Iiiaoi? nenoaie aioe/iino?

Ienueiia? aeaea?aea oa a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
ia?o? iiiaoe c’yaeeeny o E?ae?? – ia ocaa?aaeae? Iaei? Ac?? ia ?oaaae?
VIII ? VII no. aei i.a., a aeaui i?ci?oa ii/aa ea?aoaaoe iiiaoe
a?ainueeee oea? O?aeii ia i. Aa?ia (? oaeiae ?io? aa?n?? i?i ii/aoie
ea?aoaaiiy iiiao). Iai?ee?ioe? VII – ia ii/aoeo VI no. aei i.a. aaea
aaaaoi a?aoeueeeo i?no ea?aoaaee nai? iiiaoe. A iniiao a?ioiai-iiiaoieo
iaeeieoeue aoee iieeaaeai? ni?euei? iaeaea aeey an?o a?ae?a aaaia?
iaeeieoe? oa ?o iacae: oaeaio, i?ia, noaoa?, ae?aoia, iaie. 1 oaeaio =
60 i?iai; 1 i?ia = 50 noaoa?ai; 1 ae?aoia = 6 iaieai; 1 iaie = 8 oaeeai;
1 oaee = 7 eaioai. Oaeaio (aooe/iee) = 26,196 ea a?ioiaiai iaoaeo; i?ia
= 436,6 a; ae?aoia = 4,37 a; iaie = 0,73 a. Oaeaio ? i?ia a?ae?a?aaaee
?ieue a?ioiai-e?/eeueieo iaeeieoeue, a caniaaie ia?ao (iiiaoaie) noaee
noaoa?, ae?aoia, iaie ? e?aoi? ?i, ia aeua a?ae 10 ae?aoie.
A?ae??ciythoue aeaa oeie a?aoeueeeo iiiaoieo nenoai – nenoaie,
iiaoaeiaai? ia noaoa??, ? nenoaie, iniiaiith a?ioiaith iaeeieoeath yeeo
aoea ae?aoia.

Iiiaoi? nenoaie, aeey yeeo iniiaiei iaoaeii aoei cieioi aai aeaeo?,
ia?aaaaeii aacoaaeeny ia noaoa??, a «n??ai?» iiiaoi? nenoaie – ia
ae?aoi?. Iiiaoi? nenoaie, iiaoaeiaai? ia aeaeo?? oa cieio?. (Aeiaeaoie
A5) [17]. Iaenoa??oith iiiaoiith nenoaiith aaaaea?oueny i?eaonueea (a?ae
i. I?eao) VII – ii/. V no. aei i.a. Iacaa noino?oueny aeaeo?iaeo iiiao
?ii?enueeiai ocaa?aaeaey (a Iae?e Ac??), yea ia?aaoaaei i?ae aeaaeith
e?ae?enueeeo oea??a. Noaoa? ca oe??th nenoaiith aaaeea aeecueei 14,25 a.
Ia eeoeaaiio aioe? iaea?eueo ?aii?o iiiao aa/eii i?ei?oeai? caaeeaeaiiy
cai?noue cia?aaeaiiy, i?ci?oa – ?i’y oea?y ? cia?aaeaiiy aieiae eaaa. Ia
cai?ioiiio aioe? /?oea cia?aaeaiiy a?aenooi?, ? eeoa ne?aee a?ae
iaoaeaaiai noa?aeiy o oi?i? o?ueio aoeniooeo i?yiieooiee?a. Ii?yae c
noaoa?aie aeaioiaeyeenue ?o iieiaeiee, aea /ano?oa – o?ao? /anoeie
(o??oa), oino? (aaeoa), aeaaiaaeoeyo? (aai?aaeoa), a i?ci?oa oaeiae ?io?
/anoeie ?c ciaiaiieeaie, e?aoieie 12, aae aei 1/96. I?ney iaaaeaeiai
iianoaiiy nithcieo a?aoeueeeo i?no Iaei? Ac?? i?ioe Ia?n?? 494 ?. aei
i.a. ? c?oeioaaiiy ia?naie I?eaoa oey nenoaia caiaiaea, oi/
iaeiac?enueea aeaeo?iaa ea?aoaaiiy o?eaaei e aeae?. Iaeaea ia?aeaeueii c
i?eaonueeeie noaoa?aie a ia?ao aoee cia/ii aaae/? noaoa?e – oieaenueei?
nenoaie (iacaa a?ae i. Oieay), ianith iiiaae 16 a (VII – 30-o? ?iee IV
no. aei i.a.). Ia eeoeaaiio aioe? oeeo iiiao aoa cia?aaeaiee otheaiue,
a?aoeueea iacaa yeiai a?aeiia?aeaea iaca? i?noa. Ca oe??th nenoaiith
ea?aoaaeeny aeaeo?ia? noaoa?e i. E?c?e, o.ca. e?c?e?ie, ye? a?ae?a?aaaee
aaaeeeao ?ieue o a?ioiaiio ia?ao Iaei? Ac?? ? an??? A?aoe??. Aiie iaee
iaaaeyea cia/aiiy ye can?a aaeeeeo ieaoaae?a o oi?a?aaeueieo iia?aoe?yo
? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aaaaonoaa. A na?aaeei? V no. aei i.a. iiiaoiee aea??
i. E?c?e noaa iaiiaae o?e??th ao?inueeiai iiiaoiiai aeai?o aeey
ea?aoaaiiy aeaeo?iaeo iiiao. ? eeoa cieio? iiiaoe Ieaenaiae?a
Iaeaaeiinueeiai aeo?nieee ?o c a?ioiaeo ?eie?a. E noaoa?a, a i. E?c?e
ea?aoaaeeny ua aaeoa ( /anoeia) ? ae??ai?o? /anoeie noaoa?a. E?c?e?ie
aoee iioe?ai? ia o?eueee o aanaei? Aaaenueeiai; Ia?io?iaiai ii??a, a e o
Iaeaaeii??, O?ae aanaei? *i?iiai ii?y, cie?aia i. Ieuea?y. Oe? iiiaoe
ciaoiaeyoue ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie. O?aoueith uiaei ?ioaineaiino? iioe?aiiy
ia oa?eoi??? Iaei? Ac?? aoea ia?nueea iiiaoia nenoaia. Iiia?aaeieeaie
iiiao oe??? nenoaie aoee o.ca. e?acia? noaoa?e, cieio? ? n??ai?.

Iaea?eueo ?aiiueith iiiaoiith nenoaiith A?aoe??, ui aacoaaeeny ia n??ae?
aoea aa?inueea nenoaia, aiia aeieeea iaeaea iaeii/anii c i?eaonueeith.
Ca iath ea?aoaaeeny ia?aaaaeii n??ai? noaoa?e (ae?ae?aoie = 2 ae?aoie)
ianith 12,14-14,55 a. Ia aaa?n? iiiao aoea cia?aaeaia nooiiooia /a?aiaoa
– aiaeaia i. Aa?ie. Ae?aoia (1/2 noaoa?a) ? iaio? iii?iaee (1/2,1/6,1/12
ae?aoie) nii/aoeo aeioneaeeny ??aeoa. Iiiaoe oe??? nenoaie aoee
?iciianthaeaeai? iica iaaeaie i. Aa?ia, cie?aia a Aooeoe?. Iai?ee?ioe?
VII ? a VI no. aei i.a. aeania ea?aoaaiiy ia iniia? aa?inueei? nenoaie
ii/aee E?eeaaenuee? ino?iae, a oaeiae aaaaoi i?no i?ai?/ii? ?
na?aaeiuei? A?aoe?? ? Iaeiiiiiana, Iaaa?a, Aaio?enueeee nithc i?no,
eoeueoia? oeaio?e Aeaeueoe oa Ie?ii?y. Aei ieo i?e?aeiaeeny
i?e/i?iiii?nuee? i?noa (Ieuea?y, Iaio?eaiae) [17, c.56-58].

Aaaaenueea iiiaoia nenoaia, aeaui iieiaeoa a?ae aa?inueei?, aoea
iioe?aia a Aooeoe? a?ae /ano ?aoi?ie Nieiia 594 ?. aei i.a. Aaea a?ae
na?aaeeie VI no. aei i.a. ca oe??th nenoaiith, iacaaiith
aaaaenueei-aooe/iith, ea?aoaaeeny oao?aae?aoie (= 4 ae?aoiai) ianith
17,44 a ? ae?aoie (4,36 a). C Aooeee aiia aoea ia?aianaia a Neoeee?th,
cie?aia a i. Ne?aeoce, ia ao?eeainueea ocaa?aaeaey ? ia i?ai?/ A?aoe??.
Iai?aia noaiiaeua a oiae?oiueiio aioe/iiio na?o?, aaea ye aooe/ia
iiiaoia nenoaia, aiia iin?ea a?ae /an?a Ieaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai
(336-323 pp. aei i.a.). An? ?eiee a?ae oiai /ano aoee iane/ai? cieioeie
noaoa?aie, iiaea?eieie noaoa?aie ? ae??aieie iiiaoaie, ia?aaaaeii
oao?aae?aoiaie ? ae?aoiaie aooe/ii? nenoaie. A?aeiia?aeii aei
oiai/aniiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aa?oino? cieioa ? n??aea (1:10), iaeei
cieioee noaoa? aei??aithaaa 20 n??aiei ae?aoiai, aai 5 oao?aae?aoiai
o??? ae nenoaie. C e?ioey VI no. aei i.a. ao?inuee? iiiaoe iaee iino?eia
cia?aaeaiiy: ia eeoeaaiio aioe? – aieiaa Ao?ie a ?ii?enueeiio oieii?, ia
cai?ioiiio – niaa. A?ae 336 ?. aei i.a. ia n??aieo iiiaoao Ieaenaiae?a
Iaeaaeiinueeiai eeoeaaee a?e i?noea cia?aaeaiiy Aa?aeea a eaa’y/?e
oe???, cai?ioiee – Caana ia o?ii?. I?ney nia?o? Ieaenaiae?a
Iaeaaeiinueeiai aeieeee iia? iiiaoi? oeie. I?ney caaithaaiiy A?aoe??
?eiii aooe/ia ae?aoia i?e??aithaaeany ca eo?nii aei ?einueeiai aeaia??y.
Ei?eionueea iiiaoia nenoaia aoea oioiaeia aaaaenuee?e, aea a?ae??ciyeany
a?ae ia? oei, ui noaoa? ianith 8,72 a iiae?eyany ia ia aea?, ye o
aooe/i?e, a ia o?e ae?aoie ? oiio iaeia ae?aoia aaaeeea 2,91 a. Noaoa?e
? ae?aoie Ei?eioa aeioneaeeny c e?ioey VII no. ? aae aei aee?i?noe/ii?
aiioe. Ia aaa?n? ei?eionueeeo iiiao cia?aaeaiee Iaaan, ia ?aaa?n? –
aieiaa Ao?ie a ei?eionueeiio oieii?. A V-IV no. aei i.a. ei?eionuee?
noaoa?e noathoue iaeiioe?ai?oeie iiiaoaie a cao?aei?e iieiaei?
a?aoeueeiai na?oo. A aee?i?noe/io aiioo ei?eionueea ae?aoia ciiao iaaoea
aaeeeiai cia/aiiy. Caaaeai? aeua iiiaoi? nenoaie aoee iniiaieie a
A?aoe?? oa aee?i?noe/ieo e?a?iao. Aiie ia aeathoue iiaiiai oyaeaiiy i?i
?icia?ooy a?aoeueeeo iiiaoieo nenoai. E??i ieo, ?nioaaee ?io?,
iai?eeeaae, o?i?e?enueea, o?inueea, ?iaeinueea. Iaeiae ciaiiy iniiaieo
nenoai aeiiiiaaa? ci???iooaaoeny a aeoaea neeaaeieo iiiaoieo nenoaiao
noa?iaeaaiuei? A?aoe?? [17, c.56-58].

E??i aeaeo?iaeo, cieioeo ? n??aieo iiiao, o noa?iaeaai?e A?aoe??
ea?aoaaeeny ua i?aei? iiiaoe oaee ? eaioa.

?einueea iiiaoia nenoaia oaeiae iaeaaeeoue aei aioe/ieo iiiaoieo nenoai.
Iniaeea?noth ?einueei? iiiaoii? ni?aae aoei oa, ui a i?e aaaeeeao e
naiino?eio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee i?aei? (a?iicia?) iiiaoe. A Na?aaei?e
?oae?? i?ae? niieiia?eo a?aeaiaeeeany ?ieue a?ioiaiai iaoaeo. A
i?a?noi?e/ieo iioiaaiiyo eiei ?oee iiia?eiai aoee ciaeaeai? oiaoee
iaia?iaeaii? i?ae?, o.ca. aes rude. I?ci?oa a ia?ao c’yaeeeny ceeoee
(a?onee) a?iice, iiaa?oith yeeo c /anii ii/aee icaeiaethaaoe i?ei?oeaiei
cia?aaeaiiyi aai i?iaiaioii, o.ca. aes signatum. Eiee ae o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? IV no. aei i.a. ii/aany aeione ?ei. iiiao, iaoaeii aeey ?o
aeaioiaeaiiy iineoaeeea o?aaeeoe?eia i?aeue (Aeiaeaoie 7). Caaaeyee
a?aoeueeei eieii?noai ea?aoaaiiy iiiao iioe?eeinue c A?aoe?? ia
Neoeee?th, I?aaeaiio ?oae?th, yeo iaceaaee oiae? Aaeeeith A?aoe??th.
Ooo, aei ?a/?, aoee iioe?ai? n??ai? noaoa?e, o.ca. ?einueei-eaiiainuee?
iiiaoe ianith 6,82 a, ui noaiiaeee iaiiaae ia?ao?aeiee aoai aei
ea?aoaaiiy ?ei. iiiao. Ia?o? ?ei. iiiaoe (aaeee? e?oae? eeo?
e?oaeaeueoey c i?ae?, a?iice) ii/aee aeaioiaeyoe ae. 338 ?. aei i.a. ia
iniia? i?eeiyoi? a ?ei? ? Na?aaei?e ?oae?? oi?aiaaeueii? nenoaie aaa.
Iaeeieoeath iane aoea e?a?a – ?einueeee ooio, ? oiio ia?oa iiiaoa an –
aaaeeea oe?eee ooio ? iaceaaeanue anii e?a?aeueiei (oea ia ooio o 327,4
a, ui caiaeii aoa iieeaaeaiee a iniiao an??? iiiaoii? ni?aae, a eaaoee –
272,88 a, caaiee inueeei ooioii). An, ye ? oi?aiaee ooio, iiae?eyany ia
12 oioe?e. E??i ana, aeioneaeeny e iaio? iii?iaee: nai?n, o???in,
eaaae?ain, naenoain, oioe?y, a oaeiae /anoeie oioe??.

Eiee ae. 269 ?. aei i.a. ii/aeiny ea?aoaaiiy ?einueeeo n??aieo iiiao
(ieoaiiy i?i ii/aoie ea?aoaaiiy ia?oeo ?einueeeo i?aeieo ? n??aieo
iiiao, a oaeiae ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i ua e aein? aeeneooothoueny), an
? iaio? iii?iaee aaea ia a?aeeeaaeeny, a ea?aoaaeeny, i?e/iio iana ana
oeyoii naenoa?ii? ?aaeoeoe?? (ciaioaiiy iane iiiaoe aei oinoi? /anoeie
iiia?aaeiuei? aaee/eie) aoea ciaioaia aei 54,59 a (327,45:6). A?aeoiae?
any ?einueea iiiaoia ni?aaa aacoaaeany ia iaeiaeia?e iniia?. N??aiee
aeaia??e aaaeea 4,55 a (1/72 ?ei. ooioa) ? i?noea o nia? 10 an?a.
Iaeii/aniee ia?a n??aieo ? i?aeieo iiiao nie?aany ia oiae?oi?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aa?oino? oeeo iaoae?a ye 120:1, ui a?aeiia?aeaei oe?i?
iaoae?a o oi?a?ae?. E??i aeaia??y, ea?aoaaeeny c? n??aea ea?ia??e,
nanoa?oe?e ? a?eoi??ao.

O 217 ?. aei i.a. a?aeaoeany ?aoi?ia, ca yeith iana aeaia??y ciaioeeany
aei 3,9 a (1/84 ooioa), iana ana aei iaei??? oioe?? – 27,28 a.
Ci?ieeinue ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaia???i ? anii. Aeaia??e i?noea oaea
ia 10, a 16 an?a ? oiio ea?ia??e aei??aithaaa 8, a nanoa?oe?e – 4 anai.
A oeeo oiiaao (ao??oaee) = 400 anai (a?iica). Ca /an?a Ia?iia (54-68)
iana aeaia??y cieceeany aei 3,41 a (1/96 ooioa), a ao?aona – aei 7,28 a
(1/45 ooioa). Aiaeii/an ii/aeinue ? inoaaiiy aenieii?iaieo aein? n??aieo
iiiao. Aeiaeaaaiiy aei n??aea iaio oe?iieo iaoae?a (i?ae?) i?ecaaei aei
oiai, ui i?ae e?iaoeue II no. o n??ai?e iiiao? aoei eeoa 50% /enoiai
n??aea, a a ae?oa?e iieiaeo III no. – ua iaioa. *anoi na?oeaaeia iiiaoe
aoea i?aeiith, eeoa caa?oo ae?eoa oiieei oa?ii n??aea. Oea aoei
io?oe?eiei oaeueooaaiiyi iiiao. ?iia?aoi? Ea?aeaeea 214 ? c?iaea ni?iao
ci?oeieoe a?ioiaa ainiiaea?noai, aeioneath/e o.ca. aioii?i?aie, aea aiie
ia iaee oni?oo /a?ac oaeaeea inoaaiiy. Aeayea noaa?e?caoe?y a ?einuee?e
a?ioia?e ni?aa? a?aeaoeany ca Einoyioeia ?. A?ae 314 ?. a?i cai?iaaaeea
o cao?aei?e iieiaei? ?iia???, a a?ae 324 ?. ii an?e ?iia??? ea?aoaaiiy
cieioiai nie?aea ianith 4,4 a (1/72 ooioa), yeee noaa iniiaiith iiiaoith
? e?/eeueiith iaeeieoeath an??? aea?aeaae. E??i nie?aea, ea?aoaaeeny
eiai iieiaeiee – nai?ne ? o?ao? /anoeie – o??aine (o?ai?ne). ?c n??aea
ca /an?a Einoyioeia ea?aoaaeeny i?e?a??n?e, ui ca oe?ii?noth
aei??aithaaa 1/1000 cieioiai ooioa, ? n?e?eaa = 1/1728 ooioa. I?ci?oa,
cie?aia o A?caio??, n?e?eaa aoea iieeaaeaia a iniiao a?ioiai? e?/ae
[17,c. 49-56].

Iiiaoi? nenoaie aeiae na?aaeiueia?//y ? Iiaiai /ano

Ea?aoaaiiy iiiao ca aeiae na?aaeiueia?//y ? Iiaeo /an?a aeine?aeieee
iiae?eythoue ia o?noue iniiaieo aoai?a (ia??iae?a).

Ia?oee ia??iae – ia??iae aa?aa?nueeiai ea?aoaaiiy. O?iiieia?/ii ioiieth?
V – na?aaeeio VIII noie?oue iaoi? a?e ? iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy iaaoei a
ei?ie?anoaao Eaiaiaa?ae?a, o?aie?a, aea?aeaa? aiaeinaen?a. A iniia?
a?ioiaiai ia?ao oeeo caiaeue – i?ciuei?einuee? aai ?aiiueia?caio?enuee?
iiiaoi? aeionee (ea?aoaaiiy ?c cieioa). Ai?n?? ?o aoee iacia/i?,
ine?eueee a?eueoa cia/aiiy aiie a?ae?a?aaaee o iie?oeoe?, ai?ae a
aeiiii?oe?.

Cae?i/aiiy ia?oiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi oaino a
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao. A oea aeiaaaei aii?yaeeoaaiiy a?ioiaeo
a?aeiinei, yea a?aeaoeiny o ae?oaiio ia??iae?.

Ae?oaee ia??iae (na?aaeeia VIII – X no.) – ia??iae ea?ie?icueeiai
aeaia??y.

Iiiaoia ni?aaa a aea?aeaa? Ea?ie?ia?a ?aaeaiaiooaaeany ie?aieie noaooyie
Aa?iiinueeiai (755 p.), Iaiooainueeiai (781 p.), O?aieoo?onueeiai,
Othia?euenueeiai (805 ?.) eai?ooey??a I?i?ia Ei?ioeiai (751 – 768) oa
Ea?ea Aaeeeiai (768 – 814). Iniiaiith iiiaoith, ca?aeii c Aa?iiinueeei
eai?ooey???i, aoea cieioa iiiaoa, ?ici?iiith – n??aia. Ca Iaiooainueeei
eai?ooey???i, aaaa aeaia??y (ye iniiaii? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe?)
ca?eueoeeanue aei 3,3 a. Othia?euenueeee eai?ooey??e (805 ?.)
?aaeaiaiooaaa ae?yeuei?noue iiiaoieo aeai??a.

?aeei? i?aaeea ? ii?ie uiaei ciai?oiueiai ioi?ieaiiy iiiao
cai?iaaaeaeaii c i?eeiyooyi I???nueeiai aaeeeoo. C oiai /ano an?o
iiiaoa??a ia aaa?n? aoei ciaia’ycaii ai?uoaaoe ei?ie?anueeo iiiia?aio,
ia ?aaa?n? – cia?aaeaiiy o?anoa, iaaeiei yeiai – iacao i?noey ea?aoaaiiy
iiiao.

Ea?e II iaaeaaaa i?aai iiiaoii? ?aaae?? aeooiaiei oaiaeaeai – i?noai
Aacainiio, Ae?aeiio, Noaniio. Ea?ie?icueea aeeiano?y i?aaeea aei 987
?ieo o O?aioe??, o I?ia//ei? – aei 911-ai.

O?ao?e ia??iae (X – na?aaeeia XIII no.) – ia??iae oaiaeaeueiiai
aeeia??y.

O O – XI noie?ooyo oi?iothoueny iia? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie. ?nio?
iaiao?aei?noue iai?io i?ae i?noii ? naeii. Aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaoaa?
aioo??oi?e ?eiie. O ??cieo aea?aeaaao ?a?iie (*ao?y, I?ia//eia,
Neiaa//eia, Aiae?y) i?ioyaii IX – XII no. aeyaeaii aaeee? iieeaaee
n??aea, ui, aacoiiaii, ni?eyei ?icaeoeo iiiaoii? ni?aae. A Aiae??,
iai?eeeaae, ia?o? iiiaoe aoei a?aeea?aiaaii ei?ieai Aaeaa?ii (957 –
976). Ia oie /an a Aiae?? aoei 80 iiiaoieo aeai??a. O I?ia//ei? ei?ieai
i?ney Ea?ie?icueei? aeeiano?? noaa Eii?aae ?, yeee caii/aoeoaaa
ea?aoaaiiy ioai?iaa, yeee caiaeii ia?aoai?eany o ?aa?iiaeueio
iaeeieoeth. O O?aioe?? i?ney aeeiano?? Ea?ie?ia?a i?aaeoue Eaiiao?inueea
aeeiano?y (X – XIII no.). Ia oa?eoi??? O?aioe?? iniiaiith iiiaoith aoa
aeeia??e – aeaiue? (n??aei, aaaa – 1,2 — 1,3 a) [6].

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oiai /ano aoei oaeueooaaiiy iiiao. O ca’yceo c
oeei i?iaiaeeeanue ?aiiaaoe?y, a oiae? yei? ianaeaiiy aeaii? e?a?ie
iiaeiii aoei caeaoe noa?? iiiaoe a iai?i ia iia? (12 noa?eo aeeia??a
iai?ithaaee ia 9 iiaeo).

O XII no. o a?ioiaiio ia?ao c’yaeythoueny a?aeoaaoe, ye? ea?aoaaeenue
iaeiei ooaiiaeai. ?o ea?aoaaee a on?o ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao. A oiiaao
a?ioiaiai oaino a ?a?ii? aaeee? iiiaoi? oaiaeaee ia’?aeioaaeenue o oae
caai? iiiaoi? nithce. 1386 ?ieo aoei noai?aii ia?oee iiiaoiee nithc i?ae
iacaith «Nithc ?aeinueeeo eo?oth?no?a», iaoith yeiai aoea noaa?e?caoe?y
a?ioiai? nenoaie a oe?eiio, a a?ioia? iaeeieoe? – cie?aia.

Aei XIII no. ia ?nioaaei caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei? iiiaoe. Oa?aeoa?
aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?a?iie iio?aaoaaa e?oiii? iaeeieoe?,
yea a noaea caaaeueiei i??eeii aa?oino?. Ia?oith ni?iaith aeaioiaeoe
oaeo a?ioiao iaeeieoeth noaei ea?aoaaiiy aeeia??y (aaaa – 0,82 a) o 1162
?ioe? o I?eai? ?iia?aoi?ii ?einueei? ?iia??? O??ae??oii II Aa?aa?innith.

*aoaa?oee ia??iae (na?aaeeia XIII – ii/aoie XVI noie?oue) – ia??iae
a?ioa ? oei?eia.

Ia iaae? XIII ? XIV noie?oue ?icii/aany i?ioean aii?yaeeoaaiiy a?ioiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa e?a?i ?a?iie. Aieiaea?? oeaio?ae?ciaaieo oaiaeaeueieo
iiia?o?e, ye? a oeae /an oi?ioaaeeny, aoee caoe?eaaeai? a noae?e ?aeei?e
iiiao?, yea aeeeeeaea a aeia??’y ia aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oiueiio ?eieao.
Ia ci?io ai?n?ei?e noeo??, ui i?ecaaea aei iiyae aeoaea oiieeo, i?ca?ii?
aaaa ? aa?oino? a?aeoaao?a, i?eoiaeeoue oe?eani?yiiaaia o?iainiaa
iie?oeea, aiane?aeie yei? c’yaey?oueny iiaiiaa?o?nia aaeeea iiiaoa
(aaaith 1 – 4 a). Iia? iiiaoe, ia a?aei?io a?ae oiieeo a?aeoaao?a, aoee
oae ? iacaai? – a?io? (eao. grossus – aaeeeee; nummus grossus, denarius
grossus – aaeeea iiiaoa, aaeeeee aeaia??e) – n??aia iiiaoa aa?o?noth a
e?eueea aeaia???a, yeo ii/aee ea?aoaaoe iai?ee?ioe? XII no. a
?oae?enueeeo i?noao ? aeioneaee eeoa e?aoi? /enea: 4, 6, 12, cie?aia, a
Aaio? (1172), Oei?aioe?? (1182), Aaiaoe?? (ae. 1200 p.). Ia i?ioeaaao
oiai/aniei «iaeei» aeaia??yi (??nni??) oe? iiiaoe iaceaaeeny ii-?oae.
grosso. A?eueo /?oeiai aecia/aiiy iiiyooy A. iaaoei 1266 p., eiee
o?aioeocueeee ei?ieue Ethaeia?e IX ii/aa ea?aoaaoe a i. Oo? cia/ii
a?eueo? a?ae aeaia???a n??ai? iiiaoe «grossi Turonenses» (a??o
Oo?nueeee),, aai «Turonenses». O ioi?ciaoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ca ieie
cae??ieeanue iacaa «oo?iice», iana iiiaoe a na?aaeiueiio ae. 4,20 a
n??aea 958-? i?iae. Oo?iice aoee aea?aaeaioii 12 aeaia???a, ui
aei??aithaaei oiae?oi?e e?/eeuei?e iaeeieoe? – nie?aeia?. Oo?nuee? a?io?
oaeaeei iioe?eeeny o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?, ?o iane?aeoaaiiy ea?aoaaee a
I?aea?eaiaeao, I?ia//ei? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao i?ae ??cieie iacaaie (a?i,
a?ini, a?io, a?ioae). Ia?oee aiae?enueeee n??aiee a??o a?aeea?aoaaa
ei?ieue Aaeoa?ae ? (1272 – 1307). Eiai iacaa – a?ioo, aaaa – 5,2 a ?
aei??aithaaa a?i 4 iaii? oa ?o ea?aoaaiiy o?eaaei iaaeiaai. Ai?no n??aea
a a?io? aoa iaiaeiaeiaei ? iaaieiii ciaiooaaany aiane?aeie inoaaiiy
iiiao. Iiyaa a?io?a, iniaeeai oo?iic, aeaea ii/aoie iiaiio ia??iaeo
a?ioiaiai ia?ao a ?a?ii? (i?ney ia??iaeo aeaia???a) [14].

O Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? ea?aoaaiiy iiae?aieo iiiao, o.ca. a?io?a
i?acueeeo, ?icii/aeiny o *ao?? ae. 1300 p. *anueea ei?ie?anoai, ui
aoiaeeei aei neeaaeo Nayuaiii? ?einueei? ?iia???, aoei iaeiei c oeo
ei?ie?anoa, aea ia aenieiio ??ai? aoea ?icaeiooa iiiaoia ni?aaa. Oeueiio
ni?eyee aaeee? iieeaaee n??aea a ?aeii? i?noa/ea Eooia Ai?a. I?acuee?
a?io? ea?aoaaee aei 1547-ai. Aiie iaee cia/iee aieea ia a?ioiaa
ainiiaea?noai ia eeoa *ao??, a e non?aei?o e?a?i. I?acuee? a?io?,
iacaaaeath/e ia iia??oaiiy ?o yeino? ca Aaoeeaaa IV, aoee aieiaieie
iiiaoaie a ia?ao ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo o XIV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no.
I?acuee? a?io? cai?ieee a?aeoaaoe, ea?aoaaiiy yeeo aaeiny ia aaaaoueio
iiiaoieo aeai?ao. Ii/aoeiai i?acuee? a?io? ea?aoaaeenue o e?eueeino? 64
oo. c a?eaie i?acueei? (ia?ee) n??aea. Caaaeueia iana – 3,955 a, 937,5-?
i?iae, ai?no /enoiai n??aea – 3,708 a. Iaeiae c /anii ai?no /enoiai
n??aea, i?iaa iaoaeo oa iana iiiaoe iino?eii ciaiooaaeenue. Ia?oa
iia??oaiiy yeino? i?acueeiai a?ioa a?aeaoeiny aaea 1311 p., eiee ai?no
/enoiai n??aea a iiiao? ciaioeany aei 3,41-3,34 a. O 1340-1346 pp. a?i
noaiiaea 3,18-3,06 a, o 1360-1378 pp. – 2,7-2,4 a, ca Aaoeeaaa IV)
(1378-1419) – 1,83-1,66 a, ca Aeaaeeneaaa ?? (1471-1516) – aei 0,85.

Ea?aoaaiiy i?acueeiai a?ioa ?icii/aeiny o I?ac?, a caiaeii o i. Eooia
Ai?a. Ca iaioaaiiy Ethaeia?ea ? aoei oaeiae a?aee?eoi iiiaoiee aea?? o
i. Eiaoeinoaeue. I?eioneathoue, ui oey iiiaoa ?i?ooaaeany ? o E?aeia? –
ia ii/aoeo XIV no., a caiaeii, aaea ye iane?aeoaaiiy, a ?iee i?aae?iiy
Eaceie?a III (1333-1370). Onueiai c 1300 aei 1547 pp. aoei aeiouaii ae.
1 ie?ae. i?acueeeo a?ioae. Aiie ia?aaoaaee ia a?ioiaiio ?eieo aaaaoueio
e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie – I?ia//eie, Iieueu?, Oai?ueie,
Iieaeiae, Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on?, Eeoae oa ?i., aea aeeiioaaee ooieoe??
i?aeia?iaeieo a?ioae. Ia?o? caaaeee i?i ieo o N?eac?? oa Iieueu?
aeaoothoueny 1300 p., a a?ae 1308-1320 pp. aiie cono??/athoueny aaea
iino?eii. A aeoiaeo aeieoiaioao cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?acuee?
a?io? o?ao?othoue ye Grossi Pragenses, grossi Bohemicales, plaskie
grosze, magni grossi, «oe?ie? a?io?» oa ?i. *anoi i?acuee? a?io?
ciaoiaeyoue o neeaae? iiiaoieo nea?a?a. ?o i?enooi?noue ca?a?no?iaaia
i?eaeecii o 30% iiiaoieo eiiieaen?a oiai /ano, aeyaeaieo ia caieyo
Iieuenueeiai ei?ie?anoaa. Ua aeueie ? oe? iieacieee ia oe?a?inueeeo oa
a?ei?onueeeo caieyo. I?acuee? a?io? caiaeii noaee c?aceii aeey
ea?aoaaiiy iaeiioeiieo iiiao o ??cieo e?a?iao, iai?eeeaae, a?io?a
iieuenueeeo, a?io?a iaenainueeeo [14].

O iiaee ia??iae ?noi??? a?io – ?ici?iia iiiaoa c ??cieie eieaeueieie
aeiaeaoeiaeie aecia/aiiyie – noaiiaea nii/aoeo 1/21, aeae? 1/36 oa ?io?
/anoeie oaea?a. O 1654 ?. o ?in?? c’yaeany i?aeiee a?io, ui aei??aithaaa
2 eii?eeai. O XVIII – ia ii/aoeo XIX no. aaeeaaeanue ia?iaeia iacaa
a?ioa aeey iiiaoe a 2 eii?eee. O iao /an a??o ? ?ici?iiith iiiaoith
Aano??? (1/100 oee?iaa), Iieueu? (1/100 ceioiai) oa ?i. e?a?i.

O ia?o?e iieiaei? XIII no. aeey oi?o?eaoe?? iiiaoii? nenoaie aoei
noai?aii Oineainueeo iiiaoio e?ao, aei neeaaeo yei? aa?eoee i?noa Eoeea,
Oei?aioe?y, N??iia, I?ca. 1252 ?ieo a Aaio? aoei aeiouaii ia?oo cieioo
iiiaoo, yea iaceaaeany «aeaeaiia?ii» (aaaa – 3,52 a). O 1296 ?ioe? oe?
i?noa ii/aee ea?aoaaoe aaeeeo iiiaoo aaaith 2,7 a (i?iaa 958). 1285 ?ieo
cieioo iiiaoo ii/aea ea?aoaaoe Aaiaoe?y (aaaa – 3,56 a).

O 1360 ?ioe? aia?oa c’yaey?oueny o?aie. Aaaa cieioiai o?aiea – 3,78 a ?
aoa a?aeea?aiaaiee c oe?eueiaei i?ecia/aiiyi – aeey aeeoio
o?aioeocueeiai ei?iey ssia II Aeia?iai, ui iio?aiea o iieii o oiae?
Noie?oiuei? a?eie (1337 — 1453) [14;41].

A Aiae?? ia?oo ni?iao ea?aoaaoe cieioee iaii? aaaith 2,93 a, ui
aei??aithaaa 20 n??aiei iaii?, cae?enithaaa Aai??o III o 1257 ?ioe?.
Iaeaea iaeii/anii c oei?eiaie ii/aee ea?aoaaoe iiae? (o ia?aeeaae?
–»aeaai?iaei?») aaaith 9 a cieioa. Iiae? ea?aoaaee aei 1619 ?ieo. A
?a?ii? iiae? aoee i?aaeiaoii ianiaiai iane?aeoaaiiy. O XVI no. ?o
ea?aoaaee o I?aea?eaiaeao, ?in??, o XVII no. – Aeai??.

O 1526 ?ioe? ea?aoaaee cieio? e?iie, a o 1633-io ia ci?io e?ii?
?icii/aoi ea?aoaaiiy a?ia? (cieioa iiiaoa aaaith 8,47 a, ea?aiaaia ?c
cieioa, i?eaacaiiai c Aa?ia?).C a?aeiiaeaiiyi o XIII no. ianiaiai
cieioiai ea?aoaaiiy a ?a?ii? a?aeiiaeeany aiioa a?iaoae?cio (Aeiaeaoie
A9) [14;41].

I’yoee ia??iae (ii/aoie XVI – XIX no.) – ia??iae oaea?a.

O XV no. a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean inoaaiiy a?ioa. Oiio o a?ioiaiio
ainiiaea?noa? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV – ii/aoie XVI noie?oue ?icii/aeinue
ea?aoaaiiy iiai? a?ioiai? iaeeieoe? i?ae iacaith «oaea?». Iaei??th c
i?e/ei eiai iiyae a a?ioiaiio ia?ao aoee aaeee? ianooaae oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ia??iae aaeeeeo aaia?ao?/ieo a?aee?eoo?a (/a?ac
iia?aaoaaiiy iiaeo oa?eoi??e a ?a?iio iioe?eeany aaeeea e?euee?noue
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a). Oaea? (i?i. Taler, a?ae iacae i?noa
Ioachimstal) – aaeeea n??aia iiiaoa, aea?aaeaio cieioiai aoeueaeaia
(aeoeaoa), a?aeiia nii/aoeo i?ae iacaith aoeueaeaia??o aai aoeueaeeia?.
Ea?aoaaiiy iiiao oeueiai oeio ?icii/aa o 1484 ?. a?oeaa?oeia O??ieth
Nea?cioiae (1439-1496). Iana iiiaoe aei??aithaaea iaei?e oioe?? ?
noaiiaeea 31,83 a (29,232 a /enoiai n??aea) iaoaeo 937,5-? i?iae. Ia?o?
oaea? ea?aoaaeeny o iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?. O ca’yceo c oei, ui iiiaoa
ii/aoeiai iaea iaeiaeiao aa?o?noue ?c cieioei aoeueaeaiii (60
e?aeoea??a) ?? iaceaaee aoeueaeaia?io (i?i. Guldengroschen), aai
aoeueaeeia? (i?i. Guldiner). I?e/eiith iiyae aaeeei? iiaiioe?iii?
n??aii? iiiaoe aoei ciaoe?iaiiy ?ici?iieo iiiaoieo iii?iae?a, ye?
ia?aaoaaee ia ?eieo aei oeueiai /ano, ? iio?aaa ?eieo o e?oii?e n??ai?e
iiiao?. C?inoaiiy aeaeiaooeo n??aea a ?a?ii? (O??ieue, *ao?y, Naenii?y)
? aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoi?ee ea?aoaaiiy iiiao aeaee iiaeeea?noue i?enooieoe
aei aeioneo aaeeei? iiiaoe, yea caeeoaeany noaiaea?oii aeey
?a?iiaenueeeo n??aieo iiiao i?ioyaii /ioe?ueionio ?ie?a. Ianooiio ni?iao
cai?iaaaeeoe a ia?a n??aio iiiaoo ca aa?o?noth ??aio cieioiio aoeueaeaio
aoei cae?eniaii o Naenii??. Aa?oeia O??ae??o III (1486-1525) ?acii c
a?aoaie Aeueaa?oii oa Eiaaiii 1500 ?. cai?iaaaeea aoeueaeaia?ioai, ui
i?noea 27,41 a /enoiai n??aea. Oe?aae oeeo iiiao aoa cia/ii a?eueoei, ?
aiie a?ae?a?aee iaaio ?ieue ia a?ioiaiio ?eieo. A?ao Noaoai Oe?e ?acii
?c 7 a?aoaie, aeei?enoiaoth/e aaaao? iieeaaee n??aea, eiei 1518 ?. (a
niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaiaeyoueny e ?io? aeaoe ii/aoeo ai?n??)
caii/aoeoaaa o i?iao?inoaeue oe?ieiianooaaia ea?aoaaiiy n??aieo
aoeueaeai?a (aoeueaeaia?ioai?a) ca naeniinueeith iiiaoiith noiiith. C
1525 ?. ?o ii/aee iaceaaoe ?iao?inoaea?aie, a caiaeii i?inoi oaea?, ye?
aeioneaa a?ao Oe?e, a?aeii? oaeiae i?ae iacaith oe?eoaea?e (i?i.
Schlichtaler). Ae?iaieoeoai oeeo iiiao oaeaeei c?inoaei, 1528 ?. ?o aoei
aeiouaii 2,25 iei. oooe. Ca c?aceii naeniinueeeo aoeueaeai?a
?icii/aeanue ai?n?y oaea?a a ?ioeo i?iaoeueeeo aea?aeaaao, iai?eeeaae,
1518 ?. o a?aonoa? Iainoaeueae, i.Aeneaaai. Iiiaoia ?aoi?ia, iia’ycaia
?c iioe?aiiyi oaea?a, oaeaeei ioiieea anth I?ia//eio ? i?iaiaeeeanue
i?ae eiio?ieai ?iia?aoi?a. O 1524 ?. Ea?e V (1519-1556) o i. Ane?iaai?
cai?iaaaeea iiiaoiee noaooo, ca?aeii c yeei iniiaiith aaaiaith
iaeeieoeath n??aea noaea eaeueinueea ia?ea, c yei? ea?aoaaee 8 oaea??a
Iana iaeiiai oaea?a noaiiaeea 29,23 a (27,41 a /enoiai n??aea).
Ianooiiee noaooo Ea?e V i?eeiya o i.Aoanao?c? 1551 ?. Ca?aeii c iei aoei
cai?iaaaeaeaii oaea? ianith 31,18 a (27,49 a /enoiai n??aea), oiaoi c
eaeueinueei? ia?ee ea?aoaaee 7 1/2 oaea?a Iiaa iiiaoa, ui iaea?aeaea
iacao oaea?a ?iia??aeueiiai, ioe?ithaaeany o 72 e?aeoea?e.
?iia?aoi?nueeee aaeeeo i?eeiyee o? iiiaoi? naiueei?e, o aieiae?iiyo yeeo
ciaoiaeeeenue aaeee? iieeaaee n??aea, ?io? ae iaiaaaeeny caa?aaoe cieio?
aoeueaeaie ? i?aaioee aei anoaiiaeaiiy yeiiiaa iaioi? aa?oino? oaea?a
?ica?aeiino? i?eaaee aei aeaeaiiy 1559 ?. o i.Aoanao?c? iiaiai aaeeeoo,
yeee cai?iaaaeaeoaaa o i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e I?ia//ei?, Aano???, *ao??,
Oai?uei? eaaeee oaea? ianith 24,6 a (22,89 a /enoiai n??aea), ui
ioe?ithaaany o 60 e?aeoea??a. Iiiaoiei noaoooii 1566 p., i?eeiyoei o
i.Aoanao?c?, oaea? noaa ioe?ithaaoeny o 68 e?aeoea??a, iana eiai
noaiiaeea 29,23 a (25,99 a /enoiai n??aea). Oeae oei oaea?a aoei
cai?iaaaeaeaii o Naenii?? oa i?aaeaii?e I?ia//ei?. oaea? iiae?eyany ia
e?aeoea?e a Aano??? oa I?aaeaii?e I?ia//ei?, o I?ai?/i?e I?ia//ei? a?i
iiae?eyany ia a?io?. O ca’yceo c oei, ui a?io? aoee ??cii? iane oa
i?iae, oaea? i?a a?aeiia?aeaoe 20, 21, 24, 25, CI, 32, 36 ? iaa?oue 48
a?ioai. Iaaia e?euee?noue a?io?a noaiiaeea e?/eeueiee oaea? Iiiaoiee
nithc i?aaeaiiii?iaoeueeeo aea?aeaa o i.A?aeaiue 1857 ?. anoaiiaea
?aeeiee oaea? ?c ai?noii /enoiai n??aea 16,67 a. A?ioiaith ?aoi?iith
1871-1873 pp. o I?ia//ei? oaea? aoa i?e??aiyiee aei 3 cieioeo ia?ie. C
oeueiai /ano ?icii/aeiny eiai aeeo/aiiy c ia?ao. Inoaoi/ia
aeaiiiaoecaoe?y oaea?a ianoaea c 1907 ?. Iacaa oaea? caa?aaeany o aeaui
ci?iai?e oi?i? a iacaao a?ioiaeo iaeeieoeue aaaaoueio e?a?i na?oo; o
aiaeinaeniinueeeo – aeiea?, o Aieeaiae?? – aeaaeueaea?, o
neaiaeeiaanueeeo e?a?iao – aeaea?, a ?oae?? – oaea?i, o Iieueu? – oaea?
oiui (Aeiaeaoie A9) [14].

Ie?ai? ?a?iiaenuee? e?a?ie aeioneaee n??ai? iiiaoe oeio oaea?a i?ae
?ioeie iacaaie, iai?., ?niai?y (iani, i?ano?), O?aioe?y (aeth), Aiae?y
(e?iia), ?in?y (?oaeue). Oaea?e aoee iiioey?i? oaeiae o a?ioiaiio ia?ao
ia oe?a?inueeeo oa a?ei?onueeeo caieyo o XVI-XVIII no. Iioe?aiiy iaaoee
oaea?e Aieeaiaenueei? ?anioae?ee, ?ni. I?aea?eaiae?a, Nayuaiii?
?einueei? ?iia???. E??i oiai, oaea? aeei?enoiaoaaee ? ye e?/eeueio
iaeeieoeth ia o?eueee aeey na?aaei?o, a e aeey ae??aieo iiiao
(i?aoi?aee, a?io?, nie?aee). A ?in?? oaea?e aoee a?aeii? ye «?oeiee»
(ethanuee?, e?eaeia?, eaaeia?, iaoaaiie). N??ai? oaea?e aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeey ea?aoaaiiy ?in. iiiao. Eeoa iaeei ?ac, o 1655 p., T. aoee iouai? a
ia?a ye «?oeiee c i?eciaeii». Oaea?e ?iicaiiiai ea?aoaaiiy a?aee o/anoue
o a?ioiaiio ia?ao caiaeue Iieuenueei-Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae. O Iieueu?
ia?o? oaea?e iaaeaeueiiai oeio a?aeea?aiaoaaa ei?ieue Nea?cioiae ?
(1506-1548) 1533 ?. ia oi?oinueeiio iiiaoiiio aeai?? iaeiae ianooaae
ai?n?? aoee iacia/ieie. Caiaeii iiiaoe-iaaeae? oeueiai oeio aa?o?noth 30
a?io?a ? ianith 27,266 a aoee aeiouai? 1540 ?. o Aaeeeiio eiyc?anoa?
Eeoianueeiio. Iiiaoe-iaaeae? oeio oaea?a cai?iaaaeea 1547 ?. Nea?cioiae
II Aaaono (1545-1572). Caiaeii oeae aea aieiaea? o 1564-1565 pp.
aeionoea o.ca. i?aeiiee aa?o?noth 30 a?io?a. ?aaoey?io ai?n?th oaea?a
cai?iaaaeea 1580 ?. ei?ieue Noaoai Aaoi??e (1576-1586). oaea?e ei?iii?
aeioneaeenue o i.Ieueeoo, a oaea?e eeoianuee? – o i.A?eueii, ?o iana
noaiiaeea ae. 28,5 a (24,3 a /enoiai n??aea). Ca /an?a Nea?cioiaea III
(1587-1632) e??i cae/aeieo («aaaeeeo») oaea?e ea?aoaaee oaeiae «eaae?».
Ia eaaeeo, aai ceioiaeo oaea?ao, ai?uoaaeenue oeeo?e 30 (30 a?io?a = 1
cieioiio, aai 60 i?aa?ioai). Oe? iiiaoe iaceaaee oaeiae eiiiaeie, ?o
iana noaiiaeea ae. 20 a (ae. 12,5 a /enoiai n??aea). Aaaee?, aai
?iia??aeuei?, oaea?e iaee iano 28,8 a (25,2 a /enoiai n??aea). C ae?oai?
iieiaeie OOO no. iana ? i?iaa aaaeeeo oaea??a ii/aee ciaiooaaoeny. Ia
ii/aoeo XIX no. oaea? Aa?oaanueeiai aa?oeianoaa iaa iano ae. 23 a (16,5
a /enoiai n??aea). Iiiaae aeaa noie?ooy ye?noue ? aa?o?noue oaea?a aoee
noaa?eueieie, aea ae??ai? ?ici?ii? iii?iaee ciaoe?ithaaeeny, ? oiio ia
iaeei oaea? ?o eoei ana a?eueoa (1528 ?. oaea? aei??aithaaa 30
iieuenueeei a?ioai, iai?ee?ioe? XVI no. – 35,37 a?io?a, 1611 ?. ? 1619
?. – a?aeiia?aeii 40 ? 45 a?ioai; o 1620-1622 pp. ieaoeee 60-120 a?io?a,
o 1623-1627 pp. – 75-96 a?io?a. A ia??iae 1628-1663 pp. oe?ia oaea?a
noaa?e?coaaeany ia ??ai? 90 a?io?a. C 1664 ?. eo?n oaea?a c?inoaa ? ia
ii/aoeo XVIII no. aeinyaioa 8 ceioeo iieuenueeeo (240 a?io?a) a i?aeieo
iiiaoao (ai?aoeieao) (Aeiaeaoie A 10) [20].

Iaae oaoi?eith ea?aoaaiiy oaea??a i?aoethaaee a?aeii? ia oie /an
iaeno?e, ioiae, oea – aeniei?icaeiaia oaoiieia?y.

Oeueiio oaeiae ni?eyei noai?aiiy 1514 ?ieo Eaiia?aei aea A?i/? aa?noaoa
aeey ea?aoaaiiy iiiao, a oaeiae ao?oeeueiiai aa?noaoa, caaaeyee yeiio o
1576-io aia?oa a ?noi??? c’yaeany iaien ia ao?o?.

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