I?AeAIOIAEA EOEUeOO?II-INA?OI?O I?AOe?AIEE?A A OE?A?I?:

AeINA?Ae, I?IAEAIE (60-70-? ??. OO NO.)

N?? ????? ???e ?????i? ????????, ??? ??a ???th? ?????e ????. A?a ?? ae
??? ?? ?i ???? ??? ? ???? ??i ??????, y?e ????, ???th? ? ?? a ??? ????
?? ???? i??e ?????, ??????, ??iy, ?? ????? ??a ??a, eth??, ???????.

I?? ??o? ?? ???? ???????? a ????? ??e ???? ??????, ?? ???? ?????e ?ath?
???y ???? ???? ? ??????? ???, ? ? ???ith ????th ????y ?????o ???e. I??iy
?i ??a ? ?? ???? ?i?????? a ???? ?????? ????e? a ?? ???? ?????a ??????a.
Ia ?o ??yae, ? ???o ??o ???? ???? ? ?? ???o ???? ????a???, ye ????i-????
?????e. A? ae oey, ????i ??????? ???a ??????a ???? – ???????, ??? ? ????
?????e – y?? ????o i???? ? ????i ??y. ? ?? ?? ? ??????? ??????e ? ??y?
????? ? ??? ????? eth??. E?????? ?????e a ??e ??y???e ?a?? ???th? a
???ue?, ????, ??????? ????e c ?ny?? eth?e. A???, ?o ?? a ????o ????
?????? ? ??? ???, ??, a ?? ????? ?????, ?? ??a, ?ae, ????, o ?y?a ?????
? ????a.

C??, a ??? ????? ??????? ??????i ??????, ?? ?????a ??a ???? ???a ?????o
??o, ??? ?????ny ???o ????? ? ??o ??yo ??????. N?? ????, ? ??, ? ?
??????th. A?? ????, a ?? ? ??? ?’????o ???, ?? ???o??y ???i ? ??, ? ?ny?
???????o ??????a ??thth? a ????o ???, a ??? ?i c ?o ????e ??ith??
????th. A???, ? ??o ???, ? ????i ??? ????????? ??yae a ? ?? ?a ??? ???,
?a ??ath?? ? ii????e ???ae (ye ?????, ?e ? ???a?e), ?????? ???o ???o
???? a ??? ????.

C???i, ?? ?? ???i ??? ????i-?????? ? ?????-????? ??e. O?????? ??i ? ?a
?’???? ??y? i?????o ???eo ????? ? ????. I??, ?-??a, a ?e ?n ?? ???
?????i ????, ? ????? y?e ? ??? ?????e a ???? ??? ?? a, ???, ? ????i. A?a
??? ?? c ??????o ????a ??????o ?.Aecth? ????a: “ Ia ??a ????? ????o ????
??????? ?ae?o a O??? ? ???? ??? ?e, i?? ?? ?y ????y ? ????? ? ?????i
????y ?????? ????”1. I????i ????? e ?, ? ??? ????o i??? ? ?????e e ??c ?
????? ?o ??a, ??ath?? ? ???e ?n?ae, y?i ? ??????i ?i ? ?a.

O??????e ???e ?’??o ?????iy ??? ???? 60-70-? ?? OO ????y. Oea ?a ???, ??
N?N? ?ny?? ?? ??i ???? ?? ? ????a, ? ????? ?? ??y?i ?o ?ny???, a ???e ??
?? ?????ue ????.

A ?aey??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????a ??? ???i. A?i ??? ???, ?????e ??????i
??y???y. I?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????e, ?a????? ??e??. N??? ?????a ???????y
????? ? ???? ?? a 90-? ?? OO ?. Oea ?? a ????o ??? ????? ????o 2. I???
?y? c ?o ? ??o ??????i ? ?????i, a ? ?????? ??y???y 3. A??th ???th
????i-?????? ???? ?y?o ????a ???? ? ??oy A.A. E??? 4. I?ae ?’?? ?????iy
a ?e ????e ????????e ???e ????? ?????.

A ??i???e ??? ??? ?????ny, ??ath?? ? ???? ????, ??????? ??? ???e ????? ?
??????iy ???a ????i-????o ????a a 60-70-? ?? OO ?., ????e ????? ? ?????
???e ????a e ???e ??? ????eth?? ?o a ????iy.

A 60-70-? ?? OO ?. AE?oy a N?N? ?????ny ??ith ?????-???/?th ??????th ?
????i-?????? ????yi. Oea ?? ??o ?????? ??????iy ??o ?? ??y, a ?? ??? e
????. A ????e ???i ???i ???? ??? ?????a ???? a ??? e ????i-???? ???e
???a. C??i ?????ue ?o ???, ?????ue ?????i-????a ??. Oea ????i ???o o
??????e ????? ? y??? ??????a. A ?? ye EI?N ???a ????th ???????? (?a?a,
ye ?? ???) ??i c ????? ???a ???????i ???”, ? ?o ??i??? a ??y???e O???
???ey? ???o ??o. EI?N ???a ??ae ?a????e ????? ?? ???iy ? ??? ?? ????
??????, ??? ?? ?a?, ??e a ?? ??? ??? ????, ?a e a ? ???e (a ? e a ???e)
?? ?? ???????e ??y?” ????, ????e ?????i-???????? ??? ??ae ????y.
Ae???th? ????a ?? ??ey?? ???????o ??????a ye ??o ??? ?????a a ???
???n???i ????y ??y?o, ??????a ??? ???? ? ?????? a ??. Ia ????i, ?
??????a ???a, ?????, ???a ???? ?? ??????y?”. C???i, ? ?e ???? ???????
???a a ???e ?? ?’y??a ? ??o ???a??a ????, ?????a ?o ?ae ????y ????? ???
— ??e ethaeyi ??i?, ??a, ??a.

A? y?i ????e ????o ?????th ? ???????th ?o ?? ???? ??iue, ? ?????
??????i, ????eth??? oy??iyi ?i ??a ? ?? ???? a ??? ??????, ? ??a ????, ?
a ??????? ??? ????a ??? ??? (?? e ??? ?????a) ???a ???o, ????? ? ????y
???a aeey ???????o ???a. I????, a ???o??? ?????? c ???ith ?????th oey
???a ??? ??? ?????.

A???? ??iy?y ? ????y ???? ?? ?????ith ?y ??? ??e: OeE EI?N – OeE EI O???
— ??a I????a O?N? – I?????? ???? — ???? ????? ??? – ???? ??e. A????
ath????? ????, ?a a ?e ?n ?? ??????a ??? ?? ???i. I????, OO?V c’??? EI?N
???? ???iy ????? ?????iy ???????? ???e ????i-??????? ???? 5. A??oth?
???y c’??o, a ?ith ??o I??i OeE EI O??? ??a’y??a I?????? ???? ???e??
????? ??? ????a ?y ????a ????, ????e ??? ? ???o ? ????? ?????a ?????o
????? ????a 6. Ae?? ???i ???th ???o ??a I????a ? ??????th I?????? ????
????? ?? ????iy ????? ???a ?y ???????o ???a c ????? ?????ith ? ??th
???th ia 30-50% 7 . O?a, ???i, ??? ? ?? ? ???y ??????, ?a ????y ????y ??
??a. ss?i 1970 ?. I????o ???? ????e ? ????a O??? ????ue 44 ?n. ?o???a, ?
a 1975 ?. 49 ?ny/ 8. A ?e ?n a ????? ??th?? 2 ????? ???? ? 26 ???????o
???a 9. A 1966-1970 ?. A?e ?????e 9 ?n. ????a a ???? ???? ? ????a c ??th
? ????th ?????ith ???th, a a 1971-1975 ?. – 28 ?ny/ 10 .

I??iy, ? ?????y ??? c ???e ???????o ??????a ????? ???y??? ? ????yo ????
? ???eo ????? ????a11. C???, ????? ??e ?i ??? c ???e, ???????ue ??? ?i
???? ??? ??. C??i, ? ?n? ?a ? ??? ????? ????, ?a ??? ???? ??? ?a ae
????y. A ???? ???o ? ???yo ????? ???a ?y ????a ???? ?? ???ith ????? ??o,
??’y???i ?y a???iy. A ?e ??? ????????ue ? ???? ?????. I????, a 1974 ?.
??e ?e ???? ?????yo ???? ???e? 3057 ???o ? 632 ??????o ?????a 12. E?i
o?i, ??????e ????i ?th? ??e ?e ???? ???? ???? ?????, ???? ???? ????.
A???i ???? ????? ?????a ???a ????? ???y???? ?? 6 ? 10 – ?ny?? ??e, ?a???
? ?? ???????o ???, ???? ??e, ?????? ????o ?????a. O??? ? 1972-1974 ?. ?o
????e ??ae 7 ?n. ???e 13.

A?th?i ???yi ?? /?o ?? ?????iy ???e ????o ????a ????. ?c ?????o ??? ???
??? ?? ??th?? ?? ????. Aeey ????y ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????ue ?a??a ?????
???????o ??????a ? ???e ????a ? ??i??a. Ia ???iy ????? ?e ??? ????? ?
????? ?????e, y? ? ???oth ??? ???? ?? ?????ue a ??? ??. I????, ? E???? ?
????? 50-??y AE???? ??eth?? ???a ?e c?? ?????a ?????e ? th??th ca ???e
????a ? ?a ????a ???a ????? ???y????. A 1966 ?. Ia ?o ???ue 267 ???e c
??o ??i??a ???? 14. N?ae ????e, ? a ???i? ??? ???? ?????e, ????? ? ???
th???a N?N?, ?? ??? ?????. C???i ?? ??? ????????e, ?????????e, ???e,
??????? ????, ??e ???? ????? ????o ???e?. Ui ae ????ny ??????a, ? ??i??,
??? ? ?? ?? ?????ue a ??? ???, ?a ??o ae ?? oey i???a a ???e ?? ??
???ae???a. I????, ??o ?????i ???o ?????iy ?? ???e ? ?e ?n, ???, ? ??.
Oea ??i ???? (??i ?????) ????? ???a ?? ?e ??? ?????? ?? ? ????. A?e
????a?? ??????aie ? ?????y? ??????? ???e (ye ???i — ???) ?e ? ?o ??e a
E???????? ???? ?? ?????? ??ae 1000 ?????a ????? ???y???? 15.

I??, ? ??ath? ? ??? ????, ???y ?????iy ???????o ????a O??? ???e ???????o
????a ?e ? ? ?? ????. O?a ????? ???e ? ???? ??e ????e ?n??th ?o ????ue.
N??a a ??, ? a??i c ?????a ? ?? ??th?? ? ???????th. I???? ??i ?? ???
???? ????y? c ??????e ??? ?? ????i ??????, ????? ??e ??. N?????? ??????
???i ?????iy ???? ????? ????ny ? ????o ??????o ????? ??thth?o a ?e ???.
A? ? ???i ????y ?????? ???? ????????a. A 1975 ?. ?? 4,9% ???????o
??????a ?? ?? ???, a ?? ??? — 1,9% — ?????o 16. A ???o ???? ????a ?? ?
??ei . A 1974 ?. ?? 20% ???th?o ????? ???? ????e C?????? ? E???? i???e
?? ?????o ????? 17. A 3-o ???o I??? ??ae ???o ??????a ??i ? ?a ??????
??? 18. Ae??e ? ??? a ???e ???? ??e ???i ????? eth?e. I????, a 1969 ?. a
A??????o ??? ? C????? ????ie ???e ????? ?????e ? ????e, y? ? ? ????? ?
???? ???? ? 10 ?a. a ?ny?19. ? ??i oy?? y??ue ??? ???? ??????. Ae?a
???th ?? ????ue ???a . O 1971-1975 ?. a ??? ???e O??? ?? ????? 7,8 ?n.
????a, a ??? c ?o 7 ?ny/ 20. A N????????o ??? Ae???????? ???? ?
1972-1975 ?. ????? ??a ? 100% ???th?o ??a? ? ??????e 21.

O?? ??i, a ??? ??????i ?????iy ??e ???? ???? ?ae?ao ???? ??? ?eth??????e
????, ????? ??????o ????, ?’???? ?? ????i. A?? ? ????? ? ??? ?y? ????iy
????a. C??th? ? “??? ath??, ???a ??o ae ?? ????? ? ???? ? ?????? oa
?????e. O???i ????y ??? ?e ??? ????? ????a ? ????a. Ca ?o ???e ????th???
???a ? ????i ????o ??? ??????, ???yi c ?????ith ???th. Oey ???a, ye
???i, ???? 20-30 ?a. ? ?ny? ?aoi ? 20-40% ?ae ????. I?? ???? ????y ???
???? ???????i, a ????? ???th??y ???????o ?a????a. I??i ?o ????ue ?????
???? ??. I????, a1969 ?. ? I????? 267 ????a ?? ???????? ???a??? 22.
O1975 ?. a O??????e ??n? ??? ???? ?? 729 ?????a ???? 23. n????ith ?y ??
?? ??ith ????iy ????? ???????o ??????a ?? ???y ?o ???e ath? ????? ?
??????? ?????e. Ua ??i ???i a?i ???y ??ae ???th?o ???e, ??????e, ?????a
???a a ?????? ????? ????a. I??i ????????a ?? ???e ??????? ???e ?e ????,
????? ????. C?? ? ????ue ? ?i? c ????th, ?a ?? ? ao? ??? ??????yi ??????
???o eth??. C ??th ae ??th ?????ue ?? ?????a ????, ???th??? ??iy ??a??
????? ???? ???”. O?y? ??????a ???????ue ????e, ???? ?????a ????????
???iy, ?o ??? ????? ? ??e ???. N?ae ?????e ? a ?e ?n ???? ???th??y aeey
???? eth?e ?? ??? ???iy.

O?? ??i, ??a ??????, ? ??????? ??? a O??? ????a ??a ???a ????? ? ??? c
???e ??o??-????o ????a, ? ??? a?????? ??oth?? ?????-?????o ??ith. O?a
oey ???a ?? ??y??? ? ?ae???o ????a ?y ????y ???e ??? c y?o ????? ????
???iyi, ? ?iy? ??ae ?????ith ????th, ?y? ?? ????, ? ??o ???, ?ae? ?????e
? ???. Ii-??a, a ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?? a ??a ???? ??ath??? ??e ?y
????? ??????a ????. Ae???o a ?e ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????e, ????i? ?????
??. Ii-ae??, c ?ey? ? ?? ??? ???? ???????o ??????a, ????i ??? ?ae???
???a ????iy ?o ??????i ????a. I???? ??? ??e ??? ???? ? ??i ????a, ????a
c ??a ??????a. Ii-?a?, ? ??ath? ? ?? ???? ? ????, ? ??i ???? ? ?i ????
???th??y ??? ?????a ????. N???? ???iy, ??? ? ??a ????? ? ???? ???.

Ae??? ? ?????

1. Aecth? ?.I. I?ae ????th ? ????th. – E., 1998 – N.57;

2. A???? ???? ?????? ?????i ? ????i ???? a O???. – E??a, 1992; O???: ??a
???? 20????y. I??e ?????. – E., 1997; O??? 20????y. E???a, ?????y, ????.
C??? ???. – E., 1993;

3. I??e ?????i? ??ey?? ???? / Ca ?ae. I. A???a – E., 1998; I??e/ I. I??e
????? ???? O???. – E., 1999; O????i ???? : ????y ? ????n?: I?/. ???? ?y
??a. – E??a, 1994;

4. E??? A.A. I????y ????i ??????i ?? o 1960-80 – ? ?.// O??i??e ?????e
???. – 2002 . — ?5. – N. 24-34;

5. I???? 24 nu?? EINN. – I., 1971;

6. E?????? ???y O??? a ??eth?yo ? ???yo c’???a, ?????e ? ????a OeE. E.,
1997. – O.2. – N. 995-996;

7. Oe????ee ????e ??a ?????o ?’???ue O???. – O. 1. – Ii.32. – N?.738. –
A?. 21;

8. A??a ?????? ???? O???. – O.1. – Ii.8. — N?.390. – A?.26-27;

9. E?? ??????a ???? // N??????? ????. – 1975. — ?9. – N.20;

10. Oe????? ????e ??a ??o ???a ??e ? ?????y O???. – O.5116. – Ii.11. –
N?.316. – A?. 10; Ae???ee ??a E???? ????. – O. 8456. – Ii.3. – N?.33.
A?. 73;

11. Ae???? ??a A????? ????. – O. 1. – Ii.1. – N?.1535. – A?. 60; Ae????
??a Ae???? ????. – O. 577. – Ii.18. – N?.23. – A?.113; Ae???? ??a
C?????? ????. – O.19. – Ii.24. – N?.8. – A?.116; Ae???? ??a *??????
????. – O.1. – Ii.33. – N?.15. – A?.121;

12. A??a I?????? e???e O???. – O.1. – Ii.11. – N?.541. – A?.13;

13. A??e I. E????-???y ??oa. // N????n??a ????. – 1974. — ?12 . — N.2;

14. Ia ??e ????a. // E???a ? ?ooy. – 1966. – 24 ???y;

15. N??? Ae. Aeey ???? ????. // ?aaey??a O???. — 1971. – 10 ???y;

16. ??y??? ???a ??y ? ???iy ????? ???a ????i-????o ????a. – ???a, 1977.
– N.47;

17. Ae???? ??a C?????? ????. – O.102. – Ii.9. – N?.174. – A?.93;
Ae?ae??e ??a E???? i???. – O.5. – Ii.60. – N?.112. – A?.48;

18. Ae???? ??a I???? ????. – O.11. – Ii.115. – N?.17. – A?.32;

19. Ae???? ??a C?????? ????. – O.215. – Ii.1. – N?.934. – A?.167;

20. Ae???? ??a E???? ????. – O.8456. – Ii.3. – N?.934. – A?.80;

21. Ae???? ??a Ae???????? ????. – O.19. – Ii.64. – N?.80. – A?.4;

22. Ae???? ??a I????? ????. – O.15. – Ii.11. – N?.196. – A?.50;

23. I?? N.I. A???? ???????a. // E???a ? ??y. – 1975. – 26 ??iy.

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