueea iiaa XI no. «noi?oue iina?aae no?aeiiai neia’yinoaa
oe?eeii oaea a?aeie?aieaia» (Oaoiaoia I. — E?einueeee Aa. Ia?ene c
?noi??? oe?a?innueei? iiae oa o?anoiiao?y c iai’yoiee?a ienueiai-nueei?
noa?ioe?a?iueie XI-XVIII aa. — E., 1924. — N. 107.). E??i ia?iaeiiai
oniiai ae?aeaeoiiai iiaeaiiy, o i?noao Ee?anueei? ?on? ?nioaaee oae
caai? onii-e?oa?aoo?i? eieia iaaeae?aeaeoiiai oeio. Aiie ooai?thaaeeny a
i?ioean? aca?iei ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ? i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo
aoiiieai?iieo a?oi, oi?ioaaeeny ia iniia? yeiainue eiie?aoiiai ae?aeaeoo
aai aae?aee a naaa e iiai? aeaiaioe ?ioeo ae?aeaeo?a, a oaeiae
??ciiiai?oio oa?i?iieia?/io eaeneeo, i?ioan?iiae?cie, aea?aii?cie oiui.
Eieia aeei?enoiaoaaee eoioe?, ae?oaeeiieee, eiyc?anuee? aaei?i?no?aoi?e,
?ai?nieee. O eiaeiiio i?no? oe? eieia iaee nai? iniaeeaino?, oiio ?o ia
iiaeia ni?eeiaoe ye ni?eueiee aeaaiuei?onueeee iiaiee noaiaea?o ?
iaceaaoe eiai aeaaiuei?onueeith iiaith. Aeey an??? oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei?
?on? ni?eueieie aoee aea? e?oa?aoo?i? iiae — oea?eiaiineia’yinueea ?
aeaaiuei-ee?anueea (?? o?aaeeoe?eii iaceaathoue oaeiae
aeaaiuei?onueeith). Oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa ca iioiaeaeaiiyi —
noa?ineia’yinueea (?ioa iacaa — noa?iaiieaa?nueea, ai aiia aeieeea ia
iniia? iaeiiai c iaeaaeiinueeeo ae?aeaeo?a noa?iaieaa?nueei? iiae). Oey
iiaa i?eeoea aei ian ?acii ?c nayuaiieie eieaaie i?ney i?eeiyooy
o?enoeyinoaa ? noaea iiaith i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e. Ia
no?aeiineia’yinueeiio ??oio? oey iiaa caciaea aieeao i?noeaaeo ia?iaeieo
aiai??a ? noaea iii?oii a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae noa?iaieaa?nueei? iiae. O
iaooe? aiia ae?noaea iacao «oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa». Iaeiae,
iacaaaeath/e ia cia/i? i?noeaa? aieeae, oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa ia
ci?ieea nai?? noo?. Aiia caeeoeeany ni?eueiith iiaith an?o i?aaineaaieo
(a i?ci?oa oaeiae ? a?aei-eaoieee?a) ye ia ?on?, oae ? a ?ioeo
neia’yinueeeo o?enoeyinueei-i?aaineaaieo e?a?iao. Aeey no?aeieo neia’yi
aiia aoea oi/ ? c?icoi?ea, i?ioa ana ae oaee ia ??aeia. On? aea?aeaai? e
na?onuee? eoeueoo?i? ooieoe?? ia an?e oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? ?on?
aeeiioaaea aeaaiueiee?anueea (aeaaiuei?onueea) ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa.
Aiia aeieeea ia iniia? i?noeaaeo iiaieo o?aaeeoe?e oieueeei?o,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? i?aeoeee ? ae?oaeeiiiai aiino ca c?aceaie e
iiaieie iiaeaeyie noa?ineia’yinueei? iiae. Iath/e ?icaaeoaeai? noee?
(th?eaee/ii-ae?eiaee, e?oiieniee, na?onueei-ooaeiaei?e),
aeaaiueiee?anueea ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa ooieoe?iioaaea ia?aeaeueii c
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith iiaith (aeaye? a/ai? aaaaeathoue oe? iiae eeoa
aeaiia aeai?aie o??? naii? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae). Oea — iiaa ca??ieea
caeii?a «?onueea i?aaaea», e?oiieno «Iia?noue ieioeeo e?o», a oaeiae
«Neiaa i?i ?ai??a iio?ae», «Iia/aiiy Aieiaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa», «Iie?iiy
Aeaieea Caoi/ieea» oa ?i. O ??cieo ?aa?iiao ?on? oey ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ia
iiaa iinooiiai caaaa/oaaeany i?noeaaeie eaene/ieie e noee?noe/ieie
iniaeeainoyie ? caiaeii noaea iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?,
a?ei?onueei? ? /anoeiai ?in?enueei? ienaiii-e?oa?aoo?ieo iia aeaaiueiai
ia??iaeo. I?iieeiaiiy ae i?noeaaeo ia?iaeii?iciiaieo aeaiaio?a o
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeo iiao ni?e/eieeiny aei aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueei?,
a?ei?onueei? oa ?in?enueei? ?aaeaeoe?e oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? iiae.
Oaeei /eiii, oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa ii noo? noaea noeoii?noth
aaaaoueio (no?aeiineia’yinueeeo, na?anueei?, aieaa?nueei?) ??
?aaeaeoe?e. I?ioa ne?ae neacaoe, ui ni?euei?noue ?
oea?eiaiineia’yinueei?, ? aeaaiueiee?anueei? (aeaaiuei?onueei?) iia aeey
an??? oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? ?on? a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo aoea aeoaea
a?aeiiniith. I?aaeeuei?oa aoei a aiai?eoe i?i ni?euei?noue ia naii?
iiae, a eeoa ienaiieo oaeno?a. Oea?eiaiineia’yinuee? e aeaaiuei?onuee?
oaenoe aoee aaea c iaeaeaai?oiai /ano eeoa nai???aeieie a?ao?/ieie
oi?ioeaie, ye? /eoaee a ??cieo ?aa?iiao ii-??ciiio, aeiiaeyth/e neiaa
«ia na?e eaae». Oie naiee oaeno, i?i/eoaiee c eieaeee, neaae?ii, o
Ee?a?, Iieioeueeo e Nocaeae?, ni?eeiaee ye ??cieie iiaaie. Aea
«caeiiiaeaaoeyie iiaee» a eieaei?e aeiia?, cae/aeii ae, aoee noiee/i?
(oiaoi ee?anuee?) eieaeieee. Cie?aia, aiie aeiiaeyee g ye h, u («youe»)
ye ?; e, ? ye e; i?eaieini? ia?aae aieinieie e, a aeiiaeyeeny oaa?aei
oiui. Ee?anueea aeiiaa ienaiieo oaeno?a c oeiiaith aeey ia?
oe?a?inueeith oiiaoeeith aieeaaea ia aeiiao eieaeiee?a ? a ?ioeo
?aa?iiao. Iniaeeai iioe?eeany oey aeiiaa o ae?oaiio ca cia/aiiyi
eoeueoo?iiio oeaio?? aea?aeaae — o Iiaai?iae? e on?e Iiaai?iaenuee?e
caie? — iaeaeaiie?aoe/i?o?e ? iaeina?/ai?o?e c-iii?ae aeaeaeeo
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo i?ia?ioe?e Ee?anueei? ?iia???. Caaaeyee oe?ie?e
a?aiioiino? ianaeaiiy Iiaai?iaenueei? ?anioae?ee ee?anueea eieaeia
aeiiaa ye i?oiai?/iee aoaeii i?iieeea a on? noa?e aeeooy e on? aa?noae
noni?euenoaa ia o?eueee a i?noao, aea ? a naeao iano?eueee aeeaiei, ui
noaea i?aai?/iith /anoeiith iianyeaeaiiiai ia?iaeiiai iiaeaiiy, aieeioea
ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaai?iaenueeeo ae?aeaeo?a ? caa?aaeany aae aei iaoiai
/ano. Oaea niaoeeo?/ia oiiaoe/ia ?ena no/aniiai i?ai?/iiai ia??//y
?in?enueei? iiae, ye aeiiaa aieiniiai caoea ? ia i?noe? eieeoiueiai -ue
(«yoy»), oiaoi aeiiaa ca???, o??i?i??, ?i?o?, ia??eao?, a ??i?, oia?,
I?e?o? cai?noue caa?a, o??i?i??, ?i?o?, ia??eao?, a ??i?, oia?, I?i?oa
?nioaaea a iiaai?iaenueeeo aia??eao, ii/eiath/e c e?ioey Oao., i?i ui
na?ae/eoue nii?aaee/ia cai?ia oue e?oa?ith e (= ?) o iaeaeaai?oeo
iai’yoeao iiaai?iaenueei? ienaiiino? O-O?I no. Ua e iei? a i?ai?/i?e oa
a cao?aei?e /anoeiao na?aaeiuei?in?enueeeo aia??ie aeiiaeythoue ia
noie?, ia eii?, e caie?, ??ea, a?eie, an?, ii?, oaa?, naa? oiui. I?ae
aieeaii ee?anueei? i?oiai?? ia an?e oa?eoi??? Ee?anueei? ?on? iioe?eeany
e?oa?aoo?ia aeiiaa ai?oaiiiai caoea h cai?noue oea?eiaiineia’yinueeiai,
ineianueei-iiaai?iaenueeiai, aieiaeeie?i-nocaeaeuenueeiai ?
iineianueeiai aeaooiaiai g. Ua iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. aeiiaa o
na?onueeiio noee? h cai?noue g a iaio ?in?enueeeo noieeoeyo aaaaeaeany
i?aaeeii aeia?iai oiio. Aea aaea c e?ioey XVII no., eiee a 1686 ?.
Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y aoea iacaeiiii e ianeeueii i?e?aeiaia aei
Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo (I?ney o?auaiiy Oe?a?ie-?on? a 988 ?.
Oe?a?inueea oea?eaa i?ioyaii 698 ?ie?a ?nioaaea a eaiii?/i?e ?aeiino? c
Eiinoaioeiiiieai iacaeaaeii a?ae Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo, yeee aeiee
iaaaaaoi i?ci?oa. Iineianueea oea?eaa i?iaieineea naaa aaoieaoaeueiith
(oiaoi ia caeaaeiith i? a?ae Ee?aa, i? a?ae Eiinoaioeiiiiey) e ia?aea
nia? ieo?iiieeoa a 1448 ?. I?ioa oeth aeoe?th ia aeciaee i? Anaeainueeee
iao??a?o, i? iaeaeu? ???a?oe ?ioeo i?aaineaaieo oea?eia, ? i?ioyaii 141
?ieo ?in?enueea i?aaineaaia oea?eaa aaaaeaeany ia eaiii?/iith
(iacaeiiiith). ?? eaiii?/i?noue aoei aeciaii e ia?aii ia?oiai iao??a?oa
oe??? oea?eae ca o/anoth Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa eeoa a 1589
?. I?ney i?e?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei ?in?? a 1654 ?. e iniaeeai i?ney
Aiae?on?anueeiai ia?aie?’y c Iieueuath 1667 ?., ca yeei ?in?y iaea?aeaea
a?eueoo /anoeio I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, iineianuee? oea?? oa iao??a?oe
i?aaioee e?ea?aeoaaoe e oea?eiaio iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeai ia
oeueiio iaiieyaaa iao??a?o (c 1674 ?.) sseei (Naaaeia). ?acii c
iineianueeei oea?ai a?i aeae?eueea ?ac?a caa?oaany aei
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa, i?iny/e eiai onooieoe Iinea?
Oe?a?inueeo oea?eao, aea caiaee ia oea ia ae?noaaaa. Oiae? Iineaa ca
aeiiiiiaith oe?a?inueeiai aaoueiaia ?. Naiieeiae/a, aeieath/e ??oo/ee
ii?? oe?a?inueeiai aeoo?aieoeoaa, i?ioyaii 1684-1686 pp. naii/eiii
i?e?aeiaea Oe?a?inueeo oea?eao aei Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo. Aea o?aaa
aoei ana ae oaee iaoe oi?iaeueio caiaeo Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai
iao??a?oa. Aeey oeueiai iaaani? 1686 p. iao??a?o sseei iineaa aei
Eiinoaioeiiiiey aeina?ae/aiiai aeyea I?e?oo Aeaenaaaa, yeee i?ea?c
iao??a?oia? Ae?ii?n?th a?aiioe c i?ioaiiyi a?aeaeaoe Iinea? Ee?anueeo
ieo?iiie?th c on?ia ?? ?ia?o?yie ? uaae?? iiaea?oiee. Iaeiae
Oea?ai?iaenueeee iao??a?o aaaaeaa oaeo ceoeo iacaeiiiith ? nii/aoeo
i?ioaiiy Iineianueeiai iao??a?oa ciiao a?aeoeeea.

Oiae? ni?eoiee I?e?oa Aeaenaaa ae??oea caa?iooeny aaciina?aaeiuei aei
oo?aoeueei? aeaaee, a?ae yei? aoa caeaaeiee Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeee
iao??a?o. Eiee iaaeaaii ia?aiee iao??a?o Ae?ii?n?e i?e?oaa aei i.
Aae??aiiiiey, uia iiao eiai iinaaeo caoaa?aeea Aaeeeee a?ce? Iniainueei?
?iia???, oai oaea aoa iineianueeee iineaiaoeue ? anoea aeiiiaeoenue ?c
oo?aoeueeei aieiaea?ai. Aaeeeee a?ce?, aoaeo/e iaiiaaiei iie?oeeii,
oio?a caa?aaoe aeia?? noinoiee c Iineaith ? iaeo?ae?coaaoe ?in?th o
a?ei? Oo?a//eie c Iieueuath, Aano???th oa Aaiaoe??th, a oiio iaeacaa
iao??a?oia? Ae?ii?n?th caaeiaieueieoe i?ioaiiy Iineae. Eeoa i?ney
oeueiai o o?aai? 1686 ?. Ae?ii?n?e aeaeaa a?aiioo i?i ia?aaea/o
Oe?a?inueei? oea?eae i?ae th?enaeeeoe?th Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo,
acyaoe ca oea a?ae iineianueeiai iinea aeia?iai oaaa?a — 200 cieioeo
/a?a?ioe?a ? 120 /i?ii-eeneo/eo niaie?a. Iaeiae iaaaeiac? /a?ac oeae
iaeaiii?/iee a/eiie Ae?ii?n?e aoa iicaaaeaiee iao??a?oiai i?anoieo, aea
oea?eiaio aaoiiii?th Oe?a?i? oae ? ia iiaa?ioee. (Aeaoaeuei?oa aeea.:
Ieeieueneee H. Iao?ea?oanoai a ?innee // Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue
i-aa «A?. A. e E. A?aiao e E°». — Ecae. 7. — O. 31. — I., [1915]. — N.
376-378; Ia??iei ?. ?. Oe?a?inueea oea?eaa. — E., 1993. — N. 157-194).),
iinooiiai ii/aeany ai?ioueaa i?ioe oe?a?inueei? aeiiae oaeno?a o
oea?eaao i?ae /an aiaineoae?iue. Nayuaieeai iaeacoaaee aeiiaeyoe
oea?eiaiineia’yinuee? oaenoe ii-?in?enueeiio, oiaoi a ye [g], ?. ye
[je], a ia [?]; e ye [?], a ia [u]; a ye [je], a ia [a], iii’yeooaaoe
i?eaieini? ia?aae aieinieie a, e e iaa?oue «aeaoe» («Iai?eoe iy, Aiaea,
ia a?-e?eae i?eano? oaa?e…», oi/ oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa aeaiiy
i?eiee ia ciaea!), «aeaau ieeaeie ?icie e iniaiai ia?a/ey ia auei».
Oaeaiee ianooi ia ana oe?a?inueea iineeeany ca oea?thaaiiy Iao?a I. O
1720 ?. a?i aeaeaa oeac, uia on? eieae c oe?a?inueeeo ae?oea?aiue
«eni?aaeaiey ?aaee e niaeaney n aaeeei?inneeneeie» iaaeneeaee aei
Neiiaeaeueii? eiioi?e, a aeey iaaeyaeo iaae ae?oea?iyie i?ecia/aee
oeaici??a, ye? iaee noaaeeoe ca oei, /e aeeiiothoueny ianoaiiae oeueiai
oeaco. Iaeiae ?in?enuee?e na?onuee?e ? oea?eiai?e aeaae? ua aeiaai
aeiaaeiny ciaaaoeny c oe?a?inueeei aieeaii ia oea?eiaiineia’yinueeo
iiao. I?ioyaii XVIII no. aeiiaa oea?eiaiineia’yinueeeo oaeno?a aoea,
ia?aoo?, c?oneo?eiaaia ia o?eueee a ?in??, aea ? a Oe?a?i?. Oaea aeiiaa
ia ?in?enueeee eaae a oe?a?inueeeo oea?eaao, ui aeciathoue caa?oi?noue
Iineianueeiai iao??a?oaoo, o?eaa? e iei?. Eeoa a aeayeeo neiaao
(iai?eeeaae, Ainiiaeue, ainiiaeei, Aaeeeay, Aieaioa oa ?i.) aeiiaa
oe?a?inueeiai caaeiueiyceeiaiai h cai?noue ?in?enueeiai g caeeoeeany a
on?o i?aaineaaieo oea?eaao Oe?a?ie, ?in?? ? A?ei?on?. Cia/iith
nai???aei?noth a?aecia/aeiny noaiiaeaiiy ?in?enueei? iiae, ui aoei
coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueeiai aoiino. O ae?oa?e
iieiaei? XII — ia?o?e iieiaei? XIII no. ia oa?eoi??? no/anii?
?a?iiaenueei? ?in?? noi?ioaaeeny aea? a?oie ae?aeaeo?a: iiaai?iaenueeee,
ineianueeee oa ?inoiai-nocaeaeuenueeee, c iaeiiai aieo, ? iaio ae?aciee
(c aaaaoueia eieaeueieie a?aei?iiinoyie) ae?aeaeo Aa?oiuei? ?
Na?aaeiuei? Iee oa iaaee??//y Iee ? Naeio — c ?ioiai. I?ai?/ia
ae?aeaeoia a?oia iaea oae? iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? iniaeeaino?: a) ieaiiy (oiaoi
a?aenooi?noue aeaiiy); a) i?i?eaia aeiiaa caaeiueiyceeiaiai g; a)
oeieaiiy ? /ieaiiy (ia?ic??ciaiiy i?eaieinieo oe ? / o
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? i?ai?/ii?in?enueeiai ae?aeaeoo) i?ae aieeaii
non?aei?o i?eaaeo?enueei-o?inueeeo iia, ye?, ia aeoieo aeine?aeiee?a,
aeieeee a VII no. i. a.: aieea «ai/ea», iaoe «ia/», iaoeaeueiee
«ia/aeueiee», iioeue «ii/ue», oeaou?e «/aou?a», iooeeoe «io/eoe», oioeo
«oi/o»; ae?a/ue «ae?aoe», iyoie/y «iyoieoea», ieaae?i/a «ieaaeaioea»,
iou/a «ioueoea», a ?o/? «a ?oia», aeaa/aou «aeaaaeoeaoue» oa ?i.; a)
caeeaeaiiy o aeiia? i?eaieinieo c — ae, n — o, yea ii/aeiny,
iaea??ia?aei?oa, ua a VI-VII no.: a?acaea «a?aaeaea», ae?oceia
«ae?oaeeia», a??niue «a?aoiue», aaneie «aaoeie»; aaiaeaee «aaicaee»,
Aa?aoei «Aa?anei», aea?iae «ca?ii», iiiaaeaoe «iiiacaoe», inoaeioue
«inoaeinue», iaea?/a «ica?oea» oa ?i.; ?) iayai?noue niieo/aiue ae, ee
ia i?noe? aeaai?o dl, tl: iuaei (< mydio) "iuei", ae?ae. eeau "eyu" (< tiesc) oa ?i.; ae) oaa?aea cae?i/aiiy -o o 3-e inia? ae??ne?a: iineo, ieoao, ciaao, iinyo, ieooo, ciatho; /eiaei niaoeeo?/ieo eeoa aeey oeeo aiai??a ne?a oiui. I?aaeaiiee ae?aeaeo a?aecia/aany: a) aeaiiyi; a) o?eeaoeaiith aeiiaith caaeiueiyceeiaiai a; a) oi?iaie caeiaiiee?a o ?iae. ? ciao. a?aei?ieao iaia, oaaa, naaa (a ia iaiy, oaay, naay), i'yeei cae?i/aiiyi -oue o 3-e inia? ae??ne?a: iineoue, ieoaoue,, ciaaoue, iinyoue, ieoooue, ciathoue; a) a?aenooi?noth oeieaiiy ? oaiaeyai? aeiiae naenoy/eo i?eaieinieo c, n oa ?i., a oaeiae i?noeaaith eaeneeith. O i?ioean? i?aeianaiiy Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa, yea c ae?oai? /aa?o? XIV ? aei ia?oi? /aa?o? XVI no. coi?ei ia'?aeiaoe a ?aeei?e aea?aeaa? an? i?ai?/ii?in?enuee? ? i?ai?/ii-no?aeio iieiaeio i?aaeaiii?in?enueeeo eiyc?anoa, i?ia?aeio ?ieue noaa a?ae?a?aaaoe ?inoiai-nocaeaeuenueeee ae?aeaeo, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeea ? iineianueeee aia??. C XIV no. ia noeeo i?ai?/ieo ? i?aaeaiieo ?in?enueeeo ae?aeaeo?a ii/aee oi?ioaaoeny "ia?ao?aei?" na-?aaeiuei?in?enuee? aiai?e, ye? ii?aeiaee o nai?e no?oeoo?? i?aaeaii? ?ene (aeaiiy, a?aenooi?noue oeieaiiy) c i?ai?/ieie (aeaooiaa aeiiaa caaeiueiyceeiaiai g, oaa?aeee caoe o o 3-e inia? ae??ne?a oa ?i.). ?acii c oei ia an?e oa?eoi??? ?icnaeaiiy ?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? (? o?eueee a ?? iaaeao!) c XIII no. aeieeathoue iia? iiai? ?ene, ia aeanoea? oe?a?ioeyi ? a?ei?onai. O aaeoc? oiiaoeee oaeeie iiaioai?aie noaee: ci?ia oae caaieo neaaeeo c?aaeoeiaaieo a, ue o niieo/aiiyo c ieaaieie ?, e (oeio e?uaaaue, aeuoaoe, a?uiu-oe) a i, a (?in. e?iaaaue, aeioaoue, a?aiaoue, aea oe?. e?eaaaee, aeeoaoe, a?ei?oe, a?ei?. e?uaaau, aeuoaoeu, a?ui?oeu, ?icaeoie c?aaeoeiaaieo ?, o(u) a a, i (o oae caai?e neeuei?e iiceoe??): sija -> oay, liji -> eae, myji -> iie, ryji -> ?ie, molodyjb
-> iieiaeie; o aaeoc? iii?oieiae a?aeaoeany ao?aoa eee/iiai a?aei?iea,
iianthaeia cai?ia c, oe, n caaeiueiyceeiaeie ?, e, o o a?aei?ieiaeo
oi?iao (ia iiaa, a ?oea); c’yaeeeny iia? caaaeueii?in?enuee? neiaa
(e?anoueyiei, aeaiueaa, iaoiy, aea?aaiy oa ?i.). C ?icaeoeii
na?aaeiuei?in?enueeeo aia??ie ?inoiai-nocaeaaeuenueeee ae?aeaeo
iinooiiai ao?a/a? nai? cia/aiiy, a i?ia?aeio ?ieue ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe
aia?? Iineae. O i?ai?/ii?in?enueeiio ca iioiaeaeaiiyi iineianueeiio
aiai??, yeee a iniiaiiio caa??a i?ai?/ii?in?enuee? ?ene a aaeoc?
i?eaieinieo (o eiiniiaioeci?), c’yaeythoueny i?aaeaiii?in?enuee? ?ene
(cie?aia, aeaiiy) o aieae?ci?. Iineianueea i?inoi??//y iinooiiai noa?
na?aaeiuei?in?e-nueeei ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii ? caaaeueii?in?enueeei ca
nai?th ooieoe??th. Oea i?inoi??//y ni?aaeei ?noioiee aieea ia ?icaeoie
caaaeueiiia?iaeii? iiae a ia??iae ooai?aiiy ?in?enueei? iaoe?? (a XVII
no.). Ia iniaeeaino? caaaeueiiia?iaeii? ?in?enueei? iiae iii?oiee
a?aeaeoie iaeeaa ca?a nai???aeieo ?noi?e/ieo oiia, eiee oi?ioaaiiy
?in?enueei? ia?iaeiino? oa O? iiae a?aeaoaaeiny neio?iiii c?
noaiiaeaiiyi ?in?enueei? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. E??i oeueiai,
i?ioean «cae?aiiy» ?in?enueeeo caiaeue iaaeiei Iineae ii?aeioaaany c
i?aaiaiiyi iineianueeeo i?aaeoae?a ia’?aeiaoe an? i?aaineaai? ia?iaee a
iaeio ?iia??th. I?ney caaithaaiiy oo?eaie Eiinoaioeiiiiey (1453 ?.) ?
iaae?iiy A?caio?? o Iinea? aeieeea ?aeay ia?aoiaeo oeaio?o i?aaineaa’y
aei Iineae («Iineaa — o?ao?e ?ei»), aeey cae?eniaiiy yei? aeieeaaeaee
an?o coneeue ye oea?eiai? ae?y/?, oae ? na?onueea aeaaea. *a?ac oea
i?aaineaaia oea?eaa a Iineiauei? c naiiai ii/aoeo caeiaea aeoaea i?oei?
iiceoe??, a oea?eiaiineia’yinueea iiaa a?ae?a?aea oai cia/ii a?eueoo
?ieue, i?ae a Oe?a?i? oa A?ei?on?. Oey iiaa aoea ii noo? ?aeeiith
e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith a iieiae?e Iineianuee?e aea?aeaa? (oi/ ? c iaaieie
ca’yceaie c aeeaei ia?iaeiei iiaeaiiyi, cie?aia, o ae?eiaiio noee?).
Oea?eiaiineia’yinuee? aeaiaioe /a?ac i?aaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e
oea?eao oe?iei i?iieeathoue iaa?oue o iineianueea i?inoi??//y. Ia iniia?
iineianueeiai i?inoi??//y ? ae?eiai? ienaiii? iiae, uaae?i caaaa/aii?
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeeie aeaiaioaie, ui iaaoee caaaeueiiia?iaeiiai
oa?aeoa?o (iai?eeeaae, neiaa c iaiiaiiaieinieie niieo/aiiyie oeio a?aiy,
neaaeeee, c aeae cai?noue ?in?enueeiai ae oeio iaaaaeaea, a?aaeaea,
i?aaeaea, c u cai?noue /. oeio inaauaoue, a?auaoue oa ?i.), a na?aaeei?
OO???no. a ?in?? ?icaeaa?oueny ?aeeiee onii-?iciiaiee ??ciiaeae
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, yeee, iioe?thth/enue, ona iii?oi?oa i?iieea? ? a
ienaii?noue, a oaeiae aeo?niy? ae?aeaeoe ? iinooiiai noa? ?aeeiei
caniaii oniiai ni?eeoaaiiy. O ienaii?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? Iineianueei?
aea?aeaae nii/aoeo i?iaeiaaeoaaeeny o?aaeeoe?? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Iaeiae
iinooiiai c?inoa? ?icoiaeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c ?iciiaiith, yea c
/anii caciaaaea cia/ieo ci?i. ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Iineiaueie
aeiaaaa iiiaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, caeeaeaiiy ?? c oniei iiaeaiiyi.
Aea oea i?ioe??//y aoei ?ica’ycaia ia ianooiiiio aoai? ?noi???
?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae — o ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? iaoe??,
eiee a e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? ana aeoae/a ii/eia? aeyaeyoeny oaiaeaioe?y aei
aioo??oiuei? ?aeiino? e a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoath/a caeeaeaiiy
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae c ia?iaeii?iciiaiith. O ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?
e?ioey XVII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XVIII no. ia?aieaeeny ? aca?iiae?yee
a?oa?/ii-eieaei?, ia?iaeii?iciiai?, «ae?eia?» («i?eeaciua») aeaiaioe, a
oaeiae aeineoue /eneaii? cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? eaene/i? caiice/aiiy. Oea
aoea oi/ ? ae?acia e aaaaoa, i?ioa no?ieaoa e iano?eea iiaa, yea
iio?aaoaaea oii?yaeeoaaiiy e noaa?e?caoe??. Oae? ni?iae ?iaeee A.
Eaioaie?, A. O?aae?aeianueeee, I. Eiiiiinia, Ae. Oi-ia?c?i, I. ?aaeeuaa,
I. Ea?aic?i, I. A?eaiaaeia oa ?i. I?ioa ?aeei? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
ii?ie ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae aoee ae?iaeai? eeoa o oai?/ino? I.
Iooe?ia, yeee noaa iniiaiiieiaeieeii iiai? ?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?ii?
iiae.

«Oe?a?ia» — oea ia «ie?a?ia»

Iacaa iaoi? e?a?ie OE?A?IA c’yaeeany a inoaii?e /aa?o? XII no. Oia?oa a
?iaonueeiio nieneo «Iia?no? ieioeeo e?o», aea e?oiienaoeue ?iciia?aea?
i?i nia?oue ia?ayneaanueeiai eiycy Aieiaeeie?a Ae?aiae/a o 1187 p.,
neacaii: «? ieaeaee ii iueiio an? ia?ayneaaoe?… Ca iei aea Oe?a?ia
aaaaoi iiooaeeea». *a?ac aeaa ?iee, o 1189 p., aoei a?aecia/aii, ui
eiycue ?inoeneaa i?e?oaa «aei Oe?a?ie Aaeeoeueei?»(62- Aeea.: E?oiien
?onueeee / Ca ?iaonueeei nieneii ia?aeeaa Eaii?ae Iaoiiaaoeue. — E.,
1989. — N. 343, 347.). Iioiaeaeaiiy iacae Oe?a?ia caeaaia i?eaa?oaei
oaaao a/aieo, aea iaeiicia/iiai iiyniaiiy e aein? iaia?. Iaei?
aeine?aeieee iia’ycoaaee ?? c? neiaaie e?ae «iaea?aeaeaeai?oa a?ae
oeaio?o /anoeia oa?eoi???, ieieeoey», o(= a?ey) e?ath, oiaoi «iia?aie/ia
oa?eoi??y», ?io? — c ?iaiieeaie e?ae, e?a?ia o cia/aii? «??aeiee e?ae,
naiy e?a?ia, ??aeia caiey; caiey, ianaeaia nai?i ia?iaeii». ?, ia?aoo?,
ua iaeei iiaeyae, ca yeei iacaa Oe?a?ia i?aeoi iioiaeeoue a?ae ae??neiaa
oe?ayoe (a?ae??caoe), oiaoi ia?a?nia cia/aiiy oe??? iacae — «oiaoie
caie?, oe?ayiee (a?ae??caiee) a?ae oe?eiai, yeee caiaeii nai noaa oe?eei
(ie?aiith e?a?iith)». Iaea??ia?aei?oith e iaeia?aeiieea?oith ne?ae
aaaaeaoe aa?n?th, yea iia’yco? iacao Oe?a?ia c? neiaaie ? e?ae, e?a?ia,
oi/ ca’ycie oeae ia i?yiee, a cia/ii neeaaei?oee. sse aeine?aeea
oe?a?inueeee o/aiee A. Neey?aiei(63-Neey?aiei A. Ca?aeee iioiaeeoue
iacaa Oe?a?ia? // «Oe?a?ia». — 1991. — ? 1. — N. 20, 39.), i?ioean
noaaiiaeaiiy iiiyooy «Oe?a?ia» aoa aeineoue o?eaaeei ? iaa aeae?eueea
aoai?a. ?iaiiee e?ae ?c cia/aiiyi «a?ae??cie, oiaoie; oiaoie caie?» aoa
ua o ni?eueiineia’yinuee?e iia? (*krajue) ? iei? a?aeiiee aaaaoueii
neia’yinueeei iiaai. Ine?eueee neia’yinuee? ieaiaia niieiia?eo iaee nai?
oa?eoi???, ye? caeaa?eueoiai a?aeae?eyeeny i?e?iaeieie ?oaaaeaie —
??/eaie, e?naie, aieioaie, nieii/aeaie (ioaea, i?yei? i?oaieie ieaiai ia
aoei), aeaaiueinei-a’yinueea neiai e?ae «a?ae??cie, oiaoie caie?» iaaoei
iiaiai cia/aiiy — «oa?eoi??y, ui iaeaaeeoue ieaiai?», a caiaeii oaeiae ?
cia/aiiy «e?aeiy iaaea oa?eoi??? ieaiai?, ii/aoie (aai e?iaoeue)
oa?eoi??? ieaiai?, aa?aa». Ia icia/aiiy i?inoi?o a i?aneia’yinuee?e iia?
aaeeaaany niaoe?aeueiee noo?en -?ia (dol + ?ia = dolina «aeieeia», niz
++ ?ia = nizina «ieceia»). Ca oeei naiei c?aceii ua a i?aneia’yinueeee
ia??iae ooai?eeiny ? neiai e?a?ia (kraj + ?ia) o cia/aii? «oa?eoi??y,
yea iaeaaeeoue ieaiai?». ?acii c ?iaiieeii e?ae o i?aneia’yinuee?e iia?
aoa oaeiae ?iaiiee oe?ae (*ukrajue), ui icia/aa «a?ae??cie a?ae oiaoea;
a?aeae?eaiee oiaoie caie?; a?aeae?eaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? ieaiai?; e?aeiy
iaaea a?aeae?eaii? /anoeie oa?eoi??? ieaiai?». Oaea i?ney ?iciaaeo
i?aneia’yinueei? aoiiiiaii? ni?eueiino? (iiaeeeai, a aionueeee ia??iae)
o no?aeieo neia’yi a?ae neiaa oe?ae ca aeiiiiiaith oiai naiiai noo?ena
-?ia aeieeei neiai oe?a?ia (*ukraina) ?c cia/aiiyi «a?aeae?eaiee oiaoie
caie?; a?aeae?eaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? ieaiai?». Eiee i?ioyaii VI-VIII no.
no?aeiineia’yinuee? ieaiaia aai nithce ieaiai ia?a?inee o oaiaeaeuei?
eiyc?anoaa, a?aeii? a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?ae iacaith «e?oiieni?
ieaiaia» aai «ieai?ii? eiyc?anoaa», a caiaeii ooai?eeany
?aiiueioe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ?onue, ci?ieeiny cia/aiiy ? ne?a e?a?ia oa
oe?a?ia. Neiai e?a?ia a?ae cia/aiiy «oa?eoi??y ieaiai?» iinooiiai iaaoei
cia/aiiy «oa?eoi??y oaiaeaeueiiai eiyc?anoaa», a iio?i — «oa?eoi??y
?on?». A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ci?ieeiny cia/aiiy e neiaa oe?a?ia:
cai?noue ia?a?niiai cia/aiiy «a?aeae?eaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? ieaiai?»
aiii noaei icia/aoe «a?aeae?eaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? oaiaeaeueiiai
eiyc?anoaa», a iio?i — «a?aeae?eaia /anoeia oa?eoi??? ?on?». O ia??iae
oaiaeaeueii? ?icae??aiaiino? Ee?anueei? ?on? (c XII no.), eiee a?ae ia?
ii/aee iaeia ca iaeiei a?aeae?eyoeny iacaeaaei? eiyc?anoaa, neiaa
oe?a?ia iaaoei cia/aiiy «eiyc?anoai». Oia?oa caaaeaio a ?iaonueeiio
nieneo «Iia?no? ieioeeo e?o» o e?a?io aeine?aeieee ?icoi?ee ii-??ciiio:
ye iia?aie/io c Ee?anueeith caieath oa?eoi??th Ia?ayneaanueei? caie?; ye
onth Ia?ayneaanueeo caieth, iacaaio oe?a?iie) /a?ac oa, ui aiia
iaaeoaaea c iieiaaoeueeei noaiii; ye ia?a?nio ?onue (oiaoi Ee?anueeo,
Ia?ayneaanueeo ? *a?i?a?anueeo caie?); ye onth Ee?anueeo ?onue. I?ioa
iaea??ia?aei?oa, ui e?oiienaoeue iacaaa oe?a?iith naia Ia?ayneaanueeo
caieth, aea ia oiio, ui aiia iaaeoaaea c iieiaaoeueeei noaiii, a /a?ac
oa, ui aoea ie?aiei eiyc?anoaii. E??i Ia?ayneaanueei? oe?a?ie, aoea ua
Aaeeoeueea oe?a?ia, Aieeinueea oe?a?ia, *a?i?a?anueea oe?a?ia, Ee?anueea
oe?a?ia oa ?io? oe?a?ie — naiino?ei? eiyc?ano aa. Oea aeaeii c oiai,
iai?eeeaae, ui i?ae 1189 ?ieii oie naiee ?iaonueeee nienie iia?aeiiey?:
eiycue ?inoeneaa i?eaoa «aei oe?a?ie Aaeeoeueei?, ? acya aeaa ai?iaee
aaeeoeuee?, a ca?aeoe i?oia aei Aaee/a». O 1213 ?. eiycue Aeaieei
«ii?oaa c a?aoii ? caa?aa Aa?ano?e, ? Oa?ianuee, ? Aa?auei, ? Noiei’?, ?
Eiiia, ? anth oe?a?io». Oa, ui neiai oe?a?ia aae aei XVI no. icia/aei
ie?aia eiyc?anoai, /?oei aeaeii ?c na?ae/aiue oiai/anieo e?oiien?a:
«E?einueeee oea?… oio?a ?oe ia oea?y ? aaeeeiai eiycy oe?aeio…, a
i?oia aoa ia /a?eane» (Euea?anueeee e?oiien i?ae 1556 ?.); «i?eoiaeea ia
oea?aao ? aaeeeiai eiycy oe?a?io ia N?aa?nuee? i?noa ?c Eaiaaa eiycue
Ieoaeei Aeoiaaaoeueeee» (Ieaenaiae?i-Iaanueeee e?oiien i?ae 1563 ?.).
Ii?yae c? neiaii oe?a?ia o no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ae?aeaeoao caeaaia
?nioaaei ? neiai ie?a?ia «ii?oa?aeia oa?eoi??y ieaiai?», ooai?aia a?ae
ie?ae «ia??c, e?ae» ca aeiiiiiaith noo?ena -eia (-?ia, -?ia). Oe? neiaa
/?oei ?ic??ciyeeny i?ae niaith: oe?a?ia — oea any a?aeae?eaia /anoeia
oa?eoi??? ieaiai? (caiaeii — ony oa?eoi??y oaiaeaeueiiai eiyc?anoaa),
ie?a?ia — eeoa iia?aie/ia oa?eoi??y ieaiai? (caiaeii — iia?aie/ia
oa?eoi??y oaiaeaeueiiai eiyc?anoaa). C ae?oai? iieiaeie XIV no.
a?eueo?noue eiyc?anoa Ee?anueei? ?on?, ia iniia? yeeo noi?ioaaeany
oe?a?inueea ia?iaei?noue, iio?aieee i?ae aeaaeo Eeoae ? Iieueu?. A?ae
oeueiai /ano iacaa oe?a?ia ii/aea aaeeaaoeny ? uiaei oeeo aeaio /anoei
oa?eoi???: caie?, i?aeei?ai? Eeoaith (*a?i?a?anueei-N?aa?nueea,
Ee?anueea, Ia?ayneaanueea ? a?eueoa /anoeia Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoa)
?iiae? iaceaaeeny eeoianueeith oe?a?iie), a caie?, i?aeei?ai? Iieueuath
(Aaeeoeueea ? /anoeia Aieeinueeiai eiyc?anoaa) — o iieuenueeith
oe?a?iith. C iiyaith eicaoeoaaa iaaeaei?i?yinuee? caie?, aea cae?aeeny
eicaee, ae?noaee iacao eicaoeueeeo o e?a?i, ui a?aeia?aaeaii ? a
oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei??: iai?eeeaae, o ia?iaei?e i?ni?: «Ie ii ai?ao,
ii aeieeiao. Ii eicaoeueeeo oe?a?iao Nea aieoaiiueei e?oa?. Nia?
ia?iiueee ooea?». I?ioyaii XV-XVI no. o neia? oe?a?ia a?aeaoaaany
i?ioean ci?ie iaaieiooaaiiy: a eaenaiao ia -eia, (-?ia, -?ia) noo?en
ii/aa ia?aoyaoaaoe iaaiein ia naaa (ii?. aaoueei — aaouee?aueia —
aaouee?aueia, ai?io — ai?ioeia — ai?ioeia, ?eaa — ?eaeia — ?eaeia,
oo?oiaeia — oo?oiaeia; oae naii Oe?a?ia — Oe?a?ia). Oeae i?ioean, yeee
ia caaa?oeany e aein?, ni?e/eieany aei ia?aeaeueiiai aaeeaaiiy iaio
aeoeaioieia?/ieo aa??aio?a — Oe?a?ia e Oe?a?ia i?ioyaii e?eueeio
noie?oue. Ii??aiyeoa, iai?eeeaae, o O. Oaa/aiea: «Naith Oe?a?io
etha?oue»; «…a y O?eueee ai?th ieaeaoue. O?eueee neueice ca
Oe?aeio…»; «A Oe?a?io ?ae?oue, ae?oe, A iaoo Oe?a?io»; «Oea oie
Ia?oee, ui ?icieiaa Iaoo Oe?a?io» oa ?i. O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? i?oeii cae??ieeany oi?ia c iia?oei iaaieinii —
Oe?a?ia. Ia /an aecaieueii? a?eie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe
oeyoaonueei? Iieueu? i?ae i?iaiaeii Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai (1648-1654
pp.), ye a?aecia/a? A. Neey?aiei, Oe?a?iith iaceaaeeny ia o?eueee
caii?icuee?, a aaea an? iaaeaei?i?yinuee? caie?. I/aaeaeii, a?ae oeueiai
/ano i?ae Oe?a?iith noaee ?icoi?oe oe?eo e?a?io. Caiaeii oey iacaa
iioe?eeany e ia ?io? no?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? (cie?aia, ia
Neiaiaeaiueio, yea aeayeee /an iaea io?oe?eio iacao «Neiaiaeneay
Oe?aeia»). Cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? e aeae? iaceaaeeny ?onnth, aea
iinooiiai iacaa Oe?a?ia iioe?eeany e ia cao?aeiee ?aa?ii ? noaea
ni?eueiith aeey an??? aoi?/ii? oa?eoi??? oe?a?ioe?a. Ci?ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoiii?ia ?onei, ?onueeee (a?ae ?onue) ia oe?a?iaoeue
(a?ae Oe?a?ia) aoea ?noi?e/ii iaiao?aeia. Ia?ao?ae aei iiaiai aoiii?ia
noaa nai???aeiith i?ioeae??th aa?aneai?e iie?oeoe? oea?ecio, yeee noaaea
nia? ca iaoo aeaiaoe?iiae?coaaoe oe?a?ioe?a ? ?ic/eieoe ?o a
«iaua?onneii ii?a». A oiiaao, eiee Iineianueea ?iia??y c
aeniain?ii?nonueeeo iioea?a i?enai?ea nia? ?noi?e/io iacao Oe?a?ie —
?onue, a aeey iai?aiiai aoiino cai?iaaaeeea o?ioe i?aei?aaeaiee a?ae
neiaa ?onueeee aoiii?i ?onneee ? iioe?eea eiai e ia iaoeaioe?a
?noi?e/ii? ?on? — Oe?a?ie, ia?ao?ae a?ae naiiiacae ?onei, ?onueeee aei
aoiii?ia oe?a?iaoeue caaaeaa ?noioiiai oaea?o ii ?iia?nuee?e ?aea?
iineianueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa «?aeeiiai ?onneiai ia?iaea io Eai/aoee
aei Ea?iao». Oea iaei aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? anueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Nii/aoeo
nooi aaia?ao?/ia iacaa Oe?a?ia iinooiiai ia?aoai?eeany a iaoe?iiaeueio
?aeath, yea ia’?aeiaea a iaeia oe?ea oae? ?noi?e/i? e aaia?ao?/ia ia
noiae? i?ae niaith ?aa?iie, ye Iie?nny, N?aa?ueia, Neiaiaeaiueia,
Aeiiaan, Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, I?e/i?iiii?’y ? — Aieeiue, Iiae?eey,
Aoeiaeia, I?eea?iaooy oa Caea?iaooy. » I?enai?aoe nia? aeaaith iacao
iaoiai ia?iaeo, ?iia?nueea Iineaa oei naiei niiae?aaeany caaaeueioaaoe,
a iio?i cieueoe iaoa i?aaiaiiy aei naiiaooiino?(64-Iaeiia/iee ?.
Oe?aaeaia ?i’y: *iio ?oneie noaee oe?a?ioeyie. — N. 117.). Ioaea, aeey
ian aeoaea aaaeeeaei ? oie oaeo, ui, iacaeaaeii a?ae naiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
neiai Oe?a?ia iicia/aei Eicaoeueeo aea?aeaao, noai?aio Aiaaeaiii
Oiaeueieoeueeei. Cae/aeii, i?yeith «ie?a?iith» ?in?enueei? ?iia??? aiia
ia aoea ? aanue /an i?aoaiaeoaaea ia iiaio aea?aeaaio naiino?ei?noue.
Naia /a?ac oea aaeeaaiiy neiaa Oe?a?ia a oea?nuee?e ?in?? aoei
caai?iiaii. ? eeoa oiae?, eiee oea?nueeei /eiiaieeai noaei ynii, ui oea
neiai ia iiaeia cieueoe ? noa?oe c iai’yo? oe?a?ioe?a, aoei ae??oaii
eiai aeene?aaeeooaaoe. ?in?enuee? oia?i?noe noaee iiynithaaoe iacao
iaoiai e?ath Oe?a?ia ye «ie?a?ia ?in??», oiaoi aeeaee a oea neiai
i?eieceeaee ? iaaeanoeaee eiio ci?no. C ?noi???th aeieeiaiiy iacae
Oe?a?ia o?nii iia’ycaia i?aaeei aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaiiee?a ia ? a i?e
iicia/aii? i?noey aai i?inoi?o. sse i?aaeeueii neacaoe: aeeao ia Oe?a?i?
/e a Oe?a?i?? I?e?oaee ia Oe?a?io /e a Oe?a?io? I?eeiaiiee a (o) o
i?inoi?iaiio cia/aii? aaeeaa?oueny oiae?, eiee eaeaoueny i?i uinue
oe?ea, aeieeaaeii ie?aneaia, eiiiaeoia, oeaio?aeueia (iai?eeeaae, i?i
e?a?ie, i?noa, ianaeai? ioieoe): a Aiae??, o O?aioe??, a Oai?uei?, o
?in??, o Iieueu?, o Eeoa?; o Eueaia?, o I?aeei?, a Ia?o/?, o nae?. O
oeeo aeiaaeeao i?eiio ia niaaea? ia aeoieo neacaoe: ia Aiae??, ia
O?aioe??, ia Oai?uei?, ia ?in??, ia Eueaia?, ia Ia?o/? oiui. Eiee ae
?aeaoueny i?i neeaaeiao /anoeio e?a?ie, i?i yeonue ?? aoiia?ao?/io
oa?eoi??th, i?i /anoeio i?noa, a?aeaeaeai? a?ae oeaio?o ieieeoe?, oiae?
aaeeaa?oueny i?eeiaiiee ia: ia Aieei?, ia Iie?nn?, ia Aeiiaan?, ia
Caii??aeae?, ia Iieoaauei?, ia Iiaeie?, ia Canoee?, ia oooi??, ia nae?
(oiaoi «ia a i?no?»). Uii?aaaea, o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao ? /anoeie e?a?ie, ?
/anoeie i?noa c iaeyaeo ia iniaeea? ?noi?e/i? oiiae iiaee aenooiaoe
nai???aeieie iie?oe/ieie, eoeueoo?ieie aai aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oeaio?aie
/e ina?aaeeaie noni?eueiiai aeeooy, oiio noiniaii ieo oaeiae ocae/a?einy
aaeeaaiiy i?eeiaiieea a (o): o Eaaaaeo, o Aaee/ei?, o Aea?ieoe?, o
Nayoioei?, aea oaeeo aeiaaee?a ii??aiyii iaaaaaoi. Ine?eueee oe?a?iaie
nii/aoeo iaceaaeeny ie?ai? oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa, ui a?aeie?aieeeny a?ae
oe?ei? aea?aeaae, a iio?i ? Oe?a?ia ye ony no?aeia /anoeia aoi?/ii?
oa?eoi??? oe?a?ioe?a ia?aaoaaea o neeaae? ?in??, i?e i?inoi?iaeo
aecia/aiiyo uiaei Oe?a?ie caeaaia cae??ieany i?eeiaiiee ia. I?ioa ? a
ia?iaeieo i?niyo, ? a e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? iaeaeaa i?eeiaiieee ia ? a /anoi
aaeeaaeeny ia?aeaeueii: ia Oe?a?i? ? a Oe?a?i? c ia?aaaaeaiiyi o??? aai
?ioi? eiino?oeoe?? a ie?aieo ienueiaiiee?a aai a ie?aieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeai?ao ? noeeyo. Iei?, eiee Oe?a?ia aaea naiino?eia, noaa?aiia e
iacaeaaeia aea?aeaaa, iaia? aeiaeieo i?aenoaa aaeeaaoe iaia??oioiaaio e
ii noo? ia?aceeao eiino?oeoe?th c i?eeiaiieeii ia. Ioaea, ?aeeii
i?aaeeueia oi?ia — a Oe?a?i?. Aea aei?aaeyoe oieueeei?i? oa e?oa?aoo?i?
oai?e, aea aaeeaa?oueny aene?a ia Oe?a?i?, ia aa?oi.

A. I?aoi?ae Iioiaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi, a?ei?on?a oa ?oi?o iia /
I?oe ? i?aaaea i?i o?ueio a?ao?a neia`yinueeeo c? «ni?eueii? eieenee».-
Ee?a.: Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? «Aeaaeai?y», 2001.- 152n.

Похожие записи