I?i?noa?noai Ina?oe oa Iaoee Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueiee Oaoi?/iee Oi?aa?neoao

Oa?e?anueeee Iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo

Eaoaae?a Iie?oe/ii? ?noi???

?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueia ai?ioueaa o na?aaeei? XVII noie?ooy

Aeeiiaa:

nooaeaio I-ai eo?no

a?oie IO-15A

Aeaaeeia ?aaai ?ai?iae/

Ia?aa??ea:

Ica?nueeee TH??e ?aaiiae/

Oa?e?a, 2005.

Ci?no

Anooi

I?e/eie iianoaiiy

Ia?o? ia?aiiae

Oneeaaeiaiiy i?ae iianoaioeyie

Ia?ayneaanueea oaiaea

Caaa?oaeueia noaae?y Aaeeeiai iianoaiiy

Aeniiaie

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

Anooi

Iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie na?aaeeie XVII noie?ooy coiiaethaaeiny ae?ae
noiieie ?aae?yie: oi?iaeiaae a?e?a ooo ia aoei i?aeoeee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa; oe?a?inuee? caie? aoee iiiaaieai? non?aei?ie
aea?aeaaaie; iai?aia aa?o?aea iiai?noth ao?aoeea ?ieue iie?oe/iiai
i?ia?aeieea ia?iaeo, iin?y aea?aeaaiino?. Oey iiceoe?y ae?oe (ai eeoa
aiia iiaea oni?oii cae?enithaaoe iie?oe/ia ea??aieoeoai, caeiaoeny
?icaoaeiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy, ?icaeaath/e aoiiiie?oe/io
naiiaooi?noue noni?euenoaa) iaa?ioeany aaeeeith iaoe?iiaeueiith
o?aaaae??th. Ca eieii?aeueii? iie?oeee Iieueu? neooaoe?y noaaaea
e?eoe/iith: aoea ao?a/aia ae?oa; noaany ?iceie na?aae aeooiaainoaa, ui
i?eaiaeeei aei i?aeeiioan?eii? ai?ioueae; i?uainoai aeo?niyeiny c
eeth/iaeo iiceoe?e aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy ? naiioi?aae?iiy; c?inoaee
ia?aoeiaee aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae, eoeueoo?e, naiina?aeiiino?
oiui.

Aeoiaey/e c oeeo ianoaaei iai?ee?ioe? XVI noie?ooy o i?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii?
Ee?anueeiai ai?aiaenoaa ?icii/aany ?ioaineaiee iie?oe/iee i?ioean, a
yeiio i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaei eicaoeoai. Oi?ioaaeeny eicaoeueea
naiioi?aae?iiy, noaei/einoai, a?enueeiaa i?aai?caoe?y,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e. Iinooiiai aeaaea iieuenueeiai
o?yaeo iaae?aea oi?iaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiaeii/an a?aeaoaaeiny
iaooeeueia ?icoe?aiiy oa?eoi??? eicaoeueeiai ?aa?iio, ai ianaeaiiy
i?eeaaeeo ?aeii?a Ee?anueeiai, a caiaeii ? A?aoeeaanueeiai ai?aiaenoa
cai?iaaaeaeoaaei o naaa eicaoeuee? ii?yaeee.

??cea iineeaiiy oaii?a cae??ia/aiiy, ia?inoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eiiai aiiaeaiiy, a oaeiae c?oeiaiiy ?ioa?an?a
eicaoeueei? Oe?a?ie e ?a/? Iiniieeoi? i?eaaee aei ii/aoeo
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae. Aiia ?icii/aeany o ia?o?e iieiaei?
ethoiai 1648 ?ieo c caoiieaiiyi iianoaioeyie Caii?icueei? N?/? e ia?aiiy
aaoueiaiii A?enueea Caii??cueeiai A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai e o?eaaea aae aei
1676 ?ieo. Oea iianoaiiy aaaaea?oueny iaeiei c iaea?eueoeo eaoaee?ci?a
oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. Iianoaiiy aiaeia?/ieo ianooaa?a, neee e iane?aee?a
? ni?aaae? aaaeei ciaeoe ia ia?oeo aoaiao iiai? ?noi??? ?a?iie. Aea /iio
naia Oe?a?ia? Uieii inai?i? Ee?aueia, A?aoeeaaueia oa *a?i?a?aueia, ui
noaee a?aiith iianoaiiy, aoee oi?eaeueieie ia eeoa a ?a/? iiniieeo?e, a
e a on?e ?a?ii?. Ii-ia?oa, oe? caie? iaeaaeaee /eia iaeiiaooi?oei oa
iaeaaaaooei a ?a?ii? iaaiaoai, a ii-ae?oaa, ?o canaeya ethae, aioiaee ?
caeaoiee ??oo/a ai?ioeny ca nai? ?ioa?ane. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, a
iiaieieii?ciaai?e Oe?a?i? iaei? c iaeaaaaooeo a ?a?ii?
oaiaeae?a-aiiaeoae?a c?oeioeeny c iaeiei c iaeiaiie??i?oeo ia?iae?a.
Aaeeeith i??ith oey neooaoe?y aoea iane?aeeii oiai, ui Oe?a?ia
a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue ei?aeiio. Aeania, i?enooi?noue „Aeeeiai iiey”
oiiaeeeaeea aeieeiaiiy eicaoeoaa e aeaea ciiao iaaiaoai iacae?aoe
aaee/aci? caieaaieiae?iiy. Aeaooia?noue neooaoe?? iineethaaeany
neaae?noth ei?ie?anueei? aeaaee a ?a/? Iiniieeo?e. Ia a ciic? aeanieie
neeaie iai?iiyoe ei?aeiie, ei?ieue aea?oaaa iaaiaoai aaee/aci? ae?eyiee
caie? ca oiiae, ui aiie nai? caoeuaoeiooue ?o. C o??? ae i?e/eie a?i
iia/ee iiaiaeaeoaaany, oi/ ? eeoa aei iaaii? i??e, ?c c?inoaiiyi
eicaoeoaa. I?ioa ?c oaeaeeei iineeaiiyi iaio oeeo yaeu ei?ie?anueeee
o?yae ao?aoea iaae ieie eiio?ieue ? i?/iai ia ?iaea, uia ?ica’ycaoe
i?ioe??//y, ui caaino?thaaeeny ia oe?a?inueeiio iia?aie//?.

Oi/ iaaiaoe aaeeeith i??ith ni?e/eieeeny aei inai?iiy, /e, ye
aeneiaethaaeeny iieuenuee? ?noi?eee XIX noie?ooy, „oeea?e?coaaiiy”
Oe?a?ie, aiie oaeiae aoee /eiieeii ianoaa?eueiino? e iai?oaeaiino?, ui
noaee o?ii?/ieie oai?iaaie noni?euenoaa. Ea?oth/enue i?eioeeiii
„neeueiee caaaeaee i?aaee”, aiie iino?eii aaeaaaeeny aei ianeeuenoaa o
eiioe?eoao c? nai?ie i?aeeaaeeie oa ?ioeie iaaiaoaie. Oe? aaioeaio?e/i?,
aia?o?/i? oaiaeaioe??, a oaeiae neaae?noue aaoi?eoaoo ei?ie?anueei?
aeaaee o ii?oa?aeieo caieyo cioneee iieye?a aeciaoe, ui „ ia Oe?a?i?
i?aaeoue aaccaeiiiy”. Aeiiae oeyooe iino?eii c?inoaee, iniaeeai i?ney
oiai ye eicaoeueei-naeyinuee? iianoaiiy, caeaaaeiny, caciaee inoaoi/ii?
ii?acee o 1638 ?ioe?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae naeyi a ?ioeo /anoeiao ?a/?
Iiniieeoi? oa iaa?oue o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? iaoeaioe? Iaaeaei?i?yiueie ia
ciaee oyaa?y e??ia//eie e ia aaaeaee i?eeiaoe ??. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ye
?o eeaneo?eoaaee iaaiaoe, aaaaoi c ieo aaaaeaei naaa a?eueieie. Na?aae
eicae?a nai???aeiei aeiaiaoii aoei oa, ui o 1582 ?ioe? ei?ieue Noaoai
Aaoi??e ia/aaoi aea?oaaa eicaeai i?ea?ea?, eio?? iaeaea c??aithaaee ?o o
i?aaao ?c oeyooith. Aioiai?noue aei iianoaiiy ii?aeioaaeany ?c
ai?aai?noth a aith, oe??th aeanoeaith ?enith oe?a?ioe?a iia?aie//y.
Iania? iianoaiiy a ?a?ii? oiai /ano cae/aeii oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny
a?aenooi?noth i?aai?ciaaiino? oa a?enueeiai? iaoee. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o
Oe?a?ia a?ae??ciyeany a?ae ?ioeo e?a?i. Iaiae??aieee-/oaeicaioe? /anoi
caoaaaeoaaee, ui aeeooy ia iiaiiio iaaaciae iia?aie//? cioooaaei iaa?oue
i?inoeo naeyi oa i?uai inaithaaoe ienoaoeoai aieiae?iiy aiaiaiaeueiith
ca?i?th. Aei oiai ae eicaee ooai?thaaee a iianoainueeiio a?enueeo yae?i
aeia?a i?aai?ciaaieo ? aenieiiaenoa?ieo aiye?a. Iaa?oue iaaeaai? ii?acee
iiaeeaethaaee aeina?ae oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa o ai?iouea? c ?aaoey?iith
a?i??th. A?aeoae ?c iineeaiiyi aenieoaoaoe?? ia?iaeo iaaiaoaie a
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? iia?aie//y c?inoaea aioiai?noue ? caeaoi?noue
ai?ioeny i?ioe ia?.

Aeey a?aiae?iciiai niaeaoo a?aeoaaei eeoa ?ne?e…

I?e/eie iianoaiiy

??aeei eiee ie?ai? iniae oae ae??oaeueii aecia/aee o?ae aiioaeueieo
iiae?e, ye oea c?iaea noiniaii Aaeeeiai Oe?a?inueeiai iianoaiiy 1648
?ieo Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee. C iaeyaeo ia eiai aaee/aciee iniaenoee
aieea ia iiae??, ui ci?ieee ia?aa?a oe?a?inueei? oa no?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
?noi???, a/aii? aaaaeathoue Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaeaecia/i?oei a?enueeiaei
? iie?oe/iei ae?y/ai Oe?a?ie. Eiai aeaatho ia ?noi?e/i?e noeai? a ?ie?
aieiaiiai aeoi?a a?aeaoany i?ae e?iaoeue aeeooy, aei oiai ae iaeaea
aeiaaeeiai. Oiaeueieoeueeee ia?iaeeany o 1595 ?ioe? a ?iaeei?
oe?a?inueeiai oeyooe/a Ieoaeea Oiaeueieoeueeiai, eio?ee neoaeea o
iieuenueeiai iaaiaoa. Ca naith neoaeao Ieoaeei io?eiaa ooo?? Noaio?a.
A?i iineaa Aiaaeaia aei oeiee ?co?o?a o ss?ineaae?, aea oie ae?noaa
aeia?o, ye ia o? /ane, ina?oo, iaieiae?aoe iieuenueeith oa eaoeinueeith
iiaaie. A 1620 ?ioe? o?aieeany o?aaaae?y. O aaeee?e aeoa? oo?e?a c
iieyeaie i?ae Oeaoei?ith eiai aaoueei caaeioa, a nai Aiaaeai iio?aiea o
iieii. I?ia?aoe a iaaie? aeaa ?iee, Oiaeueieoeueeee iiaa?oa?oueny aei
Noaioiaa, caieno?oueny aei ?a?no?iaeo eicae?a, iae?oaeo?oueny e
caeia?oueny ?icoe?aiiyi naiai ia?oeo. sse caiiaei?e ? iaa?aaeiee eicae,
Oiaeueieoeueeee oieea? aoaeue-yei? o/ano? a iianoaiiyo 1625 oa 1638
?ie?a. O 1638 ?ioe? caaaeyee aeia?ei aca?ieiai c o?yaeii a?i io?eio?
iinaaeo iena?y A?enueea Caii?icueeiai ? a 1646 ?. ae?ooa? o neeaae?
eicaoeueeiai iinieuenoaa aei ei?iey Aeaaeeneaaa IV. Oiaeueieoeueeee noa?
nioieeii *eae?einueeiai eicaoeueeiai iieeo o 50-??/iiio a?oe?.

Aea aeeooy Oiaeueieoeueeiai, a ?acii c iei ? o?ae ?noi??? anueiai e?ath
ci?iea iaeei oeiiaee aeiaaeie iaaiaonueei? caaea?eeaino?. O 1646 ?ioe?,
iieuenueeee oeyooe/ Aeai?aeue *aieeinueeee ca i?aeo?eiee i?noeaaeo
iaaiao?a iaiaa ia Noaio?a, oaea iieiaeoiai neia Oiaeueieoeueeiai e
aee?aa ae?ieo, c yeith uieii iaaeia?eee eicaoeueeee nioiee iaa iai??
iae?oaeeoeny. Eiee /eneaii? nea?ae aei noaeo aeyaeeeny ia?ieie,
?iceth/aiee Oiaeueieoeueeee ae??oea i?aeiyoe i?ioe iieye?a iianoaiiy e
i/ieeoe eiai. Oaea ?aioiaa ia?aoai?aiiy aeia?iii?yaeiiai i?ea?/ieea
iaioth/iai eaaeo ia aoioa?y ia aoei /eiinue ianiiae?aaiei aeey eiai
iaoo?e. I?ci?oa i/aaeaeoe? /anoi caa?oaee oaaao ia aeai?no?noue aaea/?
oeueiai eicaoeueeiai aaoaaeea. Niaaeyaee ? i?ecaieoaaoee „Oiaeue”, ye
eiai i?iceaaee a ia?iae?, aoa cae/aeii no?eiaiith, iai?aoaic?eiith,
/aiiith, iaa?oue o?ioe oeaaiaoe/iith ethaeeiith. Aea a?i oaeiae i?a
ianiiae?aaii aeaooiooe iioieaie i?eno?ano? oa aia?a??. A oae? oaeeeie
eiai neiaa caai?iaeoaaee, ?aea? aiaeii/an caoiiethaaee e iaaiaeeee
ino?ao, a ??oo/?noue ae?yoe caeaaaeany iaiioeoiith. A?iiioe/iee aieea,
ui eiai Oiaeueieoeueeee oi?a ni?aaeyoe ia iane, noaa i/aaeaeiei, eiee,
?yooth/enue a?ae iieye?a, ye? ?iciia?aeaee i?i eiai iai??e, a?i c
aeiaiueeith i?eoeeueiee?a o n?/i? 1648 ?ieo ao?ea? ia Caii?icueeo N?/.
Ca ei?ioeee /an a?i caeiaoaa? i?aeo?eieo caii?iaeoe?a, aeaaiy? ?c n?/?
iieuenueeo oeyooo e aeiaeaa?oueny aaoueiainoaa. Nii/aoeo caeieio, ui
iaae?aa neee, iaa on? iciaee iiia?aaei?o iaaaeaeeo iianoaiue:
cane?ieaiee aeaaeiaith iiinoe, eicaoeueeee noa?oeia, yeiai iie?eaaeeee
iaaiaoe, ao?ea? ia N?/ ? ia?aeiio? caii?iaeoe?a anoaoe ca nai? (? eiai
oaeiae) i?aaa. I?ioa o aeiaaeeo c Oiaeueieoeueeei aeiyoeiaee oaeaio
i?aai?caoi?a, iieeiaiaeoey ana aeiei??iii ci?iea. A?eueoa ?ieo aei aoa/?
ia N?/ a?i ieaioaaa iianoaiiy e ca?o/aany i?aeo?eieith i?ea?/iee?a.
?icoi?th/e, ui aaeeeei iaaeie?eii eicae?a o ai?iouea? c iieyeaie aoea
a?aenooi?noue e?iiioe, Oiaeueieoeueeee ni?eeai ?ica’yco? oeth i?iaeaio e
caa?oa?oueny c i?iiiceoe??th i?i nithc i?ioe iieye?a aei aeaaiueiai
ai?iaa eicae?a — e?einueeeo oaoa?. E?aui? iaaiaee e aooe ia iiaei. Naia
oiae?, eiee eiai iinieuenoai i?eaoei aei E?eio, aca?ieie oaia c iieyeaie
noaee ae?ae iai?oaeaieie, e ia aeiiiiiao eicaeai ia /ie? 4-oeny/iiai
caaiio aoei iineaii a?aeiiiai ai?ia/aeueieea Ooaae-aay. Iaaani? 1648
?ieo iiia?aaeaeai? i?i ae?? Oiaeueieoeueeiai iieyee iineaee ia i?aaeaiue
a?enueei, uia i?eaeooeoe iianoaiiy ua a ca?iaeeo.

Ia?o? ia?aiiae

A na?aaeei? ea?oiy 1648 ?ieo ia AEiaoeo Aiaeao, ii aei?ic? ia N?/,
aiaaiaiee o nai?e ia?aaac? 6-oeny/iee ia?aaeiaee caa?i iieye?a cono??any
c ia’?aeiaieie eicaoeueei-oaoa?nueeeie 9-oeny/ieie neeaie. 6 o?aaiy
i?ney o?eaaeiai aith, i?ae /an yeiai ia a?e iianoaeeo ia?aeeioeeny
e?eueea oeny/ iineaieo ia aeiiiiiao iieyeai ?a?no?iaeo eicae?a,
iieuenueeee aaaiaa?ae aoei ?icaeoi. A?aaeai? ca?noeith i?i ii?aceo e
ia?aeiiai? i?ae?neaiei eicaeii o oiio, ui iianoaioe? cia/ii
ia?aaaaeothoue ?o, eiiaiaeoaa/? 20-oeny/ieo aieiaieo nee Ia?oe?i
Eae?iinueeee oa I?eieae Iioioeueeee caeeoeee aea?aei? iiceoe?? i?ae
Ei?noiai ?, iath/e ca iiaiaee?y oa?iiiai aaaioa aaoueiaia, ii/aee
a?aenooiaoe, aeieath/e aaaaoi ia?aoeiae. 26 o?aaiy iaiiaeae?e a?ae
Ei?noiy iieyee ianei/eee ia eicaoeueeo can?aeeo (eicaoeuee? neee c?inee
aei 15 oeny/, aac a?aooaaiiy oaoa?nueei? e?iiioe) ? ciiao caciaee
ii?acee. Oiaeueieoeueeiio aei ?oe iio?aieee iaeaeaa eiiaiaeoaa/?
iieuenueei-oeyoaonueei? a?i??, 80 aaeeeeo aaeueiiae, 127 io?oea??a, 8520
aeiai???a, 41 aa?iaoa. Ia/a iieyeai ua iaei aoei iauanoue, ca o?noue
aei?a aei aeoae i?ae Ei?noiai iiie?a? ei?ieue Aeaaeeneaa IV. Ioiae, ??/
Iiniieeoa ?aioii ao?aoeea ei?iey, eiiaiaee??a ? a?i?th.

Ia?aiiae Oiaeueieoeueeiai i?eaieiioeee iieye?a ? aiaeii/an iaaeeoioee
oe?a?ioe?a. Nii/aoeo ia I?aai-, a caiaeii ? ia E?aiaa?aaeae? eicaee,
naeyie ? i?uaie noai?ththoue iieee e aai i?enoathoue aei aaoueiaia, aai
ae i?ae i?iaiaeii i?noeaaeo aaoaaee?a i?aei?iathoue aeani? iianoaiiy.
Aaaaoi naeyi ? eicae?a nei?enoaeeny iaaiaeith aeaoe aieth aeiaai
no?eioaai?e iaiaaeno? aei aiiaeoae?a. I?ae 1648 ? 1656 ?ieaie iianoae?
aaeee aeanyoee oeny/ ?a?a?a (/a?ac a?ae aeinoia??ieo aeaieo iaiiaeeeai
anoaiiaeoe oi/i?o? oeeo?e), ? oiio ?a?a? e aein? aaaaeathoue iianoaiiy
Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iiae?e nai?? ?noi???.
I?ioyaii e?oa Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?icoaooaaaoenue i?ae A?eith Oea?aith,
cina?aaeeany ia noai?aii? aeenoeeie?iiaaii?, aeia?a i?aai?ciaaii? a?i??.
ssae?i ?? neeaaeaee 16 aei?iaoaaieo o aiyo eicaoeueeeo iiee?a,
i/iethaaieo oaeeie oaiiaaieie iieeiaiaeoeyie, ye O?eii Aeaeaaeaeae?e,
Iaenei Ianoi?aiei oa ?aai Ae?y. Aei oiai ae iieeiaieoeuee? aoeaae
io?eiaee oae? iaaea?iaai?, aeina?ae/ai? e oaeaiiaeo? i?aaenoaaieee
oe?a?inueei? ciao?, ye Aeaieei Ia/ae, ?aai Aiaoi, Ieoaeei E?e/aanueeee,
a oaeiae aeo?aeoe? c i?uai — Ia?oei Iaaaaa oa Aaneeue Cieioa?aiei.
Aaeeeei aeiiii?aeiei caaiiii eaaei? e?iiioe eiiaiaeoaaa caoyoee ai?ia
Aeoiaaaoeueeiai e iaeei ?c iaeiiioey?i?oeo iianoainueeeo aaoaaee?a
Iaenei E?eaii?n. ?c aeia?iaieueoe?a noai?thaaeeny iia? /anoeie, e i?ae
e?iaoeue e?oa oe?a?inuee? neee iae?/oaaee a?ae 80 aei 100 oeny/ /ieia?e.
?c ieo ?aaoey?ia eicaoeueea a?enueei neeaaeaei aeecueei 40 oeny/.

Iieyee oaae ia aayee /ano. Aiie anooieee c Oiaeueieoeueeei o oaeoe/i?
ia?aaiai?e, ui aeicaieeei ?i iia?e?coaaoe 32 oeny/? oeyooe e 8 oeny/
i?iaoeueeeo iaeiaioe?a. Eiee a?ey Eueaiaa cae?aeiny ?oi? a?enueei,
nii?yaeaeaia o ne?io/? eaoe, ye oa iiethaeyea oeyooa, i/aaeaeaoeue
caoaaaeea, ui iieyee cae?athoueny aithaaoe ia cae?cii, a cieioii oa
n??aeii. Ia /ie? iiai? iieuenueei? a?i?? noiyee o?e iaaiaoe: ieyaee ?
caeioaiee o ?ice?o Aeii?i?e Caneaanueeee, ina?/aiee a/aiee-eaoei?no
I?eieae Inoi?ia ? 19-??/iee Ieaenaiae? Eii?oeiieuenueeee,
Oiaeueieoeueeee na?eanoe/ii io?anoea ?o „ia?eiith”, „eaoeiith” oa
„aeeoeiith”. 23 aa?aniy aithth/? a?i?? cono??eeny i?ae Ieeyaoeyie. I?ae
/an oiai aith iieuenueeei iaaiaoai c?aaeeee ia?ae ? aiie eeioeeny
o?eaoe. Eiee i?i oea noaei a?aeiii, ?aooa a?i?? a/eieea oa ae naia.
Eicaee oa ?oi? nithcieee oaoa?e ca e?eueea aiaeei cieueee ua iauiaeaaii
aaee/ia a?enueei iaeaea aeiuaioo. Aeoaa i?ae Ieeyaoeyie a?aee?eea
Oiaeueieoeueeiio oeyo ia cao?ae. Ia ii/aoeo aeiaoiy
eicaoeueei-naeyinueea a?i?y acyea a iaeiao Euea?a ? aaea a io-io
caeiaoea eiai, oa caaaeyee aaee/aciiio aeeoio e iaaaaeaiith
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?oeioaaoe /oaeiaa i?noi Euea?a aoei a?yoiaaii. *a?ac
i?nyoeue, eiee aaeany i?aeaioiaea aei iaeiae iieuenueei? oi?oaoe?
Caiinoy, iaae?eoea iiaeia, ui ei?ieai ia?aii ssia Eaceie?a — ethaeeio,
yeo aie?a aa/eoe ia o?ii? Oiaeueieoeueeee. Iiaee ei?ieue cai?iiiioaaa
aaoueiaiia? ia?aie?’y. Aeey ?noi?ee?a caaaeaee caeeoaeiny caaaaeeith,
/iio Oiaeueieoeueeee, yeee ia oie iiiaio i?a cieueoe ??/ Iiniieeoo,
ae??oea caiaeeoenue ia oeth i?iiiceoe?th e iiaa?iooeny ia
Iaaeaei?i?yiueio. Ai/aaeaeue, a?i ona ua niiae?aaany ci?ieoe iie?oe/io
nenoaio ?a/? Iiniieeoi? oae, uia aiia iiaea caaeiaieueiyoe eicaoeoai.
Aei oiai ae aieiae ? /oia aaea iicia/eeeny ia eiai a?enueeao, ye ? ia
ianaeaii? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Oa e nithcieeai aaoueiaia — e?einueeei
oaoa?ai — ia oa?i?einy iiaa?iooeny aeiaeiio. Oe? ianoaaeie, iiaeeeai, e
coiiaeee iaaaaeaiiy aaoueiaia i?iaeiaaeoaaoe a?enueeiao eaiiai?th
aceieo. Ia ii/aoeo n?/iy 1649 ?ieo Oiaeueieoeueeee iiaa?oa?oueny aei
Ee?aa ia /ie? iaia?aiiaeiiai a?enueea. Caoaeaeaiee iaoiai ? i?aaineaaia
aeooiaainoai a?oaee eiai, ye „oe?a?inueeiai Iienay”, ui „ca?eueiea na?e
ia?iae a?ae iieuenueeiai ?aanoaa”.

Oneeaaeiaiiy i?ae iianoaioeyie

Iaa?oue i?ney ia?aiia Oiaeueieoeueeiai noinoiee i?ae iieyeaie oa
oe?a?ioeyie eeoeeeny iac’yniaaieie. Oi/ aaoueiai ona ua ia ae??oea
?ic??aaoe ca’ycee c ??//th Iiniieeoith, a?i ciaa, ui eiai iine?aeiaieee
??oo/a iano?i?i? i?ioe iiaa?iaiiy aei noaio, yeee ?nioaaa aei 1648 ?ieo.
C? naiai aieo iieyee, aioia? iaaeaoe iacia/i? iinooiee eicaeai, ana ae
iaiieyaaee ia iiaa?iaii? oe?a?ioe?a i?ae iaioaaiiy oeyooe.

Iaaani? 1649 ?ieo a ianooi i?oee iieyee. C Aieei? eoee ?oi? iniiai? neee
— 25 oeny/ ia /ie? c naiei ei?ieai ssiii Eaceie?ii, a /a?ac Aaee/eio
i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi noiiica?niiai ss?aie Aeoiaaaoeueeiai ?ooaeiny
15-oeny/ia a?enueei. Aaeaaoenue aei nai?? cae/aeii? oaeoeee oaeaeeiai
iaiaiiiai iaiaa?o, Oiaeueieoeueeee ? eiai nithciee oai ?neai A??ae
80-oeny/iei a?enueeii iaeiaeeee Aeoiaaaoeueeiai o oi?oaoe? Caa?aae. Eiee
ia aeiiiiiao Aeoiaaaoeueeiio iini?oea iieuenueeee ei?ieue,
Oiaeueieoeueeee ?aioiaei iaiaa?ii iaiaa ia a?i?th ssia Eaceie?a i?ae
Cai?ia ii ? ioi/ea ??. Aea ye?ac eiee iieyee io-io iaee caciaoe ii?acee
e i?ae Caa?aaeai ? i?ae Cai?ia ii, oaoa?nueeee oai c?aaeea aaoueiaia.
I?aeeoieaiee iieyeaie e iiaithth/enue ci?oeiaiiy oe?a?ioe?a, ?neai A??ae
a?aea?a nai? a?enueei e iinoaaea ia?aae Oiaeueieoeueeei aeiiao oeeanoe
oaiaeo c iieuenueeei ei?ieai. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei aaoueiaiia? ia eeoaeiny
i?/iai ?ioiai, ye iiaiaeeoeny.

18 na?iiy 1649 ?ieo aoei i?aeienaii Cai??anueeee ie?, yeee i?ci?oa
aena?oeea o? aioo??oi? e ciai?oi? i?iaeaie, ia ye? iaa caaaeaoe
Oiaeueieoeueeee. Oa, ui ?ioa?ane naeyinoaa oaeoe/ii i?i?aii?oaaee o
Cai?ia?, ia aoei aeiaaeeiaei iaaeiaeyaeii. Oi/ Oiaeueieoeueeee ?
a?eueo?noue eiai iieeiaiee?a, a oaeiae aaaaoi ?a?no?iaeo eicae?a oio?ee
iie?aueoe aeieth naeyinoaa, aiie ia iaee iai???a oe?eeiaeoiai cieuaiiy
e??iaoeoaa. Aeey eicaoeueei? aa?o?aee, aeeth/ath/e Oiaeueieoeueeiai, oea
a icia/aei i?ae?ea o??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, a ye?e aiie
iin?aeaee iii?oia i?noea. A?aeoae oaea a Cai?ia? aeiee eiioe?eo i?ae
eicaoeueeith noa?oeinueeith aa?o?aeith oa /a?ith. C /anii a?i
?icaeiaoueny o oaoaeueio aaaeo eicaoeueeiai ono?ith, ui oi?ioaaany ia
Oe?a?i?. O 1651 ?ioe? ii/aany iiaee aoai iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei? a?eie.
? ciiao ia?oeie a ianooi i?oee iieyee ia /ie? c ssiii Eaceie?ii, ? ciiao
iaeaea? a?i?? c?eoeeny ia Aieei?, oeueiai ?aco i?ae Aa?anoa/eii. sse ia
o? /ane, /enaeuei?noue a?enuee noia?iee?a aoea aaee/aciith: iieuenueea
a?i?y iae?/oaaea 150 oeny/ ai?i?a, aeeth/ath/e 20 oeny/ aeina?ae/aieo
i?iaoeueeeo iaeiaioe?a; oe?a?ioe? ae iia?e?coaaee 100 oeny/i? a?enueea,
yeeo i?aeo?eioaaee 50 oeny/ oaoa?nueei? e?iiioe. Aeoaa ii/aeany 18
/a?aiy, o?eaaea iaeaea aeaa oeaei? e cae?i/eeany aeey Oiaeueieoeueeiai
no?aoiith ii?aceith. Ae??oaeueiith ?? i?e/eiith aoee ae?? e?einueeeo
oaoa?, ye? o ia?aeaiiee iiiaio eeioee iiea aith. Ni?aaa iia??ooaaeany e
oei, ui oaoa?e aee?aee Oiaeueieoeueeiai, yeee iaiaaaany oiiaeoe ?o
iiaa?iooeny aei aith, e a?aeionoeee eiai eeoa i?ney aeoae. Ca oeeo
oyaeeeo ianoaaei eicaeai ia /ie? c ??oo/ei iieeiaieeii O?eiiii
Aeaeaaeaeae??i oaeaeiny aeaanoe ?c iieuenueeiai ioi/aiiy /anoeio
oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea, aea o ae??oaeueiee iiiaio aeaooioea iai?ea, e
iieyee ae??caee aeecueei 30 oeny/ eicaoeueeiai a?enueea. Oey a?aiae?icia
aeoaa oae aei?iai eioooaaea iieyeai, ui aiie ii/aee ia?aaiai?e i?ae
A?eith Oea?eaith. I?aeienaiee 28 aa?aniy 1651 ?ieo A?eioea?e?anueeee ie?
aoa aeey eicae?a cian?i ia oaeei aea?aeiei, ye Cai??anueeee. Eicaoeueeee
?a?no? nei?i/oaaany aei 20 oeny/, aeaaea aaoueiaia iaiaaeoaaeany
Ee?anueeei ai?aiaenoaii, ? eiio caai?iiyeiny anooiaoe o ciai?oi?
ciineie, iniaeeai c oaoa?aie. Iacaaaeath/e ia iic??io caiaeo,
Oiaeueieoeueeee ia cae?aany i?eeiaoe i?eieceea? oiiae, e o ea?oi? 1652
?ieo a eiai ?aceaeaioe?? a *eae?ei? c?a?aeany oa?iia ?aaea i?ia?aeieo
eicaoeueeeo aaoaaee?a, ia ye?e ae??oeee c?a?aoe iiaa a?enueei e
a?aeiiaeoe ai?ii? ae?? i?ioe iieye?a. *a?ac e?eueea oeaei?a a?enueea
Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaiaee ia 30-oeny/io iieuenueeo a?i?th, ui ?ici?noeeany
i?ae Aaoiaii, ia ei?aeii? Iiae?eey c Iieaeaa??th, ? 1 o?aaiy ?ica?iieee
??. O iiinoo ca ii?aceo i?ae Aa?anoa/eii eicaee aaeee on?o iieiiaieo
iieye?a. Eiee ?iceao?eany ca?noea i?i ia?aiiao, ciiao niaeaoioee
iianoaiiy i?ioe iieuenueei? oeyooe, e eicaoeuee? a?enueea caeiyee
a?eueoo /anoeio oa?eoi???, yeo aiie eiio?iethaaee aei ii?acee i?ae
Aa?anoa/eii. Aea oaia? noaaaei i/aaeaeiei, ui ?iee no?aoiiai
e?iaii?ieeooy oa ?oeiaoe?? ii/eiathoue aeaaaoe aciaee. I? iieyee, i?
oe?a?ioe? aaea ia iaee oaeiai aieiaiai caiaeo, a?enueeia? ae?? oi/eeeny
ieyai, a iaeaea? noi?iie aoee, ye aeniaaeai? aiena?e, ui ia?eiyeeny, ia
a ciic? caaaeaoe ae??oaeueiiai oaea?o.

Ia?ayneaanueea oaiaea

A inoaii? aei? 1653 ?. iineianueea iinieuenoai ia /ie? c aiy?eiii
Aaneeai Aooo?e?iei cono??einy c aaoueiaiii, eiai iieeiaieeaie oa
aaia?aeueiei ooaaii A?enueea Caii?icueeiai a Ia?ayneaa?, a?ey Ee?aa. 18
n?/iy 1654 ?. Oiaeueieoeueeee neeeeaa ?aaeo eicaoeueei? aa?o?aee, ia
ye?e aoei ooaaeaii inoaoi/ia ??oaiiy i?i ia?ao?ae Oe?a?ie i?ae
caa?oi?noue oea?y. Oiai ae aeiy aoei neeeeaii ethaeae ia i?nueeee
iaeaeai, aea o nai?io aenooi? aaoueiai iaaieinea ia iio?aa? Oe?a?ie o
aa?oiaiiio aieiaea??, iacaaa /ioe?ueio iioaioe?eieo eaiaeeaeao?a ia oeth
?ieue: iieuenueeiai ei?iey, e?einueeiai oaia, oo?aoeueeiai noeoaia oa
iineianueeiai oea?y — e cayaea, ui iaee?auei aeey oeueiai ? i?aaineaaiee
oea?. Caaeiaieaiee oei, ui aea?? oiaa ia i?aaineaaiiai i?aaeoaey, iaoiai
noaaeueii a?aeaoeioany ia i?iiiao aaoueiaia. Oiae? Aooo?e?i,
Oiaeueieoeueeee oa i?enooiy oai eicaoeueea noa?oeia aa?eoee aei i?nueei?
oea?eae, uia ne??ieoe oea ??oaiiy ni?eueiith i?enyaith.

Oa ianiiae?aaiee aeiaaeie caa?a ni?aao o aeooee eoo. Ca i?eeiyoith a
Iieueu? o?aaeeoe??th Oiaeueieoeueeee niiae?aaany, ui i?enyaaoeiooue
iaeaea? noi?iie,— oe?a?ioe? cai?enyaiooue ia a??i?noue oea?aa?, a oie
iiia?oey? ai?iieoe ?o a?ae iieye?a oa oaioaaoe ?oi? i?aaa e i?ea?ea?.
Aea Aooo?e?i a?aeiiaeany i?enyaaoe a?ae ?iai? naiai iiia?oa, eaaeo/e, ui
ia a?aei?io a?ae iieuenueeiai ei?iey oea? ? naiiaea?aeoeai ? ia i?enyaa?
nai?i i?aeaeaiei. ?icae?aoiaaiee a?aeiiaith Aooo?e?ia, Oiaeueieoeueeee
ai?aei aeeoia ?c oea?eae, iia?iceaoe acaaae? neanoaaoe oaiaeo. I?ioa
Aooo?e?i oia?oi noiya ia nai?io. Ia?aoo?, iiaithth/enue ao?aoeoe
i?aeo?eieo oea?y /a?ac, caeaaaeiny a, i?ino?n?iueeo oi?iaeuei?noue,
Oiaeueieoeueeee iiaiaeeany aeaoe eeyoao ia a??i?noue oea?aa?.

Iacaaa?ii i?ney oiai ii 117 i?noao Oe?a?ie aoei ?ic?neaii oea?nueeeo
o?yaeiee?a, ia?aae yeeie 127 oeny/ ethaeo cai?enyaee ia a??i?noue
oea?aa? Ieaen?th Ieoaeeiae/o oa eiai ianooiieeai. Niiaiaiee ae?aiaoecio
?ioeeaeaio o ia?ayneaanuee?e oea?ea? aena?oeea a?aei?ii?noue iie?oe/ieo
oe?iiinoae ? o?aaeeoe?e, c yeeie iaeaea? noi?iie i?ae?eoee aei
oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee. Oa iii?e an? oe? ?ica?aeiino? i?aeienaiiy
Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee noaei iiai?ioiei ioieoii a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?in??
oa an??? No?aeii? ?a?iie. ?ai?oa ?cieueiaaia e a?aenoaea Iineia?y
c?iaeea a?aaionueeee e?ie oia?aae ia oeyoo ia?aoai?aiiy ia aaeeeo
aea?aeaao. A aeiey Oe?a?ie noaea a onueiio — aeia?iio e eeoiio —
iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycaiith c aeieath ?in??.

*a?ac eiioe?eoe, ui i?ci?oa aeieeaee i?ae ?in?yiaie oa oe?a?ioeyie,
ioe?iea oaiaee, yea ii?aeiaea ?oi? e?a?ie, aoea i?aaeiaoii /anoeo
noia?a/ie o/aieo. Ni?aaa oneeaaeithaaeany oei, ui i?ea?iaeuei?
aeieoiaioe ao?a/aii, caa?aaeeny eeoa iaoi/i? eii?? /e ia?aeeaaee. Aei
oiai ae ?in?enueeee a?o?aa??on Iao?i Oao?aiia aeiaiaeeoue, ui iaa?oue
oe? eii?? noaeueneo?eiaai? oea?nueeeie ia?aienoaa/aie. Caaaeii
i?iiiioaaeiny i’youe iniiaieo oeoia/aiue Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee. Ia
aeoieo ?in?enueeiai ?noi?eea i?aaa Aaneey Na?a?eiae/a, oaiaea yaeyea
niaith ia?niiaeueio oi?th i?ae Iineia??th oa Oe?a?iith, ca yeith iaeaea?
noi?iie iaee ni?eueiiai iiia?oa, caa??aath/e eiaeia na?e ie?aiee o?yae.
?ioee oao?aaoeue ?c ?in?enueeiai i?aaa Ieeiea Ae’yeiiia aeiaiaeea, ui,
iiaiaeaeoth/enue ia „iniaenoa i?aeei?aiiy” oea?aa?, oe?a?ioe? aacoiiaii
iiaiaeaeoaaeeny ia iiaeeiaiiy ?oi?o caiaeue Iineianueeei oea?noaii, ?
oiio oey oaiaea aoea «?aaeueiith oi??th». Oae? ?noi?eee, ye ?in?yiei
Aaiaaeeeo Iyeio?i oa oe?a?iaoeue Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee, aaaaeaee, ui
Ia?ayneaanueea oaiaea aoea oi?iith aanaeueii? caeaaeiino?, ca yei?
neeuei?oa noi?iia (oea?) iiaiaeaeoaaeany caoeuaoe neaaoo (oe?a?ioe?a),
ia ao?o/ath/enue a ?? aioo??oi? ni?aae; oe?a?ioe? ae ciaia’ycoaaeeny
niea/oaaoe oea?aa? iiaeaoee, iaaeaaaoe a?enueeiao aeiiiiiao oiui. ?ioee
oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee — A’y/aneaa Eeieinueeee i?iiiio? aeoieo, ui oaiaea
1654 ?. aoea ia /ei ?ioei, ye eeoa oei/aniaei a?enueeiaei nithcii i?ae
Iineia??th oa Oe?a?iith.

Inoaii? oeoia/aiiy Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee noi?oue in?aii a?ae ?ioeo. O
1954 ?. i?ae /an ieoieo nayoeoaaiue 300-??//y oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeiai
nithco a N?N? aoei iaieioaii (uii?aaaea, ia a/aieie, a Eiioi?noe/iith
ia?o??th ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco), ui Ia?ayneaanueea oaiaea noaea
eoeuei?iaoe?eiei iiiaioii o a?eiaiio i?aaiaii? oe?a?ioe?a oa ?in?yi aei
aicc’?aeiaiiy ? ui aicc’?aeiaiiy oeeo aeaio ia?iae?a aoei iniiaiith
iaoith iianoaiiy 1648 ?. Ca io?oe?eiith ?aaeyinueeith oai???th, aaee/
Oiaeueieoeueeiai iieyaa? a eiai ?icoi?ii?, ui „ii?yooiie oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo iiaeeeaee eeoa a ?aeiino? c aaeeeei ?in?enueeei ia?iaeii”.
Uii?aaaea, a na?aaeei? 1960-o ?ie?a i?eiaeii? iaeei ?aaeyinueeee o/aiee
— Ieoaeei A?ae/aanueeee, i?aeaeaa oeae iiaeyae noii?ao (i?ney oeueiai
oea aoee eaoano?io?/i? iane?aeee aeey eiai ea?’??e), iaeiae aeey an?o
?aaeyinueeeo o/aieo i?aeo?eiea ia?o?eii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaiaee eeoaeany
iaia’yceiaith.

Caaa?oaeueia noaae?y Aaeeeiai iianoaiiy

Iaeiei ?c ia?oeo iane?aee?a Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee noaea ?aaeeeaeueia
ci?ia iie?oe/ieo nithc?a o ?aa?ii?. O a?aeiia?aeue ia aeiaia??
Oiaeueieoeueeiai c oea?ai iieyee e oaoa?e ia’?aeiaee neee, ii/aaoe iiaee
aoai a?eie. Iaaani? 1654 ?. Iineianueea a?enueei, i?aeo?eiaia 20 oen.
eicae?a ia /ie? c Aaneeai Cieioa?aieii, anooieei aei A?ei?on??,
a?aeaeaoe o iieye?a cia/io /anoeio oa?eoi???. I?ci?oa, ainaie, ai?
ia?ai?noeeeny o I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeio Oe?a?io. Ia ca’ycai? oaia? i?yeeie
ciaia’ycaiiyie ia?aae oe?a?ioeyie, oaoa?e iauaaeii nionoiooaaee e?ae.
Aeieeaaeiee iien oeueiai eeoa iiaea?oueny a ?aii?o? iaeiiai iieuenueeiai
eiiaiaee?a: „Ca ii?ie i?ae?aooieaie, /enei naieo eeoa ia?oaeo iaiiaeyo,
ciaeaeaieo ia aei?iaao oa o caieo, nyaioei 10 oeny/. ss iaeacaa iioiaaoe
?o o iie?, ? a iaei?e iiaee? aoei a?eueoa 270 o?e. On?i iaiiaeyoai ca
a?eii aoei iaioa ?ieo, ai noa?oeo iiaiaee o iaaieth. A?oie aoe?e?eeo
naeyi aeoeathoue, iieaeoth/e nai? ai?a”. I?ae /an ai?iieo ae?e noaany
aeiaaeie, ui oa?aeoa?eco? anth aino?ioo eiioe?eoo. A aeiaoi? 1654 ?.
ia?aaaaeath/? neee iieye?a ocyee a iaeiao eicaoeueeo oi?oaoeth Aooo,
aeieueee a?eueoo /anoeio caeiae e io-io iaee iaieiae?oe caieii. O oeth
ieoue aaeiaa aaeoiai eicaoeueeiai aaoaaeea Caa?niiai i?aeiaeeea
ii?ioiaee iia??a, aenaaeeaoe a iia?o?y naaa, caeeoee caeiae e /eiaei
aoaeoth/eo iieye?a. Oiane?aeie aei?noieeo ai?a ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?
niethiae?iaaieie e oaeoe/ii aacethaeieie eaaeaee o? iaaeaaii
eieii?ciaai? caie?, ui aeinyaee cia/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Iauanoy oa ?ic?ooa ioiieee e Iieueuo. Ae?oeo 1655 ?., nei?enoaaoenue
a?eiith, yeo aaee iieyee ia i?aaei? oa noiae?, oaaaee iaiaee c i?aii/?,
ieoioaaaoe aaeeeo /anoeio Iieueu?. Caoiieaia oaaaeaie, ?in?yiaie oa
oe?a?ioeyie ??/ Iiniieeoa io-io iaea ?icaaeeoeny. Iieuenuee? ?noi?eee
/anoi iaceaathoue oeae ia??iae Iioiiii. Caoa aeey Oiaeueieoeueeiai anooi
aei eiioe?eoo oaaae?a aoa ia/a ye Aiaeee ia?no, ui iaaeaaaa eiio iia?
aeeieiiaoe/i? oa a?enueeia? iiaeeeaino?.

Iacaaa?ii oaaaenuee? oa oe?a?inuee? aeeieiiaoe aaea iaaiai?thaaee
i?iaaaeaiiy ni?eueieo iioiae?a i?ioe iieye?a, a oaaaee iiia?oeyee
aeiiiiiaoe Oiaeueieoeueeiio o noai?aii? Ee?anueeiai eiyc?anoaa. O 1656
?ioe?, a?ae/oaath/e iaieio/a iaae?iiy ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, ?ioee non?ae —
Aai?a? ?aeioe? Naieai?iaenueeee, oaeiae caa?ioany aei aaoueiaia. ?acii
aiie a/eieee ni?eueiee iio?ae ia Iieueuo c iaoith ?? iiae?eo.
Nie?ath/enue ia oaeo iiaooith i?aeo?eieo, Oiaeueieoeueeee caeiya
aaceiii?ii?nio iiceoe?th uiaei iieye?a, iaiieyaath/e ia oiio, uia i?ae
eiai aeaaeo ia?aeoee an? oe?a?inuee? caie?, aeeth/ath/e Aaee/eio oa
Aieeiue. I?ioa ii?yae ?c iiaeie iiaeeeainoyie oaaaee noai?thaaee aeey
aaoueiaia e oneeaaeiaiiy. I?aaio/e caanoe aeaai? ?aooiee, aiie ?icii/aee
a?eio c Iineia??th. Oiaeueieoeueeee iieieany o aeae?eaoi?e neooaoe??,
eiee eiai noa?ee nithciee aith? c eiai iiaei nithcieeii. Iai?oaeaiiy o
noinoieao i?ae oe?a?ioeyie ? iineiaeoaie noaei ae?eaaoeny iaciai?.
?ici?uaiiy o Ee?a? oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo i?noao iineianueeeo caeia, a
oaeiae ao?o/aiiy oea?nueeeo /eiiaiee?a o o?iainia? ni?aae oe?a?ioe?a
aeeeeeaee caiaiiei?iiy eicae?a. Ai?iaeia/a i?ae nithcieeaie oaeiae
aeieeea o uieii caaieiaai?e A?ei?on??, aea ianaeaiiy ia??aeei aie?ei
iaoe eicaoeueeo nenoaio i?aae?iiy, a ia iineianueeo, e i?enyaaei ia
a??i?noue aaoueiaiia?, a ia oea?aa?. Ciaaaiiy iaei??? ?on? (oe?a?ioe?a)
?c ae?oaith (iineiaeoaie) ca aeaaeo iaae o?aoueith (a?ei?onaie) o?ioe ia
ni?e/eieeiny aei a?aee?eoi? a?eie, ? ia?o i?ae iineiaeoai aaeaeiny
aeo?nieoe eicae?a ?c oeueiai e?ath, ieioa aeayeee /an.

Aea iaea?eueoo ethoue oe?a?inueei? noa?oeie aeeeeeaei oeeaaeaiiy o
A?eueithn? a 1656 ?ioe? ie?o i?ae iineianueeei oea?ai ? iieyeaie aac
onyei? ia oa caiaee oe?a?ioe?a; a?eueoa oiai, niaoe?aeueii iineaio
oe?a?inueeo aeaeaaaoe?th iaa?oue ia aeiionoeee aei ia?aaiai??a.
Iiaithth/enue, ui iineiaeoe i?eianooue o aea?oao oe?a?inuee? ?ioa?ane,
aaoueiai ? eicaoeuee? iieeiaieee a?aee?eoi caeioaaoeee oea?y o c?aae? e
ii?ooaii? Ia?ayneaanueei? oaiaee. O ?icae?aoiaaiiio eeno? aei oea?y
Oiaeueieoeueeee ii??aithaaa iiaaae?ieo iineiaeo?a c iiaaae?ieith
oaaae?a: „Oaaaee — ethaee /ano?: iiia?oeyaoe ae?oaeao ? nithc, aiie
aeio?eiothoueny neiaa. I?ioa oea?, oeeaaoe ia?aie?’y c iieyeaie ? iath/e
iai?? iiaa?iooe ian a ?oi? ?oee, a/eiea c iaie aacna?aea/ii”. Ne?aeii ca
oeei ?ic/a?oaaiiyi i?eeoee ?io?. Ia’?aeiaiee
oe?a?inueei-naieai?iaenueeee iio?ae ia Iieueuo cae?i/eany eaoano?io?/iei
i?iaaeii, a iacaaeiaieaia eicaoeoai a/eieei caeieio, caeioaaoeaoe o
ii?acoe? aaoueiaia. 4 aa?aniy 1657 ?ioe?, o?aaeaiee ca?noeith i?i
ii?aceo, oyaeei oai?ee Oiaeueieoeueeee iiie?a? a *eae?ei?.

Aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe aieea, ui eiai ni?aaea ia ia?aa?a oe?a?inueei?
?noi??? Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee. Oe?a?inuee?, ?in?enuee? oa iieuenuee?
?noi?eee ii??aiththoue eiai caeiaooee c aeinyaiaiiyie oaeeo a?aaio?a
XVII noie?ooy, ye Ie?aa? E?iiaaeue a Aiae?? oa Aaeaiooaei o Aiaai??. A
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, i?enay/aieo aaoueiaiia? oa eiai aeia?, /anoi
iaaieioo?oueny ia eiai ai?ii? caeiaoaaoe oae aaaaoi, iath/e oae iaei.
Oiaeueieoeueeee a?aeiiaeth? oe?a?inueeee iie?oe/iee i?aai?ci oai, aea
a?i aeaaii ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe, noai?th? iiaooi? aenieii?aai?ciaaia
a?enueei c th?ae iaea?iaaiiai naeyinoaa ? eicae?a; o aou? ia?iaeo,
c?aaeaeaiiai noa?ith aa?o?aeith, a?i ciaoiaeeoue ? cao?oiao? aeiaeiea
naaa iiaeo ae?yeueieo aaoaaee?a. ?, ui iaeaaaeeea?oa, o noni?euenoa?,
iicaaaeaiiio aiaaiaiino? a nia? e ae?aciiai a?ae/oooy naiiaooiino?, a?i
a?ae?iaeaeo? ii/oooy ai?aeino? e ??oo/?noue ai?iieoe nai? ?ioa?ane.
I?eeeaaeii aaee/acieo ci?i a oe?a?inuee?e na?aeiiino?, aei yeeo
ni?e/eieany Oiaeueieoeueeee, ? neiaa i?inoiai eicaoeueeiai nioieea,
caa?iai? aei aenieiai iieuenueeiai o?yaeieea: „A ui aaoa iee?noue ienaa
aei ian iaaeaai?ie /anaie, ui iai i?inoei ethaeyi, ia aiaeeoueny aei
ai?aiae a?aiio ienaoe, oi ie ca eaneith Aiaeith oaia? ia ? i?ino?, aea
eeoea?? A?enueea Caii??cueeiai… Aiaea aeae, uia caei?ia aoa iai
Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee, aaoueiai onueiai A?enueea Caii??cueeiai. A iai
iieeiaiee o ian oaia? ca ai?aiaeo, a iai nioiee ca noa?inoo, a ioaiai
ai?iaeiaee ca noaeaeth!”.

C?icoi?ei, ui ia iieioee Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaaaea/?, iiieeee oa
i?i?aooiee. Oea e Aa?anoa/ei, e eaoano?io?/ia iieaeaanueea eaiiai?y, e
i?iaae ni?eueiiai eicaoeueei-naieai?iaenueeiai iioiaeo ia Iieueuo, e
ia?aoo?, iacaeaoi?noue cioneoe ye nithciee?a, oae ? ai?ia?a aeciaoe
oe?e?ni?noue Oe?a?ie. I?iaeio ca oe? iiieeee ?noi?eee e ienueiaiieee
eaaieeeny iieeanoe ia Oiaeueieoeueeiai. O na?aaeei? XIX noie?ooy aaoueei
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? Ieeiea Einoiia?ia aeoaaeya
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ca oa, ui a?i onoaiiaea ca’ycee c ?in??th e caeeaeaa
eiio caeoe?ni? ciineie c oo?eaie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae iueiai aai?aeueiee oe?a?inueeee iiao Oa?an Oaa/aiei
aei??eaa Oiaeueieoeueeiio ca oa, ui oie a?aeaeaa Oe?a?io i?ae
caa?oi?noue ?in??. Ua aino??oa e?eoeeoaaa Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?ioee
aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee ieneeoaeue XIX noie?ooy — Iaioaeaeiii Eoe?o — ca
oa, ui oie i?aeoi caii/aoeoaaa aeiao nia?o?, ?ic?ooe, aia?o?? oa
eoeueoo?iiai caiaiaaeo ia Oe?a?i?. O XX no. Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee
aeneiaethaaa noii?ae uiaei iayaiino? o Oiaeueieoeueeiai /?oei ie?aneaieo
oe?eae, aeiaiaey/e, ui a/eiee aaoueiaia aecia/aeeny nei??oa ianoaaeiaie,
a ia iaaiaee. I?ioa a?eueo?noue aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a ia /ie?
c A’y/aneaaii Eeieinueeei ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aaoueiai iaiaaaany
caeeanoe i?aeaaeeie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? na?aeiii oa iine?aeiaii e
ui aac oeeo ni?ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae o iia?oi? /ane
aoei a iaiiaeeeaei. ?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee iaeiinoaeii noaaeththoue ae??
Oiaeueieoeueeiai, oi/ ? c ?ioeo i?e/ei. Aiie i?aee?aneththoue eiai ?ieue
ye i?ia?aeieea iianoaiiy i?eaiiaeaieo ian ?, iniaeeai — cae?eniaia iei
ia’?aeiaiiy (/e, ca ?oiueith oa?i?iieia??th, aicc’?aeiaiiy) Oe?a?ie oa
Iineia??.

Iacaeaaeii a?ae oiieiu?a iaoeiaeo ioe?iie oe?a?inueeee ia?iae caaaeaee
i?iyaeya ethaia aei «aaoueea Aiaaeaia». O na?aeiiino? aaee/acii?
a?eueoino? oe?a?ioe?a, ii/eiath/e c oeo /an?a aae aeioaia?,
Oiaeueieoeueeee caeeoa?oueny aaeeeei aecaieeoaeai, aa?i?/iith iinoaooth,
yea neeith nai?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? e ?icoio i?aeiyea ?o ?c
aaaaoia?eiaiai ia?ae?/o aacae?yeueiino? oa aaciaae?? e aeaaea ia oeyo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ca?eueiaiiy.

Aeniiaie

Na?aae oe?a?ioe?a ua aeanyoee?ooyie ii nia?o? Oiaeueieoeueeiai oi/eeeny
caiaee? noia?a/ee iaaeiei oeeo ieoaiue. Ianoaee /ane noni?eueiiai
?ica?aoo, /oaeicaiii? ?ioa?aaioe??, aeaeueoiai nionoioaiiy aaea
niethiae?iaaiiai e?ath. A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? o?aa?/iee
niaeoaeeue, a yeiio oe?a?ioe? ia?ioaaee aaee/acio aia?a?th e ??oo/?noue,
iaaoo? o iianoaii? 1648 ?ieo, a naiiaoaieo nooe/eao, yeei, caeaaaeiny,
ia aoaea e?ioey, /anoi iaceaathoue ?o?iith. *a?ac 20 ?ie?a i?ney nia?o?
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ia?aiiae iaae ni?eueiei ai?iaii aoee caaaeai?
iai?aaoeue iacaeaoi?noth oe?a?ioe?a ia’?aeiaoeny aeey aeinyaiaiiy
ni?eueii? iaoe. A ?acoeueoao? aoei ao?a/aii aaaaoiia?oeyth/o
iiaeeea?noue iie?oe/iiai naiiaecia/aiiy, noai?aio iianoaiiyi
Oiaeueieoeueeiai.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e

1. I?ano Noaoaeueiee. „Oe?a?ia. ?noi??y”. — Ee?a, 1993.

2. A. A. Niie?e. „?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Iiaa aa/aiiy”. — Ee?a, 1995.

3. I. Iieiinueea-Aaneeaiei. „?noi??y Oe?a?ie”. — 1995.

4. I. A?ooaanueeee. „?ethno?iaaia ?noi??y Oe?a?ie”. — 1913.

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