Iaeaeaai?o? aea?aeaae Eacaonoaio (VII no. aei i.a. — V no. i.a.)

Ei/?aieee Eacaonoaio a VII-III no. aei i.a.

Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioiaea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio

?icoa?oaaiiy noni?euenoaa aeiaaaei iiyae neee, caeaoii? ?aaoethaaoe
a?aeiineie i?ae ??cieie a?oiaie ianaeaiiy. Oaeith neeith noaea
aea?aeaaa. Ia?o? aea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio noaee
c’yaeyoeny a 1 oen. aei i.a. o oi?i? nithc?a ieaiai. Iaiao?aei?noue
?aaoethaaiiy caiea- ? aiaeiei?enooaaiiy i?eaaei aei ?ioaa?aoe??
non?aei?o ei/iaeo ieaiai, a oneeaaeiaia nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a — aei
oi?ioaaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? aeaaee. Oae, a noaiao Eacaonoaio
c’yaeeeny ia’?aeiaiiy, a?aeii? ye naee — aeaoa (iannaaaoe), naee — ?aoee
(o?a?aoaoaea), ?nnaaeiie ? a??ianie.

I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee noaoon i?ioiaea?aeaa Eacaonoaio a 1 oen. aei i.a.

?icoaoiaoth/enue ia i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ei?aeiiao iaea?eueoeo aea?aeaa
Noa?iaeaaiueiai Na?oo, naenuee? ieai?ii? nithce a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue a
iie?oe/ieo iiae?yo oiai /ano. I?e oeueiio aiie aenooiaee ye iacaeaaei?
noaa?aii? aea?aeaai? ooai?aiiy. O VI no. aei i.a. /anoeia i?aaeaiieo
nae?a (oaiiaaa?aa) iio?aiey? i?ae aeaaeo ia?nueeeo oea??a, i?ioa aaea a
e?ioe? V noie?ooy e?a?ia nae?a ia aoiaeeea i? a iaeio c ia?nueeeo
nao?ai?e, a oea? ei/?aiee?a aaaaeaany ia i?aeaeaiei, a nithcieeii
ia?nueeiai oea?y.

O ai?iouea? i?ioe a?aei-iaeaaeiineiai caaithaaiiy naee, ui aeeee ia
i?ai?/ a?ae Ne?aea?’?, oaeiae coi?ee caa?aaoe iacaeaaei?noue. O 238a.
aei i.a. iaeia c aeaoi-iannaaaonueeeo ieaiai, ia?ie ia /ie? c ?iaeii
A?oae?ae?a, noai?eee a ??ai? iiao ?iia??th, ui ci?ieea aea?aeaae
aee?i?cio Ia?aaeiuei? Ac??, Ia?oyinueea oea?noai.

Aaea a III no. aei i.a. ia aac? naenueeeo ieai?iieo nithc?a aeieeathoue
iia?, neeaaei?o? iie?oe/i? nenoaie. C oiai /ano ie aaea iiaeaii aiai?eoe
i?i ?aii? aea?aeaae ei/?aiee?a Oeaio?aeueii? Ac??.

Aea?aeaaa onoi?a

A e?ioe? ia?oiai oeny/ie?ooy aei iaoi? a?e ia oa?eoi??? AEaoeno,
Oyiue-oaiy ? Oa?aaaa-oay neeaaea?oueny aea?aeaaa, a?aeiia c eeoaenueeeo
aeaea?ae, ye «E?a?ia Onoiue». Onoi? iaoeaee nii/aoeo a ?aeii? ??/ee
Aeaioa, aea a III no. aei i.a. i?ae iaoeneii ieaiai tha/ae? aoee
aeiooai? a?aeei/iaoaaoe aei Iiiaie??, a i?ney ?yaeo ii?acie, iaianaieo
?i ooiiaie, a Naie??//y ? Aeaeoiaa??th. Ooo onoie, aeciaaoe caeaaei?noue
a?ae ooii?a, canioaaee a 177 ?. aei i.a. aeanio aea?aeaao, ui ia’?aeiaea
iauaaee?a naenueeeo ieaiai Naie??//y, No?aeiiai Eacaonoaio ?
Aeaeoiaa???. Aaea o na?aaeei? II no. aei i.a. onoie oaeoe/ii
a?aeae?eeeeny a?ae ?iia??? Ooiio ? ii/aee caeeaeoaaoeny c Eeoa?i. O 53
?. aei i.a. Onoiue ?iciaeany ia aea? /anoeie: aaeeeee eoiueaae ? iaeee
eoiueaae.

Iiaeaeueoa ?noi??y onoi?a iiaia i?aeoniaieo ai?i Aaeeeeo ? Iaeeo
eoiueaae?a, i?e/iio ia?o? nie?aeeny a oe?e ai?iouea? ia Eeoae, ae?oa? —
ia eaiaa??a ? Ooiio. I?ioa i?ney ?iciaaeo ?iia??? Ooiio a?aeiioaiiy
i?ai?/ieo onoi?a c iath c?inoaaeeny.

O II no. i.a. onoiuenuee? aieiae?iiy inoaoi/ii a?aeie?aieeeny a?ae
Eeoath. Ia ii/aoeo IV no. AEaoeno iio?aiey? i?ae aeaaeo nyiuea?,
iiiaieiiiaiiai ia?iaeo. C e?ioey IV no. i.a. aei na?aaeeie VI no. i.a.
aaaaiii?y a noaiao ia?aoiaeeoue aei aeoaeai?a, oeaio? ?iia??? yeeo aoa a
Iiiaie??. Iino?ei? iaa?ae aeoaeai?a i?eioneee onoiuenuee? ieaiaia
ia?anaeeoeny c ??aieiii? /anoeie AEaoeno, ia Oyiue-oaiue. Ia ii/aoeo V
no. ?i’y onoi?a inoaoi/ii noiaeeoue ?c noi??iie ?noi?e/ieo o?ii?e. Oiae
caeeoa?oueny eeoa aeiaeaoe, ui aoiii?i «onoiue» caa??any ? aei oeueiai
aeiy. Iaeei c ?iae?a Noa?oiai aeoca eacao?a iaceaa?oueny «oenoi».

Aea?aeaaa eaiaa??a. Aeaie

Ooai?aiiy aea?aeaae eaiaa??a

Ia cao?ae a?ae onoi?a, a aeieeiao Oaeana, Ne?aea?’? ? Oeaio?aeueiiio
Eacaonoai? iaoeaee /eneaii? ieaiaia eaiaa??a. Eeoaeoe? iaceaaee oe?
caie? «e?a?iith Eaiathe». Aea?aeaaa eaiaa??a aeieeea a III no. aei i.a.
a na?aaei?e oa/?? Ne?aea?ue?, a ?aeii? Eaiaoe. Noieeoeath aea?aeaae aoei
i?noi A?oyiue. O ia?o? noie?ooy iaoi? a?e eaiaa?e i?aeii?yaeeoaaee nia?
aeainuee? ieaiaia i?ai?/iicao?aeiiai I?ea?aeey. O Na?aaei?e Ac??
eaiaa?nueeiio i?aaeoaeth i?aeei?yeeny i’youe «iaeeo- aieiae?iue» — Nona,
Ooio, TH?i?, Ae, TH?oyiue.

I?aeaeaaaaoenue oeneo onoi?a, eaiaa?e a e?ioe? I no. aei i.a.
oeeaaeathoue nithc c ooiio. I?ai?/i? ooiio ia /ie? c naia??ii *ae?-*ae?
ia?aeoee aei eaiaa?. Iaea?aeaaoe neeueiiai nithcieea, eaiaa?e ii/aee
a?eio c onoiyie, aea ooiio ia caoio?ee ia?anaeyoeny ia caie?
ia?aiiaeaieo onoi?a ? i?aeei?yoeny caeiiai eaiaa??a. Oea iineoaeeei
i?e/eiith ?ic?eao nithco.

Uiaei aoi?/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? eaiaa??a ?niothoue aea? oi/ee ci?o.
*anoeia aeine?aeiee?a aaaaeathoue ?o ??aiiiiaieie a aeieeiao Oaeana,
?io? a?aeiinyoue ?o aei oth?eiiiaieo aoiin?a.

Aeaie

Ia cao?ae a?ae eaiaa??a ei/oaaee /eneaii? aeainuee? ieaiaia. ?o caie?
oyaioeeny ia i?ai?/ a?ae A?aeuenueeiai ? Eani?enueeiai ii??a. O VII no.
aei i.a. ooo ooai?eany nithc, aea i?ia?aeio ?ieue aeeiioaaee ai?ne ?
?ienaeaie. *anoeia aeainueeeo ieaiai, ?icaeaoe ne?o?a, i?oea a
I?e/i?iiii?’y ? aeae? aei ?a?iie, ae?eoiaoe aei ?niai?? ? I?ai?/ii?
Ao?eee. ?aooa ae i?aeei?yeeny eaiaa?ai, a iio?i, a II noie?oo? aa?eoea
aei neeaaeo aoinueei?aea?aeaae ? inoaoi/ii anei?ethaaeeny c
aoiii-eaiaa?nueeeie ieaiaiaie Cao?aeiiai Eacaonoaio.

A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aaaaea? aeai?a ??aiiiiaiei ia?iaeii.

Aea?aeaaa ooiio ? aoi?a

Ooai?aiiy aea?aeaae ooiio

Ia?oa caaaeea ooiio a ienueiiaeo aeaea?aeao a?aeiineoueny aei 822 ?. aei
i.a., eiee aiie cae?eniththoue a?aiae?iciee iio?ae ia Eeoae. O III no.
aei i.a. ooiinuee? iaiaaee iineeththoueny. Ooiio a oeae ia??iae aoee
nithcii nii??aeiaieo ?iae?a, i/iethaaieo aeai?iei aiaeaeai. O 209 ?. aei
i.a. nei aiaeaey Ooiaio Iiae? iaieinea naaa naia??ii -«auni/aeoei», ?
ii/aa aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue uiaei noai?aiiy ooiinueei? aea?aeaae.
Nii/aoeo aoee ?icaeo? no?aei? non?aee ooiio — ieaiaia aeoioo. Ane?ae ca
oeei ooiio i?aeii?yaeeoaaee nia? th?/aeae ? onoiae ia caoiae?, ieaiaia
eiooaiue ? aaeyi ia i?aaei?. Iineeaiiy ooiio ia caeeoeeiny aac oaaae
Eeoath, aea o oie /an caoaa?aeeeany iiaa aeeiano?y — Oaiue. A?eia i?ae
ooiio ? Eeoa?i cae?i/eeany a 188 ?. aei i.a. ii?aceith oaiuenueeeo
a?enuee.

O 59 ?. aei i.a. a aea?aeaa? ooiio ii/aeeny i?aeoniaeoe?, iia’ycai? c
ai?ioueaith niaaeei?ioe?a naia??a ca aeaaeo. O 47 ?. aei i.a. ooiio
?icae?eeeeny ia aea? /anoeie — i?ai?/io ? i?aaeaiio. Ia?o? i?eeiyee
i?aeaeainoai Eeoaenueei? ?iia???, inoaii? caa?aaee iacaeaaei?noue.
*anoeia i?ai?/ieo ooiio, aaaeo/e iaiieaaeeaee ii?? eeoaenueei? aa?an??,
aeiooai? aoee a?aeei/iaoaaoe a e?a?io eaiaa?. Oaeei /eiii, ia ?oaaae?
iaoi? a?e ii/eia?oueny ianiaa ia?anaeaiiy ooiinueeeo ieaiai ia
oa?eoi??th Eacaonoaio. O 93 ?. i?ai?/i? ooiie i?ae iaoeneii eeoaenueeeo
a?enuee, aeinyaee Oa?aaaaoay, iio?i noai?a Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaio ?
aa?aa?a Ne?aea?’?.

Aea?aeaaa aoi?a

*anoeia i?ai?/ieo ooiio a I no. i.a. i?iieeee ia oa?eoi??th Eacaonoaio.
Iacaaa?ii aiie iieieeeny i?ae Aieaith, Aeiiii ? A?aeuenueeei ii?ai. Ooo
ia iaaaeeeiio i?inoi?? ooiio, aeaie ? eaiaa?e i?ioyaii o?ueio noie?oue
ei/oaaee, anooiath/e o iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie (ye ie?i?, oae ? a?enueeia?)
c aaeeeeie aea?aeaaaie noa?iaeie ??aiii ? ?einueeith ?iia???th. Aei
oeueiai /ano aiie ao?aoeee naith aoi?/io nai???aei?noue ? anei?ethaaeeny
c i?noeaaeie ei/iaeie ieaiaiaie. Ooai?eany iiaee aoiin, yeee ia a?aei?io
a?ae ooiio iaceaa?oueny aoiaie. Oae eiai iaceaaee cao?aei? aeaea?aea.

O 375 ?. aoie ia /ie? c Aaeaiaa?ii, ui ei/oaaa oiae? noaiaie ieaeiueiai
Iiaieaeaey, ia?ai?aaeeeny /a?ac Aeii ? ?icaeee ieai?iiee nithc inoaio?a.
Oae ii/aeiny «Aaeeea ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a». Iinooiiai aoie i?iieeaee ana
aeae? ia cao?ae, ia??aeei aoi?aaeeny a iaae? no?aeii-?einueei? ?iia???.
O 305 ?. aiie i?aeoiaeeee aei no?i Eiinoaioeiiiiey, a oiio ae ?ioe?
cae?enithaaee iaa?a ia Caeaaeaccy ? Ianiiioai?th. A?ae iai?aai?ciaaieo
a?aa?aeieoeueeeo iaa?a?a aoie ia?aoiaeyoue aei e?oiieo caaithaaiue. O
437 ?. aoie ?ica?iieee Ao?aoiaenueea ei?ie?anoai. O 445 ?. Aoo?ea,
oaeaoe naiai a?aoa Aeaaeo, noaa iaeiiin?aiei i?aaeoaeai. Ii/aany ia??iae
eiai ei?ioeiai, aea iiaiiai iiae?e oea?thaaiiy.

Aoinueea aea?aeaaa ?iciaeany ia ie?ai? aieiae?iiy — oaca?nueea,
ooo?ao?nueea, eooo?ao?nueea, naa??nueea. Oe? ieaiaia, ui caeiaee
oa?eoi??th a?ae Aeoiath aei Aieae, /anoi ai?iaoaaee i?ae niaith.

C ianiaei i?iieeiaiiyi aoi?a ia oa?eoi??th Eacaonoaio ? iiaeaeueoei
?ooii aoi?a ? eaiaa?nueeeo ieaiai ia cao?ae iia’ycaia ci?ia
aio?iiieia?/iiai oeio ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
i?ioieei/aoeueeiai ae?aeaeoo oth?enueei? iiae.

E?eca ?aii?o aea?aeaa Eacaonoaio

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, aoi?/i? i?ioeane, ui iaee i?noea
a Oeaio?aeuei?e Ac??, i?eaaee aei e?ece ? ?iciaaeo noa?iaeaai?o aea?aeaa
Eacaonoaio. Ooiio caeiyee caie? eaiaa??a ? onoi?a ? canioaaee a
Oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? i?aaeaiiiai Eacaonoaio aea?aeaao THaaaiue. O
na?aaei?e oa/?? Ne?aea?’? ci?oeieeeny aooae?oe, Nai???//y a V no.
i?aeei?eeiny oeaio?aeueiiac?aonuee?e aea?aeaa? AEoaeaiue. O 490 ?.
thaaaioe? aoee ?ica?iieai? oaeannueeeie ieaiaiaie, ye? canioaaee a
No?aeiiio Eacaonoai? aea?aeaao Aaiathe. Ae?eeeany aiia ia aea? /anoeie,
i?ai?/iee i?aaeoaeue iinea oeooe «Iaaaniee ?iia?aoi?», i?aaeaiiee —
«Iane?aeiee ainoaea?». I?ioa aaea /a?ac o?noue ?ie?a oey aea?aeaaa aoea
?ica?iieaia ? iio?aieea i?ae aeaaeo AEoaeai?a. Oae, aei na?aaeeie V no.
i.a. noa?iaeaai? aea?aeaae Eacaonoaio i?aeoe/ii ia?anoaee ?nioaaoe.

Aeoae ? Naie??//y a V-XII no.

Oth?enueeee eaaaiao

Ooai?aiiy oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoo

I?ney iaae?iiy iiaooiino? onoi?a AEaoeno ia?aoai?eany ia iino?eio a?aio
ai?i. Caaiie aeoaeai?a, ui c’yaeeeny ooo a V no. aeioneee onoi?a
ia?aianoe nai? ei/iaeua ?c noaiiai? /anoeie ia Oyiue-oaiue. Ia caieyo,
ui ca?eueieeeny, iaiaaaeeny aeaoooaaoeny th?/ae?, aea i?ney ai?i c
aeoaeaiyie a 418-419 ??. aiie aoee aeiooai? i?oe aei Na?aaeiuei? Ac??,
aea c?oeioeeny c ia?naie ? aooae?oaie. Aa?o?a’y ??/ie Oo ? Oaean aoee
caoiieai? eaiaa?aie, ye? coieieee ?oo aeoaeai?a ia cao?ae.

AEaoeno ? No?aeiee Eacaonoai aoee ieieeoeyie aea?aeaae aeoaeai?a, oiio
?i iaaeaaaeiny iaei oaaae, i?ioa naia ooo, ia Aeoa?, ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny
neea, caeaoia i?ioenoiyoe aeoaeaiyi.

Ca ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano aoea noai?aia aaee/acia ei/iaa ?iia??y, ui
ioiiethaaea oa?eoi??th a?ae Aae?ey aei O?iaainueeeo a??. Ia /ie? iiai?
aea?aeaae noiya eaaai, ae?oaith iniaith aoa eiai ?iaee/, ui iinea oeooe
«yaao».

O 568 ?. oth?enueea aea?aeaaa ae?eeeany ia /ioe?e oae?ee, a a 576 ?. —
aaea ia a?n?i. Noaaea naiiai eaaaia ciaoiaeeeany ia Aeoa?. O
nioe?aeueiiio ieai? oth?ee ae?eeeeny ia o?e oa?e — aaee, ea?aaoaeoi —
iniiaia iana ? oaoe-?aae c a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. I?aeeaae? oth?eai
oaeannuee? ieaiaia iaceaaeeny iaocaie.

O?eueee c’yaeaoenue, Oth?enueeee eaaaiao a?ae?aco noaa a iaeei ?yae c
na?oiaeie ?iia??yie oiai /ano. O ?acoeueoao? caaithaaiue eaaaiao noaa
eiio?iethaaoe an? aaaeeea? ae?eyiee Aaeeeiai Oiaeiaiai oeyoo, ui
caaacia/oaaei oth?enuee?e ciao? aaee/aci? i?eaooee a?ae ea?aaaiii?
oi?a?ae?. I?ioa iiaooi?noue oth?enueei? aea?aeaae iacaaa?ii iioeoioeanue
oiane?aeie i?aeoniaeoeue.

?iciaae oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoo

I???aa i?ae cao?aeieie ? no?aeieie oth?eaie aoea oaea aaeeea, ui i?ae
/an a?eie c Eeoa?i, ui ii/aeany a 598 ?., no?aei? oth?ee ia /ie? c
AEaiaa?ii i?aeo?eiaee Noenueeo ?iia??th. Ea?a *o??i – oai cao?aeieo
caiaeue — aoa oaeoee, aea Oth?enueeee eaaaiao oae ? ia ia’?aeiaany. O
604 ?. oaiii Cao?aeiiai eaaaiaoo noaa iaeie?oi?e Oaiai — i?aaioe Ea?a
*o??ia, a No?aeiiai — AEaiaa?. ?aeeiee Oth?enueeee eaaaiao ia?anoaa
?nioaaoe.

Cao?aeii-Oth?enueeee eaaaiao

O Cao?aeii-Oth?enueeiio eaaaiao? aeania oth?ee neeaaeaee iaioo /anoeio
ianaeaiiy ? neeo i?aaeoae? /a?iaee o noaiiaeo ieaiai Nai???//y, oiaoi
iauaaee?a onoi?a. C ieo neeaeiny aeaa ieai?ii? nithce: aeoeo — a AEaoen?
? Aeaeoi-aa??? ? iioaaeieo — ia Oyiue-oai?. Eiaeiee c oeeo nithc?a
ia’?aeioaaa ii i’youe ieaiai, oiane?aeie /iai aanue ia?iae iaea?aeaa
iacao «ia?iaeo aeanyoe no??e».

Iiaeaeueoa ?noi??y eaaaiaoo aoea iiaia ai?i i?ae aeoeo ? iioaaeieoaie ca
aeaaeo a e?a?i?. I?ney i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy No?aeiiai eaaaiaoa Eeoath
?iia?nuee? a?enueea i?ae?eoee ai?eooe aei ei?aeii?a AEaoeno. A?eia
640-648 ??. cae?i/eeany ii?aceith oth?ie, i?ney /iai a?ae eaaaiaoa
a?aeae?eeeeny ? eaca?e. Inoaii?e cao?aeii-oth?enueeee eaaai Eoaa?a oai
iaiaaaany caa?aaoe ?aei?noue ? iacaeaaei?noue e?a?ie, aea eeoaenueea
aa?an?y i?iaeiaaeoaaeany, ?ica?aoe i?ae oth?enueeeie ieaiaiaie ua a?eueo
c?iaeeeny aei?noieeie. O ?acoeueoao? iioaaeieoe ? aeoeo a 656 ?. aeciaee
aeaaeo Eeoath. Caie? Cao?aeii-Oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoa aoee iiae?eai? ia
aeaa aoaa?iaoi?noaa, ye? a naith /a?ao ae?eeeeny ia ie?oae ? iia?oe.
I?ioa oth?enuee? ieaiaia AEaoeno ia cie?eeeny c eeoaenueeei
aeaaeeoeoaii.

AEaoeno o VIII-X no.

Ooai?aiiy eaaaiaoa Oo?eao?a

Cao?aei? oth?ee aaaeei ia?aaeeaaee nai? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Eeoath. O
na?aaeiaeu? oth?ie aoea neeueia ?aeay iacaeaaeiino? ? niiaaaeo i?i
ieioeo iiaooi?noue eaaaiaoo. O 679 ?. iaeii/anii niaeaoioee aeaa
iianoaiiy — a Iiiaie?? ? AEaoen?. Aea yeui ia?oa i?eaaei aei
a?aeiiaeaiiy No?aeii-oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoo, oi ae?oaa aoei aei?noiei
i?eai?/aia.

O 699 ?. Cao?aeii-oth?enueea aea?aeaaa aoea a?aeiiaeaia, i?ioa ia /ie?
?? anoaei ia ieai’y aoeia, a oth?eao?, oiio eaaaiao noaa ?iaioaaoeny
Oo?eaonueeei.

Oo?eao? aoiaeeee a ieai?iiee nithc aeoeo ? a naith /a?ao ae?eeeeny ia
ea?a- ? na??-oo?eao.

Iioiaee a?aa?a ? ?iciaae aea?aeaae Oo?eao?a

O 705a. ai?eooe aei i?aaeaiieo ei?aeii?a oo?eao?a i?ae?eoee a?aanuee?
a?enueea, ui aithaaee c niaae?enueeeie aea?aeaaaie. O?eueee ?ica?aeiino?
i?ae oo?eaoaie ? niaae?eoeyiea aeii?a aei?noiei i?eai?/aia. aeicaieeee
a?aaai a?aenooieoe ? oieeiooe iiaiiai ?ica?iio. I?ioa oni?o oeae aoa
iaaeiaaee.

O 708 ?. a Oo?eaonueeiio eaaaiao? ii/aeany i?aeoniaia a?eia i?ae eaaaiii
? eiai aanaeii Eoe?-*o??. No?aeii-oth?ene? a?enueea aenooieee a iio?ae ?
a 710 ?ioe? ia ??/oe? Aiei/o oo?eaonueea a?enueei aoei ?icaeoa.

Ii?acea oo?eao?a aeicaieeea a?aaai a?aeiiaeoe ianooi ia Na?aaeith Ac?th
? a 711 ?. ocyoe Naia?eaiae. O 713 ?. a?aae caoiieee Oiaeaeaio, Oa?aaio
? ni?iaoaaee caaieiae?oe Oaoeaioii, a a 715 ?. i?iieeiooe aei No?aeiiai
Oo?eanoaio. I?ioa a?aanueea aeniain?y ciia aoea coieiaia oo?eaoaie, a
aaea a 717 ?. oaeaiiaeoee eaaai Noeoe coi?a a?aeiiaeoe eieeoith
iiooaei?noue eaaaiaoo.

A?aae iaiaaaeeny aeiaeoeny nithco c oo?eaoaie oeyoii i?iiaaaiaee ?neaio,
i?ioa oe? ni?iae ia iaee oni?oo. O 724 ?. oo?eao? i?aeo?eiaee iianoaiiy
a Niaae? ? ii/aee aanoe oai ia?oecainueeo a?eio i?ioe a?aa?a. E??i oiai,
niaeaoioea ai?iaeia/a i?ae ea?a- ? na??-oo?eaoaie.

O 756 ?. a?eia i?ae ea?a- ? na??-oo?eaoaie iiiiaeeany ? inoaoi/ii
ciae?iaeea eaaaiao. O 759 ?. aeaaea a AEaoen? ia?aeoea aei ?ioiai
oth?enueeiai ieaiai? — ea?eee?a.

Ea?eeenueeee eaaaiao

Ea?eeee, ui ?icnaeyeeny ia noeeao Aeoay, aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Cao?aeiiai
Eaaaiaoo ? iaee i?aaeoaey c oeooeii aeueoaaa?. C ineaaeaiiyi aeaaee
eaaaia ea?eeee ana a?eueo i?aaioee aei naiino?eiino?, ia??iaee/ii
i?aei?iath/e iianoaiiy ? ia?aoiaey/e a i?aeaeainoai no?aeieo eaaai?a.
I?ney iaae?iiy Cao?aeii-oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoa ea?eeee iiiaaeathoue i?ae
aieea Eeoath, ?o aiaeae? i?eeiathoue eeoaenuee? oeooee, aea a?aeiinia
naiino?ei?noue caa??aa?oueny. C ii/aoeo VIII no. ii/eia?oueny iinooiiaa
ia?anaeaiiy ea?eee?a ia oa?eoi??th AEaoeno. I?ney ?yaeo ia?aiia iaae
oo?eaoaie ? no?aeieie oth?eaie ea?eeenueeee i?aaeoaeue — aeaeaaao aoa
aeciaiee «oea?ai Aeoath».

O 758 ?. ea?eeee ii/aee ianooi a AEaoeno i?ioe oo?eao?a. *a?ac n?i
?ie?a, iaieiae?aoe Noyaii, ia?aianee nthaee naith noieeoeth. Oo?eaoe
/anoeiith i?aeei?yeeny, /anoeiith a?aeei/iaoaaee ia no?ae. Ea?eeenuee?
caaiie oaeaeei aeinyaee cao?aeieo a?ae?ia?a Oyiue-oaiy, i/enoeee a?ae
a?aa?a Oa?aaio ? na?aaeith oa/?th Ne?aea?’?. I?ioa iecea ia?aiia,
iaoiiaeaieo neaae?noth noi?ioeaieea, ci?ieeany iacaaa?ii aaaeeeie
ii?aceaie.

Ci?oeiaiiy ea?eee?a noo?aoaaei aeeiano?th Naiai?ae?a, ui caoaa?aeeeany a
Na?aaei?e Ac??, i?aaeoaeue Naia?eaiaeo a 840 ?. iaieinea «nayuaiio
a?eio» i?ioe oth?e?a, iaieiae?a ?ni?aeaeaaii, yeee noaa oeaio?ii
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?neaio a I?aaeaiiiio Eacaonoai?.

Aei ea?eeenueei? eiioaaea?aoe?? aoiaeeee ??ci? ei/ia? oth?enuee?
ieaiaia: ooone, /eaee?, aceeoe, oaeaaeae?, /a?oee, a?ao, aa?noaie. E??i
oiai, a ?o neeaae? aoee /anoeia oeao??a, niaae?eoe?a, iaocnueeeo o?iai,
ui caeeoeeeny a AEaoen? i?ney ia?anaeaiiy iniiaii? ?o iane a aanaei
na?aaeiuei? ? ieaeiuei? oa/?? Ne?aea?’?. *anoeia oth?enueeeo ieaiai o
i??o i?inoaaiiy ia i?aaeaiue ? cao?ae noaea ia?aoiaeeoe aei in?eiai
caiea?ianoaa, na?aae ieo noaa ?iciianthaeaeoaaoeny ?neai. Iniiaia
/anoeia ea?eee?a i?eeiyea ?neai a 960 ?.

?noi??y Ea?eeenueeiai eaaaiaoo aeyaeeany iaaeiaaith. O 940 ?. noieeoey
aea?aeaae Aaeanaaoi aoea caoiieaia oth?eaie No?aeiiai Oo?eanoaio —
/eaeeyie ? yaia, ? Ea?eeenueeee eaaaiao ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe. O AEaoen?
aeaaeo ia?aoiaeeoue aei iiai? aeeiano?? — Ea?aoai?ae?a, ye? ia aeiaaee
/an ciiaee ia’?aeiaoe ea?eeenuee? ? oo?eanuee? ieaiaia AEaoeno ? aeieeie
Ne?aea?’?.

AEaoeno a X-XII no.

Ooai?aiiy aea?aeaae Ea?aoai?ae?a

Aeecueei 940 ?. ieaiaia Oyiue-oaiy caoiieee Aaeanaaoi ?, iiaaeeaoe
ea?eeoeueeiai eaaaia, iieeaee ii/aoie iiai? aeeiano??. Iaeei c ia?oeo
i?aaeoae?a iiai? aea?aeaae Naooe Aia?aoai Aaaeoeea??i — i?eeiya ?neai ?
oeooe Aeineai Ea?aoai, ca yeei any aeeiano?y iaea?aeaea iacao
Ea?aoai?ae?a. I?aaeoae? oainoaa a 990 ?. i?e?aeiaee i?noa Oa?ac ?
?no?aeaeaa. Aei e?ioey O no. neeaeany oa?eoi??y oainoaa, yea oyaioeany
a?ae Aioaea?’? ? ieaeiuei? oa/?? Ne?aea?’? ia caoiae? ? aei AEaoeno ?
Eaoaa?a ia noiae?. Aieiaio ?ieue a aea?aeaa? aeeiioaaee ea?eeoeuee?
ieaiaia /eaee? ? yaia. Oainoai aoei ?icae?eaia ia aeaa aaeee? oae?ee.
Aa?oiaiee eaaai c oeooeii A?neai Ea?? oai ca o?aaeeoe??th aoa aieiaea?ai
no?aeii? /anoeie aea?aeaae, ?aceaeaioe?y eiai ciaoiaeeeany a i.
Aaeanaaoi?, Ae?oaee eaaai c oeooeii Aia?a Ea?a oai aieiae?a cao?aeiith
/anoeiith c ?aceaeaioe??th a i. Oa?ac?. Aieiaea?? ae??aieo oae?e?a
iineee oeooee «?eae» ? «oaaei».

Iacaaa?ii na?aae Ea?aoai?aeia ii/aeeny ?ica?aoe i?ae aeaiia a?eeaie —
iauaaeeaie Ae? ? Oanaia.

Ineaaeaiiy ea?aoai?ae?a

C 30-o ?ie?a XII a AEaoeno noaa i?aeaeaaaoeny iino?eiei iaa?aai
eeaeai?a.

O 1141 ?. i?ney ?ica?iio ia’?aeiaiiai naeueaeaeooeueei-ea?aoai?aenueeiai
a?enueea iie?oe/ia aeaaea ia?aeoea a ?oee eeaeainueeeo i?aaeoae?a. I?ioa
ua yeeenue /an ea?aoai?aee caa??aaee aanaeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae
eeaeai?a. ? eeoa ia ii/aoeo XIII no. aea?aeaaa ea?aoai?ae?a ia?anoaea
?nioaaoe.

Ia??iae ea?aoai?aenueeiai iaioaaiiy a Eacaonoai? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
c?ooaiiyie a aeiiii?/iiio ? eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? oth?eiiiaieo ieaiai. Ia
eiai oa?eoi??? iii?oiei noa? in?aeaiiy oth?e?a-ei/?aiee?a. ?icaeaaeeny
iinaeaiiy ? i?noa, a?aeiia?aeii ? i?nueea eoeueoo?a. O Ea?aoai?aenuee?e
aea?aeaa? noi?ioaaeany iiaa iie?oe/ia nenoaia. ?neai aoei iaieioaii
aea?aeaaiith ?ae?a??th, aoea i?eeiyoa a?aanueea a?ao?ea, ui cai?ieea
ae?aaiaoth?enueeoth ienaii?noue. A oe?eiio ea?aoai?aenueea aiioa aoea
ye?nii iiaei aoaiii a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio, iie?oe/iiio ?
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Eacaonoaio.

AEaoeno i?ae aeaaeith eeaeai?a

Eeaeai?, ia?iae iiiaieuenueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, canioaaee a O no. iaoe?io
aea?aeaao a?ae Oeoiai ieaaio aei Oyiue-oaiy.

I?inoaaiiy eeaeai?a a?aeaoaaeiny a aeaio iai?yiao: c iaeiiai aieo, aei
No?aeiiai Oo?eanoaio, aea aiie aoee ?ica?iieai? ea?aoai?aeaie, c ?ioiai,
a I?ai?/ii-no?aeiee AEaoeno. Iinaeeaoenue ooo, eeaeai? nii/aoeo
i?iyaeyee iie??i?noue i?noeaaei i?aaeoaeyi. Aaeanaaoinueeee i?aaeoaeue
caeeeeaa eeaeai?a aenooieoe i?ioe eaiaa??a ? ia/ai?a?a, aea eeaeai?,
caeiyaoe Aaeanaaoi, iiaaeeee i?aaeoaey ? canioaaee aeanio aea?aeaao, ui
iaea?aeaea iacao Ea?a-Eeoae, oiaoi e?a?ia ea?a-eeaeai?a. I?ney oeueiai
aiie i?aeei?eee eaiaa??a, ui aeeee a aeieeiao Oo ? Oaeana,
i?aeii?yaeeoaaee nia? No?aeiee Oo?eanoai ? a 1137 ? 1141 ?. ?ica?iieee
a?enueea Iaaa?ai-iao?a ? naeueaeaeoe?a.

Na?ea?ea ? Cao?aeiee Eacaonoai o V-XII no. noai o neeaae? Oth?enueeiai
eaaaiaoo

Cao?aeiee Eacaonoai o neeaae? Oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoo

I?ney ?iciaaeo aoinueei? aea?aeaae oeaio?aeuei? ? cao?aei? ?aa?iie
Eacaonoaio ia?aoai?eeeny ia iie?oe/ii ?icae?iaeai? ?aeiie, aea
i?iaeiaaeoaaee aeeoe aeecuee? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi aoiine. O aeieei?
Ne?aea?’? ? ia i?ai?/ a?ae ia? ei/oaaee /eneaii? eaiaa?e, ui ia iaee
aoaeue-yei? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeaaee, ia i?ai?/ a?ae A?aeuenueeiai ii?y
iaoeaee nii??aeiai? ieaiaia oap ? o?ii?o?a, caeeoe?a oa?i-??ainueeiai
ianaeaiiy I?aaeaiiiai I?ea?aeuey. A?ae A?aeuenueeiai ii?y ia cao?ae
aeeee ieaiaia aoi?a naa???a, eaca?, eooo?ao??a, ooo?ao??a, iiiiaoiaeo??a
? ?i. O V no. aoi?/i? a?oie I?eacia’y ooai?ththoue iiao ni?euei?noue, ui
iaea?aeaea iacao «aoeaa?».

I?ney ?iciaaeo Oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoa a 604 ?. ieaiaia Cao?aeiiai
Eacaonoaio iaea?aeaee a?aeiinio naiino?ei?noue. Eaaaie
Cao?aeii-oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoa, aoyaioo? a ?ica?aoe i?ae aeoeo ?
ii-oaaeieoaie, ia iaaeaaaee iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy nai?i i?ai?/iei ?
cao?aeiei i?aeaeaiei. O ?acoeueoao? eaiaa?e i?aeoe/ii ia aeciaaaee
aeaaeo eaaaia, a aoeaa?e ? eaca?e canioaaee aeani? aeeiano??.

Cao?aeiee Eacaonoai aa?eoia aei neeaaeo Eaca?nueeiai eaaaiaoa.

Na?ea?ea , I?aaeaiiee ? Cao?aeiee Eacaonoai o IX-X no.

E?iaenueeee eaaaiao

Ia iie?oe/i?e a?ai? a eacaonueeiio noaio a IX noie?oo? c’yaeeany
aea?aeaaa eei/ae?a, ui ia’?aeiaea /eneaii? ieaiaia a?ae Aeoay aei
Ne?aea?’?. Iie?oe/ia yae?i oe??? aea?aeaae, ieai’y ?iae, o na?aaeei? VII
noie?ooy caeiyei oa?eoi??th No?aeiiai Eacaonoaio. I?ney iaae?iiy
Cao?aeii-oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoa a 656 ?. ?iaee iaea?aeaee aeayeo
iacaeaaei?noue. Ia ii/aoeo VIII no. ?iaee i?aeei?ythoueny oo?eaoai, aea
aaea aei na?aaeeie oeueiai noi??//y ca?eueiythoueny a?ae ?o aeaaee.
A?eueo oiai, i?noeaa? a?o?nnuee? ieaiaia i?aeei?ythoueny ?iaeai ?
noai?ththoue c ieie eiioaaea?aoe?th, ui iaea?aeaea a no?aeieo aeaea?aeao
iacao e?iae («aee-?iae» — «aeaa ieaiaia ?iae?a»).

Ciaoiaey/enue i?ae ea?eoeaie ? oth?aaoaie, e?iaee ia o?eueee coi?ee
caa?aaoe iacaeaaei?noue, aea ? ?iciianthaeeee na?e aieea ia /eneaii?
eaiaa?nuee? ?iaee, ui ei/oaaee a Oeaio?aeueiiio Eacaonoai? ? ia’?aeiai?
a VIII no. a?oiith ne??a-eei/ae?a, ui aoaeee c Aeoay i?ney ?ica?iio
oeao?aie Ae?oaiai Oth?enueeiai eaaaiaoo. I?ney ?iciaaeo oeao?nueeiai
eaaaiaoo a 840 ?. /anoeia ieaiai, ui aoiaeeee a iueiai, i?e?aeio?oueny
aei e?iaenueeiai nithco. Noai?th?oueny iiaooiy aea?aeaaa ia /ie? c
i?aaeoaeai, yeee iineoue oeooe «aaeao», a ia ii/aoeo O ui no. i?eeia?
oeooe «oaeai». A e?ioe? IX no. aei neeaaeo e?iaenueei? aea?aeaae
aoiaeeei n?i ieai?iieo a?oi: ?oe, eai?eac, aaeaeeaae, aeio?, aayiaeo?,
oaoa?, e?i/ae.

Aei na?aaeeie O no. oa?eoi??y Eeiaenueeiai eaaaiaoo ae?eeoueny ia /ioe?e
iniiai? iaeano?:

1. Eaanoi-Eano — ioiieth? iaaee??//y Aneey ? A?o?na, Aa?aa?inueeee noai
ia cao?ae a?ae ??/ee Ia. Ooo, ia A?o?n?, ?icoaoiaoaaeeny noieeoe? —
noa?a ? iiaa.

2. Ee?ee?oai — caeia? oa?eoi??th No?aeiiai ? Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaio
a?ae A?o?na aei Aaeoaoa ? Aeaeiey, aeeth/ath/e Ea?ea?ae?inuee?,
*eia?coaonuee? ? Oa?aaaaoaenuee? ai?e.

3. Aiaea? ac-o?o/ae — iaeanoue «aioo??oi?o e?i/ae?a» — ?icoaoiaoaaeany a
Oeaio?aeueiiio Eacaonoai?, aeeth/ath/e ieieeoe? Oeooaonuee?o a??,
aanaeie ??/ie Io?e, Na?e No, Ea?aeaia??a, ia i?aaei? — ii ieceiai Oo ?
Oaeana.

4. «Ciai?oi? eei/aee» caeiaee ia?aaea??’y I?aaeaiiiai O?aeo ?
oi?aaenueeiai noaio ? ei?enooaaeeny cia/iith aaoiiii??th.

E?iaenueea aea?aeaaa aoea iiaooiueith aea?aeaaith. I?ioa aaea a IX-X no.
noaee c’yaeyoeny iciaee ?? caiaiaaeo. I?aaeoae? oae?e?a, ui aieiae?ee
aaee/acieie oa?eoi??yie ? iaeiai? a?enueea, ui iaee ia nai?e neoaea?,
aai caaiie noaiiye?a, i?aaioee aei naiino?eiino?, ui aaei aei ineaaeaiiy
oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee, ?iciaaeo aea?aeaae. Aei e?ioey O no. E?iaenueeee
eaaaiao ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe, aeaaea ia eiai oa?eoi??? ia?aeoea aei
eei/aoeueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy.

Iaocueea aea?aeaaa

O XI-X no. a aanaei? na?aaeiuei? ? ieaeiuei? oa/?? Ne?aea?’? ?
i?eieeath/eo aei ia? noaiao Cao?aeiiai Eacaonoaio neeaeiny iie?oe/ia
ia’?aeiaiiy iaoc?a.

Ii/aoeiaei a?aaeii ?icnaeaiiy iaoc?a aoee i?aaeaiii-no?aei? iaeano?
Na?aaeiuei? Ac??, a ii/aoie noaiiaeaiiy ?aiiueiai iaocnueeiai
oa?oioaaiiy iia’ycaii ?c Cao?aeiei AEaoeno. Ieaiaia eaiaa??a, ui
ei/oaaee ii Ne?aea?’?, aoee aeiooai? /anoeiith aa?eoe aei neeaaeo
iaoc?a, /anoeiith a?aeei/iaoaaoe ia cao?ae — aei I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y. Oi?ioaaiiy iaocnueei? aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe aoei neeaaeiei
? o?eaaeei i?ioeanii. Aei neeaaeo iaoc?a aa?eoee ye noa?iaeaai?e
aoi?/iee eiiiiiaio aeieeie Ne?aea?’?, oae ? ei/ia? ? iai?aei/ia? ieaiaia
AEaoeno. Aiie ae?eeeeny ia ?yae ieaiai c aace?//th ?iaeiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a.

Aei i?eoiaeo iaoc?a ia Ne?aea?’th noieeoeath ?o aoea noa?a Aoc?y a
AEaoeno. O O no. noieeoeath iaocnueei? aea?aeaae noaa ssia?eaio, aai oae
caaia Iiaa Aoc?y. ssia?eaio ciaoiaeeany ia noa??e ea?aaaii?e aei?ic?, ia
noeeo ei/iaiai na?oo c in?ei-caiea?ianueeith eoeueoo?ith. Iaocnueea
aea?aeaaa aoea iaiaeii??aeiith a aoi?/iiio a?aeiioaii?. O i?noao ?
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiiyo aeeei oth?enueea ? ??aiiiiaia ianaeaiiy.

Iaoce a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?a?ac??. O 965 ?. i?ae
ieie ? ee?anueeei eiycai Nayoineaaii aoa oeeaaeaiee a?enueeiaee nithc
i?ioe eaca?. ?acoeueoaoii noi?nieo a?enueeiaeo ae?e c’yaeany ?ica?ii
Eaca?nueeiai eaaaiaoa ? e?oiia ii?acea Aoeaa???.

O XI no. ii/aeiny i?inoaaiiy iaoc?a aei ??aio ? Ia?aaeiuei? Ac??. Oeae
?oo aoa i/ieaiee i?aaeoaeyie ieaiai? eai?e Oia?oe aaeii ? *aa?e aaeii,
iioeaie Naeueaeaeoea, ia ?i’y yeiai ieaiaia, ui a?aee o/anoue a ?on?,
iaceaaeeny naeueaeaeoeaie. O 1025 ?. /anoeia naeueaeaeoe?a iinaeeeany a
no/ani?e Oo?eiai?? a?ey i. Iana. O 1034-1035 ??. aei ieo i?e?aeiaeeny
i?aeaeai? Oia?oe aaea. O 1038-1040 ??. naeueaeaeoee aenooieee i?ioe
Aaciaa?ae?a ? caoiieee I?oaio?. Caiaeii aiie ciiaee noai?eoe aaee/acio
aea?aeaao, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeea Iaea Ac?y, ??ai, /anoeia Caeaaeaccy
? Na?aaeiuei? Ac??. A ia??iae i?aae?iiy Ae? oaia ii/ano?oaee ia?iaei?
iianoaiiy i?ioe aei?noiei? aenieoaoaoe??. Iacaaeiaieai?noue ia?iaeo aoea
aeei?enoaia naeueaeaeooeueeeie aiaeaeyie, ye? oio?ee caoiieoe aeaaeo a
e?a?i?. Ianooiiee Ae? oaia Oaoiae?e oe??iea naith aeaaeo, i?eaeooeaoe
ia?iaeia iianoaiiy ? a 1041 ?. caoiiea Oi?aci. I?ioa /a?ac aeaa ?iee,
Oaoiae?e iio?aiea aei ?oe naeueaeaeoe?a ? aoa no?a/aiee. Oea aoa
inoaii?e i?aaeoaeue iaoc?a.

O na?aaeei? XI no. /a?ac aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? noia?a/iino? iaocnueea
aea?aeaaa iieyaea, a ?? ianaeaiiy aa?eoei aei neeaaeo eei/aoeueei?
aea?aeaae. Cia/ia /anoeia iaoc?a i?oea a iaae? No?aeii? ?a?iie ? Iaei?
Ac??, ?ioa /anoeia ia?aeoea i?ae aeaaeo ea?aoai?ae?a ? naeueaeaeooeueeeo
i?aaeoae?a Oi?anaia.

Cao?aeii-eaiaa?nueeee nithc

Eaiaa?nuee? ieaiaia, ui ianaeyee noaie Eacaonoaio a?ae AEa?ea aei A?o?no
a VIII-IX no. ia?aaeeaathoue e?eco ? iio?aieythoue a caeaaei?noue a?ae
aeaio aea?aeaa — e?iaenueei? ? iaocueei?. O?eueee iaaaeeea /anoeia
cao?aeii-eaiaa?nueeeo ieaiai caa??aa? iacaeaaei?noue. Oe? eaiaa?e
a?aeii? a ?in?enueeeo e?oiienao ye ia/ai?ae, a?caio?enueeeo — iaoeeiaee,
a?aanueeeo — aaaeiae. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? IX no. eaiaa?e ia?aoiaeyoue
??/eo AEa?e ? ii/eiathoue ia’?aeiaiiy ei/iaeo ?iae?a, ui i?aeei?yeeny
?ai?oa Eaca?nueeiio eaaaiaoo. Eaca?nuee? eaiaa?e ei/oaaee a iaaee??//?
??/ie Oai ? Eoaai, a noaiao I?ai?/iiai Eaaeaco, a oth?enuee? — a aeieei?
Aae?ey ? a Cao?aeiiio Eacaonoai?. O O no. cao?aeii-eaiaa?nuee?
ia’?aeiaiiy iioe?ththoue aeaaeo ia ana I?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y,
aeo?nieaoe iaae?a??a ? eaca?. Oeae ?oo aoa i/ieaiee oaiaie Ei?eooii,
Eaeee ? Aaeoa, ui ia’?aeiaee iaeneeuei?o? eaiaa?nuee? ieaiaia. Aei O no.
eaiaa?nueeee nithc ?icae?ey?oueny ia a?n?i ia’?aeiaiue, a eiaeia c yeeo
aoiaeeei ii i’youe ieaiai.

C ii/aoeo O no. eaiaa?nueeee nithc noaa aeoeaii ae?yoe ia na?oia?e
a?ai?. O 915 ?. eaiaa?e aia?oa c’yaeythoueny ia ?on?, a a 944 ?.
cae?eniththoue noi?niee iio?ae ia A?caio?th. Caie? Cao?aeiiai Eacaonoaio
iio?aieythoue i?ae aeaaeo eei/a?a. O na?aaeei? XI no. eei/aee
ia?aoiaeyoue Aae?eue ? ii/eiathoue i?e?aeioaaoe oa?eoi??? ii Oaio ?
I?ai?/iiio Eaaeaco. Iaeei ?c cao?aeii-eaiaa?nueeeo oai?a — Eaaai,
iaiaaaany i?aai?coaaoe ii??, aea aoa ?icaeoee ? ao?e aei A?caio??. Ooaee
ae /a?ac aeayeee /an a?aeei/iaoaaa oai O??ae c aeae?eueeiia
eaiaa?nueeeie ?iaeaie. *anoeia ?o aoea cieuaia a?caio?enueeeie
a?enueeaie, ?ioa iinaeaia a noaiao i?ae Aaeeaiaie ? Aeoia?i ye
i?eei?aeiii? neee. Ieaiaia, ui caeeoeeeny ia aaouee?auei?, aa?eoee aei
neeaaeo eei/aenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue i?ae ?i’yi «eaiaa?-iaee» aai
«eaiaa?ee», yea c /anii o?ainoi?ioaaeiny a «eaiaee». Oae nueiaiaei?
iaceaa?oueny iaeia c e?oiieo eacaonueeeo ieaiai Noa?oiai aeoca. Oaeei
/eiii, o na?aaeei? XI no. cao?aeii-eaiaa?nueeee nithc i?eieiea nai?
?nioaaiiy, ? iie?oe/ia aaaaiii?y a noaiao a?ae Aeoiath aei A?o?na
ia?aeoea aei eei/ae?a.

Eei/aoeueea ia?aeiaiiy

Ooai?aiiy eei/aoeueei? eiioaaea?aoe??

O O no. ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio c’yaey?oueny iiaa iiaooiy aea?aeaaa
ei/iaeo oth?eiiiaieo ieaiai — Eei/aenueea, yea noaei i?yiei ianooiieeii
Eeiaoeueei?.

?in?enuee? e?oiiene (XI-XIII no.) iaceaathoue eei/ae?a iieiaoeyie ?
ni?i/eiaie, oai?nuee? — iaeioeaie ? eoiaie, a?caio?enuee? aeaea?aea ?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? iaiae??aieee (?oa?oe-OO no. ? ?i.) — eiiaiaie
(eoiaiaie).

Eei/aee neeaeeny ye aoiin a Oeaio?aeueiiio ? No?aeiiio Eacaonoai? a VIII
no. Ieaiaia eaiaa??a, ea?eee?a, e?iae?a ? ee?aec?a, ui ei/oaaee ooo, o
na?aaeei? VIII no. aoee ia’?aeiai? i?ae aeaaeith ne??a-eei/ae?a, ui
i?eeoee c Aeoath. Aiie aeaee nai? ?i’y aeieeeiio ia’?aeiaiith ieaiai,
yea noaei iaceaaoeny eei/aoeueeei.

Aei e?ioey O noie?ooy a noaiao Eacaonoaio i?iy?oueny iie?oe/ia
neooaoe?y. Ooo cieea? aoi?/ia ?i’y «e?iae». Iinooiiai iie?oe/ia aeaaea
ia?aoiaeeoue aei eei/ae?a. Ia ii/aoeo XI no. aiie ai?eooe i?inoaathoueny
aei i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Oi?acio, aeo?niyth/e iaoc?a c ieciaeie
Ne?aea?’?, ? i?eiooothoue ?o ia?anaeyoeny aei Na?aaeiuei? Ac?? ? noai?a
I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. Aei na?aaeeie XI no. eei/aeai i?aeei?yeany
iaeaea any iaoe?ia oa?eoi??y Eacaonoaio, ca aeiyoeii AEaoeno. No?aeia
iaaea ?o caeeoa?oueny ia A?o?n?, cao?aei? iaae? aeinyaathoue Aae?ey, ia
i?aaei? — ?aeiio ??/ee Oaean, a i?ai?/iei ei?aeiiii neoaeeee e?ne
Cao?aeiiai Nea??o. O oeae ia??iae aanue eacaonueeee noai iaceaa?oueny
Eei/aoeueeei Noaiii aai «Aeaoo-?-Eei/ae».

?icea?o eei/aoeueei? aea?aeaae

O na?aaeei? XI noie?ooy eei/aee ia?aoiaeyoue Aae?eue ? ca ei?ioeee /an
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoue nia? /eneaii? cao?aeiieaiaa?nuee? ieaiaia aeieeie
??/ie Oai ? Ocao (Aei?i?i). Aei ii/aoeo XII noie?ooy caie?, caeiyo?
eei/aeaie, ?icae?eythoueny ia aeaa e?oii? ia’?aeiaiiy. Eei/aee, ui
iaoeaee ia cao?ae a?ae Aae?ey, ia’?aeiaeeny a eiioaaea?aoe?th ia /ie? c
oaiaie c ?iaeo oienaaa. Aiia ?icae?eyeany ia iaeano? oainueeeo eei/ae?a,
a?ae Aae?ey ia noiae? aei Eaaeacueeeo i?aaea??ue ia i?aaei? ? Oaia — ia
i?ai?/iiio caoiae?, ? iaeano? ocaonueeeo eei/ae?a, a?aeiieo oaeiae ye
iieiaoe? ? eoiaie, ye? ?icoaoiaoaaeeny a noaiao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
(Iie? Iieiaaoeueeiio) a?ae Oaia ia noiae? aei ieciaei Aeoiath ? Ea?iao
ia caoiae?. Ia /ie? oeeo ooai?aiue noiyee oaie aeeiano?e Eoe? oaia ?
Aiiae oaia.

Eei/aee, ui aeeee ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio, ooai?eee a?eueo
oeaio?ae?ciaaio aea?aeaao, ia /ie? yei? noiyee oaie c ?iaeo aeueai??.

O XI-XII noie?ooyo no?aeii-eei/aoeueea aea?aeaaa ?icae?eyeany ia aeaa
e?eea. I?aaa e?eei, ui caeiaei oi?aaenuee? noaie, aanaeie ??/ie AEai,
AEa?e, Aae?eue, a oaeiae i?aino??a Iaia?noao, i/iethaaeiny oaiaie
aeueai??. Ooo aea, a ?aeii? Oi?aay ? ?icoaoiaoaaeany noaaea aa?oiaiiai
oaia. E?aa e?eei caeiaee caie? Oeaio?aeueiiai ? No?aeiiai Eacaonoaio,
a?ae Ne?aea?’? aei A?o?na ? Aneey. Noieeoeath aoei i?noi Neaiae, ia /ie?
yeiai noiyee oaie c ieaiai? eaee-o?ai.

E?eca eei/aoeueeeo aea?aeaa

A e?ioe? XII no. eei/aee ia?aaeeaathoue ia??iae e?ece. Neaiaenueea
aieiae?iiy, ui aithaaei ia aeaa o?iioe — i?ioe ea?a-eeaeai?a a AEaoeno ?
Oi?acia — ia Ne?aea?’?, aoei ciooaia i?oe ia nithc c inoaii?i ?
iinooiiai iio?aiey? i?ae eiai caeaaei?noue.

Cao?aei? eei/aee a oeae ia??iae oa?ieyoue ?yae ii?acie a?ae ?in?enueeeo
eiyc?a.

Ia ii/aoeo XIII no. /anoeia eei/ae?a ia /ie? c oaiaie i?eeiathoue
o?enoeyinoai.

Aea?aeaaa ea?a?o?a ? iaeiai?a

?aiiy ?noi??y ia?iai?a ? ea???o?a

Iaeiaie ? ea???oe aia?oa c’yaeeeny ia ?noi?e/i?e a?ai? a?ey na?aaeeie
OII no. Iaeiaie aoee a?aeii? oiae? i?ae iacaith «naa?c iaoc», oiaoi
nithc ainueie ieaiai, ? ciaoiaeeeeny i?ae aeaaeith Oeao?nueeiai
eaaaiaoa. I?ney 840 ?ieo ii/eia?oueny i?ioean ooai?aiiy eiioaaea?aoe??
ei/?aiee?a Oeaio?aeueii? Ac??, a?aeiieo a aeaea?aeao i?ae iacaith
«oecoao» — ei/?aieee. I?ai?/ieie oecoao iaceaaee ea???o?a, a cao?aeieie
— ia?iai?a.

A e?ioe? IX – ia ii/aoeo O noie?ooy caaino?eeeny a?aeiineie ei/?aiee?a c
?iia???th Eyi, oeaio? yei? ciaoiaeeany a I?ai?/iiio Eeoa?. I?aaeoae?
ei/?aiee?a, ooeath/e niiniae ci?oeiaiiy nai?? aeaaee, caa?oathoueny aei
iaei??? c na?oiaeo ?ae?a?e — o?enoeyinoaa a eiai ianoi??ainuee?e oi?i?.
?acii c ea???oaie o?enoeyiaie noathoue iaeiaie, iiaooe, /anoeia
iiiaieuenueeeo ieaiai.

O 1125 ?. aea?aeaaa eeaeai?a ?iciaeany, ? ea???oe ciia iaea?aeaee
iacaeaaei?noue. Iaeiaie canioaaee aeania aea?aeaaa a 1143 ?. Ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae ea???o?a ? ia?iai?a, ia iaae? c Eeoa?i ooai?eeiny
aieiae?iiy a?eeo oaoa?, aaeeeo /anoeio yeeo neeaaeaee oth?eiiiai?
iiaooe.

Aea?aeaaa ea???o?a

O 50-o ?ieao XII no. caaino?eeeny a?aeiineie ea???o?a c Eeoa?i.

E?iaoeue OII — ii/aoie XIII no. iciaiaioaaeeny ineaaeaiiyi ea???onueeiai
oainoaa ? iineeaiiyi iiiaie?a. *anoeia ea???o?a ia /ie? c iieeiaiaeoeai
Eae?aiaa?i ao?eea ia i?ai?/iee cao?ae, a na?aaeith oa/?th A?o?na. Aaeeea
/anoeia ea???o?a aa?eoea aei neeaaeo iiiaieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaa ia?iai?a

I?ney ooai?aiiy aea?aeaae ea?a-eeaeai?a ia?iaie aoiaeeee a ?? neeaae,
aea i?ney nia?o? caniiaieea Cao?aeii? Eyi Aethe Aeaoe iaea?aeaee
iacaeaaei?noue. Aea?aeaaa ia?iai?a caeiaea caie? ia cao?ae a?ae
ea???o?a, a Cao?aei?e Iiiaie?? ? No?aeiiio Eacaonoai?. C naiiai ii/aoeo
naiai ?nioaaiiy aiia caeiyei ai?iaeo aei ea???o?a iiceoe?th, inii?thth/e
o ieo aeaaeo iaae ei/?aieeaie Oeaio?aeueii? Ac??.

Ioaea, ea???oe ? iaeiaie c?a?aee iii?oio ?ieue a aoiiaaiaoe/ieo
i?ioeanao X-XIII no. a Eacaonoai?. Naia a oeae ia??iae aiie aa?eoee aei
neeaaeo eacaonueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aea iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??? Eacaonoaio caeia? eei/aoeueea aea?aeaaa.
Eei/aee, aaciina?aaei? i?aaeee eacao?a, ciiaee noai?eoe ia aaee/aci?e
oa?eoi??? a?ae Aeoiath aei ??oeoa aeae?eueea e?oiieo aea?aeaaieo
ooai?aiue ? aeoeaii aieeaaoe ia iie?oe/ia aeeooy ia o?eueee noi?aeieo
e?a?i (A?caio?y, Oi?aci, ?onue, Caeaaeaccy, Aoeaa?), aea ? a?aeaeaeaieo
(?aeiao, ?iae?y), aea aeiaaee /an i?aaeee eei/aoeuee? aeeiano??.

A oe?eiio ia??iae V-XIII no. ia? aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey ?noi???
eacaonueeiai ia?iaeo. I?ioieacaonuee? e ?io? oth?enuee? ieaiaia aia?oa
aeoiaeyoue ia ?noi?e/io a?aio i?ae aeanieie ?iaiaie, eaea aeoeaiee
i?ioean ooai?aiiy no/anieo iia ? aoiin?a. *anoeia ianaeaiiy Eacaonoaio
i?eeia? na?oia? ?ae?a??: o?enoeyinoai, aoaeaeeci ? a ia?oo /a?ao ?neai.
Aia?oa oth?enueea iiaa ia?aeeaaea?oueny ia a?aanueeo a?ao?eo, ?
c’yaeythoueny e?oa?aoo?i? oai?e ia iiaao ia?iae?a Eacaonoaio. O oeae
ia??iae aoee caeeaaeai? o? iniiae, ye? aecia/aee anth iiaeaeueoo
?noi??th ?anioae?ee.

Eacaonoai a XIII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XIV no.

Iiiaieuenueea caaithaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy ? ooai?aiiy oeon?a

A e?ioe? OII — ia ii/aoeo XIII no. ia oa?eoi??? Iiiaie?? ooai?eeany
e?oiia ei/iaa aea?aeaaa i?ae aeaaeith iaeiiai c i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iaeiai?
aa?o?aee — Oaio/eia. Nii/aoeo aiia aoea caniiaaia a aeieeiao ??/ie
Ea?oeaia ? I?oiia, iio?i oiane?aeie ia’?aeiaiiy nii??aeiaieo ieaiai ?
caaithaaiiy non?aei?o e?a?i Iiiaieuenueea aea?aeaaa ia?aoai?eeany ia
iiaooith ?iia??th ia o?eueee a Oeaio?aeuei?e Ac??, aea ? o anueiio
na?o?. O 1203 ?. iath aoee ?ica?iieai? Ea???onueea, iio?i ? non?aei?
Iaeiainueea oainoai, a 1207-1211 ??. aoee nei?ai? ia?iaee Nea??o ?
No?aeiiai Oo?eanoaio. O 1215a. aoa ocyoee Iae?i, a aei 1217 ?. iiiaiee
caaithaaee an? caie? ia i?ai?/ a?ae ??/ee Ooaioa.

O 1206 ?. Oaio/ei aoa i?iaieioaiee anaiiiaieuenueeei eaaaiii ? iaea?aeaa
oeooe *eia?coaia. Ooai?aiiy iiiaieuenueei? aea?aeaae ni?eyei
eiinie?aeaoe?? ?ai?oa iaei iia’ycaieo ieaiai a ?aeeiee aoiin ? aei
i?eieiaiiy i?aeoniaieo ai?i.

Caaithaaiiy AEaoeno

Aea?aeaaa ea?a-eeaeai?a a AEaoeno ? I?aaeaiiiio Eacaonoai? i?aaeeaaea/an
iie?oe/ii? e?ece. Ea?eeenuee? ? ea?aoai?aenuee?i?aaeoae? noaee
ia?aoiaeeoe a i?aeaeainoai Oi?acia.

Iaeiaie, ?icaeo? ia ii/aoeo XIII no. iiiaieaie, ao?eee ia /ie? c
Eo/oeoeii ia oa?eoi??th AEaoeno. Ooo a?i coi?a c?a?aoe caaiie iaeiai?a ?
ea???o?a, caeiaooe i?eoeeuei?noue ao?oaia ? noaoe aeineoue ciaoiith
iie?oe/iith o?ao?ith. O 1210 ?. ea?a-eeaeai? caciaee ii?acee o a?ei? c
Oi?aciii.

Ane?ae ca Eeoa?i *eiaenoai aiooaaany aei iioiaeo aei Eacaonoaio ?
Na?aaeiuei? Ac??. Iniaeeai eiai oaaao i?eaa?oaee ea?oo/? i?noa
I?aaeaiiiai Eacaonoaio ? AEaoeno. Cae?enieoe na?e ieai a?i ae??oea /a?ac
aeieeio ??/ee ?e?, aea ?icoaoiaoaaeeny aaaao? i?noa ? i?aaea ieie oai
iaeiai?a Eo/eoe, yeiai *eia?coai aaaaeaa nai?i ai?iaii. C iaoith
caaithaaiiy AEaoeno ? ?ica?iio Eo/eoea *eia?coai iineaa a?enueei ia /ie?
c iaeiei c ai?ia/aeueiee?a — AEaaaiieiiii.

Eo/eoe, ia coi?aoe i?aai?coaaoe ii??, ao?e. AEeoae? Aaeanaaoia a?aee?eee
ai?ioa iiiaieai, ca ui i?noi iaea?aeaei iacao Aiaae?e -«oi?ioa i?noi».
Ia?aae *eia?coaiii a?aee?eeany aei?iaa a iaae? Oi?acia ? Iaaa?aiiao?a.

Caaithaaiiy Oi?acia

Oi?aci ia ii/aoeo XIII no. aoa ia aa?oei? nai?? iiaooiino?, a?i
ia’?aeioaaa caie? aeania Oi?acia, Iaaa?aiiao?a, ??aio, Oi?anaia,
I?aaeaiiiai Eacaonoaio. I?ioa a?aceeaei i?noeai a aea?aeaa? aoei
ananeeey eei/aoeueei? ciao?, ui caeiaea i?ia?aei? iinoe a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio ? a?enueeiaiio aia?ao?.

No?eaiaeaiee ca?noeith i?i ia?aiiae iiiaie?a oi?acioao Iooaiiaae
a?aei?aaea nai?o iine?a aei Iiiaie??. Ane?ae ca oeei a Oi?aci i?eaoei o
a?aeiia?aeue iinieuenoai c i?iiiceoe?yie i?i ie?. Ne?aeoth/ee ca
iinieuenoaii oi?aiaee ea?aaai, coieieany a Io?a??, Eae?? oai
Ae?i-Aea?ae, aoaeo/e iai?nieeii i?noa, cai?aeic?ea eoioe?a a oieaoinoa?
? iaeacaa no?aoeoe ?o. ?icai?aaiee *eia?coai caaeaaeaa aeaea/? Eae??
oaia, aea oi?acioao, aiy/enue ai?ao eei/aoeueei? ciao?, a?aeiiaeany.
A?eueo oiai, Iooaiiaae iaeacaa no?aoeoe iine?a, /iai iiiaiee i?iaa/eoe
ia iiaee.

A?eia o aa?ani? 1219 ?. ii/aeany c iaeiae Io?a?a. ?icae?eeaoe nai?
a?enueei ia aeae?eueea /anoei, *eia?coai caeeoea iaeio /anoeio aeey
iaeiae i?noa, ?ioo, ia /ie? c nai?i noa?oei neiii AEioe, a?aei?aaea aiec
ii Ne?aea?’?, nai aea iii?yioaaa aei Aooa?e.

C?aaea iaeiiai c ai?ia/aeueiee?a ia ?i’y Ea?aaeaea, i?enei?eea iaae?iiy
Io?a?a. Aeeoiaoe aii/? c i?nueeeo ai??o, a?i caeaany iiiaieai.

Caaiie AEioe, ui cae?enithaaee iioiaee ii Ne?aea?’?, iaaani? 1220 ?.
i?ae?oee aei Neaaiaea. Iaeiaa ?? i?iaeiaaeoaaeany n?i aei?a, i?ney /iai
iiiaiee oa??aaeeny a i?noi ? ii?oeioaaee an? eiai e??iini? nii?oaee. Ca
ei?ioeee oa?i?i iiiaieai i?aeei?eeeny Ocaai, Aa?/eieeeaio ? Aeaeaio. O
Aeaeaio? iiiaiee caeeoaeeny aei naii? ceie, iiee i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny
caaithaaiiy Iaaa?aiiao?a.

Ia ii/aoeo 1221 ?. iiiaieuenuee? caaiie i?aenooieee aei noieeoe? Oi?acia
– i?no? O?aai/o, yea aoei ocyoa i?ney i’yoei?ny/ii? iaeiae.

Caaa?oaiiy caaithaaiue. Ooai?aiiy oeon?a

A ?acoeueoao? a?enueeiaeo ae?e 1219-1241 ??. oa?eoi??? Aeaoo-?-Eei/aea ?
Iaaa?aiiao?a aa?eoee aei neeaaeo ?iia??? *eia?coaia ? aoee iiae?eai?
i?ae eiai neiaie. Noa?oiio neio AEioe a?i a?aeaeaa caie? Na??a?ee ?
aeae? ia cao?ae, ia i?aaeaiue — aei Eani?enueeiai ? A?aeuenueeiai ii??a.
C na?aaeiueiac?aonueeeo aieiae?iue aei eiai oeono oa?eoee ?aeiie ieciaei
Aioaea?’? — i?ai?/iee Oi?aci. Noaaea ciaoiaeeeany a aeieei? A?o?na.
Ae?oaiio neio *eia?coaia — Oaaaoath ae?noaeeny Iaaa?aiiao?, AEaoeno,
eiai noaaea aoea a aeieei? Aai. O?aoueiio neio Oaaaeath *eia?coai
aeae?eea Cao?aeio Iiiaie?th ? Oa?aaaaoae, eiai noaaea ?icoaoiaoaaeany
iiaeeco iei?oiueiai *oao/aea. Ooe? oniaaeeiaoaaa aaouee?anueeee oeon —
aeania Iiiaie?th.

Iaeii/anii c ?icae?eaiiyi caaieiaaii? oa?eoi??? *eia?coai ?iciiae?eea
naith a?i?th.

Aieiae?iiy AEioe, ye? oniaaeeiaoaaa eiai nei Aaoo, iaea?aeaee iacao Oeoa
Oeono — «Aaeeeiai Oeono».

Oeoa Oeon

?icea?o Oeoa Oeono

Oeoa Oeon — ye ia?oa oeaio?ae?ciaaia noa?iaeaaiuei-eacaonueea aea?aeaaa
caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??? Eacaonoaio. Oey aea?aeaaa iaea?aeaea a
no?aeieo aeaea?aeao iacao Ae (a?ei?) I?aee, a ?in?enueeeo e?oiienao —
Cieioi? I?aee.

Nii/aoeo Oeoa Oeon aoiaeea a Iiiaieuenueeo ?iia??th ye ?? /anoeia, i?ioa
aaea oai Aaoo (1242-1256 ??.) iiaiaeeany ye iacaeaaeiee i?aaeoaeue. Ca
Aa?ea oaia (1257-1266aa.) Oeoa Oeon inoaoi/ii a?aeae?eeany a?ae
Iiiaieuenueei? ?iia???. Iiaee oai ua a thiino? i?eeiya ?neai ? oiio
c?aco ae i?iaieinea eiai aea?aeaaiith ?ae?a??th. Ca iueiai
aeoea?coaaeiny i?noiaoaeoaaiiy, ui ii/aeiny c aoae?aieoeoaa iiai?
noieeoe? — Na?ae-Aa?ea. Oai cai?ioo? c ??aio ? ?aeioo o/aieo,
aiaineia?a, iiao?a, c Oi?acia ?ai?niee?a ? eoioe?a. Iii?oii iiaeaaaeeeny
oi?aia? ? aeeieiiaoe/i? ca’ycee c e?a?iaie Noiaeo. Ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?
aea?aeaai? iinoe noaee i?ecia/aoeny aenieiina?/ai? aeo?aeoe? c ??aio ?
a?aanueeeo e?a?i, ui aeeeeeaei iacaaeiaieai?noue iiiaieuenueei? ?
eei/aoeueei? ei/iai? ciao?.

Ca /an?a i?aae?iiy Icaae oaia (1312-1342 ??.) ? eiai neia AEai?aaea
(1342-1357 ??.) Oeoa Oeon aeinya naiai iaeaeuiai ?icea?oo. Icaae
iiaoi?ii i?iaieinea ?neai aea?aeaaiith ?ae?a??th, aeiaoaeoaaa
Na?ae-Aa?ea, ui iaea?aeaei iiaa ?i’y — Na?ae Ae-AEaae?ae (Iiaee Iaeaoe),
aaaaoi oaaae iaaeaaaa ?icaeoeo ea?aaaiii? oi?a?ae?. Caeieioe noeoai?a,
ui ia aaaeaee i?eeiaoe ?neai, aoee aei?noiei i?eaeooai?, oainueea aeaaea
a e?aiio e?ee? e?ea?aeiaaia, eiai i?aaeoaeai aoa i?ecia/aiee
?naoae-eeyo. Oeon a?a aeaaao oi?a?aeth c e?a?iaie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie,
Iaei? Ac??, ?aeioii, ?iae??th, Eeoa?i. Oi?aia? oeyoe noaee ia o?eueee
aacia/ieie, aea ? oii?yaeeiaaieie.

Cia/aiiy Oeoa Oeono a na?oia?e ?noi???

Ooai?aiiy iiiaieuenueei? ?iia??? a?ae Eeoath aei ?a?iie c?a?aei
aaee/acio iiceoeaio ?ieue.

Ii-ia?oa, ia aeiaaee /an ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio i?eieieeeny a?eie ?
oniaeoe?, iiyaa Oeoa Oeono c?a?aea aaee/acio oeaio?ae?coth/o ?ieue.

Ii-ae?oaa, ooai?aiiy neeueii? aea?aeaae noeioethaaei ?icaeoie oi?a?ae? ?
?icea?o i?noiaoaeoaaiiy. Aoee a?aeiiaeai? i?noa, c?oeiiaai? i?ae /an
caaithaaiue.

Iniaeeaa i?noea caeia? Oeoa Oeon a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?a?ac?? XIII-XIV
no. Aeioaia? ?noi?eee iaaeathoue iaaeinoaoith oaaao iie?oeoe? oe???
aea?aeaae, caiaey/e ?? eeoa aei caaieiaieo iioiae?a. Oeon c naiiai
iiiaioo naiai ooai?aiiy noaa noi?ioeaieeii ?a?iiaenueeiai ?ooo
o?anoiiinoe?a ? a?aeiia?aeii nithcieeii e?a?i, ui i?aeaeaeeny aa?an??
o?anoiiinoe?a. ?nioaaa nithc Oeoa Oeono c ?aeiaonueeith aea?aeaaith
iaiethe?a, ni?yiiaaiee i?ioe ??onaeeinueeiai ei?ie?anoaa.

Iniaeeai oi/aoueny a?aecia/eoe ?noi?e/i? aeie? Oeoa Oeono a
Iiiaieuenuee?e ?iia???. Aoaeue-yea ?iia??y, ui iiaoaeiaaia ia
caaithaaiiyo ? o?eia?oueny eeoa ia a?enueeia?e nee?, i?e?a/aia ia
caaeaaeue. Aeania Iiiaie?y ? ?? noieeoey Ea?aei?oi a ?acoeueoao?
caaieiaieo ? i?aeoniaieo ai?i i?eeoee a iiaiee caiaiaae, iiaia aeooiaia
? iaoa??aeueia coaiae?iiy. ?ioa ni?aaa Oeoa Oeon, ui noaa iaea?eueoith ?
aaaaoith aea?aeaaith na?oo, a?i c?a?aa aaee/acio ?ieue a ?noi??? ia
o?eueee Eacaonoaio, aea ? an??? ?a?ac??.

AEaoeno i?ae aeaaeith oaaaoa?ae?a

AEaoeno a XIII no.

Oa?eoi??y AEaoeno i?e ?icae?e? i?ae neiaie *eiaenoaia a?ae?eoea ae?oaiio
neio -Oaaaoath. Eiai caie? aeeth/aee, ie??i AEaoeno, aanue No?aeiee
Oo?eanoai ? Iaaa?aiiao?. Noieeoeath oaaaoa?ae?a aeiaaee /an aoei i?noi
Aeiaeee, a e?oiy ?aceaeaioe?y oai?a ciaoiaeeeany a aeieei? ??/ee ?e?.

O 50-o? ??. XIII no. AEaoeno oi?aaeyany aaeeeeie oaiaie, a a 1260 ?. ooo
aoa iinaaeaeaiee Aeaoe — iioe Oaaaoay. Eiai oiane?aeoaaa iioe Oaaaeay —
Oaeaeo, ca yeiai aea?aeaaa oaaaoa?ae?a iaea?aeaea inoaoi/ia ioi?ieaiiy.
O 1269 ?. ia Oaean? a?aeaoany eo?oeoae — c’?cae ei/iai? ciao?, ia yeiio
aoei ae??oaii ooai?eoe aea?aeaao, iacaeaaeio a?ae Iiiaieuenueei?
?iia???. I?aaeoaeai aea?aeaae aoa ia?aiee Oaeaeo (1269-1301 ??.). Ie??i
AEaoeno, a eiai aieiae?iiy aoiaeeee caie? ii Ne?aea?’? ? Iaaa?aiiao?.
Iacaaa?ii i?ney nia?o? Oaeaeo aeaaea iiaa?ioeany oaaaoa?aeai a inia?
Ooae (1307-1318 ??.).

AEaoeno o neeaae? aea?aeaae oaaaoa?ae?a

Ianaeaiiy AEaoeno a ia??iae iaioaaiiy oaaaoa?ae?a aoei aaaaoiaoi?/iei.

A oe?eiio ca /an i?aae?iiy oaaaoa?ae?a AEaoeno ia?aoai?eany c
in?ei-i?nueei? iaeano? a /enoi ei/iaee ?aa?ii. Caiaiaae i?nueeiai aeeooy
a?aeaoany ia o?eueee /a?ac iie?oe/io ianoaa?euei?noue, aea ? /a?ac
ee?iaoe/i? ci?ie. Iinooiiaee ianooi ionoae? a?a aei nei?i/aiiy iin?a?a,
iionoaeaiiy i?no ? naeeu AEaoeno. Caeeoaeeny iieeiooeie oae? i?noa, ye
Aaeanaaoi, Aeiaeee, Eieeee, Aeiaoe. In?ea aeeooy i?iaeiaaeoaaei
caa??aaoeny eeoa a iaaee??//? Oo ? Oaeana.

Oaeei /eiii, ie aa/eii, ui XIII-XIV noie?ooy cian?i ia aoee noie?ooyie
caiaiaaeo ? e?ece. Iao?eaae? iiiaieuenuee? caaithaaiiy noai?eee oiiae
aeey iie?oe/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy, ui i?eaaei aei i?aeeiio
aeiiii?ee ?aeii?a, ui aa?eoee aei neeaaeo Iiiaieuenueei? ?iia???.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??? Eacaonoaio oeueiai ia??iaeo caeia? Oeoa Oeon.
Ia’?aeiaaoe eei/aoeuee? ieaiaia, ui ei/oaaee a?ae Aeoiath aei A?o?na,
a?i ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ia?oo oeaio?ae?ciaaio aeaaiueieacaonueeo
aea?aeaao, ui iaea?aeaea a no?aeieo aeaea?aeao iacao Ae (A?ei?) I?aee.

Eacaonoai o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIV – ia?o?e iieiaei? XV no.

Oeoa Oeon i?ae /an iie?oe/ii? e?ece

Iie?oe/ia e?eca, ui ?icai??eany a Oeon? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIV no., aoea
iaoiiaeaia aeae?eueeiia i?e/eiaie. Ii-ia?oa, caieiaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie
No?aeii? ?a?iie c?iaeei ei/iaa ainiiaea?noai a aaaaoueio ?aa?iiao
?eceeiaaiei. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieeea caiaeueia e?eca, iaaeinoa/a
ianiaeu aeeeeeaea ianiaee a?aeo?e ianaeaiiy c? no?aeii-?a?iiaenueeeo
noai?a aei Eacaonoaio. Ii-ae?oaa, caaino?eeeny noia?a/iino? i?ae
ei/iaith ciaooth ? in?eith oi?aiaith aa?o?aeith i?no ? caiea?ianueeeo
?aa?ii?a. Ii-o?ao?, iineeeeeny a?aeoeaio?ia? neee ? i?aaaiiy ?iiaoi?/ieo
ieieeoeue (Aoeaa?, E?ei, ?onue) aei iacaeaaeiino?.

Ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo a Na?a?

Ia??iae i?aeoniaeoeue ii/aany a 1357 ?.. Iaei??th c aieiaieo o?ao? a
i?aeoniaeoeyo aoa ai?? Iaiae, aaeea?aae ca noeoaia Aa?ae?aaea.

A oie aea /an a?aeaoeiny io?oe?eia ioi?ieaiiy iiai? aea?aeaae c oeaio?ii
a ieciaeiao Ne?aea?’?. O XIII-XIV no. ooo ciaoiaeeeeny aieiae?iiy
iauaaee?a noa?oiai neia AEioe — I?aea Aaeaia. Eiee a Na?a? ii/aeeny
i?aeoniaeoe?, aeaaeo ia Ne?aea?’? caoiiea aieeaiaee ai?? Oai?c-aoaa c
?iaeo e?yo. A?i coi?a noaoe iaeaea iaiaiaaeaiei i?aaeoaeai a
i?ea?aeuenueeeo noaiao. I?ney nia?o? Aa?ae?aaea Oai?c-aoaa iaiaaaany
a?aeae?eeoe i?aeaeaaei? eiio caie? a?ae Oeoa Oeono, i?ioa a 1361 ?. aoa
oaeoee ciiaieeaie, ia /ie? yeeo noiya ooeao?io??ae Ea?a-Iiaae. C’?cae
ei/iai? ciao? a?aeiiaeany aeciaoe na?aenueeiai oaia ? i?iaieinea
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae c oeaio?ii a Neaiaoe?. Ia?oei i?aaeoaeai
oe??? aea?aeaae noaa Ea?ae-Iiaae (1361-1364 ??.), i?ney yeiai oaiii noaa
eiai ieai?iiee Oiaee-Oai??( 1364-1368 ??.).

Iacaeaaei?noue i?iaieineee ? i?aaeoae? Oi?acia ? Aoeaa?a, eeoianueeee
eiycue Ieueaa?ae caoiiea iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Ocao (Aei?i?a),
ii/ano?oaee iaa?ae iiaai?iaenueeeo ooeoeiee?a (?ica?eiee?a).

?iciaae Oeoa Oeono

A ?acoeueoao? ao?aiieo iiae?e aei na?aaeeie XV no. Oeoa Oeon i?eieiy?
nai? ?nioaaiiy ? ia eiai oeaieao aeieea? aeae?eueea aea?aeaa. Ia
oa?eoi??? Aoeaa?a c’yaeeiny iacaeaaeia Eacainueea oainoai, caie?
e?einueeiai i?aino?iaa ? noai?a a?ae Ocao aei Oaia ? aeieeie ??/ee Eoaai
caeiaei E?einueea oainoai. O ieciaeiao Aae?ey i?iaeiaaeoaaei caa??aaoeny
Na?aenueea oainoai, a?eueoa a?aeiia ye Ano?aoainueea aai Aaeeea I?aea.
Aaeeeo /anoeio eieeoiueiai Oeoa Oeono — Nea?? ? Eacaonoai caeiaea
aea?aeaaa Aaoeoa??a.

Aea?aeaaa Aaoeoa??a

I?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee, Aaoeoa?? ii/aa aanoe aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue,
ni?yiiaaio ia ia’?aeiaiiy caeeoe?a Oeoa Oeono ? iiaoaeiao
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. Aei iiiaioo eiai caiaioaaiiy ia oa?eoi???
Nea??o ? Eacaonoaio ?nioaaa oe?eee ?yae iai?aiacaeaaeieo aieiae?iue. Ca
aeaaee ae Aaoeoa??a a?aeaoeiny ia?aeiaiiy eacaonueeeo caiaeue.

AEaoeno o neeaae? Iiaoe?noaia

Ooai?aiiy Iiaoe?noaia

A ?acoeueoao? ?iciaaeo *aaaoaenueeiai oeono o na?aaeei? XIV noie?ooy ia
oa?eoi??? I?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai Eacaonoaio ? Ee?aec?? aeieeea iiaa ei/iaa
aea?aeaaa. Iie?oe/ia ?noi??y Iiaoe?noaia ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIV no.
caeeoa?oueny iaeia?aeiiith, iniaeeai ?? aioo??oi? aeeooy.

Iiaoe?noai a XV noie?oo?

O ia?o?e iieiaei? XV no. iie?oe/ia iieiaeaiiy a Iiaoe?noai?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia o?eueee i?aeoniaiith ai?ioueaith, aea ? a?eiith c
O?io?eaeaie, ie?aonueeeie ieaiaiaie.

O?eaaea i?aeoniaia ai?ioueaa aieiaea?thth/eo oa?oioaaiue ei/iai? ciao?
i?eaaea a e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no. aei ?iciaaeo Iiaoe?noaia.
Ni?iae iiaoeuenueeeo oai?a a?aeiiaeoe iie?oe/ia iaioaaiiy oaaaoa?ae?a ia
eieeoi?e oa?eoi??? Iiaoe?noaia cae?i/eeeny iaaaea/ath. O na?aaeei? XVI
no. aia ia?anoaei ?nioaaoe ye naiino?eia aea?aeaaa.

Oaeei /eiii, ie aa/eii, ui ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie i?eaaee ia ii/aoeo XV no.
aei ?iciaaeo Oeoa Oeono ? ooai?aiiy ia eiai oa?eoi??? ?yaeo iacaeaaeieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa. O oie aea /an eei/aoeuee? caie? aoee ?icae?eai?
i?ae o?ueiia aea?aeaaaie, ui iinoaaeei ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee ieoaiiy i?i
ia’?aeiaiiy oeeo caiaeue ? ae?iaeaiiy iiaeo a?eueo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae iie?oe/ii? nenoaie.

Eacaonoai o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV-XVI no.

Eacaonueea oainoai a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no.

Ineaaeaiiy Iiaoe?noaia ? iacaeaoi?noue iiaoeuenueeeo oai?a no?eioaaoe
iaoene ie?ao?a, ui iineeeany o na?aaeei? XV no., iinoaaeee eacaonueeeo
noeoai?a ia?aae iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae. O oeeo
oiiaao a aeieeiao Oo ? Oaeana a 1465 ?. aoei i?iaieioaia Eacaonueea
oainoai, ia?oei oaiii yeiai noaa Ea?ae (1465-1474). O 1469 ?. Eacaonueea
oainoai aeoiaeeoue ia iie?oe/io a?aio ye naiino?eia aea?aeaaa ei/iaeo
ieaiai Aeaoo-?-Eei/aea.

O 60-70 ??. XV no. aoee cieuai? inoaii? ne?aee aea?aeaae Aaoeoa??a ? ia
iie?oe/i?e ea?o? ?a?ac?? c’yaeeeny o?e iia? aea?aeaae, ianaeai?
eacaoaie. Noaie a?ae Aae?ey aei Io?e ? Aneey, I?ea?aeey ? Iaia?noao
caeiaea Iaia?onueea aea?aeaaa, ianaeaia ?iaeaie iaia?o, aeoei, oaia,
ea?ae, iaeiai, eeioae. Oa?eoi??? ia i?ai?/ a?ae Io?e, aeieeie Oiaeea,
Aneey ? A?o?na aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Nea??nueeiai oainoaa, aieiaiith
iii?ith yeiai aoee ea???, iaeiaie, oaee ? eei/aee. Ia?aoo?, AEaoeno,
aeieeie Ne?aea?’? ? Na?eno neeaaeaee oa?eoi??th Eacaonueeiai oainoaa,
ianaeaiiai a?aeiaie, aeoeaoaie, eaiaee ? aeaea??aie.

Iieiaea Eacaonueea oainoai c ii/aoeo naiai ooai?aiiy iiaaei ai?ioueao ca
ia’?aeiaiiy an?o eacaonueeeo ieaiai ? i?e?aeiaiiy i?ene?aea?’?inueeeo
i?no. E?iaoeue XV- ii/aoie XVI no.- /an i?aeianaiiy Eacaonueeiai
oainoaa, iia’ycaiee c ?i’yi noeoaia, a iaaeae? oaia Eaneia (1511-1518).

I?aeianaiiy oainoaa a ia?o?e /aa?o? XVI no. ia iiaeia, cae/aeii,
iiynieoe eeoa iniaenoeie yeinoyie oaia Eaneia, aiii a?aeaoaaeiny, ia?o
ca ana, a ?acoeueoao? aioo??oi?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? aoi?/ieo
i?ioean?a, oeueiio ni?eyea ? iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a ?aa?ii? a oe?eiio.

Iaiaeonueea ? Nea??nueea aea?aeaae

Iaiaeonueeee Eo?o

I?ney ?iciaaeo aea?aeaae Aaoeoa??a cao?aei? ?aeiie Eacaonoaio iieieeeny
i?ae aeaaeith iauaaee?a Aae?aa c ?iaeo iaiaeo. Oiio aea?aeaaa, i/ieaia
aae?aa?aeaie, iaceaaeany Iaiaeonueeei Eo?oii. O ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo??
aiia ?iaio?oueny oaeiae Iiaaenueeei oeonii. Caeiaea oey aea?aeaaa caie?
i?ae Aae?eai ? AEa?eii, i?ioa a ia??iaee iaea?eueoi? iiaooiino? aeaaea
iaiaeo?a ?iciianthaeaeoaaeany a?ae Eoaai? aei A?o?na. Ie??i iaiaeo?a aei
neeaaeo Eo?oa aoiaeeee aeoeie, oaia, oaaeie, iaeiaie, ea???, eei/aee,
aa?eie ? ?io? iaueii? a?oie.

Noieeoey Iaiaeonueeiai Eo?oa Na?aeoee ciaoiaeeeany a ieciaeiao AEa?ea,
iaaeaeaei a?ae no/aniiai Aoe?ao. Iniaeeai neeueiei Iiaaenueeee oeon aoa
ca Iona ie?ca, i?ioa i?ney eiai nia?o? a?eueo?noue ei/iaeo ?iae?a
ia?aoiaeeoue i?ae aeaaeo eacaonueeiai oaia Io?eiaeeea, yeee iaa?oue
aeaoooaaany a noieeoe? iaiaeonueeeo io?c — Na?aeoeeo. I?ae aeaaeith
iaiaeo?a caeeoeeeny o?eueee ?aeiie I?eo?aeey, aea i?aaea nei AEaiae?oe
Aaenaae, a i?ney eiai nia?o? — nei Ione — Aeoaae? ie?ca.

Nea??nueea oainoai

Iaeiei c iaea?eueoeo aoiiiie?oe/ieo ooai?aiue a I?ai?/iiio Eacaonoai?
aoei ia’?aeiaiiy eei/aenueeeo ieaiai ia oa?eoi??? Na?aaeiueiai A?o?na,
Oia?ea, An?ey ? Oo?e, a yeiio i?ia?aeio ?ieue aeeiioaaee ea?a?.
Caniiaieeii i?noeaai? aeeiano?? aoa iauaaeie ea?a?onueeiai Oiao?oe oaia
— Oaeaoaa.

O XIII no. Oaeaoaa iaea?aeaa caie? Cao?aeiiai Nea??o ? I?ai?/iiai
Eacaonoaio ye aea?oiie a?ae *eia?coaia ? caeeaa ooo i?noi *eia?-oo?a
(no/. Othiaiue). Ie??i ea?a?a ? eei/ae?a, aei eiai aieiae?iue oa?eoee
caie?, ianaeai? in?eeie oth?eiiiaieie ieaiaiaie, ui neeaee i?ci?oa aoiin
nea??nueeeo oaoa?, a oaeiae /anoeia oaio?a.

Ana, ui a?aeaoaaeiny a Oeoa Oeon?, aaciina?aaeiuei a?aeia?aaeaeiny ia
iieiaeaii? Cao?aeiiai Nea??o. Aei e?ioey XIV no. a?i aoa
iai?aaaoiiiiiith /anoeiith Ae-i?aee, a a 1398 ?. ooo ci?oeieany
Oieoaien. Nei?enoaaoeny i?aeoniaeoeyie, ui ii/aeeny ia ii/aoeo 20-o
?ie?a, oaeaoaeioe? iaiaaaeeny a?aeae?eeoeny a?ae Oeoa Oeono ? noai?eoe
aeanio aea?aeaao. Ca ?o i?aeo?eiee oaiii aoa i?iaieioaiee oaeaai?ae
Iooaiiaae-Eiaea, a a 1428 — Aaoeoa??. O 60-o ?ieao ooo ci?oeith?oueny
?aae, yeee i?ney nia?o? Aaoeoa??a aoa i?iaieioaiee oaiii. Oae ooai?eeiny
iacaeaaeia Nea??nueea oainoai, ui caeiaei aeieeie Oia?ea, An?ey ? A?o?na
? aoei ianaeaii ea?ayie, iaeiaiaie, oaeaie ? eei/aeaie, a oaeiae oaioe,
iain? ? nea??nueeeie oth?eaie (oaoa?aie). Iaioth/a iieiaeaiiy a
aea?aeaa? caeiaa ??ae Oaeaoaa ea?a?a, c yeiai iioiaeeee nea??nuee?
io?ce, ui cae?enithaaee aa?oiaio oeea?eueio, noaeiao ? a?enueeiao
aeaaeo.

O ia?oa aeanyoee?ooy XVI no. Nea??nueea oainoai ciia aoei ia’?aeiaia
i?ae aeaaeith oaeaoaeioe?a.

Ii/aoie ia’?aeiaiiy eacaonueeeo caiaeue a ?aeeio aea?aeaao

I?ney nia?o? Eanei oaia na?aae eacaonueeeo noeoai?a ii/aeany caiaeea
ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo.

I?ney ao?aiieo iiae?e aaeeea /anoeia ?iae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai ? Cao?aeiiai
Eacaonoaio i?eeiyea i?aeaeainoai iaiaeonueeeo a??a. Noa?oei na?aae ieo
aaaaeaany Aeoaa??, yeee aieiae?a iniiaieie caieyie Iaiaeonueeiai Eo?oa —
iaaee??//yi Aae?ey ? AEa?ea. Caie? I?ea?aeey aoiaeeee o aieiae?iiy eiai
a?aoa Oaaeia, aoi?aaenueeiai noaio — ?ioiai a?aoa, Naeaeaea.

I?ae aeaaeith eacaonueeeo oai?a caeeoeeeny eeoa AEaoeno ? i?noa
Ne?aea?’?. I?aaeoaeue AEaoeno — Aieaean oai — i?aaea eeoa iaaaeeeith
/anoeiith eacao?a ? ee?aec?a.

I?ney nia?o? Eaneia Eacaonueea oainoai ?iciaeiny ia aeae?eueea
aieiae?iue. Oa?eoi??yie ia na?aaei?e oa/?? Ne?aea?ue? aieiae?a Oiaei
oai, iioe Eaneia. O 1538 ?. Oiaei oai c? an?i iioiinoaii aoa oaeoee, a
ia eiai i?noea aoei aea?aii neia Eaneia — Oae-Iaca?a (1538-1580).

I?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee, Oae-Iaca? ii/aa aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue ii
ia’?aeiaiith eacaonueeeo ?iae?a. I?ney ?yaeo iioiae?a Oae-Iaca?o
aaeaeiny i?e?aeiaoe caie? o aa?o?a’yo Oiaeea ? AEa?ea. E??i oiai, i?ae
eiai aeaaeo ia?aeoea aaeeea /anoeia aaoeo?onueeeo ?iae?a, ui aoiaeeee
?ai?oa a Nea??nueea ? Eacainueea oainoaa.

O 1579 ?. Oae-Iaca?o aaeaeiny i?e?aeiaoe aei Eacaonueeiai oainoaa ie?oao
Oo?eanoaio ? Nao?aia.

O ia?iaeieo eaaaiaeao ?i’y Oae-Iaca?a ia?yia neaaith. Eiio aaeaeiny
ia’?aeiaoe Eacaonueea oainoai, ui ?iciaeiny i?ney nia?o? Eaneia, aei
e?ioey eiai i?aae?iiy ei?aeiie oainoaa ia caoiae? i?ioiaeeee ii AEa?eo,
ia i?aii/? — ii Aneeth ? Io?a, ia noiae? — ii Oeia?noao, Aaeoaoo ?
??/oe? Oo. Ia i?aaei? eacaonuee? aieiae?iiy ai?eooe i?aeoiaeeee aei
Oaoeaioa. Ie??i aeania eacao?a, Oae-Iaca?o i?aeei?yeeny /anoeia
aaoeo?o?a ? ee?aec?a.

Eacaonoai a e?ioe? XVI-XVII no.

Cao?aeiee ? I?ai?/iee Eacaonoai a XVI – ia ii/aoeo XVII no.

?in?enueea aeniain?y ia cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao Eacaonoaio

Cao?aeiee Eacaonoai a XVI no. aoiaeea aei neeaaeo aeaio aea?aeaa, ui
aeieeee ia ?o?iao Oeoa Oeono — Aooa?oainueeiai oainoaa ? Iaiaeonueeiai
Eo?oa. ?noi??y oeeo aea?aeaa iiaia iaeaoeiaeo ia?aai?io?a,
i?aeoniaeoeue, ai?ioueae c ciai?oiueith iaaaciaeith.

Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia ii/aoeo XVI no. neeueii ci?ith?oueny.
Eieenue iiaooi?e Oeoa Oeon aoa aeiooaiee caoeuaoe nai? ei?aeiie a?ae
eieeoi?o nai?o aeaiiee?a — Iineianueei? aea?aeaae ? E?eio. E?einueea
oainoai, ui i?eeiyei oo?aoeueea i?aeaeainoai, i?aaioei ia’?aeiaoe an?
ionoeueiainuee? ia?iaee i?ae nai?th aeaaeith. Iieiaea Iineianueea
aea?aeaaa ?iaeea iaaaconi?oi? ni?iae inai?oe aeey eieii?caoe?? nai?
i?aaeaiii-no?aei? iaae?.

O 50-o ?. XVI no. Iaiaeonueeee Eo?o ia?aaeeaaa neeaaeiee /an. C
i?ai?/iiai caoiaeo iaiaeo?a o?nieee ?in?enuee? a?enueea, c i?aaeaiiiai
noiaeo — ci?oei?ea Eacaonueea oainoai. I?ea?aeuenuee? ? oi?aaenuee?
iiaa? i?e?aeiaeeny aei Eacaonueeiai oainoaa. Uia ?ica’ycaoe nia? ?oee a
ai?iouea? c eacaonueeei oaiii, Nia?e a 1557 ?ioe? cayaea i?i ooaaeaiiy
?in?enueeiai i?aeaeainoaa, i?ioa ?aaeueii? aeiiiiiae a?i ia iaea?aeaa.

Caiaeea ai?ioueaa iaiaeonueeeo io?c ca aeaaeo cae?i/eeany ia?aei/oaaiiyi
a?eueoino? iiaaenueeeo ?iae?a ia no?aeio noi?iio AEa?ea a i?aeaeainoai
eacaonueeiai oaia. Oea a?aeaoeiny ia ii/aoeo XVII no. *anoeia iiaa?a ia
/ie? c Anoa?ae a??i ia?aeoea ia ?in?enueeo neoaeao ? ?icoaooaaeany ia
I?ai?/iiio Eaaeac?. Oae cae?i/eeany ?noi??y iacaeaaeiiai Iiaaenueeiai
Oeono. A?eueo?noue iiaaenueeeo ?iae?a neeaee Iieiaeoee eacaonueeee aeoc.

Iaae?iiy Nea??nueeiai oainoaa

Ia i?aii/? Eacaonueea oainoai iaaeoaaei c Nea??nueeei, yea aeeth/aei
eacaonuee? ei/iaeua ii Oiaeeo, Aneeth ? A?o?no. Aea?aeaaa ae?eeeany ia
oeone ia /ie? c io?caie. Noieeoey ciaoiaeeeany a i?no? ?nea?.

Iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y aoea ia iaaeoi ni?eyoeeaith — ?in?enueea
i?aeaeainoai i?eeiyee aaoee?e ? iiaa?, e?einueeee oai caciaa ii?acee
a?ae Iineae, ia i?aaei? iineethaaany iaoene eacaonueeeo oai?a.
Nei?enoaaoeny oei, ui Iaiaeonueeee Eo?o noaa aanaeii ?in??, aaaao?
eoioe? No?iaaiiae i?iieeee a Cao?aeey ? canioaaee ooo naith neiaiaeo.

O 1585 ?. aei Nea??o i?eaoa ?in?enueeee caa?i ia /ie? c ?. Iaino?iaei, a
??e iioiio iaaeaeaei a?ae *eiaa-oo?e ?in?yie caeeaee oi?oaoeth Othiaiue.
O 1587 ?. aoea caeeaaeaia ua iaeia oi?oaoey — iaeaooi?eOiaieuenuee.
Eioei, ui aeaoooaaany a i?ai?/ii-eacaonueeeo noaiao, iaiaaaany a?aeaeoe
Cao?aeiee Nea??, aea a 1591 ?. caciaa e?oiii? ii?acee ia ??/oe? Aneeue,
a a 1598 ?. aoa inoaoi/ii ?ica?iieaiee, ? Nea??nueea oainoai i?aeoe/ii
ia?anoaei ?nioaaoe. *eneaii? eacaonuee? ?iaee, ui aeeee a Nea???,
a?aeei/iaoaaee ia i?aaeaiue ? i?eeiyee i?aeaeainoai oaia Aneia.

I?ney ?iciaaeo Iaiaeonueeiai Eo?oa ?in?enueeee o?yae ii/aa eieii?caoe?th
aeieeie ?. AEa?e. Ooo aoee caeeaaeai? oi?oaoe? Ao?’?a, Eoeaaeinueea,
ss?oeueea i?noa/ei, an? caie? ii ocaa?aaeaeth ??/ee aoee aeae?eai?
eica/iio a?enueeo, yea iiaeiia aoei noaoe iniiaiei cia?yaeaeyi
eieii?aeueii? iie?oeee a Cao?aeiiio Eacaonoai?. O 20-o ?ieao XVII no.
nthaee ia?anaeeeeny eaeieee c I?ai?/iiai Eacaonoaio ? aeieeie A?o?na.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? aeniain?ii?nonueei? iie?oeee ?in??, ??
ei?aeiie ia ii/aoeo XVII no. ai?eooe i?ae?eoee aei Eacaonueeiai oainoaa
ia aaee/aciiio i?ioyc? — a?ae Eani?enueeiai ocaa?aaeaey aei A?o?na, ui
c?iaeei aeoaea aieeioei ia iiaeaeueoa iie?oe/ia aeeooy Eacaonoaio.

Eacaonueea oainoai a XVII no.

*an i?aae?iiy Anei oaia aoa aeoaea neeaaeiei. Ia i?aaei? eoea iino?eia
ai?ioueaa c aooa?nueeei oaiii ca aieiae?iiy Oaoeaioii, ia noiae?
iineethaaeeny ie?aonuee? ieaiaia, a naiiio Eacaonueeiio oainoa?
a?aeaoaaeeny naia?aoenonuee? aenooie noeoai?a.

Oneeaaeieeeny a?aeiineie eacao?a c ea?aeaeiaeaie. Iaeii/anii ii/aeeny
iaa?ae ie?aonueeeo ieaiai. A e?ioe? XVI noie?ooy cao?aeii-iiiaieuenuee?
ieaiaia ie?ao?a i?inoioeeny aeaeaei ia cao?ae ii oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio.
?o oeone c’yaeeeny ia Anee?, A?o?n?, Oa?aaaaoa? ? Oyiue-oai?. Aaea ia
ii/aoeo XVII no. ie?aoe cae?enithaaee iaa?ae ia na?aaeiueiac?aonuee?
aea?aeaae ? ee?aecnuee? ei/iaeua. O 1604 ?. ie?aoe caciaee ii?acee a?ae
eacao?a, aea i?ney caoiieaiiy aeaaee Oo?neiii c?iaeee iiaee iio?ae ?
coi?ee i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe nia? Noa?oee aeoc. Anei oai aeiooaiee aoa aoaeoe
aei No?aeiiai Oo?eanoaio.

Aeeth/aiiy aei neeaaeo iaei??? aea?aeaae ?aeii?a c ??ciei iie?oe/iei
ono?i?i i?e caaaeuei?e neaaeino? i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a
iaieio/a i?eaaei aei c?inoaiiy naia?aoenonueeeo iano?i?a.

Cai?noue oeonii? nenoaie ia ii/aoeo XVII no. aoea aaaaeaia aeociaa
i?aai?caoe?y, eiee an? eacaonuee? caie? aoee ?icae?eai? i?ae o?ueiia
ainiiaea?nueei-oa?eoi??aeueieie ia’?aeiaiiyie — aeocaie. Ia /ie? aeoc?a
noiyee a??, ea??aieee iaea?eueo neeueieo ? /eneaiieo a?oi iauei.

O XVII no. aoea aecia/aia ? iino?eia noieeoey Eacaonueeiai oainoaa – i.
Oo?eanoai.

A e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a XVII no. Ie?aonueeee nithc ?iciaany. Ieaiaia
oioioo?a a?aeei/iaoaaee ia Oeaao, oi?aaooe /a?ac I?ai?/iee Eacaonoai
ia?anaeeeeny a iiiecc? Aae?ey. O? ae ie?aoe, ui caeeoeeeny, ia’?aeiaeeny
? noai?eee a No?aeiiio Eacaonoai? a 1635 ?. AEiiaa?nueea oainoai. C?aco
ae ii/aeany aeniaaeeeaa ai?ioueaa c eacaoaie ca ei/iaeua AEaoeno ?
I?ai?/iiai Eacaonoaio.

Aeniaaeeeaa a?eia c neeueiei noi?ioeaieeii ca ianiaeua ineaaeea
Eacaonueea oainoai. Ia aeeaey/enue ia ie?ai? ia?aiiae a e?oiieo aeoaao,
eacaoe iinooiiai ao?a/aee nai? ei/iaeua ii A?o?no, Oa?aaaaoath, ? a
AEaoeno, ana aeae? a?aenooiath/e ia no?ae.

Eacaonoai o XVIII noie?oo?. Ii/aoie eieii?aeueii? iie?oeee ?in?? a
eacaonueeeo noaiao

Eacaonueea oainoai ia ii/aoeo XVIII no.

O 80-o ?ieao XVII no. iioiaee aeiiaa?nuee?o ooioaeoe ia eacaonuee? caie?
iiiiaeeeny, aiie i?aaioee iaieiae?oe I?aaeaiiei Eacaonoaiii ? oi?aiaeie
i?noaie ia Ne?aea?’?, a oaeiae oa?eoi???th, ii ye?e i?ioiaeeee aaaeeea?
ea?aaaii? oeyoe.

Eacaonueea iie?oe/ia nenoaia, caniiaaia ia oe?ie?e aaoiiii?? noa’?eo?a,
aoea /oaeiai i?enoiniaaia aei ??oaiiy aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo i?iaeai.
I?ioa ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. ??cei ci?ieeany ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia
neooaoe?y. Eacaonueea ae oainoai, aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia a ?acoeueoao?
?aoi?i, aeyaeeiny ia aioiaei aei ciai?oi?o oiia, ui ci?ieeeny.

A oiiaao neaaei? oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee /anoeia iauei Iieiaeoiai ?
Na?aaeiueiai aeoc?a i?oea ia iaiaaeaiiy naiai noaa?ai?oaoo. Oae ii/aany
i?ioean ?iciaaeo Eacaonueeiai oainoaa. Aea caa?ica iaoe?iiaeueii?
iacaeaaeiino? i?eioneea ia’?aeiaoeny. Anoaei ieoaiiy i?i ia’?aeiaiiy
Eacaonueeiai oainoaa. I?ioa ia’?aeiaiiy oae ? ia a?aeaoeiny. O oeae
iiiaio i?eeoea ca?noea i?i iaiaae aaoee? ia i?ai?/i? iaae? Eacaonoaio.
Ineaaeaiiy eacao?a aoei ai?ei aeei?enoaia aeiiaa?aie, ? a 1741 ?. eacaoe
i?aeaeaeeny iiaiio ianoio, ui cae?i/eany ?o ii?aceith, aeiaaeiny aeciaoe
naith caeaaei?noue a?ae aeiiaa??a.

I?eeiyooy ?in?enueeiai i?ioaeoi?aoo

Eacaonueei-?in?enuee? a?aeiineie ia ii/aoeo XVIII no.

A e?ioe? XVII no. ?in?y i?iaeiaaeoaaea naith caaieiaio iie?oeeo. O 50-o
?ieao XVI no. aoee e?ea?aeiaai? Eacainueea ? Ano?aoainueea oainoaa.
Oaeei /eiii, i?aaeaiii-no?aei? ei?aeiie ?in?? i?ae?eoee ai?eooe aei
caiaeue eacaonueeeo oainoa.

?in?enueeee o?yae c?aco ae ii/aa i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy caaea/?
i?e?aeiaiiy Eacaonoaio: o 1714 ?. aei No?aeiiai Eacaonoaio i?yio?
aeniaaeeoe?y iieeiaieea Aooaieueoea, aieiaiith iaoith aoei aoae?aieoeoai
oi?oaoeue a aeieei? A?o?na. O 1716a. aoea caeeaaeaia oi?oaoey Iinueea,
1917 ?. — AEaeac?inueea, 1719a. — Naieiaeaoeinueea, a a 1720 ?. —
Onoue-Eaiaiiai?nueea. Eacaonueea noi?iia ia ii/aoeo XVIII no. iai?aaey?
aeae?eueea iinieuenoa aei ?in?? c aeiiaith i?eieieoe iaa?ae ?in?enueeeo
i?aeaeaieo — eicae?a, aaoee?, eaeiee?a ia eacaonuee? ei/iaeua ?
i?iiiceoe??th oeeanoe a?enueeiaee nithc i?ioe AEiiaa???. ?in?enueeee
o?yae, c iaeiiai aieo, ia?oeya eacaoai aeiiiiiao, c ?ioiai, iaeacoaaa
nea??nuee?e aaei?i?no?aoe?? ia naa?eoeny c aeiiaa?aie ? iaa?oue
iaiaaaoeny iaeaaiaeeoe c ieie oi?aia? a?aeiineie.

I?eeiyooy eacaonueeeie aeocaie ?in?enueeiai i?ioaeoi?aoo

I?ney ia?aiiae a?ey Ai?aeay Aaoeoa?? a?aeei/iaoaaa aei ?in?enueeeo
ei?aeii?a ? iai?aaea iinieuenoai aei Ooe c i?iiiceoe??th anooieoe a
?in?enueea i?aeaeainoai. Oai Iieiaeoiai aeoca ia aeiaaeeiai aenooiea
?i?oe?aoi?ii ooaaeaiiy eacaoaie ?in?enueeiai i?aeaeainoaa. Ua ia ii/aoeo
1726 ?. a?i a?aei?aaea naiai iinea aei Iaoa?ao?ao aeey ia?aaiai??a c
oea?nueeei o?yaeii i?i «i?ioaeoe?th». ?in?enueeee o?yae ae??oea
nei?enoaoeny neooaoe??th ? iai?aaea a noai iinieuenoai aeey i?eaaaeaiiy
eacao?a aei i?enyae.

O 1734 ?. anooi Iieiaeoiai aeoca i?ae ?in?enueeee i?ioaeoi?ao aoa
inoaoi/ii ioi?ieaiee. A?aeiineie i?ae ?in??th ? Iieiaeoei aeocii
aoaeoaaeeny ia i?eioeeiao i?ioaeoi?aoo, oi?i? eieii?aeueii? caeaaeiino?,
eiee caeaaeia aea?aeaaa caa??aa? noaa?ai?oao o an?o noa?ao, ie??i
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. E??i oiai, ?in?y i?eaeanieea i?aai caoaa?aeaeoaaoe
aa?oiaieo i?aaeoae?a — oai?a, a naith /a?ao aea?aeaaa-i?ioaeoi?
(«caoeniee») iiaeiia aoea caoeuaoe caeaaeio aea?aeaao a?ae ciai?oi?o
ai?ia?a.

Iaeiae, oeae aeiaia?? ?c naiiai ii/aoeo noaa ii?oooaaoeny ?in?enueeith
noi?iiith. Iaa?ae ?in?enueeeo i?aeaeaieo ia i?eieieeeny.

Aeciaiiy ?in?enueeiai i?ioaeoi?aoo Na?aaei?i ? Noa?oei aeocaie

I?ney ooaaeaiiy Iieiaeoei aeocii ?in?enueeiai i?aeaeainoaa,
?iaeii?aaeae? Na?aaeiueiai ? Noa?oiai aeoc? oaeiae cayaeee i?i nai?
aaaeaiiy «aooe i?ae i?ioaeoe??th», ia aa?o/e, i?ioa, ia naaa i?yeeo
ciaia’ycaiue. ?aeeiith i?e/eiith neoaeeei i?aaiaiiy ia aeaoe Aaoeoa??o
ia?aaaa o aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i?e ai?iouea?. Eiee oaeaeei Na?aaei?e ?
Noa?oee aeoc aeciathoue naaa ?in?enueeeie i?aeaeaieie, Aaoeoa?? ia
ciiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ioe ieo ?in?enuee? a?enueea. Caaacia/eaoe oaeei
/eiii naaa, oaie aeaio aeoc? i?iaeiaaeeee a?eio c AEiiaa???th

Nai? ciaia’ycaiiy ia?aae eacaonueeeie oaiaie oea?nueeee o?yae ia
aeeiiaa. Eacaoe ia iaea?aeaee a?enueeiai? aeiiiiiae i?ioe aeiiaa?. I?noi
I?aiao?a, iiaoaeiaaia ca i?ioaiiyi oaia Aaoeoa??a, noaei iii?ith
oea?nueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? a i?ioean? eieii?caoe?? eacaonueeeo noai?a.
I?ai?/ii-cao?aei? iaae? Eacaonoaio noaee ua ianiie?ei?oeie. Eica/?
ioaiaie, aaaaeath/e oe? caie? aeani?noth ?in??, noaee aoaeoaaoe oi?oaoe?
? ?io? a?enueeia? nii?oaee, ia aieeath/e a ?ioa?ane ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ooaaeaiiy i?ioaeoi?aoo i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiith /anoeiith
Eacaonoaio i?eianei eacaoai eieii?aeueiee ai?o.

Eacaonueea oainoai o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVIII no.

Eacaonueea oainoai a 30-40-o ??. XVIII no.

Iiaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy eacaonueei? aea?aeaaiino? iia’ycaia c ?i’yi noeoaia,
— a i?ci?oa ca oaia, — Aaeeay.

AEiiaa?e, oeeaaoe a 1739 ?. ie? c Oe?inueeith ?iia???th eeioee an? nai?
neee ia cao?ae ? a 1741 ?. ii/aee iiaee inoaii?e iio?ae ia eacao?a.

A ?acoeueoao? c?oeiaiue eacaonuee? caaiie ia /ie? c noeoaiii Aaeea?i
aoee ?icaeo?, a nai Aaeeae iio?aiea a iieii. ?in?enueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y
aeineoue aaeaeoaea niinoa??aaea ca iiae?yie a eacaonueeiio noaio ? eeoa
eiee noai?eeany aaciina?aaeiy caa?ica ?in?enueeei aieiae?iiyi, i?eaaea a
aieiao aioiai?noue a?enueea I?aiao?cueei? e?i?? ? caaeaaeaea a?ae
aeiiaa? a?aeaaaeaiiy nai?o caaii?a. Ana oea i?eioneei oaia Na?aaeiueiai
aeoca Aa?eueiaiaaoa cayaeoe ?in?enueeei iineai i?i aea?aii?noue
?in?enueeiai i?aeaeainoaa ? aeciaiiy eacaoaie caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiiaa?.

Canaeaiiy eacaoaie No?aeiiai Oo?eanoaio

C? anoaiiaeaiiyi a AEiiaa??? iaiue/aeo?i-eeoaenueei? aeaae? caiaeueia
ieoaiiy oa noiae? Eacaonoaio caaino?eany. Eeoaeoe? ii/aee caiaeeoe a
aeieei? ?. ?e? ? ia Oa?aaaaoa? a?enueeia? oe??ieaiy, uia ia aeiionoeoe
ia ca?eueiai? a?ae aeiiaa? caie? eacaonuee? ei/iaeua. O 1761 ?.
eeoaenueeee ?iia?aoi? aeaeaa oeac i?i caai?iio eacaoai ei/oaaoe ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae ?. Ayaoc. I?ioa c oe??th caai?iiith i?ooi ia aaaaeaany ?
eacaoe i?iaeiaaeoaaee caeiaoe ianiaeua Oa?aaaaoay. Eeoaenuee? a?enueea a
1762-1765 ??. c?iaeee aeae?eueea ea?aeueieo iia?aoe?e ii aeaeai?aiith
eacao?a ?c caiaeue AEiiaa???, aea oe? iia?aoe?? ia iaee oni?oo,
ine?eueee c ianoaiiyi ceie ? a?aeoiaeii eeoaeoe?a, eacaoe ciia
iiaa?oaeeny ia oe? oa?eoi???. A?eueo oiai, a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ??.
i?eo?e eacao?a a AEiiaa??th ca?eueoeeany, ? Oe?inueeee o?yae a 1767 ?.
aoa ciooaiee aeicaieeoe eacaoai ei?enooaaoeny ianiaeuaie a ?aeii?
Oa?aaaaoay ? ?. ?e?. O ?acoeueoao? aei e?ioey XVIII no. /anoeia eacao?a
Na?aaeiueiai ? Noa?oiai aeoc?a i?eeiyee eeoaenueea i?aeaeainoai ?
caeiyee aaaao? ianiaeua Oa?aaaaoay, aeieeie ?. ?e? ? Iiiaieuenueeiai
Aeoay. Oe? oa?eoi??? aa?eoee aei neeaaeo «Iiai? i?ia?ioe??» Eeoath —
N?iueoecyiy.

Oaeei /eiii, caaaeyee caaaeai?e ? i?iaeoiai?e iie?oeoe? noeoaia Aaeeay,
eacaonuee? iiie/aioe?, ui oae ? ia iaea?aeaee aeiiiiiae a?ae ?in??,
ciiaee nai?ie neeaie coieieoe eeoaenueeo aa?an?th, a?eueo oiai, eacaoai
aaeaeiny aei e?ioey XVIII no. caeiyoe aaaao? ianiaeua N?iueoecyiy,
aiane?aeie /iai caiaeueia e?eca a Eacaonoai? aeaui neaaoaea. I?ioa oea
i?eaaei e?iaoeue e?ioeai aei ?iciiae?eo eacaonueeiai aoiino i?ae ?in??th
? Eeoa?i.

Iaeii/anii c ai?ioueaith ?c ciai?oiueith iaaaciaeith, Aaeeae ?iaea
aaee/aci? coneeey ii ia’?aeiaiith eacaonueeeo caiaeue. Aaeeath aaeaeiny
iiaa?iooe eacaonuee? i?noa ia i?aaei?, a ei?ioeee oa?i?i a?i iaieiae?a
Nicaeii, Nae?aiii, *eieaioii ? Oaoeaioii. I?ioa ni?iaa noai?eoe
aioeeeoaenueeee nithc na?aaeiueiac?aonueeeo aea?aeaa ia oa?i/aeany
oni?oii. sse nithcieee ia?aaeaa/aeeny Aoaai?noai, Aooa?a, Eieaiae ?
Ee?aecnoai, aea aino?? noia?a/iino? c Eieaiaeii ? ee?aecaie aeeeeeny a
ica?i?i? c?oeiaiiy. Ia nithc c Eacaonoaiii caiaeeeany eeoa Aooa?a.
Oni?oi?oith aoea ae?yeuei?noue Aaeeay ona?aaeei? aea?aeaae.

Eieii?aeueia iie?oeea ?in?? a Cao?aeiiio ? I?ai?/iiio Eacaonoai?

Eica/? a?enueea ia oa?eoi??? Eacaonoaio

O XVIII no. aoei noai?aia niaoe?aeueia I?aiao?cueea eica/a a?enueei. Ii
nai?e i?aai?caoe?? aiii aoei aeecueea aei ?aaoey?ieo a?enuee ? ianei
neoaeao ii Aa?oiay?oeuee?e e?i?? — a?ae ss?oeueeiai i?noa/ea aei
oi?oaoe? Aa?oiay?oeueei?. Caie? ss?oeueeiai eicaoeoaa i?ioyaioeeny
ocaeiaae AEa?ea.

Nii?oaeaeaiiy oooi??a a iaaee??//? AEa?ea ? Aae?ey, a oaeiae ii
i?aaiaa?aaeaeth AEa?ea, i?eaaea aei iiaeaeueoiai caiaeueiiai iaiaaeaiiy
aeey eacao?a, yeei ia aeicaieyeiny ei/oaaoe a ?aeiiao eica/eo
ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae.

Oaeei /eiii, eacaoe ao?a/aee e?au? ianiaeua, oeei ? iiynith?oueny
i?aaiaiiy eacaonueeiai ianaeaiiy aei cieuaiiy eica/eo oooi??a.

Ai?ioueaa eacao?a c eieii?aeueiei ai?oii

Iniaeeai caaino?eeeny a?aeiineie eacao?a c ss?oeueeei ? I?aiao?cueeei
eicaoeoaii c 1756 ?. eiee ianaeaiith Iieiaeoiai aeoca aoei caai?iiaia
ia?aaiieoe ooaeiao ia ceiia? ianiaeua ii i?aaiaa?aaeaeth AEa?ea. O oeeo
oiiaao oea?nueeee o?yae aeey ooeoiie?aiiy eacao?a i?aai?coaaa oae caai?
«a?enueeia? iiooee», oiaoi iaaaeee? ea?aeuei? aeniaaeeoe?? a eacaonueeee
noai. I?e oeueiio eicaeai aeicaieyeiny a?aoe ca?o/iee?a, caoiiethaaoe
ooaeiao ? iaeii.

O 1755 ?. o a?aeiia?aeue ia ooenee eicaoeoaa eacaonueea ianaeaiiy
c?iaeei /ano?oei nai? iaiaaee ia oi?oaoe? ? oi?iinoe. I?aiao?cueea
aaei?i?no?aoe?y aeiooaia aoea aeciaoe, ui iiae?ai? c?oeiaiiy
a?aeaoaaeeny c aeie eicae?a. C?oeiaiiy eacao?a c e?i?eieie eicaeaie
ii/ano?oaee iano?eueee, ui eieaa?y caei?aeiiieo ni?aa 11 ea?oiy 1755 ?.
aeicaieeea inoaii?i iinooiaoe c eacaoaie ye c ai?iaaie.

Aei 1770 ?. neeaaeieie aoee aca?iia?aeiineie eacao?a c eaeieeaie, ui
ei/oaaee i?ae AEa?eii ? Aae?eai. C iaoith ?iciaethaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ai?iaeia/? oea?nueeee o?yae 28 aa?aniy 1743 ?. aeicaieea eaeieeai
cae?enithaaoe a eacaonueeiio noaio «a?enueeia? iiooee”. Eaeieee
ia?aoiaeeee /a?ac AEa?e, caoiiethaaee ? caae?aee aaeeeo e?euee?noue
ooaeiae.

A?aeiineie eacao?a c eaeieeaie ae?icaycaeeny aei 1771 ?. eiee cia/ia
/anoeia inoaii?o ia /ie? c iai?nieeii Oaaoe /a?ac aaaeeee ai?o oea?ecio
a?aeei/iaoaaea ia oa?eoi??? AEiiaa???. Oi/a ianiaeua, ye? ?ai?oa caeiaee
eaeieee, aeyaeeeny a?eueieie, oea?nueeee o?yae ye ? ?ai?oa a?aeiiaeyany
aeicaieeoe eacaoai a?eueii ei?enooaaoeny oeeie caieyie.

Eacaoe, ii/eiath/e c 50-o ?ie?a XVIII no. e??i ie?ieo ia?aaiai??a c
oea?nueeei o?yaeii i?i ?icoe?aiiy ?aeiio ei/?ae?, aaeathoueny aei
iaie?ieo oi?i i?ioanoo: naiia?eueiei ia?aaiiai ooaeiae ia caai?iiai?
oa?eoi??? ? ica?i?iei iaiaaeai ia a?enueeia? oe??ieaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?in?enueea eieii?aeueia
aaei?i?no?aoe?y ii/eia? a XVIII no. aeoeaia i?iieeiaiiy a eacaonuee?
noaie, aaiaey/e i?e oeueiio iano iaiaaeaiue, ui i?ae?eaaee aeiiii?/i?
iniiae eacaonueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ana oea iineoaeeei iioeaii oe?ieiai
aioeeieii?aeueiiai ?ooo eacao?a, ui iaaoa a 70-o ?ieao XVIII no.
i?aai?ciaaieo oi?i. I?e oeueiio ai?ioueaa eoea ia o?eueee c ?in?enueeeie
a?enueeaie, aea ? c /anoeiith eacaonueei? aa?o?aee, ui a?aeaeaii
neoaeeea oea?ecio.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo eacao?a ia ii/aoeo XX no.

Ia ii/aoeo XX no. eacaoe, i?e?a/ai? eieii?aeueiith iie?oeeith oea?ecio
ia oaia?noue, a?ae/oee caa?ico iaa?oue nai?io ?nioaaiith ye aoiino. Oea
aeeeeeaei iiaee i?aeeii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, ui eoia aeaiia
iai?yiaie. O?aae?oeeiiae?nonueeee ? iai?neai?nonueeee iai?yi, iia’ycaiee
c ionoeueiainueeei ?ooii Na?aaeiuei? Ac??, ei?enooaaany aaee/aciith
i?aeo?eieith aeoo?aieoeoaa ? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe?? I?aaeaiiiai
Eacaonoaio. Iaioth?e?nonueeee ? iiaea?i?nonueeee iai?yi aacoaaany ia
?aeayo oth?ei-ionoeueiainei? ?aeiino? ? i?aeo?eioaaany ?ioae?aaioe??th ?
iieiaeith eacaonueeith ao?aeoac??th.

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