Iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo Iieaeiae

Eai’yiee a?e

Iaeaeaai?o? ne?aee ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie ia oa?eoi??? Iieaeaa??
a?aeiinyoueny aei ?aiiueiai iaeaie?oo (200—70 oen. ?ie?a oiio). C
oeueiai /ano a?aeii? noiyiee aoaeuenueei? eoeueoo?e (a?ioe Noa??
Aeo?o?oi?e, Aeoaaoeioe?). Noiyiee ionoue??nueei? eoeueoo?e (na?aaei?e
iaeaie?o — 70—40 oen. ?ie?a oiio) ciaeaeai? o n?e Aooaooe, Aocaeoaeaie ?
O??iea. O i?ciueiio iaeaie?o? (40—10 oen. ?ie?a oiio) c’yaeany no/aniee
oei ethaeeie — e?iiaiueeiiaoeue (a?ioe: A?eicaie I, *oooeaooe I, ?aoeia
VII).

Noiyiee aiioe iacie?oo ia oa?eoi??? Iieaeaa?? (VIII—V oeny/ie?ooy aei i.
a.) ciaeaeai? o naeao O?oiooeea ? Na?aoaie.

Iaeaeaai?oa iaie?oe/ia (V oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a.) eoeueoo?a ia oa?eoi???
Iieaeaa?? — aoai-aei?no?ianueea — a?aeiia ii a?oi? iaaaeeeeo iinaeaiue,
?icoaoiaaieo a?ey ?. Ni?iee. A e?ioe? V oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a. a
iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? I?ooa i?iieeee ieaiaia eoeueoo?e
e?i?eii-no??/eiai? ea?ai?ee.

Ia iaae? V—IV oeny/ie?oue aei i.a. a Aei?no?ianueei-Ea?iaonueeeo caieyo
a ?acoeueoao? o?nieo eiioaeo?a iin??a eoeueoo? e?i?eii-no??/eiai?
ea?ai?ee ? aoai-aei?no?ianueei?, neeueiiai aieeao ieaeiueiaeoiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e Aiyi ca?iaeaeo?oueny o?ei?euenueea eoeueoo?a i?aeii-eai’yiiai
noie?ooy (aiaie?oo), ui ?icaeaaeany aeecueei 2 oen. ?ie?a. Iaea?eueo
a?aeii? iai’yoieee: a?ey ?. Oei?aooe, n?e Ea?aoia, Nieii/ai?, A?eicaie,
Aeoaaoeioe? ? AEo?a. A ia??iae i?aeii-eai’yiiai noie?ooy ia i?aaei?
Iieaeaa?? aeeee oaeiae ieaiaia aoiaeueieoeueei? eoeueoo?e, aeecuee?
o?ei?eueoeyi. Iai’yoieee: a?ey ?. Aoeeaiaooe ? n. Eiiao?oea.

A?iiciaee a?e

O ?aiiueiio ia??iae? a?iiciaiai a?eo (e?iaoeue III — ia?oa o?aoeia II
oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a.) na?aae ieaiai, ui ianaeyee oa?eoi??th Iieaeaa??,
ia?aaaaeaee ei/ia? neioa??. O na?aaeiueiio (ae?oaa o?aoeia II
oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a.) ? i?ciueiio (o?aoy o?aoeia II oeny/ie?ooy —
ii/aoie I oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a.) ia??iaeao ianaeaiiy noa? in?eei,
caeiath/enue ye caiea?ianoaii, oae ? neioa?noaii.

A e?ioe? ia??iaeo a?iice oa?eoi??y Iieaeaa?? aoea ?icae?eaia ia aea?
ciie: e?ninoaiiao ? noaiiao. O e?ninoaiia?e cii? aeeee ieaiaia eoeueoo?e
Iia. O noaiia?e cii? iaoeaee e?iia??eoe?. Iai’yoieee ?aiiueiai ?
na?aaeiueiai ia??iae?a a?iice i?aaenoaaeai? aieiaiei /eiii eo?aaiieie
iioiaaiiyie, ?iceeaeaieie ii an?e e?a?i?.

Cae?ciee a?e

O ia?o?e iieiaei? I oeny/ie?ooy aei i.a. a e?ninoaiiao /anoeio
Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueeiai iaaee??//y i?inoioeeny o?ae?enuee? ieaiaia —
iin?? eoeueoo?e aaeueooaoa. O noaiia?e /anoei? i?iaeiaaeoaaee aeeoe
e?iia??eoe?.

O ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e o?ae?enueeiai aaeueooaoo ia oa?eoi??? Iieaeaa??
aeae?eythoueny o?e aoaie: ?aii?e (X—IX no. aei i. a.; Eeoei?a, n?ea
Eoeaoaaea, Ieiae?aooe), ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?aoiaeii a?ae i?ciuei?
a?iice aei ?aiiueiai cae?ca; na?aaei?e (VIII—VI no. aei i. a.; ?.
Oieaeaiaooe, n. Nae?ooa), yeiio aeanoeai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy cae?cieo
cia?yaeue, ? i?ci?e (V no. aei i. a.) — ia?ao?aeiee a?ae eoeueoo?e
o?ae?enueeiai aaeueooaoo aei aaonueei? (n?ea Aeai/aie, Ie?aeieoaie).

IV—I noie?ooy aei i.a. Aaoe

A ia??iae IV—III noie?oue aei i.a. ia oa?eoi???
Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueeiai iaaee??//y aoee ?icnaeai? aaoe (aaoi-aeaee) —
iaeia c a?oi i?ai?/ii-o?ae?enueeeo ieaiai.

Aaoe aoee ia’?aeiai? a nithce ieaiai ? ciaoiaeeeeny ia noaae??
a?enueeiai? aeaiie?ao??. ?iceiiai? naeeua ? ai?iaeeua aao?a (n?ea
Aooo/aie, Naoa?ia). Aaoe i?aeo?eioaaee ca’ycee c a?aoeueeeie
i?e/i?iiii?nueeeie eieii?yie, i?i oea na?ae/aoue iiiaoe c O??e (no/aniee
A?eai?iae-Aei?no?ianueeee) ? aeeiyi? a?aoeuee? aioi?e.

A e?ioe? III — ii/aoeo II noie?oue aei i.a. ia oa?eoi??th aao?a
aoi?aathoueny iiii?nuee? ieaiaia, ye? a ienueiiaeo aeaea?aeao cae/aeii
ioioiaeiththoueny c aanoa?iaie aai aaeaoaie. A ?acoeueoao? ceeooy
ooai?eeiny ianaeaiiy, ui noai?eei iiao iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o —
eoeaoaanueeo, a ye?e ia?aaaaeaee aaonuee? aeaiaioe.

O IV—III noie?ooyo aei i.a. noaiiao /anoeio iiaa?aaeaey Aei?no?ianueeiai
eeiaio canaeyee in?e? ieaiaia, a yeeo aeine?aeieee cae/aeii aa/aoue
iauaaee?a aee?ii-ne?o?a Aa?iaeioa. I?ae /an a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a ?
iaa?a?a a Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonuee? caie? i?iieeaee ? ei/ia? ne?oe.

I—III noie?ooy i.a. ?einueeee aieea

O I noie?oo? aei i.a. iineeth?oueny ?einueea aeniain?y a Ieaeiueiio
Iiaeoiaa’?. ?eieyie noai?ththoue i?ia?ioe?th Ieaeiy Iueic?y (no/ani?
I?ai?/ia Aieaa??y ? Aeia?oaeaea). O 57 ?ioe? i.a. aiie aaiaeyoue na?e
aa?i?cii a O??o. Ia i?aaei? Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueeiai iaaee??//y noiyee
I ?oae?enueeee ? V Iaeaaeiinueeee eaa?iie (/a?aieoey c ooaiiaeyie oeeo
eaa?ii?a aoea ciaeaeaia ia e?aiio aa?ac? Aeoiath, a?ey eiai ae?ea, a?ey
naea I?e?aea Iaeanueei? iaeano?). Aeaye? aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui
i?aaeaiiee O?ayiia aae, ia?aoeiath/ee iaaee??//y ?c caoiaeo ia no?ae,
aoa nii?oaeaeaiee ?eieyiaie — aeey ai?ioueae c ei/?aieeaie, ui
aoi?aaeeny, i?ioa aeai?, iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? ?iceiiie, oea ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue.

?einueea aeniain?y i?enei?eea oi?ioaaiiy o aaoi-aeae?a ?aii?o iie?oe/ieo
ooai?aiue. Oae, a I noie?oo? aei i.a. a?aeiia ia’?aeiaiiy
aaoi-aeae?enueeeo ieaiai i?ae ea??aieoeoaii Ao?aa?noe, yea, i?ioa,
iacaaa?ii ?iciaeiny. Iio?i oeaio? iie?oe/ieo ooai?aiue aaoi-aeae?a
ia?anoioany a ?aeii Ea?iao, aea a I noie?oo? aei i.a. aeieeathoue ?aii?
oi?ie aea?aeaaiino?.

I?ney aeaio caiaeeeo ai?i (101—102 ? 105—106) ?einueeee ?iia?aoi? O?ayi
caoiiea /anoeio caiaeue aaoi-aeae?a ? ooai?ea i?ia?ioe?th Aeae?y. Aiia
aoea canaeaia ?einueeeie ? ?iiai?ciaaieie eieii?noaie. Aeaaea i?iaiaeeea
iie?oeeo ?iiai?caoe?? aaoi-aeae?a.

Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueea iaaee??//y (?, cie?aia, oa?eoi??y no/anii?
Iieaeaa??) ia aa?eoei aei neeaaeo i?ia?ioe?? Aeae?y, ? ooo ?iiai?caoe??
ye oaei? ia aoei, i?ioa ianaeaiiy oe??? oa?eoi??? oaeiae a?ae/oei iaaiee
?einueeee aieea.

III—V noie?ooy. Aa?aa?e

O 271 ?ioe? i?ae oeneii aa?aa??a ?eieyie aeiooai? iieeiooe non?aeith
Aeae?th ? a?aenooieoe ia i?aaee aa?aa Aeoiath. *anoeia ?iiai?ciaaiiai
ianaeaiiy aoea aaaeoeiaaia, /anoeia caeeoeeany a i?noao ? naeao, a
iniiaiiio a ia?aaea??ieo iaeanoyo. Caiaeii aiii noaei iaeiei c aeaiaio?a
aoiino aieio?a, i?aaee?a no?aeii-?iiainueeeo ia?iae?a, ye? i?ci?oa
canaeeee oa?eoi??th Iieaeaa??.

O oiae? «aaeeeiai ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a» o Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueea
iaaee??//y i?iieeaee ??ci? aa?aa?nuee? ieaiaia: aaiaaee, aa?oee, aioe,
aai?aee, na?iaoe ? ?io?.

O III—IV no. ia oa?eoi??? Iieaeaa?? aoea ?icaeiaia /a?iyo?anueea
eoeueoo?a (iinaeaiiy iiaeeco n?e Aoaeaooe, Niaa?), iin?yie yei? aoee
o?ae?eoe?, na?iaoe, aaiaaee, aioe ? ?i.

A e?ioe? IV noie?ooy aoie, ui nionoioeee oe? caie?, ?icn?yee ? cieueee
ieaiaia /a?iyo?anueei? eoeueoo?e, caeeoee yeeo i?ci?oa anei?ethaaee
neia’yiaie.

V—XI noie?ooy. Neia’yie

A e?ioe? V — ii/aoeo VI noie?oue ii/aeiny oe?iea i?iieeiaiiy neia’yi o
Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonuee? caie?. Aeieeie Aei?no?a, Eiceie ? Ne?aoa aoee
c?o/ieie oeyoaie a i?inoaaii? neia’yi aei Aeoiath ? ia Aaeeainueeee
i?aino??a. In?aeath/e ia caieyo i?ae Aei?no?ii ? Ea?iaoaie, neia’yie
cono??ee ooo caeeoee eieeoiueiai ianaeaiiy ? anei?ethaaee eiai. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ea?ai?ea /a?iyo?anueeiai oeio, ui cono??/a?oueny ia
oa?eoi??? ?aiiueineia’yinueeeo iinaeaiue.

Neia’yie, ui canaeyee Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonuee? caie? aoiaeeee aei
neeaaeo aeaio aaeeeeo ieai?iieo nithc?a — aionueeiai ? neeaaeinueeiai.
Ca na?ae/aiiyi aionueeiai ?noi?eea Ei?aeaia, iaaea i?ae ieie a iniiaiiio
i?ioiaeeea ii Aei?no?o, i?ioa ia i?aaei? iaae? aionueeiai nithco
oyaioeeny aae aei Ieaeiueiai Iiaeoiaa’y. Ienueiia? aeaea?aea caaaeothoue
ia i?ai?/iiio iiaa?aaeae? Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath oaeeo aiaeae?a ye
A?aeaaano, I??iaano, Ionie?e. Iaeiei c e?aei?o i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo
aionueeeo ieaiai aoee oeaa?oe?, ye?, ye oeaco? iaaeaoiaaia /anoeia
«Iiaanoe a?aiaiieo eao», caeiaee caie? ii aa?aaao Aei?no?a aei Aeoiath ?
*i?iiai ii?y. Caeeoee oe??ieaiiai iinaeaiiy oeaa?oe?a IX—XI noie?oue
ciaeaeai? o n. Ae?iaooee (Ae?iaooeueea ai?iaeeua).

Anueiai ia oa?eoi??? Iieaeaa?? a?aee?eoi a?eueoa 30 neia’yinueeeo
iinaeaiue VI—VII noie?oue (Oo/a, Aainuee (Oainueea)) ? aeecueei 200
iinaeaiue VIII—IX noie?oue (A?aiaooe, Eiiaoia, Iaeay, Ae/aaea?).

O X noie?oo? neia’yinuee? ieaiaia, ui iaoeaee a
Aei?no?ianueei-I?oonueeiio iaaee??//?, ciaoiaeeeeny o noa?? aieeao, a
/anii ? aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Ae?aaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae. I?aaeaiio
/anoeio Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonueeeo caiaeue canaeyee ieaiaia
aaeeaii-aeoiaenei? eoeueoo?e, iin?yie yei? a iniiaiiio aoee i?aaeaii?
neia’yie, ui i?iieeee ia oa?eoi??th Iieaeaa?? a ia??iae
?iciianthaeaeaiiy aieeao Aieaa?nueeiai oea?noaa ia i?ai?/ a?ae Aeoiath
(IX—XI noie?ooy).

XI—XIII noie?ooy. Ei/?aieee

Ia/ai?ae, ui c’yaeeeny a X noie?oo? a noaiao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y,
i?ioyaii noi??//y iino?eii caa?iaeoaaee in?eiio ianaeaiith a?ae Aei?i?a
aei Aeoiath. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XI—XII no. o Aeoiaenueei-aei?no?ianuee?
caie? ia?aei/oaaee iieiaoe? (eoiaie).

A ?acoeueoao? aoi?aiaiiy ei/?aiee?a e?euee?noue neia’yinueeeo iinaeaiue
Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonueeeo caiaeue cia/ii ciaioeeany. O i?ai?/i?e
e?ninoaiia?e iaeano? i?ae Ea?iaoaie ? Aei?no?ii a XII—XIII no.
i?iaeeaaee caeeoee neia’yinueeiai ianaeaiiy ? i?iieeath/? nthaee c
i?aaea?? Ea?iao aieioe. O XII—XIII no. o i?ai?/i?e /anoei?
Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonueeeo caiaeue, a ?iiae? ? o anueiio e?ath
?iciianthaeaeoaaeany aeaaea Aaeeoeueeiai eiyc?anoaa.

Ocaeiaae Aei?no?a, aeeae/a aei Aaeeoeueeeo caiaeue, iaoeaee «aeaiioe?» —
neia’yie, ui a?aee a?ae ai?oo aiy? c aieiae?iue aaeeoeueeeo e
aieeinueeeo eiyc?a. O XI—XIII no. o iecia’yo Aeoiath ?nioaaea aea?aeaaia
ooai?aiiy Aa?eaaenueea caiey, c oeaio?ii a i?no? Aa?eaae (no/aniee
Ae?eaae o ?oioi??), ianaeaiiy yeiai (aa?eaaeieee) oaeiae neeaaeaeiny c
??ciiieai?iieo oo?ea/?a a?ae oaiaeaeueiiai ai?oo c ?in?enueeeo
eiyc?anoa.

Ii non?aenoao c aaeeoeueeeie «aeaiioeyie» ?icoaoiaoaaeeny a?iaeieee
(caiey a?iaeiee?a), a?aeiiino? i?i yeeo iaaecae/aeii i?ca?i?.

*anoeia iieiaoe?a in?ea a ?aeii? ??/ee Ieee?a; ooo a XIII noie?oo?
?nioaaea Eoiainueea ?ieneii?y, o iaaeao yei? i?iaeeaaee ? aieioe.

XIII—XIV noie?ooy. Cieioa I?aea

Iiiaiei-oaoa?e, ?ica?iieaoe a 1237—40 ?in?enuee? eiyc?anoaa, ?ooeee ia
cao?ae, i?aeei?thth/e Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonuee? caie?, cieuoth/e e?oii?
oeaio?e ? iinaeaiiy. Ienueiia? aeaea?aea a?aecia/athoue, ui oaoa?e
?ici?eee Eoiainueeo ?ieneii?th ? caoiieee caieth a?iaeiee?a. I?ioyaii
ae?oai? iieiaeie XIII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XIV no. /anoeia iiiaiei-oaoa?
in?ea ia ??aieiao iiaeeco ae?ea Aeoiath, aeeth/eaoe i?aaeaiii-no?aeio
/anoeio Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonueeeo caiaeue a neeaae Cieioi? I?aee.
?aooa oa?eoi???, cie?aia ?aeii?a ea?iaonueeeo i?aaea??, aaciina?aaeiuei
ia aoiaeeea o aieiae?iiy iiiaiei-oaoa?, aea eiia??ii ciaoiaeeeany a?ae
ieo a iaai?e caeaaeiino?.

Aeaaea Cieioi? I?aee eieii?coaaea caoiieaio oa?eoi??th ??ciiaoi?/iei
in?eei ianaeaiiyi, aiane?aeie /iai aeieeea neie?aoe/ia cieioii?aeeinueea
eoeueoo?a. A oeae /an c’yaeeeny i?noa, a?aeii? ii ?iceiieao iiaeeco n?e
Einoaooe (sseiaainueeee ?aeii) ? O?aaoaeaie (Noa?ue I?oae), a cae?oo?
??/ee ?aoo, a 18 ei ia i?aaeaiiee no?ae a?ae no/aniiai I?aa?aa. Ia
i?aaeaiiiio noiae? e?ath i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?nioaaoe aeaa noa?iaeii? oi?aia?
i?noa — A?eai?iae (Iiieano?i) ? E?e?y (E?einoiii), a yeeo ia?aaaaeaa
aaioacueeee oi?aiaee eai?oae.

I?ioyaii XII—XIV noie?oue, a ?acoeueoao? ia?anaeaiiy a
Aei?no?ianueei-ea?iaonuee? caie?, aieioe iinooiiai noathoue ooo iniiaiei
ianaeaiiyi. Iaea?eueo ?aii? a?aeiiino? i?i aieioao ia i?aii/? a?ae
Aeoiath i?noyoueny a noa?i?onueeiio e?oiien? «Iia?noue a?aiaiieo e?o», a
yeiio aeaco?oueny, ui a 898 ?ioe? aieioe ?acii ?c neia’yiaie aeeee
aeanue a Ea?iaoao ? ia cao?ae a?ae ieo. Ia?oa caaaeea i?i aieio?a, ye?
i?iaeeaaee iiaeeco ei?aeii?a Aaeeoeueei? ?on?, cono??/a?oueny a oai??
a?caio?enueeiai ?noi?eea Ieeeoe Oii?aoa (1164). Iaeaono?oa canaeaieie a
XIV noie?oo? aoee ?aeiie No?aeiiai I?eea?iaooy. Aiie noaee oeaio?ii
oi?ioaaiiy Iieaeaanueei? aea?aeaae. (Canaeaiiy aieioaie E?aiaa?aaeaey
Aei?no?a i?ioiaeeei i?ci?oa — a XVI—XVIII noie?ooyo.)

XIV—XIX noie?ooy. Iieaeaanueea eiyc?anoai

O XIV noie?oo? Cieioa I?aea i?eeoea a caiaiaae. Caie? ia cao?ae a?ae
Eiceie, ?icoaoiaai? ia ieieeoe? aieiae?iue I?aee, ?ai?oa ?ioeo
iicaaaeeeny iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai y?ia. O na?aaeei? 1340-o ?ie?a oai?oe?
?ica?iieee cieioii?aeeinueea a?enueei. Caie? a aanaei? ??/ee Iieaeiaa
(cao?aeia /anoeia iaeaooiuei? Iieaeaanueei? aea?aeaae) iieieeeny i?ae
aeaaeith oai?nueeeo ei?ie?a. Ia oe?e oa?eoi??? ooai?eeiny Iieaeaanueea
eiyc?anoai — ia?aeiii ye aanaeueia eiyc?anoai Oai?nueeiai ei?ie?anoaa.

Ia?oei iai?nieeii Iieaeiae (aeecueei 1351—1353) aoa Ae?aaio, aieinueeee
ai?aiaea c Ia?aio?aoa, c ?i’yi yeiai o?aaeeoe?y iia’yco? aeieeiaiiy
Iieaeaanueei? aea?aeaae. I?ney Ae?aaioa Iieaeiaith oi?aaeyee eiai neie —
Nan (1354—1358) ? Aaee (1359).

O 1359 ?ioe?, a ?acoeueoao? iianoaiiy i?ioe oai?nueeiai iaioaaiiy,
eiyc?anoai aeiaeeiny iacaeaaeiino?. Ia?oei i?aaeoaeai naiino?eiiai
Iieaeaanueeiai eiyc?anoaa noaa Aiaaeai I (1359—1365), yeee aei oeueiai,
oae naii ye ? Ae?aaio, aoa ai?aiaeith a Ia?aio?aoa ? aanaeii oai?nueeiai
ei?iey.

Iacaaa?ii i?ney oeueiai o oaoa? aoei a?aeaieiaaia iaaee??//y Eiceie ?
Aei?no?a. Eiai noieeoeath noathoue nii/aoeo Aaey, iio?i No/aaa, a
caiaeii ssnne. Aei 1400 ?ieo aei neeaaeo eiyc?anoaa aoea aeeth/aia
oi?oaoey A?eai?iae (no/aniee A?eai?iae-Aei?no?ianueeee). No?aeiith
iaaeath eiyc?anoaa aoea ??/ea Aei?noa?. Cao?aeia iaaea i?ioiaeeea ii
aa?oeiao Ea?iaonueeeo a??, i?aaeaiia — ii *i?iiio ii?th, ??/eai Aeoiae,
Ne?ao ? I?eeia. Ia i?aii/? i?e?iaeii? iaae? ia aoei, Iieoooy o?eaaeee
/an aoei ni??iith iaeanoth /a?ac yeo i?ae Iieaeaa??th ? Iieueuath aaeeny
a?eie.

O 1456 Iieaeaanueea eiyc?anoai iio?aiey? o aanaeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae
Oo?a//eie.

O 1774 ca Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeae?enueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii Iieaeaa?y
iio?aiey? i?ae i?ioaeoi?ao ?in??.

Ca oiia Aooa?anonueeiai ie?o, oeeaaeaiiai a 1812, /anoeia oe???
oa?eoi??? — i?ae I?ooii ? Aei?no?ii — a?ae?eoea aei ?in??, aea ??
iaceaaee Aanna?aa?y.

1812—1917. Aanna?aa?y o neeaae? ?in?enueei? ?iia???

?in?enueei-oo?aoeuee? a?eie ni?eyee ca?eueiaiith Aanna?aa?? a?ae
iniainueeiai iaioaaiiy. Ca Aooa?anonueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii o 1812 ?ioe?
aiia aoea i?e?aeiaia aei ?in??. Oea aoea iaea?eueo nionoioaia /anoeia
Iieaeaa??, ?aeeia oa?eoi??y, ui caeeoeeany a?ae na?aaeiueia?/iiai
iieaeaanueeiai eiyc?anoaa. Caeiath/e aei 50  % ?? oa?eoi???, Aanna?aa?y
iaea eeoa aeecueei 25  % ianaeaiiy. Aei 1812 ?ieo i?aaeaiue Aanna?aa??,
ui ?ai?oa ciaoiaeeany i?ae aaciina?aaeiueith aeaaeith oo?aoeueeeo iaoae
? oaoa?nueeeo oai?a, aoa ianaeaiee iniaeeai ??aeei. Nthaee ia?anaeeeeny
aieaa?e ? aaaaoce, ui a?aee a?ae oo?aoeueeeo ?ici?aa, i?ioe?-eieii?noe,
oe?a?ioe?, ?in?yie, a oaeiae iieaeaanuee? ia?anaeaioe? c-ca I?ooo ? c
oeaio?o Aanna?aa??.

O 1829 ?ioe? ca Aae??aiiiieueneei ie?ii Oo?a//eia onooieea ?in?? ?
aeaeueoo Aeoiath, yea oaeiae aa?eoea aei neeaaeo Aanna?aa??. O 1856 ?ieo
ca Ia?ecueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii ?in?y onooieea Oo?a//ei? aeaeueoo
Aeoiath, yea aoea i?e?aeiaia aei Aeia?oaeae?, aaciina?aaeiueiai
aieiae?iiy Oo?a//eie, ? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeio /anoeio Aanna?aa??, i?ci?oa
?cia?euenueeee iia?o, yea aa?eoea aei neeaaeo eiyc?anoaa Iieaeaa?? ?
iiaa?iaia ?in?? ca Aa?e?inueeei o?aeoaoii a 1878 ?ioe?.

I?ney i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? aei ?in?? o?yae ii/aa iaeaaooiaoaaoe ciia
i?e?aeiai? iaeano? ca c?aceii aioo??oi?o aoaa?i?e, iane?eueee oa
aeicaieyee i?noeaa? oiiae, ? 29 ea?oiy 1818 ?ieo aoei aeaeaii noaooo
ooai?aiiy Aanna?aanueei? iaeano?, ? oiae? ae anoaiiaeai? i?enooi? i?noey
ii an?o /anoeiao oi?aae?iiy. Iaeaaaeeea?oith iniaeea?noth ono?ith
Aanna?aanueei? iaeano? aoea onoaiiaa aanna?aanueeiai Aa?oiaii? ?aaee,
anoaiiaeaiiy aeuiai ii??aiyii ?c cae/aeieie aoaa?inueeeie i?noeyie ? a
aaaaoueio i?noeyo cai?ithth/iai aieiaia oi?aae?iiy. Aieiaith a oe?e
?aae?, ui iineea aaei?i?no?aoeaii-noaeiaee oa?aeoa? aoa iiaiiaaaeiee
iai?niee Aanna?aanueei? iaeano?, caaiiy yeiai aoei iio?i niieo/aii ?c
caaiiyi iiai?in?enueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, ui i?iaeeaaa a Iaean?.
Aieiaiei iaee//yi aoaa?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy aoa oeea?eueiee aoaa?iaoi?;
o?yaeiaa ? eacaiia /anoeia cina?aaeaeoaaeany a iaeaniiio o?yae?. Noaooo
1818 ?ieo aoa cai?iaiee «Onoaiiaith aeey oi?aae?iiy Aanna?aanueei?
iaeano?» 29 ethoiai 1828 ?ieo, ca yeei oi?aae?iiy iaeano? a?eueo
i?aeoiaeeoue i?ae caaaeueia aoaa?inueea oi?aae?iiy, i?ae eieeoi?,
aieiaia ? aoaa?inueea ia/aeuenoai i?aeeaae? oei aea oeaio?aeueiei
i?aaiai, ye ? o aioo??oi?o aoaa?i?yo, iaeia o?eueee iaeania ?aaea, ui
cai?ieea eieeoith Aa?oiaio ?aaeo, neeaaea? iniaeea?noue oe??? iaeano?.

O 1854 ?ieo ia Aanna?aanueeo iaeanoue aoea iioe?aia caaaeueia onoaiiaa
aoaa?inueeeo oi?aae?iue, a a 1873 ?ieo iaeanoue ia?aeiaiiaaia a
aoaa?i?th.

O 1861-75 ??. a Aanna?aa?? aoea cae?eniaia naeyinueea ?aoi?ia. Aeey
oea?ai, ye? neeaaeaee 58,6  % anueiai ianaeaiiy, ?aoi?ia i?iaaaeaia a
1868 ?ioe?. O 1869-72 ??. a?aeaoeiny a?eueoa 80 naeyinueeeo caai?ooaiue,
aeey i?eaeooaiiy 41 c ieo iineeaeeny a?enueea.

O na?aaeei? 1870-o ??. a Aanna?aa?? aeieeee ia?o? ia?iaeieoeuee? ao?oee,
ieie ea?oaaee I. Eiae?yio, O. Aeai?o, Ae. O?oica.

1918. Iieaeaanueea aeaiie?aoe/ia ?anioae?ea

I?ney ia?aiiae Aaeeei? AEiaoiaai? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? o
Iao?ia?aae? ii an?e Aanna?aa?? aeoea?coaaeany ae?yeuei?noue ?aae, a yeeo
cia/ia i?noea caeiaee a?eueoiaeee. ?aciethoe?y i?i aeciaiiy ?aaeaeaaee
aoea i?eeiyoa nii/aoeo a Aaiaea?ao ia noi?niiio can?aeaii? ia?o?e ana??a
? nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a c i?ioni?eeaie i?noa, ui i?ieoei 28 aeiaoiy 1917
?ieo. Eeoei?anueea ?aaea aeciaea ?aaeaeaaeo 22 eenoiiaaea. O Oe?aniie?
aoee c?iaeai? ni?iae ia?aoai?aiiy ?aae a i?aai aeaaee. Neooaoe?y, ui
neeaeany, a oaeiae aaceaaee a nae? ? eo?n Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ia
iacaeaaei?noue i?eioneee Noaooe Oea??e (?aaeo E?ath) 2 a?oaeiy 1917 ?ieo
i?eeiyoe aeaeea?aoe?th, ui i?iaieiooaaea ooai?aiiy Iieaeaanueei?
Aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee:

«…Iath/e ia oaac? anoaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo ? ci?oeiaiiy
i?aa, caaieiaaieo ?aaiethoe??th, Aanna?aa?y, nie?ath/enue ia nai?
?noi?e/ia ieioea, i?iaieioo? naaa a?aeiei? Iieaeaanueeith
Aeaiie?aoe/iith ?anioae?eith, yea aa?eaea aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? oaaea?aeueii? ?anioae?ee /eaiii c oeie ae i?aaaie…»

O Noaooe Oea??e eoee aeaaaoe c i?eaiaeo iacae ?anioae?ee. Iaeiei c
aa??aio?a aoea «Aanna?aanueea ?anioae?ea». Aea ia?aiiaea oi/ea ci?o I.
A?oaia, yeee iaiieyaaa ui «iacao ?anioae?oe? iio??aii aeaoe ia ?i’y oiai
ia?iaeo, yeee ia?aaaaea? /enaeueii a Aanna?aa??».

7 a?oaeiy 1917 ?iee aoea i?aai?ciaaia ?aaea Aaia?aeueieo Aee?aeoi??a
(o?yae), ui neeaaeaeany c aeaa’yoe aaia?aeueieo aee?aeoi??a (i?i?no??a)
ia /ie? c I. A?oaiii, yeee iaeii/anii aoa ? i?i?no?ii n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Aoee i?ecia/ai? eii?na?e a iia?oao, ?iaeeeny ni?iae
noai?aiiy a?i??, noai?thaaeeny eii?oaoe c ae?iaeaiiy caeii?a. I?ioa
Noaooe Oea??e ia iaa a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? i? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, i?
o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aeey i?aeo?eiee a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo a
?anioae?oe?.

Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i ooai?aiiy IAe? ia?aaeaa/aea caoeno aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aa
? naiaiae, ia?aaea/o caie? naeyiai aac aeeoio, ainueieaiaeeiiee ?iai/ee
aeaiue, eiio?ieue iaae oa?/aie, ca?eueoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoi?, ooai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??, ??ai? i?aaa aeey an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ? o.i. Ii
noo? oey aeaeea?aoe?y iiaoi?thaaea aeaeea?aoe?th i?i noai?aiiy naiiai
Noaooe Oea??e.

Aeaiooaoe Noaooe Oea??e i?i?ioi?ioaaee io?oe?eiith oaeaa?aiith o?yae a
Iaoa?ao?c?. Iiaa ?anioae?ea aoea aeciaia Iaoa?ao?cueeith ?aaeith ?
?aaeith Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??a. Eeoei?anueea ?aaea ana??a ?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a aa?aiooaaea i?aeo?eieo o aaaaeaii? a ae?th aeae?ao?a
i?i ie?, caieth ? ?iai/ee eiio?ieue.

Oei /anii c??n aieea ?aae: noai?thaaeeny caaiie *a?aiii? Aaa?ae??, c
a’ycieoeue ca?eueiyeeny iie?oe/i? oa’yciai?, cae?enithaaany eiio?ieue
iaae oe?iaie ? aeeo/aeeny oiaa?e o niaeoeyio?a; Neooaoe?th a nae?
eiio?iethaaee naeyinuee? eii?oaoe, ye? ia aeiioneaee i?aaenoaaiee?a
?aaee Aaia?aeueieo Aee?aeoi??a ? cae?enithaaee caoiieaiiy iii?ueoeueeeo
caiaeue; iniaeeai oneeaaeithaaea ianoaiiaeo i?enooi?noue caeeoe?a
?in?enueei? a?i??, ui ia oie /an aaniethoii ?iciaeany. Nieaeaoe
iieaeaanueeeo /anoei a?aeiiaeyeeny a?aoe o/anoue a i?eaeooaii? aa?a?iiai
?ooo.

O oeeo oiiaao e?aea?e Noaooe Oea??e ii/aee aanoe ia?aaiai?e c
?oioinueeei o?yaeii i?i aaaaeaiiy a?enuee aei Iieaeaa??. A?aeiiino? i?i
oe? ia?aaiai?e i?ini/eeeny, ui aeeeeeaei ianiaee i?ioano ianaeaiiy. Ia
/aeath/e caaa?oaiiy ia?aaiai??a 7 a?oaeiy 1917 ?ieo i?ae i?eaiaeii
caeoi?ae? i?iaeiaieuenoaa aeaa iieee ?oioinueei? a?i?? ia?aoioee I?oo,
caeiyee Eaiai ? aeae?eueea i?eei?aeiiieo n?e. A?eueoiaeee Eeoei?anueeiai
aa?i?ciio ciiaee a/eieoe ii?? ?oioinueeei a?enueeai, a ?aaiethoe?eii
iaeaooiaai? nieaeaoe ocyee i?ae eiio?ieue i?eei?aeiiio noaioe?th Oiaaie.

20 a?oaeiy o Eeoeiaa? ? ?ioeo i?noao aoee iioe?ai? i?ieeaiaoe??, ui
aee?eaaee ae?yeuei?noue Noaooe Oea??e ? caeioaa/oaaee eiai o i?iaeaae?
Aanna?aa?? ?oioi??. O?yae IAe? a?aeeeaeaa oe? caeioaa/aiiy. 21 a?oaeiy o
«Aanna?aanueeiio aeeoo?» aoea iioae?eiaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui «naea
Iiaaiaoo, Na?aoa ?acaoo ? Aieiaoo ioi/ai? ?oioinueeeie a?i?yie, ye?
no??eythoue ii ianaeaiith». ?aciethoe??, ui ae?aaeaee i?ioano i?ioe
aaaaeaiiy ?oioinueeeo a?enuee, iioae?eoaaee aaaaoi noni?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?e, aeeth/ath/e naeyinuee? c’?caee Oioeinueeiai ? A?euenueeiai
iia?o?a, ae?oaee c’?cae ?oi/a?iaea ? ?io?.

28 a?oaeiy 1917 ?ieo ia can?aeaii? Noaooe Oea??e a Naeyinuee?e o?aeoe??
I. A?oai iinoaaea ia aieinoaaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy
?oioinueeeo a?enuee «aeey ai?ioueae c aia?o??th, ioi?iie i?iaeiaieue/eo
neeaae?a, cae?cieoeue ? aeniiaeo ?iicaiii? iiceee». Oey i?iiiceoe?y aoea
i?eeiyoa a?eueo?noth aiein?a (38). A?enueeiaee i?i?no? IAe? A. Ieioy
cayaea:

«…iieaeaanueea ianaeaiiy, ? iniaeeai nieaeaoe-iieaeaaaie, aoee
?icai?aai? oei, ui i?eeaeooue ?oioie, uia a?ae?a?aoe o ieo caieth,
caeiaooo a ?acoeueoao? ?aaiethoe??, ? naiaiaee, caaieiaai? i?ney
noie?ooy no?aaeaeaiue.»

Oiai ae aeiy a Eeoeiaa? ii/aa ?iaioo o?iioa?aeae?e ?oi/a?iaea,
ae?yeuei?noue yeiai aoea iai?aaeaia ia i?aeaioiaeo a?aen?/?
i?aeaioiaethaaiiio aoi?aiaiith a Aanna?aa?th.

O ia?oeo /eneao n?/iy ?oioinuee? a?enueea ia?aeoee iieaeaanueeee ei?aeii
? caeiyee i?noa Aiea?aae, Eaaoe, Eaiai, Oiaaie ? aeae?eueea n?e. 6 n?/iy
1918 ?ieo aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa aoaeoaaoe Eeoei?a c aieo ?icae?eueii?
caaiiii o?ain?eueaaioe?a. I?ioe ieo aenooieee /anoeie o?iioa?aeae?eo
?oi/a?iaea ? iieaeaanuee? caaiie, ye? aoee a?aei?aaeai? ia i?aeo?eieo
?oioinueeei a?enueeai ?aaeith Aaia?aeueieo Aee?aeoi??a, aea ia?aeoee ia
noi?iio a?eueoiaee?a. Aiie ?icca?i?ee o?ain?eueaaioe?a ? a?aei?aaeee a
Iaeano.

8 n?/iy ?oioinuee? a?enueea ii/aee ianooi ia i?ai?/i? ? i?aaeaii? ?aeiie
Iieaeaanueei? Aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee. O a?aeiia?aeue ia oea
A?eueoeueea ?aaea iia?oo naeyinueeeo aeaiooao?a noai?eea ?aaiethoe?eiee
ooaa ii ioi?ii? Aanna?aa?? ? /a?aiiiaaa?ae?enueeee caa?i. Oaeiae aoa
noai?aiee ?aaiethoe?eiee Eii?oao ii?yooieo Iieaeaanueei? ?anioae?ee, ui
neeaaeaany c i?aaenoaaiee?a ?aae Eeoeiaaa, Aaiaea?, Oe?aniiey ?
Iieaeaanueeiai nieaeaonueeiai eii?oaoo i?aino?iaa E?ei. Aea neee aoee
ia??ai? ? i?ney aeae?eueeio aei?a e?iaii?ieeoieo ai?a ?aaiethoe?eiee
ooaa iieeioa Eeoei?a ? 13 n?/iy eiai caeiyee ?oioinuee? a?enueea. 15
n?/iy Noaooe Oea??e ca ?i?oe?aoeaith ?. ?ieoeaoea i?ia?a o?i/enoa
can?aeaiiy ia /anoue i?eeiio ?oioinueeiai aaia?aea A. A?iooyio. O nai?o
cayaao Noaooe Oea??e ia?aeiioaaa ianaeaiiy, ui ?oioinuee? a?enueea
i?eeoee eeoa aeey ai?ioueae c aia?o??th ? ioi?iie cae?cieoeue ?
neeaae?a.

A oeae /an i?ai?/ Iieaeaanueei? Aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee aae aei
?aeeiaoeue ? Aeiiaethoai aoa caeiyoee aano?i-oai?nueeeie a?enueeaie, a
/ioe?e ?oioinuee? aeea?c??, ui caeiyee ?aooo /anoeie Iieaeaa??,
iaaeaaaee ei?eaei? aeey ia?aaeeneieaoe?? i?iaoeueeeo a?enuee aei Iaeane.

O Eeoeiaa? ae ii/aa ?iaioo Aoaa?inueeee naeyinueeee c’?cae, i?ioa a?i
aoa ?ic?aiaiee, a /eaie i?aceae?? — iieaeaaaie A. ?oaeue?a, Eioi?in,
I?aoieoeueeee, ?. Iaioee?ue ? oe?a?iaoeue I. *oia/aiei — aoee
iaaeioaa/ai? a aioe?oiei?ci? ? ?icno??eyi? ca iaeacii eiiaiaeaioa
Eeoeiaao Iia?ea.

22 n?/iy 1918 ?ieo i?i?no? I. A?oai ?ioi?ioaaa Noaooe Oea??e, ui
Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea i?iaieineea iacaeaaei?noue. Ia
can?aeaii? a i?/ c 23 ia 24 n?/iy a oiiaao aeeneieaoe?? ia oa?eoi???
?anioae?ee ?oioinueeeo a?enuee Noaooe Oea??e i?iaieinea iacaeaaei?noue.
O aeaeea?aoe?? i?i iacaeaaei?noue i?iaieiooaaeeny aeaiie?aoe/i? i?aaa ?
naiaiaee, ??ai?noue ia?iae?a, ia?aaea/a caie? naeyiai ? o.i.

Oei /anii ianaeaiiy Iieaeaa?? i?iaeiaaeoaaei aeoeaiee ii?? ?oioinueeei
a?enueeai. Iniaeeai caiaee? ai? eoee i?ae Aaiaea?aie, a ?cia?e?, E?e??,
Aea?iai?, Aeeeiai ? ia i?aii/? Aanna?aa??.

Iai?iiith Aaiaea? ea?oaaa aaiaea?nueeee ooaa, i/iethaaiee A. Ai?eniaei
(Noa?ei), noi?nii c o?iioa?aeae?eii ?oi/a?iaea. Ia?oa ni?iaa ocyoe
Aaiaea?e aoea c?iaeaia 29 n?/iy, aea nieaeaoe 5-ai ? 6-ai Caaio?nueeeo
iiee?a, ?iai/? caaiie ? iiie/aioe? a?aenoiyee i?noi. 2 n?/iy ?oioiai
aaeaeiny oa?eoe aei i?noa, aea ?o aoei aeaiaii c i?noa. 7 ethoiai i?noi
ana-oaee aoei ocyoa. ?oioinuee? a?enueea c?aiaee a?ey aoae?ae?
ia?iaiciiai aeaii aeecueei o?ueio oeny/ /ieia?e, aae?ee ciyoe aa?oi?e
iaeya ? oe?eee aeaiue i?io?eiaee ia ii?ic?. Aeecueei i’yoenio caoeniee?a
i?noa aooe ?icno??eyii a?ey caai?o, yeee ia?iae caiaeii iacaaa «*i?iei».

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? ethoiai ?aaeyinuee? a?enueea ?icaeee ?oioinuee?
/anoeie ia e?i?? ?aceia—Oieaeaiaooe ? caaaeaee oaea?o a ?aeii? Eeoeeai.
?oioinueeee o?yae aoa aeiooaiee i?oe ia ia?aaiai?e c ?aaeaeaaeith.
Noi?niee i?ioieie i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th ?aaeyinueei-?oioinueeiai eiioe?eoo
aoa i?aeienaiee 5 aa?aciy ?oioinueeith ? 9 aa?aciy ?aaeyinueeith
noi?iiith.

C ?aaeyinueei? noi?iie oaiaeo i?aeienaee O. ?aeianueeee, I. A?aoaaai, A.
THaeianueeee ? I. Io?aoie, a c ?oioinueei? — i?i?no? caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
? aieiaa ?aaee i?i?no??a A. Aaa?aneo. I?ioa oe?e oaiae? ia noaeeeiny
iaaooe /eiiino?. A ?acoeueoao? ai?a c eiio??aaiethoe?eieie neeaie
*a?aiii? A?i?? aeiaaeiny a?aeaeaeeoeny a?ae Aei?no?a, a ?oioi?y ia
aeeiiaea nai?o ciaia’ycaiue ? ocyea eo?n ia i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa??,
nie?ath/enue ia i?aeo?eieo e?oiieo caieaaeaniee?a ? iie?oee?a c Noaooe
Oea??e.

O aa?aci? 1918 ?ieo aoa iioae?eiaaiee i?iaeo eiinoeoooe?? IAe?,
?ic?iaeaiee a?oiith iieaeaanueeeo th?eno?a. A?i ia?aaeaa/aa cie?aia, ui
«Iieaeaanueea ?anioae?ea neeaaea? iacaeaaeio ? iaiiae?eueio aea?aeaao,
/ey oa?eoi??y ia iiaea aooe a?ae/oaeaia».

Ea??aieee Noaooe Oea??e ?. ?ieoeaoe ? Ae. *oao?yio c?iaeee aeae?eueea
ii?caeie a ssnne c iaoith eiinoeueoaoe?? c ieoaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy
Aanna?aa?? c ?oioi??th c ?oioinueeei o?yaeii, ui ciaoiaeeany a oeueiio
i?no?, ine?eueee Aooa?ano aoa ieoiiaaiee i?iaoeueeeie a?enueeaie. A
?acoeueoao? ia?aaiai??a aoa ?ic?iaeaiee ieai, ca?aeii yeiai ieoaiiy i?i
i?e?aeiaiiy iiaeiia ?ica’ycoaaoeny Noaooe Oea???i, a ia ?aoa?aiaeoiii, ?
i?ney i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?y caa?aaea noaoon i?ia?ioe?eii? aaoiiii??,
Noaooe Oea??e caeeoeoueny iaeaeuei i?aaiii aeaaee ? iae?aoeiaoueny
anaia?iaeiei aieinoaaiiyi.

27 aa?aciy 1918 ?ieo a?aeaoeiny ?noi?e/ia can?aeaiiy Noaooe Oea??th. Ia
iueiio aoei iinoaaeaia ieoaiiy i?i ia’?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? c ?oioi??th.
I?aaenoaaieee i?iaoeueei?, aieaa?nueei? ? aaaaocueei? iaioei cayaeee, ui
a oeueiio ieoaii? oo?eiothoueny a?ae aieinoaaiiy. I?aaenoaaiee
naeyinueei? o?aeoe?? A. Oeeaaiei ? i?aaenoaaiee ?in?enueei? eoeueoo?ii?
e?ae A. A?aeoeia cayaeee, ui ieoaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy iiaeia ae??oeoe o?eueee
oeyoii anaia?iaeiiai ?aoa?aiaeoio. I?ioa aei ?o a?aoiaio?a ia
i?eneooaeeny, ? aoei i?iaaaeaia a?aee?eoa ii?iaiia aieinoaaiiy. Ca
i?e?aeiaiiy i?iaieinoaaei 86 aeaiooao?a, i?ioe — 3, no?eiaeeny — 36,
a?aenooi? ia can?aeaii? — 13.

O ?aa?ii? ii/aeeny iania? no?aeee ? iianoaiiy. O ea?oi? aanooaaee
eeoei?anuee? cae?cie/ieee, a o?aai?-/a?ai? cae?cie/ieee an???
Aanna?aa??. O Aaiaea?ao, Oiaaiao ? Ieieoe? aoee i?aeiaeai? ? aenaaeaeai?
a?oeea??enuee? neeaaee ?ioa?aaio?a. O Eaiaioe? ? a aaaaoueio naeao iaee
i?noea naeyinuee? caai?ooaiiy. Ia e?aiio aa?ac? Aei?no?a aeoea?coaaany
ia?oecainueeee ?oo.

O eenoiiaae? ii/aeany i?aeaioiaea aei ie?ii? eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae?, ia
ye?e ?oioi?y iaea iai?? aeiaeoeny i?aeia?iaeiiai aeciaiiy ia’?aeiaiiy.
?oioinueeee o?yae i?aai?coaaa neeeeaiiy Noaooe Oea??th c iaoith
ooaaeaiiy ??oaiiy i?i aaccanoa?aaeia ia’?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? c ?oioi??th
aac yeeo ae oi ia aoei oiia i?i aaoiiii?th. Ia?aae a?aee?eooyi Noaooe
Oea??th aaia?aeueiee eii?na? Aanna?aa?? aaia?ae Aieoyio cai?inea
aeaiooao?a ? ia?aeiioaaa ?o a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae aaoiiii??.

Ia can?aeaii? 25—26 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?ieo ca a?aenooiino? eai?oio 36-o
aieinaie aoei ooaaeaii ??oaiiy i?i aacoiiaia i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? aei
?oioi??, ui e?ea?aeoaaei an? oiiae aeoo a?ae 27 aa?aciy 1918 ?ieo.
Iacaaa?ii i?ney ooaaeaiiy oeueiai ??oaiiy Noaooe Oea??e i?eieiea nai?
?nioaaiiy. Cia/ia /anoeia aeaiooao?a aeneiaeea i?ioano ?c oeueiai
i?eaiaeo ? iaa?oue iai?aaeea iaii?aiaeoi ?oioinueeiio o?yaeo c aeiiaaie
a?aeiiaeoe aaoiiii?th ca?aeii aeoo a?ae 27 aa?aciy, aea ?o i?aoaic?? ia
aoee acyo? aei oaaae.

Ianooii? 22 ?iee Aanna?aa?y aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo ?oioi??.

1918 – 1940. Aanna?aa?y o neeaae? ?oioi??. Iieaeaanueea A?N? (1924-1940)

?yaeii aeae?ao?a ia Aanna?aa?th aoea iioe?aia ae?y ?oioinueeeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a i?i e?ei?iaeueiee ? oeea?eueiee eiaeaen, i?i
i?aai?caoe?th iiooe ? oaeaa?aoo, i?i canoinoaaiiy oi?aiaiai eiaeaeno.
Aoee noai?ai? i?aaie iie?oe?? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee (neao?aioe?),
aeaiaea?ia???, noaeo ? i?ieo?aoo?e, a oaeiae a?enueeia? o?eaoiaee.
Oi?aae?iiy Aanna?aa??th cae?enithaaeiny a?aeiia?aeii aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caeii?a, ui i?eeiaeeny ?oioinueeei ia?eaiaioii.
Aa?oiaia aeaaea a e?a? iine?aeiaii cae?enithaaeany aaei?i?no?aoi?aie, ui
i?ecia/aeeny ei?ieai ? aoee iaae?eai? yeiaeoe?oeie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie, iaee
ianooii? caaiiy: aaia?aeueiee eii?na? Aanna?aa??, iio?i
i?i?no?-oiiaiiaaaeaiee ?oioinueeiai o?yaeo a Aanna?aa??,
i?i?no?-aeaeaaao o?yaeo a Aanna?aa??, aaia?aeueiee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee
?iniaeoi? o ni?aaao Aanna?aa??, aa?oiaiee eii?na? ?oioinueeiai o?yaeo o
ni?aaao Aanna?aa?? ? Aoeiaeie, i?i?no? Aanna?aa??.

Iieaeaanueea Aaoiiiiia ?aaeyinueea Nioe?ae?noe/ia ?anioae?ea
(Iieaeaanueea A?N?, IA?N?, AI?N?, iieae. ?ANN Iieaeiaaiynea)  —
aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea o neeaae? Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. IANN? aoea ooai?aia
ooaaeith OeAE O?N? a?ae 12 aeiaoiy 1924 ?ieo c /anoeie oa?eoi???
Aaeonueeiai ? Iaeanueeiai ie?oa?a Iaeanueei? aoaa?i?? ? Ooeue/einueeiai
ie?oaa Iiae?euenueei? aoaa?i??. Iaaeath IA?N? ia caoiae? ? i?aaeaiiiio
caoiae? aoea iaieioaia e?i?y ??/ie I?oo ? Aeoiae. Oaeei /eiii aei
neeaaeo IA?N? oi?iaeueii aoiaeeea ? Aanna?aa?y, ieoiiaaia o oie /an
?oioi??th. IA?N? i?i?nioaaea c 12 aeiaoiy 1924 ii 2 na?iiy 1940.

O 1938 ?ieo Aanna?aa?y aoea io?oe?eii e?ea?aeiaaia ye ie?aia
aaei?i?no?aoeaia iaeeieoey. A?eueoeueeee ? Ni?ienueeee aeoaeaoee aa?eoee
aei neeaaeo I?oonueeiai oeeiooo, ?cia?euenueeee ? Eaaoeuenueeee — aei
neeaaeo Ieaeiueiaeoiaenueeiai oeeiooo, Oioeinueeee — No/aanueeiai, a c
?ioeo aoa ooai?aiee Aei?no?ianueeee oeeioo. Ia /ie? oeeioo?a noiyee
ei?ie?anuee? ?aceaeaioe, a aeoaeaoee i/iethaaee i?aoaeoe.

O 1940 ?ioe? iineeeeeny i?ioe??//y i?ae ei?ieai Ea?ieai II, yeee caeiaa
i?ia?eoainueeo iiceoe?th, ? a?oea??anueeith I?ia//eiith, i?eoeeueieeaie
yei? aoee ae?th/? a ?oioi?? «Cae?cia aaa?ae?y» E. Eiae?yio, c iaeiiai
aieo, ? a?oia a?enueeiaeo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ?. Aioiianeo, c ?ioith.
Ea?ieue II aoa aeiooaiee aeciaoe A?aeainueeee a?a?o?aae, ca?aeii yeiai
?oioi?y iiaeiia aoea iinooieoeny /anoeiith nai?o oa?eoi??e N?N?, a
/anoeiith — Oai?uei?. Ia i?aenoaa? A?aeainueeiai a?a?o?aaeo N?N?
iaieinea i?i iiaa?iaiiy Aanna?aa?? ? Aoeiaeie aei neeaaeo N?N?, ?
?oioi?y aoea aeiooaia a?aeaanoe c oeeo iaeanoae nai? a?enueea.
Nei?enoaaoenue iao?aiiyi a ?oioi??, ?. Aioiianeo onoioa a?ae aeaaee
Ea?iey II, a iiaei ei?ieai aoa i?iaieioaiee Ieoae I.

1940-1991. Iieaeaanueea ?N?

23 na?iiy 1939 ?ieo aoa i?aeienaiee —Iaeo Iieioiaa — ??aaaio?iia —
aeiaia?? i?i iaiaiaae i?ae I?ia//eiith ? ?aaeyinueeei Nithcii. O
nae?aoiiio aeiaeaoeiaiio i?ioieie? aei oeueiai aeiaiai?o
?iciaaeiaoaaeeny noa?e aieeao o No?aei?e ?a?ii? ?, cie?aia,
i?aee?anethaaany ?ioa?an N?N? aei Aanna?aa??.

26 ? 27 /a?aiy 1940 ?ieo o?yae N?N? iai?aaea o?yaeo ?oioi?? aea? iioe, a
yeeo i?iiiioaaeiny iiaa?iooe Aanna?aa?th ?aaeyinueeiio Nithco. Ei?iiia
?aaea ?oioi?? aoea aeiooaia caiaeeoeny c ?aaeyinueeeie aeiiaaie. O iio?
a?ae 28 /a?aiy 1940 ?ieo o?yae ?oioi?? caiaeeany c i?iiiceoe??th i?i
ia?aaea/o Aanna?aa??, a oaeiae c ii?yaeeii ? oa?i?iaie aeaaaeaiiy nai?o
a?enuee ? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Oeueiai ae aeiy, 28 /a?aiy, a Aanna?aa?th
aoee aaaaeai? /anoeie *a?aiii? A?i??.

2 na?iiy 1940 ?ieo ia VII nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? aoa i?eeiyoee Caeii
i?i ooai?aiiy nithcii? Iieaeaanueei? ?aaeyinueei? Nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?anioae?ee.

Aei neeaaeo Iieaeaanueei? ?N? aoee aeeth/ai?: i?noi Eeoei?a, 6 c 9
iia?o?a Aanna?aa?? (A?eueoeueeee, Aaiaea?nueeee, Eaaoeuenueeee,
Eeoei?anueeee, I?a??anueeee, Ni?ienueeee), a oaeiae i?noi Oe?aniieue ? 6
c 14 ?aeii?a eieeoiuei? Iieaeaaneie A?N? (A?eai??iiieuenueeee,
Aeoainna?nueeee, Eaiainueeee, ?eaieoeueeee, Neiaiaecaenueeee,
Oe?aniieuenueeee). ?aooa ?aeii?a IA?N?, a oaeiae Aea?iainueeee,
?cia?euenueeee ? Oioeinueeee iia?oe Aanna?aa?? a?ae?eoee aei
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?.

I?ci?oa, a eenoiiaae? 1940 ?ieo, iaaea i?ae I?N? ? O?N? aoea ci?iaia.
Aei Oe?a?inueei? ?N? a?ae?eoia 61 ianaeaiee ioieo c 55 oen. ianaeaiiyi
(46 ianaeaieo ioieo?a Aaiaea?nueeiai iia?oo, 1 ianaeaiee ioieo
Eaaoeuenueeiai iia?oo, 14 ianaeaieo ioieo?a eieeoi?o ?aeii?a IA?N?). Aei
Iieaeaanueei? ?N? a?ae?oee 96 ianaeaieo ioieo?a c 203 oen. ianaeaiiyi
(76 ianaeaieo ioieo?a Oioeinueeiai iia?oo, 6 — ?cia?euenueeiai ? 14
Aea?iainueeiai iia?o?a). Oe? ci?ie iioeaoaaeeny oei, ui a ianaeaieo
ioieoao, ia?aaeaieo Iieaeaanuee?e ?N?, ia?aaaaeaei iieaeaanueea
ianaeaiiy, a a ia?aaeaieo Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? — oe?a?inueea, aieaa?nueea ?
?in?enueea ianaeaiiy.

A ?acoeueoao? oa?eoi??y I?N? neeaea 33,7 oen. ei, ianaeaiiy — 2,7 iei.
/ieia?e, c yeeo 70  % neeaaeaee iieaeaaaie. Noieeoeath ?anioae?ee noaei
i?noi Eeoei?a.

23 ethiy 1990 ?ieo Iieaeaanueea ?N? cayaey? i?i na?e noaa?ai?oao, a 27
na?iiy 1991 — i?i aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue. Ia?oei i?aceaeaioii
iacaeaaeii? Iieaeaa?? noaa I??/a Niaao?.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

1. Nai?iiaa E. A. Eiyaeanoaa Aaeaoey e Iieaeaaey. Eiiaoe XIV — ia/aei
XIX a. I/a?ee aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie enoi?ee. — Eiae?ee, 2006.

2. Anioeeaoeey o/?iuo Iieaeiau ei. I. Ieeaneo-Niyoa?o Enoi?ey ?anioaeeee
Iieaeiaa. N ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i aei iaoeo aeiae. — ecae. 2-a, ia?a?aa. e
aeii.. — Eeoei?a: Elan-Poligraf, 2002.

3. Noaoe A. Enoi?ey Iieaeiau. — Eeoei?a: Tipografia Central?, 2002.

4. Aaeouaiei O. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?oiuiecaoi?aie e naiiauoieeaie a
Iieaeaaneie ANN? (20-a aiaeu) // Aaeaaiaeiue enoi?e/aneee aeueiaiao
I?eaeiano?iauey. — 2002. — ? 6.

5. Aaeouaiei O. Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?oiuiecaoi?aie e naiiauoieeaie a
Iieaeaaneie ANN? (30-a aiaeu).

6. Iaaeae/oe A. ?anioaeeea Iieaeiaa. Eeoeiaa, 1992

7. ?anioaeeea Iieaeiaa a 1989–1991 aa. Acaeyae ni noi?iiu. Eeoeiaa, 1992

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