Eo?niaa ?iaioa

E?a?ie Aeecueeiai Noiaeo oa I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee o ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no.
(1900 – 1945 ??.)

Anooi

Ua c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a oa?eoi??y No?aeiiai Na?aaecaiiiii?’y oa
I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue ye oeyoe i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? oa
i?aeaea?aeaaieo ca’yce?a. O na?aaei? a?ee oe? oa?eoi??? noaee
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith A?aanueeiai oae?oaoo, ooo eoia i?ioean neeaaeaiiy
a?aanueei? ni?eueiioe c ?? ?noi???th, ?ae?a??th, iiaith ? eoeueoo?ith.
Ia ?oaaae? O?O – OO no. oey oa?eoi??y noaea ia’?eoii eieii?aeueieo
ieai?a Aiae??, O?aioe??, I?ia//eie, ?in??, a i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie
? NOA.

O ?iaio? aoaea i?ine?aeeiaaii i?ioean c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa ?a?iie oa NOA o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae aei ?aa?iio Aeecueeiai
Noiaeo ye aei aaaaothuiai ?aeiio ia iaooo, noia?ieoeoai i?aeia?iaeieo
eiiiai?e ca ?? ?ica?aeeith, aeiaoaaiiyi oa ?aae?caoe??th. Aaoi? aeanoue
aiae?c aeiiii?ee, iie?oe/iiai eaaeo ie?aieo a?aanueeeo e?a?i Aeecueeiai
Noiaeo oa I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee o ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no., ye? ci?ie ii/aeeny
c a?aee?eooyi ?a?iiaeoeyie oa aia?eeaioeyie caian?a iaooe. Aoaea
iieacaii oaeiae oi?ie ? iaoiaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oa
?? ?acoeueoaoe, aieea ?ica?iio i?iaoeueeiai oaoecio ia ?? iiaeaeueoa
?icai?oaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy ?aeae a?aanueei? ?aeiino? a oeueiio i?ioean?.

O aeai?e eo?nia?e ?iaio? c?iaeaia ni?iaa ia iniia? iaeiia?oi? e?oa?aoo?e
iieacaoe i?ioeane iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aanueeiai na?oo a
ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no., ?ieue ? i?noea ?aa?ii?a Aeecueeiai Noiaeo oa
I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee o nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei iaia?aaeiaei? oa a
?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie. Oe? i?ioeane aoaeooue iieacai? aac
?aeaieia?/ii? caaiaaaeiaaiino? c iiceoe?e iaoeiaino? oa ?noi?e/ii?
i?aaaee.

Iaa?eoai?y

Ieaie O?aioe?? ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoee: noai?eoe iieino eieii?aeueieo
oa?eoi??e a?ae Na?aaecaiiiii?’y aei aa?o?a’?a ?. I?aa?. oae c’yaeany
ieai ooai?aiiy a Cao?aei?e Ao?eoe? iniaeeai? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? iaeeieoe?
„Cao?aeia Iaa?eoai?y” ianaeaii? ia?aaaaeii iaa?aie. I?aeei?aiiy e?a?ie
i?ioiaeeei aaaeei ? o?eueee a 1920?. aoei io?oe?eii iaieioaii
Iaa?eoai?th eieii?aeueiei aieiae?iiyi o neeaae? O?aioeocueei? Cao?aeii?
Ao?eee. A 30-o? ??. ooo a?aee?eee iieeaaee i?aeii? ? cae?cii? ?oaee.

C ii/aoeii Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie oa?eoi??y Iaa?eoai?? ia?aeoea i?ae
eiio?ieue o?yaeo Aoee, ii/aeany iia?e?caoe?y ianaeaiiy o o?oaeia?
caaiie. I?ney aenaaeee nithciee?a o I?ai?/i?e Ao?eoe? Iaa?eoai?y, ye ?
?io? eieii?? O?aioe??, ia?aeoea i?ae th?enaeeeoe?th O?aioeocueeiai
eii?oaoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy (OEIA) ? anooieea o a?eio i?ioe
a?oea??anueei? eiae?oe??.

O n?/i?-ethoiio 1944?. ia A?accaa?euenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai
iaeaooiueiai noaoono eieii?aeueieo aieiae?iue O?aioe?? o Ao?eoe?
ea??aieoeoai OEIA cayaeei, ui o iaeaooiueiio ia?iaee nai? aoaeooue
aecia/aoe naith aeieth. Aea i?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie ci?i o noni?eueiiio
noaoon? Iaa?eoai?? ia a?aeaoeiny.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. a?eueo?noue oa?eoi??e A?aanueeiai na?oo iii?iaeueii
aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Iniainueei? ?iia???, aai ciaoiaeeeenue i?ae
eiio?ieai eieii?aeueieo aea?aeaa – Aiae?? ? O?aioe??, nai? iiceoe?? ooo
iaa i?iaoeueeee eai?oae o ca’yceo c aoae?aieoeoaii Aaaaeaaenueei?
cae?cieoe?. A?aanuee? ia?iaee i?iaeeaaee ? i?iaeeaathoue ia oa?eoi???
Aeecueeiai ? Na?aaeiueiai Noiaeo oa I?ai?/ii? Ao?eee.

A ?iee ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie Aiae?y nei?enoaeany i?aaiaiiyi a?aa?a aei
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa ? ia neiaao i?aeo?eiaea ?o ae??. Ae??
aiae?enueeeo a?enuee ia Ianiiioainueeiio ? Iaeanoeinueeiio o?iioao a
1914 – 1918 ??. noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny iianoaiiyie a?aanueeeo ieaiai i?ioe
aeaaee noeoaia. sse?ac o O?ain?i?aeai?? aiae?eoeyie aoei noai?aii ?c
a?aa?a-aaaeo?i?a ciaiaieoee A?aanueeee eaa?ii iieeiaieea Eio?aina, eiai
ae caaiie ? neeaaeaee e?noye ca?ieieo nee Aiae?? a A?aa?? ? /anoi
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey i?eaeooaiiy aenooi?a i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy i?ioe
Aiae?? a Ne???, ??aeo oa ? a nai?e A?aa??. Aea i?aaiaiiy aei noai?aiiy
iacaeaaeieo a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa /e iaa?oue ?aeeii? a?aanueei? aea?aeaae
aeyaeeiny iacae?eniaiiei. Ia?ecueea ie?ia eiioa?aioe?y 1919 – 1920 ??.,
cao?enoaaaoe ?iciaae Iniainueei? ?iia??? ? noai?eaoe E?ao iaoe?e aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy ie?o o na?o?, o ?? Noaoooo aaaea ioieo i?i iaiaeaoio
nenoaio aeey eieeoi?o aieiae?iue Iniainueei? ?iia??? oa eieii?e
I?ia//eie. Oae, ia A?aanueeiio noiae? O?aioe?y aeiaeeany iaiaeaoo ia
Ne??th ? E?aai, a Aiae?y ia ??ae, O?ain?i?aeai?th ? Iaeanoeio.

Iaeanoeia

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. Iaeanoeia aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo Iniainueei? ?iia??? ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii aoea iiae?eaia i?ae Ne??enueeei ? Aae?oonueeei
a?eaeaoaie ? ??onaeeinueeei naiaeaeaeii. Oea aoea aa?a?ia e?a?ia c
ia?aaaaeath/ei iii?ueoeueeei ainiiaea?noaii aea naeyie ca i?aiaeo
ieaoeee i’yoo /anoeio a?iaeath. Aoea eaaea i?iieneia?noue , aeaioiaeaiiy
ieeaeiai? ? eoiaeooii? ie??. (Iaaeon, ssooa, Oaeoa, ??onaeei).
?ai?niee?a aoei 10% ianaeaiiy.

C e?ioey O?O no. c i?aoaic?yie ia Iaeanoeio aenooieee n?ii?noe. N?ii?noe
aeoiaeeee ?c ?aea? i?i ?nioaaiiy ?aeeiiai ?a?aenueeiai ia?iaeo, yeee
ia?aae eeoeai „a?/iiai aioenai?oecio” iiaeiai aooe c?a?aiee ia
aaouee?auei? i?aaee?a. O?eueee oaeei oeyoii ia ?o aeoieo iiaei aooe
ae??oaia ?a?aenueea ieoaiiy. Aiie iaieineee Iaeanoeio „aeooiaiei ?
iaoe?iiaeueiei oeaio?ii” aeey ?a?a?a onueiai na?oo, ci?ieaoe ?? iacao ia
Caieth ?c?a?eaao (A?aoe ?n?aaeue).

N?ii?nonueeei e?aea?ai iio??aia i?aeo?eiea aoaeue-yei? aaeeei?
?a?iiaenueei? aea?aeaae, aac yei? n?ii?nonueea eieii?caoe?y Iaeanoeie
caeeoeeanue ae ooii??th. Nii/aoeo aiie c?iaeee noaaeo ia I?ia//eio, yea
aiooaaeany ia ii/aoeo OO no. aei ia?aae?eo na?oo ? ?icaeyaeaea Iaeanoeio
ye no?aoaa?/ii aaaeeeaee ?aeii. Iaeiae nei?i aiie ci?ieee eo?n ? noaee
ooeaoe i?aeo?eiee Aiae??, yea oaeiae i?iyaeyea ?ioa?an aei Iaeanoeie.

Ia nai?io ia?oiio eiia?an? (Aacaeue 1897?.) n?ii?noe ooai?eee Anana?oith
N?ii?nonueeo I?aai?caoe?th (ANI), yea ooai?eea c iaoith aeniain?? a
Iaeanoeio ?yae aeiiii?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa, na?aae yeeo aoee noai?ai?
?a?aenueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie (1899?.) ? ?a?aenueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oiiae (1901?.), yeee iaa o?e?ae – Aiaei-iaeanoeinueeee aaie (1902?.).

O?iainiaa i?aeo?eiea ?a?aenueei? ao?aeoac?? aeicaieeea ?icoe?eoe
ianooaae caiaeueii? aeaniino? n?ii?no?a o Iaeanoei?. C 1889 ii 1924??.
?o aieiae?iiy c?inee c 247 aei 450 oen. aeoiai?a (aeoiai – 0,1 aa). Aea
ai?a?aoe?y aei Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie aoea iacia/iith. A 1914?. a
Iaeanoei? i?iaeeaaei aeecueei 85 oen. ?a?a?a.

A ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ci?oeieany nithc Aiae?? c n?ii?ciii. A
oiiaao i?ae ?iia??ae?noe/ii? ai?ioueae n?ii?noai aaeaeiny aeiaeoeny a?ae
aiae?enueeeo aeanoae io?oe?eii? i?aeo?eiee i?iaeoo noai?aiiy
„?a?aenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ina?aaeeo” ui ? aoei cao?eniaaii a
aeaeea?aoe?? i?i?no?a ?iicaiieo ni?aa Aaeeeia?eoai?? Aaeueoo?a o oi?i?
eenoa a?ae 2.O?.1917?. ia ?i’y i?aaenoaaieea i?aeia?iaeieo n?ii?nonueeeo
e?e aiae?enueeiai aaie??a ei?aea ?iooeeueaea. Iioae?eoaaaoe
aeaeea?aoe?th Aaeueoo?a, Aiae?y ii noo? ni?aae ae??oeea aeieth e?a?ie,
ia yeo ia iaea i?yeeo i?aa.

20 ea?oiy 1920 ?. ia eiioa?aioe?? a Nai-?aii aa?oiaia ?aaea e?a?i
Aioaioe ia?aaeaea iaiaeao ia Iaeanoeio Aiae??, a oaeno yeiai aoea
aeeth/aia ? aeaeea?aoe?y Aaeueoo?a. Any iiaiioa aeaaee iieiyeany a ?oeao
Aiae??. E?a?ia aoea aeeth/aia a noa?e?iaiao ciio, aeicaieyeiny eoioaaoe
? i?iaeaaeoe caieth. Oea aeeeeeaei iacaaeiaieaiiy a?aa?a ? uia ciaioeoe
iai?oao o 1922 ?. aoei iioae?eiaaii „A?eo eieao” (iaii?aiaeoi *a?/?eey).
Iiynithaaeiny, ui ci?no aeaeea?aoe?? Aaeueoo?a iieyaa? ia a ia?aoai?aii?
an??? Iaeanoeie a ?a?aenueeo aea?aeaao, a eeoa noai?aiiy oai
„?a?aenueeiai ina?aaeeo”, aa?aiooaaeany ?a?aenueea ai?a?aoe?y aea ??
ianya iaa a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiii?/iei iiaeeeainoyi Iaeanoeie. O „A?e?e
eiec?” aoea ia?oeyiea ia caeo/aoe n?ii?nonuee? i?aaie aei oi?aae?iiy
Iaeanoeiith, a oaeiae ooai?eoe o iaeaooiueiio ia?eaiaio, o yeiio aoee a
i?aaenoaaeai? on? iaoe?iiaeuei? ? ?ae?a?ei? a?oie e?a?ie.

Aea ana oea aoee ia?oeyiee, iani?aaae? ia?aaaaa iaaeaaaeanue n?ii?noai,
iaeacii aaei??aea Aea?eaia ia?aeoei ia a?e nithciee?a. Aeaaea o e?a?i?
aei o?aaiy 1943?. iieieeany a ?oeao i?iaoeueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, ii/aeeny
?ai?an??. Ni?iaa ?oae?eoe?a noeeeoe O.Ao?a?ao aei ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa (a
a?i aoa o a’ycieoe? o O?aioe??) i?iaaeeeanue. O aa?aci? 1944?. Ooi?n
aecaieaiee o?aioeocaie.

Ia?ieei

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. Ia?ieei aoei a?aenoaeith oaiaeaeueiith aea?aeaaith aea
90% ianaeaiiy caeiaeiny caiea?ianoaii ? neioa?noaii. Ea?oaaa noeoai.
Ieaie ia Ia?ieei iaea O?aioe?y, yea coi?ea i?aeienaoe ?yae oaiae i?i
iiae?e noa? aieeao o I?aaeaiiiio Na?aaecaiiiii?’? c ?oae??th (1902?.),
Aaeeeia?eoai??th ? ?niai??th (1904); o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieie /anoeia
ia?ieeainueeeo caiaeue (aeecueei 20%) ia i?aii/? ? i?aaeaiiiio-caoiae?
a?aeoiaeeea aei ?niai??, a oi?aiaee ii?o Oaiaea? io?eiaa noaoon
i?aeia?iaeii? ciie. C 1907 ?. o?aioeocuee? oa ?niainuee? a?enueea
i?enooieee aei caoiieaiiy ineaaeaiiai ? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiiai noeoaiaoo.

Aea eaeca??anueea I?ia//eia oaeiae iaea ieaie uiaei Ia?ieei. A eeii?
1911?. a?ey aa?aa?a Aaaaee?a c’yaeany i?iaoeueeee ei?aaaeue-eaiiia?ea
„Iaioa?a”, ui caaino?eei i?aeia?iaeio neooaoe?th. ? o?eueee na?eici?
iinooiee i?iaoeueeei eiiiai?yi o Ia?ieei O?aioe?y ?ica’ycaea nia? ?oee.

O aa?aci? 1912?., a iio?i o eenoiiaae? aoei anoaiiaeaii i?ioaeoi?ao
O?aioe?? iaae a?eueoith /anoeiith Ia?ieei, a ?niai?y caoiieea i?ai?/i? ?
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei? ?aeiie e?a?ie.

*a?ac iiae?? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie cia/ia /anoeia ia?ieeainueei?
oa?eoi??? caeeoaeanue iica eiio?ieai ?a?iiaeoe?a ? eiee ?niainuee?
a?enueea a 1920?. ni?iaoaaee caoiieoe iaeanoue ?eo oi oai aeaooioei
iianoaiiy yea i/ieea Aaae aeue-Ea?ei yeee o 1921?. i?iaieinea ?anioae?eo
?eo, yea i?i?nioaaea 5 ?ie?a ? aoea i?eaeooaia o?aiei-?niainueeeie
a?enueeaie a o?aai? 1926?.

Ii/aeiny aeiiii?/ia inai?iiy e?a?ie ?a?iiaeoeyie — oinoi?eoe,
ia?aaiaoeue, naeiaoeue, eiaaeueo, i?aeue, oeeie, cae?ci aeaiceeeny.
Noai?aia aoea eiioi?eaoe?eia n?oea oa aia?aaoeea. A 30-o ??. ciiao
i?aeiyeany oaeey iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, /anoeia e?aea??a yeiai
i?oee ia nithc ?c O?aiei.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie oa?eoi??y Ia?ieei eiio?iethaaeanue
o?yaeii A?o?, a i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey ai?iieo oe?eae
I?ia//eiith oa ?oae??th. I?ney aenaaeee ainaie 1942?. aia?eeainueeeo
a?enuee aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/ee ca?ieieie neeaie o?yaeo A?o? aaia?ae
Aea?eai ia?aaeaa ?i an? ai?ii? ia’?eoe.

I?ae e?iaoeue a?eie ii/aee noai?thaaoeny iie?oe/i? ia?o?? –
Iacaeaaei?noue (?noeeeyeue) ? a?aeiiaeee naith ae?yeuei?noue noai?ai? ua
a 1936 ? 1937 ??. Ia?o?y iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aoi?i (II?); Ia?o?y
Ia?ieeainueei? ?aeiino?. Aenooiaee ca iaaeaiiy e?a?i? iacaeaaeiino?.
Iiaee aoai aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ianooiea oaea i?ney cae?i/aiiy Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie

Aeaee?

Aeaee? – iaeaaaeeea?oa eieii?aeueia aieiae?iiy O?aioe?? a Ao?eoe?.
Iniiaia iana aeaee?oe?a caeiaeeny n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii,
i?iieneia?noue ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoea a ca?iaeeiaiio noai?, aoee ?
i?aaenoaaieee ?ioae?aaioe??. Iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie a
Aeaee?? i?iaeeaaei 750 oen. aeaee?i-?a?iiaeoe?a, oiaoi aeecueei 14%
anueiai ianaeaiiy e?a?ie. A ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie iieiaeaiiy a
Aeaee?? iia??oeeinue ye a aeiiii?oe?, oi?a?ae?, iaae?ii? aeeoo?aiai
??aiy.

O i?aeai?iiee ia??iae iii?oiee ??no i?iieneiaino? a Aeaee??. Oae, yeui a
?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ooo aoei 25 oen. ?ia?oiee?a, oi ia e?iaoeue
20-o ?ie?a aaea 180 oen. ?c yeeo 60% aoee i?aaenoaaieee ei??iiiai
ianaeaiiy. I?ae /an na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece iia??oeeinue ? noaiiaeua
a Aeaee??, a iaoe?iiaeueiei ia?o?yi ? i?aai?caoe?yi ia aaeaeiny
aeiaeoeny iinooiie a?ae O?aioe?? ? a 30-o ?ieao.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Aeaee? nii/aoeo iio?aiea i?ae eiio?ieue
i?iaoeueei-?oae?enueei? eii?n??, a c eenoiiaaea 1942?. ooo aoee
aiaei-aia?eeainuee? a?enueea. ?inoa iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo
i?iyaii yeiai aoei iianoaiiy a o?aai? 1945?. ? yea aoei i?eaeooaia
a?enueeaie.

Ooi?n

Ooi?n noaa i?ioaeoi?aoii O?aioe?? c 80-o ??. O?O no. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. o
e?a?i? oi?io?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia ?ioae?aaioe?y ? ao?aeoac?y ye?
iane?aeothoue o?aioeocueeee ia?ac aeeooy ? iiao, ci?oeith?oueny
ooi?nueeee iaoe?iiae?ci.

O 20-o ??. ?c iieiaeiooi?nueeeo a?oi ?aaiethoe?iia??a aoea noai?aia
ia?o?y Aeonoo? (Eiinoeoooe?y), yea aeiaaaea c??aiyiiy o i?aaao a?aa?a ?
o?aioeoc?a, aeaiie?aoecaoe?th i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy, aeaiie?aoe/ieo
naiaiae. Aea O?aioe?y ia iinooiee ia eoea, oi/a aeaye? iineaaeaiiy ?
aoee. A na?aaeei? 30-o ?ie?a iieiaeee aaeaieao Oaaea Ao?aeaa ?acii ?c
nai?ie i?eoeeueieeaie aeeoia ?c Aeonoo?a ? noai?ea Iiaee Aeonoo?, yeee
aenooiaa ?c eicoiaaie aioeeieii?aeueii? ai?ioueae ? a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
30-o ??. noaa iaeaieeaia?oith ia?o??th Ooi?no – 18 ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue, o?e?aee ii e?a?i?, iieiae?aei? ? ae?ii/? i?aai?caoe??. Aea
i?ney a?aenoaaee o iao?iiie?? o?yaeo Ia?iaeiiai o?iioo E.Aethia o Ooi?n?
ii/aeeny ?ai?an?? ? a?aooe a oiio /ene? ? Oaa?aa Ao?a?ao aoei
a?aooiaaii.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Ooi?n ia?aaeea /eiaei iiae?e. I?ney
eai?ooeyoe?? O?aioe?? ? aenaaeee 8 eenoiiaaea 1942?. a Ia?ieei ? Aeaee??
aiaei-aia?eeainueeiai aeniaaeeoe?eiiai ei?iono a Ooi?n aoee aaaaeai?
?oaei-i?iaoeuee? ieoiaoe?ei? a?enueea, a a?eueo?noue nieaeao
o?aioeocueei? a?i?? ca ui aeeeeeaei iianoaiiy a?aa?a o 1929 ?. Eii?n??
Oio ? N?iiniia, ye? aiae?coaaee iieiaeaiiy a Iaeanoei?, eiinoaooaaee, ui
oaea aaeeeiianooaaia ae?yeuei?noue n?ii?no?a iiaeeeaa o?eueee aeyeoth/e
Aiae?? ? ui iio??aii uinue ?iaeoe. Aea iineaiiy 15.??.1931 ?. i?ai’??a
Aiae?? ?.Iaeaeiiaeueaea aieia? ANI O.Aaeoeiaio na?ae/eei, ui Aiae?y ?
iaaeae? aoaea ni?eyoe n?ii?noai ? oiio a?aae iacaaee oeae aeieoiaio
„/i?iith eieaith”.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iioo?aiiy Aiae??, ?ii?a?aoe?y ?a?a?a nthaee o 20-o ?ieao
aoea iacia/iith. C 1920 ii 1930 ??e o e?a?io i?eaoei aeecueei 100 oen.
ia?anaeaioe?a. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a NOA a oeae aea ia??iae a’?oaei 340 oen.
?a?a?a.

Aea caoiieaiiy caiaeue n?ii?noaie iineethaaeinue i?e o?iainia?e
i?aeo?eioe? ?a?aenueei? ao?aeoac?? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? NOA. O 20-? ?iee
aoei neoieaii 514 oen. aeoiai?a caie? aai 1/3 caiaeueiiai oiiaeo e?a?ie
c yeeo caaiyeenue a?aae.

A e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a noi?ioaaany oeueo?ai?aaee Nithc
n?ii?no?a-?aa?c?ii?no?a ia /ie? c A.AEaaioeinueeei ye? aeiaaaee anth
Iaeanoeio ?a?ayi iaa?oue c aeiiiiiaith neee ? noai?eee a?enueeiao
i?aai?caoe?th „E?aoi oeaai eaoi?”. Ii/aeany i?aeaioiaea aei noai?aiiy
?a?aenueei? aea?aeaae, oei a?eueoa, ui ?ii?a?aoe?y ?a?a?a ca?eueoeeanue
?c i?eoiaeii aei aeaaee a I?ia//ei? oaoeno?a. ?inei /enei ?a?aenueeeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iinaeaiue: a 1936?. ?o ia?aoiaoaaeiny 208,
oiaoi iaeaea ia 90 % a?eueoa i?ae o 1927?., a /enaeuei?noue ?o aeeoae?a
ca oeae ia??iae ca?eueoeeanue c 40 oen. aei 98 oen. /ieia?e.

I?ney ooai?aiiy a na?ii? 1929?. ?a?iiaenueeiai aaaionoaa, n?ii?noai
aaeaeinue caeo/eoe aei o/ano? a eieii?caoe?? Iaeanoeie eai?oaee
?a?aenueeeo iauei Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? NOA, nthaee ia?anaeyeenue ?
eai?oae?noe – iniae c eai?oaeii o 5 oen. aeiee., ??n i?eaaoiee eai?oae.
sseui a 1930?. a i?iieneia?noue aoei ?iaanoiaaii 2 iei. iaeanoeinueeeo
ooio?a, oi a 1937?. oey oeeo?a c?inea aei 11 iei. ? /enei i?nueeeo
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? iaeaaeaee ?a?ayi, ca?eueoeeinue c 2,5 oen.
o 1930?. aei 5,5 oen. o 1937?.

Ui noino?oueny a?aa?a, oi aiie aeiooai? aoee ai?ioeny ia aeaa o?iioe: ?
i?ioe aiae?enueeiai eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy ? i?ioe ?a?aenueei?
eieii?caoe?? Iaeanoeie. I?aai?caoi?ii oeueiai ?ooo noaa A?aanueeee
iaeanoeinueeee eiia?an (AIE), yeee aeiee o 1920?., a c 1934?. eiai
i/ieea Iona Eaceiaeue-Oinaeie.

Aanue i?aeai?iiee ia??iae a Iaeanoei? a?aeaoaaeeny iianoaiiy, na?aae
yeeo iaea?eueo? a 1929?. a ??onaeei?, 1933?. – ssoo?,
caaaeueii-iaeanoeinueea iianoaiiy 1936 – 1939 ??. Noai?thaaeeny iia?
iaoe?iiae?noe/i? i?aai?caoe?? iaeanoeinueeeo a?aa?a, iaea?eueoith ?c ieo
aoa Aeuee a?aanueeee eii?oao (AAE), yeee aoa ooai?aiee a 1936?. ? i/ieea
eiai Ai?i aeue Oinaeie.

O o?aai? 1939?. Aiae?y aac eiinoeueoaoe?e c caoe?eaaeaieie noi?iiaie
iioae?eoaaea iiao „A?eo eieao” i?i naith iie?oeeo a Iaeanoei?.
Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui /a?ac 10 ?ie?a aoaea ooai?aii ?aeeio a?aai-?a?aenueeo
aea?aeaao, yea i?aeieoa nithciee aeiaia?? c Aiae??th. Aeaui iaioa
aeicaieyeinue ai?a?aioai a’?aeaeaeaoe a Iaeanoeio – ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo 5
?ie?a – 75 oen. Oea aoa eo?n ia caaeainiaaio iie?oeeo Aiae?? uiaei
a?aa?a ? ?a?a?a aeey ci?oeiaiiy nai?? aeaaee. Aea iacaaeiaieaiiy oeei
eo?nii aeneiaeee ? a?aae ? ?a?a?.

Aiae?coth/e iiae?? a Iaeanoei? ?a?aenueeee naeoi? a aeiiii?oe? ana
c?inoa?, e?euee?noue ?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iinaeaiue a 1944?.
aeinyaea 256. C’yaeany iiaee nithciee – NOA, ii/aany oene ia Aiae?th oa
?? eieii?aeueio aaei?i?no?aoe?th. ?ioa?an NOA aei Iaeanoeie iniaeeai
c??n eiee aia?eeainuee? iaooia? iiiiiie?? io?eiaee eiioean?th a?ae
Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? ia ?ic?iaeo i?iaeoo iaooii?iaiaeo ?c A?aa?? o
Iaeanoeio, yeo aiie i?ineee o ?ocaaeueoa c 1942?. Nithc NOA ? n?ii?no?a
noaaaa ?aaeuei?noth, a ?ioa?anao ia?oeo aoei ooai?aiiy a Iaeanoei?
?a?aenueei? aea?aeaae.

??ae

Ia ?oaaae? O?O – OO no. any oa?eoi??y ??aeo aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo
Iniainueei? ?iia??? ? aoea iiae?eaia ia o?e a?ea?oe – Aanni?nueeee,
Aaaaeaaenueeee ? Iinoeuenueeee. A?aenoae? oa?eoi???, iinoaaiee y/iaith,
o?i?e?a, i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa = aa?a?ii-ne?iaeiia aaca a?eueo
?icaeiooeo e?a?i. I?ioenoiyiiy Aiae?? ? I?ia//eie a ??aeo.

A ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ??ae aoa ieoiiaaiee aiae?enueeeie
a?enueeaie, a a 1920?. ia eiioa?aioe?? a Nai-?aii Aiae?y ca caiaeith
nithciee?a io?eiaea iaiaeao EI ia ??ae. ?ici?aia e?a?ia yeo ii/aee
eieii?coaaoe aiae?eoe?. ?icai?oaeany aecaieueia ai?ioueaa – iianoaiiy a
Iaaeaeao? aaniith 1918?. ? eo?aenueea iianoaiiy ia i?aii/? e?a?ie o
o?aai? – /a?ai? 1919?. oa ?i.

Aiae?y iaea iaiaeao iaae ??aeii aei 1930?., oi/a c 1922?. ooo aoa
ei?ie?anueeee o?yae, yeee iiaeiai aoa ea?oaaoeny „ii?aaeaie”
aiae?enueeiai aa?oiaiiai eii?na?a o ieoaiiyo i?aeia?iaeii? ? o?iainiai?
iie?oeee. A 1927?. aiae?eoe? ciooai? aoee iiaiaeeoeny ia noai?aiiy
ci?oaii? „??ae iao?ieaoi eiiiai?” (aiae?enueeee, aieeaiaenueeee,
o?aioeocueeee, aia?eeainueeee eai?oae).

Ni?ioea ??aeoe?a cionea Aiae?th a?aei?ieoe 30.V?.1930?. iaiaeao ?
i?iaiae?enueeee ae?y/ ??aeo Io?? Na?ae i?aeienaa iiaee aiaei-??aenueeee
aeiaia?? oa?i?iii ia 25 ?. Aiae?y caa??aaea ca niaith i?aai
eiinoeueooaaoe ??ae c ieoaiue ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, caa??aaea ca niaith
ai?ii? aace ? „iniaeea? ?ioa?ane” a iai?ii? ??aeo. A 1932?. o?yae Io??
Na?aea aeiaeany i?eeiio ??aeo a E?ao Iaoe?e.

Noaeai

I?ney ?ica?iio iaaaeenonueei? aea?aeaae (1898?.) ? ca eiiaaioe??th i?ae
Aiae??th ? ?aeioii o n?/i? 1899?., Noaeai aoa iaieioaiee
eiiaeii?i?ioiii, oiaoi ni?eueiei aieiae?iiyi Aiae?? ? ?aeioo ? noaa
io?oe?eii iaceaaoeny Aiaei-?aeiaonueeee Noaeai. Any aeaaea aoea a ?oeao
aiae?enueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a.

Noaeai a?aenoaea e?a?ia c iaioaaiiyi oaiaeae?a ? iinooiiai
ia?aoai?thaaany a e?a?io iiiieoeueoo?e – aaaiaieeo, aoei iiaoaeiaaii 3,5
oen. ei cae?cieoeue ? aeeaieiaiaeiee ii?o (Ii?o-Noaeai) ia ocaa?aaeae?
*a?aiiiai ii?y. 90% ianaeaiiy e?a?ie – naeyie. Aaeeeee aieea ia
iie?oe/ia aeeooy iaee ?ae?a?ei? naeoe. A oe?eiio an? aenooie ianaeaiiy o
i?aeai?iiee ia??iae aoee i?eaeooai? aiae?enueeeie a?enueeaie, ? ia 12?.
(aei 1936?.) a?aeo?nieee ?aeiao a?ae o/ano? a oi?aae?ii? Noaeaiii,
aeneaee ?c e?a?ie ?aeiaonuee? aaoaeueeiie ? /eiiaiee?a, ii?ooeaoe oei
naiei eiiaeii?i?ioi 1899?.

O ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Noaeai ia noaa a?aiith a?enueeiaeo ae?e,
oi/a an? oyaioe a?eie ianaeaiiy ia?aaeeei. Iioe?eeenue ?aea? eiioi?cio ?
ye ?acoeueoao a 1946?. aoea noai?aia eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y.

E?a?y

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. E?a?y aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo Iniainueei? ?iia??? a
yeino? aeaio aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue – a?eaeaoa O??iie? ?
naiaeaeaea E??aia?ee. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii e?a?enueeiai noni?euenoaa aoei
naioneonueea noo?enueea a?aonoai, caniiaieeii yeiai noaa Iooaiiaae Aai
Aee an-Naioae. Ua a e?ioe? O?O no. a E?a?? iniaeeao aeoeai?noue i?iyaeea
?oae?y, ye?e ua a 1887?. aaeaeinue aeiaeoeny aeciaiiy naiai noaa?ai?oaoo
iaae E??aia?eith ? O??iie?oai??th. O ia?o? ?iee OO no. I?ia//eia c?iaeea
ni?iao aeo?nieoe ?oae?eoe?a. Oea ? iineoaeeei i?e/eiith a?eie ?oae?? c
Oo?a//eiith o aa?ani? 1911?., aaeaea inoaiiy aoea i?ae neeueiei aieeaii
I?ia//eie. Ia?aiiaea ?oae?y, oi/a eiio?iethaaoe anth e?a?io aiia ia
iiaea.

I?ae /an Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie iaoe?iiaeuei? neee E?a?? iaa?oue
i?iaieineee ?anioae?eo ? ?oae?eoeyi o?eueee a 1931?. aaeaeiny i?eai?eaoe
iaiie??ieo e?a?eoe?a. O i?aeai?iiee ia??iae ?oae?enueeee o?yae ??cieie
niiniaaie coi?a caoiieoe a E?a?? 500 oen. aa caie?. Oa?ie ?ici??ii 20 –
25 aa aeey n?i’? noai?thaaeenue aea?aeaaith. Ia 1940?. a E?a?th
ia?anaeeeinue aei 110 oen. ?oae?eoe?a, ?c yeeo aei 24 oen. caeiaeenue
n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii, 90% ianaeaiiy aoei iaienueiaiiei.

A /a?ai? 1940?. ?oae?y iaieineea a?eio Aiae?? ? E?a?y noaea a?aiith
a?enueeiaeo ae?e. Oaeo ?ae??n Naion? i?oia ia oaiaeo c Aiae??th ? ni?eya
a?enueeaie ai?iouea? i?ioe aiae?eoe?a. Ia ii/aoeo 1942?. aiae?eoe? oa
e?a?eoe? ca?eueieee Aaiaac?, a o n?/i? 1943?. O??iie?. Ia 7 ethoiai
1943?. aoea ca?eueiaia any E?a?y.

19 ea?oiy 1923?. aoea iaieioaia iiaa eiinoeoooe?y: ?aeiao noaa
eiinoeoooe?eiith iiia?o??th ia /ie? c ei?ieai Ooaaeii ?. aoee noai?ai?
ia?eaiaio ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiee ia?aae iei ? ei?ieai eaa?iao i?i?no??a,
yeee i/ieeee e?aea?e Aaoaea. Oaea iiceoe?y o?yaeo aeeeeeaea ianiaa
iacaaeiaieaiiy ianaeaiiy, yea aeeeeinue o no?aeee, aeaiiino?aoe??,
i?oeiae. ??cei iia??oeeinue aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua a ?aeio? a ?acoeueoao?
na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece 1929/33??. ??no oe?i, aac?ia?ooy, nei?i/aiiy
ca?ieaoe ? o.ae. Ci?ie o?yae?a noaiiaeua ia iie?aueee, iineethaaeeny
?ai?an??. O ca’yceo c i?eoiaeii A?oea?a aei aeaaee a I?ia//ei? ? Aiae?y
? ?aeiao ?aeooue ia caeeaeaiiy ? o na?ii? 1936?. ?aeiaonueea aeaeaaaoe?y
i?aeienaea aeiaia?? c Aiae??th ia 20?. yeee oi?iaeueii iaieinea i?i
i?eieiaiiy aiae?enueei? ieoiaoe??, a eii?na? noaa iaceaaoeny iineii.
Aeiaia?? naieoe?iioaaa ia?aaoaaiiy aiae?enueeeo a?enuee a cii?
Noaoeueeiai eaiaeo, a Ea??? ? Ieaenaiae???; aiae?enuee? ca?iei? neee
caa??aaee i?aai iieueio?a iaae ?aeiaonueeith oa?eoi???th; ?aeiaonueea
a?i?y noaaeeany i?ae eiio?ieue aiae?enueei? ai?iii? i?n??; aiae?eoe?
iiaee aeei?enoaoe oa?eoi??th ?aeioo ye ieaoeaea?i ia aeiaaeie a?eie aai
?? caa?ice. Ieoaiiy i?i Noaeai ae??oaii aoei eiii?ii?nii:
a?aeiiaethaaany ?aaeei eiiaeii?i?ioio. A 1937?. ?aeiao aoa i?eeiyoee a
E?ao Iaoe?e ? a oiio ae ?ioe? ia eiioa?aioe?? a Iiio?a an? aea?aeaae ia
ei?enoue yeeo ?nioaaa ?aaeei eai?ooeyoe?e, aeciaee eiai e?ea?aeaoe?th.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ?aeiao aoa aeey Aiae?? aaaeeeaith
no?aoaa?/iith aacith. Ca?eueoeeenue aiae?enuee? aneaioaaiiy ia
aoae?aieoeoai ai?iieo ia’?eo?a, aeaui c?inea i?iieneia?noue, oi/a a
caaaeueiiio a?eia iia??oeea noaiiaeua ianaeaiiy. I???ioaoe?y aa?o?a aoea
? ia Aiae?th ? ia aea?aeaae „in?”.

I?ney iaieioaiiy a?eie ?oae??th O?aioe?? ? Aiae?? a /a?ai? 1940?.
?oae?enuee? AIN aiiaa?aeoaaee ?aeiaonuee? i?noa, caoiieee ?yae oa?eoi??e
a aeeaeio ia 100ei. ? o?eueee a n?/i? 1942?. ?oaei-i?iaoeuee? a?enueea
aoee aeaeo? ?c ?aeioo. Aea ae?oeo 1942?. i?iaoeuee? a?enueea ei?iono
?iiiaey ii/aee ianooi a iai?yieo Ieaenaiae???, aoee ?icaeo?
aiaei-aia?eeainueeeie a?enueeaie a?ey Aeue-Aeaiaeia ? caeeoee ?o
caeaeeny a o?aai? 1943?. a Ooi?n?.

O ethoiio 1945?. ?aeiao oi?iaeueii iaieinea a?eio I?ia//ei? ? ssiii?? ui
aeaei eiio i?aai a?aoe o/anoue o eiioa?aioe?? a o?aai?-/a?ai? 1945?.,
yea noai?eea III. E?iaoeue a?eie niiioeaa a?aanueeeo e?aea??a ooeaoe
?aeiino? ? oe? iiooee cae?i/eeeny noai?aiiyi E?ae a?aanueeeo e?a?i o
aa?aci? 1945?. sse?ac Aiae?y noaea ?i?oe?aoi?ii oeueiai ia’?aeiaiiy
ia?ane?aeoth/e iaoo caa?aaeaiiy naiai aieeao a a?aanueeiio na?o? ?
ia?ae?coaaoe ni?iae O?aioe?? ? NOA iineeeoe na?e aieea o ?aa?ii?. A
?aeiao noaa aeii?ioth/ith e?a?iith a E?c?, ca iei caa??aaeany iiiiiie?y
ia iino aainaea E?ae, ooaa E?ae aoa o Ea???, a?eueo?noue iinaaeiaoe?a
E?ae aoee ?aeioyiaie. Oaeei /eiii, ?aeiao caeiaa iniaeeaa i?noea a
ieaiao aaeeeeo aea?aeaa ? a a?aanueeiio na?o?.

Aeiiii?ea ??aeo i?ae /an a?eie ia?aaeeaaea cano?e, ia?iaei? iianoaiiy,
iniaeeai eo?ae?a (1943 – 1945 ??.), aoee i?eaeooai? aiae?enueeeie
a?enueeaie.

Ne??y ? E?aai

A e?ioe? O?O no. Ne??y ? E?aai aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Iniainueei? ?iia???,
aea ia ii/aoeo OO no. aiie oaeoe/ii noaee iai?aeieii?yie ?a?iiaenueeiai
(ia?aaaaeii o?aioeocueeiai) eai?oaeo. Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieie
iaeeieoeyie oi?aaeyee oo?aoeuee? aoaa?iaoi?e ? i?aaenoaaieee i?noeaai?
aeaaee. Oaiaeaeueia n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai ? o i?noao eeoaa?noai.
E?aai – oiaeiiioaeueia i?iieneia?noue, o Ne??? – oeaoeoai, a oaeiae
ieeie ? ianei-a?ei?; ca?ii, oa?noue, oiae, othothi, aaaiaiee. Ana oea
neoiaee o?aioeocuee? o??ie. Aecaieueiee ?oo aoa iaiaeii??aeiei. Ia?oa
na?oiaa a?eia i?eianea ?ici?aiiy. C a?aeiia ?in?? a 1916?. i?ae Aiae??th
? O?aioe??th aoea i?aeienaia nae?aoia oaiaea (Naeen-I?ei) i?i iiae?e
oeeo oa?eoi??e ca?aeii yei? Cao?aeia ? No?aeia Ne??y ? E?aai aoiaeeee
i?ney a?eie a ciio aieeao O?aioe??. A aeiaoi? 1918?. oo?ee caeeoeee
Ne??th ? E?aai.

O ea?oi? 1920?. Aiae?y iiaiaeeeanue ia io?eiaiiy O?aioe??th iaiaeaoa ia
oi?aae?iiy Ne???th oa E?aaiii. Ooo ea?oaaa o?aioeocueeee aa?oiaiee
eii?na?, yeee nie?aany ia a?i?th. Ua o ea?oi? 1919?. aoa noai?aiee aaie
Ne??? ? E?aaio. Iiooaii eiioean?yie oaiaeaeueia ? ae??aiinaeyinueea
caieaaieiae?iiy. I?aiaea nyaaea 80 % . a ??cieo ?aeiiao Ne??? aeaooaee
iianoaiiy, ye? aei?noiei i?eaeoooaaee o?aioeocueeith a?i??th, yea
ia?aoiaoaaea 70 oen. Iniaeeai a??ciei aoei iianoaiiy 1926 – 1927 ??.,
yea cioneei eieii?caoi??a aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?eueo oiie? iaoiaee
oi?aae?iiy. Aea eiee Onoaiia/? cai?e, aeicaieai? O?aioe??th, 8 na?iiy
1928?. i?eeiyee Eiinoeoooe?th iacaeaaeii? Ne???, aiie aoee ?iciouai?, a
Eiinoeoooe?y aoea a?aei?iaia.

Aiae?coth/e iiaee aeiaia?? i?ae O?aioe??th ? Ne???th a?ae 9 aa?aniy
1946? oi/a ia?eaiaio ia?aa i?aceaeaioa, aoea ia?oeyia a?aei?ia iaiaeaoo,
aeiaia?? ia aoa ?aoeo?eiaaiee o?aioeocueeei ia?eaiaioii.

O E?aai? neooaoe?y aoea iiae?aiith o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae. A 1926?.
o?aioeoce „aea?oaaee” E?aaio Eiinoeoooe?th, ca yeith o e?a?i?
noai?thaaany o?yae ? aeaiiaeaoiee ia?eaiaio. Aea iaia?aaeiaei? Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie o E?aai? aoa iaiaiaaeaiee eiio?ieue o?aioeocueeeo
ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee.

?icaeyaeath/e iie?oe/iee ? aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie Ne??? oa E?aaio o ?iee
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, o aa?ani? 1939?. Ne??y aoea iaieioaia „ai?iiith
ciiith” ? aaaaeaii iaaecae/aeiee noai. I?ney eai?ooeyoe?? O?aioe??
1940?. a?o?nonueeee o?yae iaaeaa iiaiiaaaeaiiy I?ia//ei? ia aeei?enoaiiy
iaiaeaoieo oa?eoi??e a ?ioa?anao aea?aeaa „in?”. Aea oea ia aeaooiaoaaei
Aiae?th ? /anoeie „A?eueii? O?aioe??” aea Aiey, ye? a eeii? 1941?.
ieoioaaee Ne??th ia?oeyth/e ?e iacaeaaei?noue.

1943?. ai?? O?ain?i?aeai?? Aaaeaeea cai?iiiioaaa i?iaeo noai?aiiy
„Aaeeei? Ne???”, yeee ia?aaeaa/aa ia’?aeiaiiy Ne???, E?aaio,
O?ain?i?aeai?? ? Iaeanoeie, a i?ai’?? ??aeo Io?? Na?ae ia’?aeiaiiy oeeo
e?a?i c i?aeeeth/aiiyi ??aeo. Aea iao??ioe ia ni?eeiyee oe? ieaie, o
ethoiio 1945?. Ne??y iaieineea a?eio I?ia//ei? ? ssiii??, o aa?aci? oiai
ae ?ieo aiia i?eeiyea o/anoue o noai?aii? E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
(EAAe), a 12 ea?oiy noaea /eaiii III.

E?aai oaae aeyaeany aaaeeeaei no?aoaa?/iei ioieoii aeey aithth/eo e?a?i.
I?ney eai?ooeyoe?? O?aioe?? a 1940?. eiio?ieue ia?aeoia aei
i?iaoeueei-?oae?enueeeo a?enuee ye? 14 eeiiy 1941?. eai?ooethaaee ia?aae
a?enueeaie Aiae?? ? „A?eueii? O?aioe??”. O eenoiiaae? 1941?.
ea??aieoeoai „A?eueii? O?aioe??” i?iaieineei iacaeaaei?noue E?aaio, ye ?
Ne??? iaiaaeaiith aeiiaaie „ai?iiiai /ano”. I?aoeththoue noa?? ?
noai?ththoueny iia? ia?o??, ca?iaeaeo?oueny ?oo i?ae i?aii?ii
a?aanueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio ? a?aanueei? ?aeiino?. Eiai iaooiaiieeaie ?
i?aai?caoi?aie aoee I?oaeue Aoeye ? Naeao aae-Aeei Aeoa?. A 1943?.
ie?ai? ao?oee ia’?aeiaeenue a i?aai?caoe?th i?ae iacaith „Aeue-Aaan
aeue-A?aa?” – „A?aanueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy” – ca iacaeaaei?noue ? ?aei?noue
a?aa?a aenooiaea. A oeeo oiiaao o?aioeocueea aeaaea o aa?aci? 1943?.
aeaea caiaeo ia a?aeiiaeaiiy eiinoeoooe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaiaionueeeo
aeai??a. A e?ioe? 1943 – ii/aoeo 1944?. o Aae?oo? a?aeaoany ?? c’?cae
Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Ne??? ? E?aaio yeee ?icae?eea ?? ia aea? –
Ne??enueeo ? E?aainueeo. A?eia cae?i/eeany, a E?aai ? Ne??y caeeoaeeny
ieoiiaaieie o?aioeocueeeie a?enueeaie.

Naoae?anueea A?aa?y

No/ania Ei?ie?anoai Naoae?anueea A?aa?y caeia? /ioe?e i’yoeo oa?eoi???
A?aa?enueeiai i?aino?iaa ? eiai noaiiaeaiiy o OO no. ? o?aoueith
ni?iaith ai???a ?c ?iaeo Naoae?ae?a anoaiiaeoe nai? iaioaaiiy a
oeaio?aeueieo iaeanoyo A?aa??. A 1900?. Naoae?aee ca aeiiiiiaith oaeoa
Eoaaeoo c?iaeee iaaaeaeo ni?iao iiaa?iooe nia? eiio?ieue iaae
iaea?eueoei i?noii i?ia?ioe?? Iaaeaeae A?-??yaeii. Ae?oaa ni?iaa aoea
oni?oiith. 16 n?/iy 1922?. 22-??/iee ai?? Aaaeaeue Ac?ae caoiiea
A?-??yae, a aaniith 1904?. oaanue oeaio?aeueiee Iaaeaeae. Iniainueea
?iia??y, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeea A?aa?enueeee i?aino??a, ? cao?aei?
aea?aeaae ni?iaoaaee ia?aoeiaeeoe a?ae?iaeaeaiith naoae?anueei?
aea?aeaae. A 1908?. aiie c?iaeee oa?eoii Iaeee Oonaeia ?c noa?iaeiiiai
?iaeo Aeue Oaoei, yeee ei?enooaaany a A?aa?? aaee/aciei ?ae?a?eiei
aaoi?eoaoii. Oea oneeaaeieei ai?ioueao ca i?aeei?aiiy Oeaeaeaca. A
1911?. Oonaei caai?iiea ia?ao?ae ea?aaai?a c iaeiiieeaie ?c Iaaeaeaea a
O?aeaeac ?, nie?ath/enue ia oo?aoeuee? aa?i?ciie, ii/aa ai?ioueao ?c
Naoae?aeaie.

Iaaaea/a a O?aeaeac? canoaaeea Aaaeaeue Ac?ca aeoea?coaaoe naith
caaieiaieoeueeo iie?oeeo ia Noiae? A?aa??. A?i i?enooiea aei ?aae?caoe??
i?eeiyoiai ua a 1910?. aaaeeeaiai ??oaiiy, yea aoei iai?aaeaia ia
?aeaeia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aaooaa?onueeiai ?ooo ? ia?aaaaeaiiy ia in?aeeee
niin?a aeeooy a??ieo eiio aaaeo?inueeeo ieaiai. Aoee noai?ai? ?ae?a?ei?
iaueie, a yeeo ?oaaie (a?aoe), i?iaeeaath/e a niaoe?aeueieo iinaeaiiyo,
i?ea/aeeny aei iiai? aeey ieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?aoe?. ?oaaie
noaaaee ia o?eueee caiea?iaaie, aea ? nieaeaoaie aea?aeaae Naoae?ae?a. C
?o aeiiiiiaith Aaaeaeue Aeiiii?ea O?ain?i?aeai?? a ?iee a?eie c?inoaea
ye ? oi?a?aey /a?ac iineaaeaiiy o?yaeiaiai eiio?ieth. Oi/a ia?aaaaeaa
aeieai?oae?noe/iee oeeaae oa iao??a?oaeuei? ? ?iaeiieai?ii? ia?aaeeoee.

Iineaaeaiiy iiceoe?e O?aioe?? ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? aeaei iiooiao
Aaeeeia?eoai?? ciiao ni?iaoaaoe iioe?eoe nai? iaioaaiiy ia Ne??th ?
E?aai. C oe??th iaoith aoei ?aai?iiaaii i?iaeo ia’?aeiaiiy Ne???,
E?aaia, Iaeanoeie ? O?ain?i?aeai?? i?ae aa?aeith Aaaeaeee (oiaoi
aiae?eoe?a) a iaaeao „Aaeeei? Ne???”.

I?ioa ia?iaei? iane Ne??? ? E?aaio ??oo/a aenooieee i?ioe „ne??enueei?
?aeiino?” ia /ie? c oaoei?onueeei iiia?oii, yeee iia’ycaiee c
aiae?eoeyie. Aea coneeey ii noai?aiith „Aaeeei? Ne???” ua aeiaa? ?iee
caeeoaeeny iaeiei ?c iniiaieo iai?yie?a ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Ei?aeai??.

?aeiao

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. ?aeiao ye ? ?ai?oa i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?aooaaoeny /anoeiith
Iniainueei? ?iia???, oi/a i?ney ?ica?iio iianoaiiy A?aa?-iao? c 1882?.
ii/aany ia??iae aiae?enueei? ieoiaoe??. O ia?o? 10?. OO no. iineeeany
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ? oa?i?enoe/i? ae??, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo aoei aaeoi
i?ai’??-i?i?no?a A.Aaee, aeo?aeoey ?c ?aeiaonueeeo o?enoeyi, a 1912?.
aoei ?ice?eoi iiao ciiao i?ioe oaaeeaa, aaia?aeueiiai eiinoea ? i?ai’??a
i?ney /iai oe? a?oie aoee ?ica?iieai?.

C ii/aoeii Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie Aiae?y anoaiiaeea i?ioaeoi?ao iaae
?aeioii ? ?? aa?oiaiee eii?na? ceiioeaio?oaaa o nai?o ?oeao anth
?aaeueio aeaaeo. Oa?eoi??y ?aeioo neoaoaaea aeey Aiae?? ieaoeaea?iii
aeey iia?aoe?e aiae?eoe?a i?ioe oo?ie a Iaeanoei? ? Ne???. O?oaeiaee
ei?ion ?c ?aeioyi ia?aoiaoaaa 500 oen. /ie.. Ni?iaa oo?e?a i?e aeiiiiic?
I?ia//eie a?aeiiaeoe nai? iiceoe?? a ?aeio? caciaea iaaaea/?, a O?aioe?y
aeciaea eiio?ieue Aiae?? iaae ?aeioii ua a 1904?. ca ui inoaiiy aeciaea
aiaeia?/ia iieiaeaiiy O?aioe?? iaae Ia?ieei.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a ?aeio? ciiao iineeeany i?ney cae?i/aiiy
a?eie ? iinoaaeaii aoee aeiiao iacaeaaeiino? e?a?ie. Ia ia?aaei?e ieai a
iie?oe/i?e ai?iouea? aeeoea ia?o?y Aaoae. A e?ioe? 1918?. i?ai’??
?oae?-iaoa oa a?aeiiee a?iiaaenueeee ? iie?oe/iee ae?y/ Caaeoe-iaoa
(aiaeio?ee) i?aai?coaaee aeaeaaaoe?th (Aaoae) aeey ia?aaiai??a o ?a?ii?
i?i noaiiaeua, yea neeaeiny. ?o i?ooi ia neooaa, a /ioe?ueio /eai?a
aeaeaaaoe?? iaa?oue a?aoooaaee. Oea aeeeeeaei ?aaiethoe?eiee aeaoo
1919?., ? oi/a aaoaeenoe ooeeeeenue a?ae caaino?aiiy ai?ioueae,
aiae?eoe? a ethoiio 1922?. iioae?eoaaee aeaeea?aoe?th i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th
aiae?enueeiai i?ioaeoi?aoo ? aeciaiiy ?aeioo iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith,
caeeoeaoe ca niaith ?yae i?aa: ioi?iia Noaoeueeiai eaiaeo, caoeno ?aeioo
a?ae ?iicaiiiai ao?o/aiiy, ioi?iia ?ioa?an?a ?iicaioe?a ? i?aa
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, naiioi?aae?iiy Noaeaiii.

??onaeei? ? eiai ?aceaeaioii a Aiiai? caa??aaany eiio?ieue ca
ciai?oiueith ? eiioean?eiith iie?oeeith, iaae caeiiiaeaanoaii,
o?iainaie, ca?ieieie neeaie ? iiaeaoeaie e?a?ie. O an?o onoaiiaao
aaiaeeany ?inoeooo aiae?enueeeo ?aaeiee?a.

19 ea?oiy 1928?. aoea ii?eethaeiaia ia?oa eiinoeoooe?y ? aeai?/ee caeii
O?ain?i?aeai??. I?iaieiooaaeenue aeaye? ao?aeoaci? naiaiaee ?
aecia/aeany i?a?iaaoeaa ai??a. Caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea aoea o ai??a ?
Caeiiiaeaa/i? ?aaee o neeaae? 16 aeai?ieo /eai?a (9 a?ae
a?aai-ionoeueiai, 3 a?ae a?aa?a-o?enoeyi, 2 a?ae /a?ean?a ? 2 a?ae
aaaeo?i?a), aeeiiaa/a aeaaea — Aeeiiaa/?e ?aae? (o?yaeo) o neeaae? 6
/eai?a ia /ie? c i?ai’??ii. Iaiaiaaeaio aeaaeo ye aieiaa aea?aeaae iaa
ai??.

O 30-o ?ieao iniiaia oaaaa aiae?enueeeo aeanoae i?eae?eyeany ye ? ?ai?oa
caaacia/aiith nai?o no?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?aii?oth/e ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee
O?ain?i?aeai??. Aieiaia /anoeia athaeaeaoo iai?aaeyeanue ia noai?aiiy
ai?iii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e – aoae?aieoeoai oeyo?a ? aa?aaac, ia ca?ieaoo
/eiiaieeai ? iie?oe??. A 1931?. „??ae Iao?ieaoi Eiiiaie” io?eiaea i?aai
ia aoae?aieoeoai ia oa?eoi??? O?ain?i?aeai?? iaooii?iaiaeo a?ae E??eoea
aei Oaeoe. Eiai nii?oaeaeaiiy, ?icii/aoa iaaani? 1932?., aoei caaa?oaia
ia e?iaoeue 1934?. A 1938 – 1941??. aoea caoaeiaaia iaea?eueoa
no?aoaa?/ia iaa?no?aeue – aaoiiaa?no?aeue Aaaaeaae-Oaeoa.

A ?ioa?anao aiae?eoe?a aoaeoaaeany iie?oeea O?ain?i?aeai?? c non?aei?ie
aea?aeaaaie.

O aa?aci? 1931? aoa i?aeienaiee aeiaia?? i?i ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c
oaoei?onueeei ??aeii, a o aa?aci? 1933?. aeiaia?? i?i aca?iia aeciaiiy ?
aeia?inon?aenueeeo a?aeiineiao c Naoae?anueeith A?aa??th. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? c inoaii?i ?ai Naoae ciya nai? i?aoaic?? ia Iaai ?
Aeaao, a Aaaeaeea a?ae ?iai? oaoei?o?a a?aeiiaeany a?ae i?aoaic?e ia
O?aeaeac.

A 30-o ??. aioeeieii?aeueiee ?oo i?oia ia niaae ? eeoa a aaaeo?inueeeo
?aeiiao aoei ianiie?eii. Oe? ?aeiie aoee aeeo/ai? ?c eiiiaoaioe?? o?yaeo
a 1930?., a a 1933?. oi?aae?iiy, iei aoei ia?aaeaii aiae?enueeiio
io?oea?o „niaoe?ae?noo ii aaaeo?iai” Ae.A.Aeaaao. /a?ac aeae?eueea ?ie?a
oe? ?aeiie aoee „oie?ioai?ai?”.

16 o?aaiy 1939?. a aiaei-o?ain?i?aeainueeee aeiaia?? 1928?. aoea aianaia
iii?aaea, yea noinoaaeany i?aai?caoe?? ca?ieieo nee O?ain?i?aeai??.
Ca?aeii oe??? iii?aaee A?aanueeee eaa?ii aoa ?ai?aai?ciaaiee: o eiai
neeaae aoea aeeth/aia „no?aaea ionoae?”, yea aoea noai?aia ?ai?oa
Aeaaaii aeey ai?ioueae c aaaeo?iaie, ? caaaeueia e?euee?noue aeiaaaeaia
aei 1600 /ieia?e. 25 /a?aiy 1939?. eiiaiaeoth/ei eaa?iiii aoa
i?ecia/aiee Aeaaa, yeee io?eiaa caaiiy aaia?aea ? oeooe iao?. ? aeoaea
nei?i Aeaaa noaa Oaeoe/iei i?aaeoaeai O?ain?i?aeai??.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Aiae?y oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaea a?aanueeee
eaa?ii ye aeiiii?aeio a?enueeiao ? iie?oeaenueeo neeo ia Aeecueeiio
Noiae?. Ia e?iaoeue a?eie o eiai neeaae? aaea aoei 8 oen. nieaeao ?
io?oea??a. Aiae?enuee? noaneae?? ia oo?eiaiiy eaa?iia oa ?io? a?enueeia?
oe?e? o ?iee a?eie neeueii c?inee. sseui a 1937/38??. aiie neeaaeaee 28%
aioo??oi?o i?eaooe?a O?ain?i?aeai??, oi a 1939/40??. aiie aeinyaee 102%,
a a 1940/41??. – 208%.

Ac?c caoiiea aeaaeo iaae aaaaoeie iacenaie Aeue-Oane ? a ea?oi? 1913?.
caeiya aaeeeee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee oeaio? Ooooo. Oea aeicaieeei eiio o
o?aai? 1914?. i?aeienaoe c oo?eaie, ye? aoee caeiyo? ?a?iiaenueeeie
ni?aaaie, aeiaia?? i?i ae?oaeao ? nithc. A 1915?. a?i i?aeienaa
iiae?aiee aeiaia?? ? c aiae?eoeyie.

I?ae /an Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie o a?aanueeeo e?a?iao iineeeeenue
aioeoo?aoeuee? iano?i?. Ieaiaia A?aa?? oaeiae aeoea?coaaee naith
ai?ioueao, a oiio /ene? ? a neeaae? A?aanueeiai eaa?iio. Oey ai?ioueaa
i?aeo?eioaaeanue aiae?eoeyie, ye? i?e oeueiio ia?ane?aeoaaee nai?
?ioa?ane. Aea, ia aeeaey/enue ia aeiaia?? c Aaeeeia?eoai??th, a oaeiae
noaneae?? a 60 oen. ooio?a noa?e?ia?a ui??/ii, Eiiaeiio ia aaeaeiny
aoyaiooe Iaaeaeae aei o/ano? o Ia?o?e na?oia?e a?ei? ia aioe? Aioaioe.
Oi/a a aaaaoueio ?ioeo oa?eoi??yo i?aino?iaa (iio?i aiie aa?eaeooue aei
neeaaeo Naoae?anueeiai ei?ie?anoaa) aiae?enuee? ai?na?e coi?ee ?iciaeeoe
aioeoo?aoeueeo a?eio. Iai?eeeaae, 5 /a?aiy 1915?. oa?eo Iaeee Oonaei
i?iaieinea iacaeaaei?noue O?aeaeaco, i?eeiya oeooe ei?iey (iaeeea) ?
iaieinea a?eio Oo?a//ei?. A?aeiiee iai aiae?enueeee ?ica?aeiee iieeiaiee
Eio?ain a oeae /an ciaoiaeeany a O?aeaeac?, ea?oaaa oai aenooiaie
aaaeo?inueeeo ieaiai i?ioe oo?aoeueeeo a?enuee. Aei eeiiy 1917?. a?aae
i/enoeee O?aeaeac a?ae oo?ie ? caeiyee ii?o Aeaaa.

sse aea ?icaeaaeany Naoae?anueea A?aa?y i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.
Ni?aaa a oiio, ui ?iciaae Iniainueei? ?iia??? a ?acoeueoao? Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie ni?eya oni?oi?e ai?iouea? Naoae?ae?a ca ia’?aeiaiiy
a?aa?enueeeo caiaeue a oeaio?ae?ciaaio aea?aeaao. ?o oni?oo ni?eyea ? oa
ianoaaeia, ui aieiai? aea?aeaae aoee caeiyo? ai?iiith ? iie?oe/iith
ai?ioueaith c ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th, a A?aa?y, aea iaooa ua ia aoea
ciaeaeaia, ?o i?aeoe/ii ia oe?eaaeea.

A 1921?. a Ea??? i?ae aieiaoaaiiyi i?i?no?a eieii?e Aiae?? O.*a?/?eey
aoea neeeeaia eiioa?aioe?y, ia ye?e, i?ae ?ioei, aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy
i?i oa, ui aeaa neia o?aeaeacnueeiai oa?eoa Oonaeia Oaenae ? Aaaeaeeao
caeiooue i?anoie o ei?ie?anoaao ??ae ? O?ain?i?aeai?? ia ciae aeciaiiy
?o caneoa o ai?iouea? i?ioe oo?ie. A oiio ae ?ioe? a Iaaeaeae? ia
ia?aae? /eai?a n?i’? Aeue Naoae ? oaeo?a ieaiai aoei ae??oaii, ui
Aaaeaeue Ac?c aoaea iineoe oeooe „noeoai Iaaeaeaea ? i?e?aeiaieo
oa?eoi??e”.

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ia oa?eoi??? no/anii? Naoae?anueei? A?aa??
?nioaaee aea? aea?aeaae – noeoaiao Iaaeaeae c i?e?aeiaieie oa?eoi??yie ?
ei?ie?anoai O?aeaeac. 6 aa?aciy 1924?. ei?ieue Oeaeaeaca Oonaei aenooiea
c aeiiaaaiiyie ia oeooe Oae?oa. A /a?ai? 1924?. Aaaeaeue Acec caa?ioany
aei ionoeueiai ?c caeeeeii ia aeciaaaoe Oonaeia oae?oii ? neeeeaa
eiioa?aioe?th oeai?a Iaaeaeaea, ia ye?e aoei i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy ?oe
a?eiith i?ioe O?aeaeaco. 3 aa?aniy 1924?. ii a?oaeaiue 1925?. oaea?i?
a?enueea Aaaeaeue Ac?ca, ye? neeaaeaeeny ?c ?oaai?a, caoiieee O?aeaeac,
aeeth/ath/e Iaeeo ? Iaae?io. 8 n?/iy 1926?. o Aaeee?e ia/ao? Iaeee
noeoai Aaaeaeue Ac?c aoa i?iaieioaiee ei?ieai O?aeaeaco. Ia oeae /an
a?eoainueeee o?yae inoaoi/ii a?aeiiaeany a?ae ?aea? anoaiiaeoe
i?ioaeoi?ao iaae aea?aeaaith Naoae?ae?a. Aaeeea, aea iaeiianaeaia
a?aa?enueea ei?ie?anoai aoei ioi/aii aiae?enueeeie i?ioaeoi?aoaie, oiio
a Eiiaeii? ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia oa, ui iaa?oue caeeoath/enue iacaeaaeiei,
?ai Naoae ia ciiaea iaianoe oeiaee a?eoainueeei ?ioa?anai.

Oeaio?ae?caoe?y ai??ao?a A?aa?? a 20 – 30-o ??. i?ioiaeeea ia oii?
caaino?aiiy a?aeiinei, ?o iianoaiiyi, a naia ?oaaiaie. ?ae?a?ei?
oaiaoeee, inoaii? e?eoeeoaaee iiaiaaaaeaiiy ?ai Naoaea (aaoio?ainii?o,
?aae?i, oaeaoii ? o.ae.). ?ica?iieaii? o?eueee a 1930?. ? oea ci?oeieei
aeaaeo ?ai Naoaea. A 1932?. a O?aeaeac? noi?iiaaii ?aaeo I?i?no??a ia
/ie? c ae?oaei neiii ei?iey Oaenaeii, Eiinoeueoaoeaio ?aaeo ? 18 aa?aniy
1932?. ei?ieue aeaeaa aeae?ao „I?i ia’?aeiaiiy /anoei a?aanueeiai
ei?ie?anoaa”, yea c oeueiai /ano io?eiaei iacao Ei?ie?anoai Naoae?anueea
A?aa?y. Aeae?ao i?iaieiooaaa Ei?ai eiinoeoooe??th e?a?ie ? anoaiiaethaaa
ii?yaeie niaaeeiai? aeeiano??. A 1933?.iane?aeiei i?eioeii aoa
i?ecia/aiee noa?oee nei ei?iey – Naoae.

Aeey in?eeo aeeoae?a e?a?ie ?ai Naoae aoa ei?ieai ? ai??ii, oiaoi
oaiaeaeueiei i?aaeoaeai ? iaeii/anii, ye ? eiai i?aaeee, iin??i oeooeo
?iaia – aeooiaiiai aieiae ionoeueiainueei? iaueie (oiie). A?aa?enuee?
ei/?aieee, e??i oiai, aa/eee o ?iae? Naoae?ae?a naith ieai?iio ciaoue,
ye in?ea o i?noao. Ia na?e ?icnoae ? ia iaaiee oa?i?i ei?ieue i?ecia/aa
ai???a (aoaa?iaoi??a) ie?aieo i?ia?ioe?e, ca aeeeth/aiiyi O?aeaeaco, aea
i?aaea aaia?aeueiee iai?niee (a?oea-ei?ieue).

Noai?aiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae caaacia/eei aaciaeo aeeoae?a,
i?eieieeeny i?aeoniaeoe? . Aea iiaeaoeiaee ai?o c??n: aieiaiee ?c
iiaeaoe?a aoa caeao – ?c in?a a?aeiia?aeii ?o ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?. I?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue aa?aethae?a, ye? iaeeaaeaeeny
iiaeaoeii aei??aithaaea i’yoe, iaaoeue – ni?iea, aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa –
o?eaeoeyoue. Caeao ia c?iooaaeuei? caie? = 5% a?iaeath, ia
iac?iooaaeuei? – 10%. ?c n??aea a?aee iiaeaoie o ?ici??? 2,5% eiai
aa?oino?, ?c cieioa – 5%. Iiaeaoie ia oi?aiaee eai?oae ? eiai i?e??no
neeaaeaa 2,5%. Ua aoa iiaeaoie ia iaeiiiee?a. Aea i?ioa iane?eueee
a?aeiith aoea oey aea?aeaaa na?ae/eoue oeeo?a 1,5 iei. ooio?a noa?e?ia?a
– caaaeueiee i?eaooie a?ae iiaeaoe?a o 1927?. Aieiai? aeaeaoee ?c eacie
eoee ia a?i?th, aeiiiiiao ne?ioai ? aaeiaai caaeaeeo ai?i?a, ii?aiaiei ?
oai?ei, /eiiaieeai, ia ina?oo.

O noieeoe? A? ??yae? aeeea oe?ea a?i?y a?aeiye?a, ye? aeaa ?ace ia
aeaiue io?eioaaee oa?/? ia ei?ie?anuee?e eooi?. ?o aoei a?ae 2 aei 10
oen. /ie.

Ia ii/aoeo 1933?. „Noaiaea?o Iee Eaeeoi?iea” (NIEAE) caieaioaaea iiooee
iaooe ia oa?eoi??? Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? aeey /iai iio??aia aoea
eiioean?y. ? oi/a eiieo?aioaie aoee aiae?enuee? eiiiai??, eiioean?y
ae?noaeanue NIEAE ca 100 oen. ooio?a noa?e?ia?a cieioii. Iaeia ?c i?e/ei
oeueiai iieyaaea a oiio, ui ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? o aia?eeaioe?a ia aoei
?iia?nueeiai ieioeiai ye o aiae?eoe?a. Iio?i NIEAE ? ?? o?e?aee
ia?aaeaee iieiaeio aeoe?e „Oaenae Iee Eiiiaie”. Oae a 1944?. aoea
caniiaaia ciaiaieoa „A?aaeai Aia?eeai Iee Eiiiaie”(A?AIEI).

A iai?i ia eiioean?th eiiiai?y iiaiaeeeany aeeiioaaoe ?yae oiia, a oiio
/ene?:

1) iaaeaoe Naoae?anuee?e A?aa?? iiceeo a 50 oen. ooio?a noa?e?ia?a
iianoaiue. Aiae?eoe? ca?eueoeee e?euee?noue a?enuee, ?ici?noeee nai?
AIN. A 1928 – 1934 ??. aiae?eoe? neeith a?aeiiaeee naith aeaaeo o
I?aaeaiiiio Eaiai?, oi/a iianoaiiy ieaiai i?iaeiaaeoaaeeny.

I?aaio/e ci?oeieoe nai? iieiaeaiiy, aiae?eoe? a 1937?. aeaeici?ieee
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy eieii??th ? i?ioaeoi?aoaie. Aaeai aoa iaieioaiee
eieii??th ei?iie, oiaoi a?i oi?aaeyany aaciina?aaeiuei ?c Eiiaeiio.
Aieiaith eieii?aeueii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Aaeaia cai?noue iie?oe/iiai
?aceaeaioa noa? aoaa?iaoi?, yeee iaeii/anii aoa aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/ei
ca?ieieie neeaie. C o?yaeaie ?ioi? oa?eoi??? i?aeienoaaeeny eiiaaioe?? ?
aeiaiai?e i?i i?ioaeoi?ao. An? eieeoi? i?ioaeoi?aoe aoiaeeee oaia? aei
neeaaeo ooai?aieo Cao?aeiiai aai No?aeiiai i?ioaeoi?aoo Aaeai. A ?iee
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Aaeai noaa aeey Aiae?? aaaeeeaith
a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/iith aacith.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. oa?eoi??y ?noi?e/iiai Eaiaia, yeee ?icoaoiaaiee ia
i?aaei? ? i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e /anoei? A?aa?enueeiai i?aino?iaa, ua
caeeoaeany iiae?eaiith ia aeae?eueea /anoei. Ooo aoee aiae?eoe?, ai?? ?
naeoa caeae?o?a. ???a?o?/iee iiae?e ianaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii ?ae?a??.
Aieiaia aeaaea aoea o oaeo?a oa iniai?a.

Oa?eoi??y Eaiaia aoea oaao?ii a?enueeiaeo ae?e i?ae /an Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie. Oo?aoeuee? a?enueea o?eiaee i?ae caa?icith aiae?eoe?a o Aaeai?.
O?eueee a ?acoeueoao? ii?acee o a?ei? oo?aoeueeee eiiaiaeoth/ee
a?enueeaie a I?ai?/iiio Eaiai? i?eieiea a?enueeia? ae?? ? eai?ooethaaa.

A aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? I?ai?/iee Eaiai a?aenoaeee. I?noa Naia,
Oieaeaea, Oaica oeiia? i?noa oaiaeaeueii? aiioe. Aei 1963?. Eaiai ia iaa
aeanii? aaethoe. O ia?oiae? aoee n??ai? iiiaoe – oae caai? oaea?e
Ia???-Oa?ac?? aaaith a iaeio oioe?th (28,35 a?.) ? i?noeee aei 90%
/enoiai n??aea. O i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy aiie io?eiaee iacao ??aee.
N?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii caeiaeiny 90% ianaeaiiy. Iniiaieie
eoeueoo?aie aoee ni?ai, i?ini, y/i?iue, aiaia?, eioaei? aea?aaa,
o?i?eia? iaeueie, a oaeiae iai/?, oeoe?iaa o?inoeia. Eaiai neaaeany
nai?i ciaiaieoei eioa – iieei (a?ae iacae ii?oo Iioe, /a?ac yeee a?i
aeaiceany). ?c oaa?ei ?icaiaeeee iaaoeue ? e?c. ?c ioao?aieoeoaa
?icaiaeeee eo?ae, ?icaeiaia aoei aaeaeiey?noai. Iioe?aia aoei
?eaaeuenoai. Aoee ??ci? oi?ie caieaaieiae?iiy – iaueiii-eieaeoeaia,
i?eaaoia, ae??aiinaeyinueea. Iaia?aaeiaei? Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie
I?ai?/iee Eaiai ia?aa iaeo?ae?oao, iia??oeeany aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y,
iineeeany iiiceoe?eiee ?oo.

Ei?aeai?y

Ui noino?oueny Ei?aeai??, oi a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a a?eoainueeee
o?yae ae??oea, ui iaiao?aeii th?eaee/ii ioi?ieoe iai?aeieii?aeueiee
noaoon O?ain?i?aeai??. 20 ethoiai 1928?. a ??onaeei? aoei i?aeienaii
aeainoi?iii?e aeiaia??, ca?aeii yeiai „caeiiiaeaa/a ? aeeiiaa/a aeaaea
aoaea cae?enithaaoeny a /anoei? i?aeiaiaeaoii? oa?eoi???, a?aeiii? i?ae
iacaith O?ain?i?aeai??, eiai Aaee/i?noth ai??ii”. A oie aea /an ca
a?eoainueeei aa?oiaiei eii?na?ii a ?ieao ia eiaeth ia?e?a aeoiaeeei aei
500 ei?aae?a aea ciaoiaeeeiny aei 20 oen. /ie.. Aieiaia ainiiaea?nueea
eoeueoo?a oea o?i?eiaa iaeueia. ?aianea – aii/a?ia, oeaoeoai, iie?ana,
ieao?iiy, iniiai? i?ioan?? – ii?yee, noaeiiaoae?aaeueieee, ?eaaee.

O 20-o ??. ii/aeany ai?ioueaa i?ae aia?eeainueeeie oa aiae?enueeeie
eiiiai?yie ca aao?aeinueeo iaooo. 12 /a?aiy 1930?. aei/??iy i?aai?caoe?y
„Noaiaea?o Iee Eiiiaie io Eaeeoi?iey” – „Aao?aei Iao?ieaoi
Eiiiaie”(AAIEI) – i?aeienaea c oaeoii Oaiaaeii oaiaeo ia iiooee ?
aeiaoaaiiy iaooe ia i?ioyc? 69?. A 1932?. a oeaio?? i. Aao?aei ii/aea
aeaaaoe iaooo ia?oa naa?aeeiaeia, a a 1934?. ?c Ia?nueei? caoiee aeeoia
ia?oee oaiea? c aao?aeinueeith iaooith. Oea aieeioei ia aeiiii?eo ?
iie?oe/ia aeeooy e?a?ie. Ca?iaeaeaiiy a?aanueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio,
i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. A 1934?. a?eoainueeee
ia?eaiaio caoaa?aeea a?eue i?i io?oe?eiee noaoon Aao?aeio ye
„iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae”.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie e?a?io iio?ynaee i?oeiae ?
aeaiiino?aoe??, aenaaeea aia?eeainueeeo a?enuee ? iaeueioe
?oaei-i?iaoeueei? aa?aoe??. A 1944 – 1945 ??. aeaaea ii/aea „iaaiaeeoe
ii?yaeie”, aoee a?aooiaai? iaaacia/i? aeey ?aaeeio iie?oe/i? ?
a?iiaaenuee? ae?y/?, iacaaeiaieaiiy ia?iaeo aoei i?eaeooaii.

Ia ii/. OO no. Eaoa? aoa iaei??th ?c iaea?eueo a?aenoaeeo e?a?i
A?aanueeiai Noiaeo. Ianaeaiiy 20 oen. /ie. a iniiaiiio ei/?aieee ?
in?e?. 3 eenoiiaaea 1916?. Aiae?y anoaiiaeea na?e i?ioaeoi?ao iaae
Eaoa?ii. I?ae /an iaooiaiai aoio ana a?eueoee aieea o Eaoa?? ii/aee
caaieiaoaaoe aia?eeaioe? a inia? aeaniee?a „Noaiaea?o Iee io
Eaeeoi?iey”. 17 o?aaiy 1935?. oaeo Aaaeaeea i?aeienaa eiioean?eio oaiaeo
ia 75 ?ie?a c a?eoainueeith iaooiaith eiiiai??th „Iao?ieaoi Aeaaaeiiiaio
io Eaoa?”, yea io?eiaea i?aeoe/ii iaiaiaaeai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ia an?e
oa?eoi??? e?a?ie. A 1938?. ii/aeiny aeaeiaoaaiiy iaooe yea aoei
ia?a?aaia ii/aoeii Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.

A?eia ia i?eianea iie?auaiiy a aeiiii?eo ? noni?eueia aeeooy. O i.Aeioa
?iceaa?oe?iaai? aiae?enuee? ca?iei? neee, i?anoeae aeeiano?? iaaea?,
e?a?ia iaiiaiaia aeaoaaeie aiae?enueeeie oa aia?eeainueeeie oiaa?aie ui
aaea?eei ii ?aianeo, caiea?ianoao, oi?a?ae?, ?eaieiae?. E?eca ca/aieea ?
ei/iaa neioa?noai, iicaaaeaoe eiai ?eie?a caooo. Ca?eueoeeany
ai?a?aoe?y. A 1939 – 1945 ??. e?euee?noue ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy Eaoa?o
nei?ioeeany c 30 aei 25 oen. /ie.

I?aaeaiiee ? I?ai?/iee Eaiai

I?aaeaiiee Eaiai ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoa iaea?eueo a?aenoaeith /anoeiith
a?aanueeiai na?oo. Aieiaia i?noi e?a?ie – Aaeai – aoa aiae?enueeith
eieii??th, a?eueoa /anoeia ?ioi? oa?eoi??? – i?ioaeoi?aoaie Aiae??.
E?a?ia yaeyea niaith ?yae oaiaeaeueii-ieai?iieo aea?aeaa, ye? ai?iaoaaee
i?ae niaith. I?ae /an Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie a?aeaoeiny ?yae cieioii;

2) ui??/ii aeiea/oaaoe 5 oen. ooio?a noa?e?ia?a cieioii aae aei
a?aee?eooy eiia?oe?eieo caian?a iaooe;

3) i?ney a?aee?eooy caian?a iaooe o?yae iiaeiai aoa io?eiaoe ieaoo 4
o?e?iaa cieioii aai eiai aea?aaeaio ca eiaeio oiiio aeiaooi? iaooe ?
?yae ?ioeo ae??aieo aeiia. A naith /a?ao, o?yae ca?eueiya eiiiai?th, ??
i?aei?e?inoaa a?ae an?o i?yieo ? iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a, ieo ? o.ae. Oiiae
oaiaee aeyaeeeny iaaecae/aeii aea?aeieie aeey eiiiai??, a oie aea /an
aiie a?aeia?aaeaee oiai/ania ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee. Eiioean?eia oaiaea
aeaaaea aia?eeaioeyi aeeeth/ia i?aai ia ia??iae 60 ?ie?a
aeine?aeaeoaaoe, ?icooeoaaoe, ia?a?iaeyoe, i?iaeaaaoe ? o.ae. iaooo ?
iaooii?iaeoeoe. Eiiiai?? aoea iaaeaia oa?eoi??y c aeeeth/ieie i?aaaie
?ici??ii 400 oen. ea. ieeue, iaeaea aanue no?ae Naoae?anueei? A?aa??.

Ia?oa iaooa a eiia?oe?eieo e?eueeinoyo aoea ciaeaeaia a 1938?. 1 o?aaiy
1939?. a?ae aa?aa?a Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? a?aeieea ia?oee oaiea? c
iaooith. Eiee ?iaioe /a?ac a?eio aoee i?eieiai?, aia?eeainuee? aaieiae
aaea ciaee, ui aiie a?aee?eee oaioanoe/i? caiane iaooe.

? oi/a Naoae?anueeo A?aa?th Ae?oaa na?oiaa a?eia ia ca/aieea, aea oe?ie
c?inee, nei?ioeany aeaeiaooie iaooe. Aaaeaeue Ac?c ?ic??aaa aeiaiai?e
i?i ae?oaeao c I?ia//eiith oa ?oae??th (1929?. ? 1932?.) ? ?ic??aaa
aeeieiiaoe/i? a?aeiineie c oeeie e?a?iaie (1940?. ? 1941?.).

Aei Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie o?yae NOA aaaaeaa Aeecueeee No?ae noa?ith
?a?iiaenueeiai, ianaiia?aae a?eoainueeiai aieeao. Ca ?iee a?eie iie?oeea
Aaoeiaoiia a oeueiio ?aa?ii? caciaea aeeaieeo ci?i ? i?e oiio
i?eioeeiiaeo. NOA iinoaaeee caaaeaiiy cai?ieoe Aaeeeia?eoai?th ye
iaioth/o aea?aeaao a oeueiio ?aeii?, a?aoiaoth/e eiai iaooiaee
iioaioe?ae. A 1943?. aia?eeainueeee o?yae iaieinea Naoae?anueeo A?aa?th
e?a?iith, yea ia? aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iai?iie NOA ? iioe?eei
ia ia? caeii i?i eaiae-e?c.

Aaaeeeaei iiiaioii a aia?eeaii-naoae?anueeeo a?aeiineiao noaea cono??/
14 ethoiai 1945?. i?aceaeaioa ?ocaaeueoa c ei?ieai Aaaeaeue Ac?cii ia
ai?oo e?aena?a „Eoeine” i?ae /an iiaa?iaiiy ?ocaaeueoa c sseoeinueei?
eiioa?aioe??. I?ae ?ioei ei?ieue aeaa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?nioth/ei
aia?eeainueeei eiioean?yi ? iiaiaeeany ia aoae?aieoeoai iaooii?iaiaeo;
yeee c’?aeiaa ae iaooiaa ?iaeiaeua a Aeue-Oan? c ocaa?aaeaeyi
Na?aaecaiiiai ii?y. A iai?i ia oea ?ocaaeueo iiia?oeya i?aeo?eioaaoe
iie?oeeo Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, yea ni?yiiaaia ia ai?ioueao ca aecaieaiiy
a?aa?a i?ioe ?iicaiiiai iaioaaiiy ? ia?aaeaoe ?e /anoeio eaaei? ca?i? c
aia?eeainueeeo neeaae?a o ??ai?.

O aa?aci? 1945?. Naoae?anueea A?aa?y iaieineea a?eio aea?aeaaai „in?”.
Oeae neiaie?/iee aeano aeicaieea ?e anooieoe a III

Eoaaeo

Ia na?aaeeio 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. ca Eoaaeo caaino?eeany ai?ioueaa i?ae
Aiae??th, I?ia//eiith ? ?in??th. Ciaoiaey/enue i?ae noaa?ai?oaoii Ii?oe,
oo?aoeueeeo a?enuee o Eoaaeo? ia aoei. A 1895?. aiae?eoe? i?aai?coaaee
aaeanoai oaeoa Iooaiiaaea ?ai Naaaoa ca a?aeiiao anoaiiaeoe c ieie
nithci? a?aeiineie ? ia i?anoie anooiea eiai a?ao Ioaa?ae ?ai Naaao,
yeee ? i?aeienaa oaeee aeiaia??. Caaino?aiiy aiaei-i?iaoeueeeo aca?iei,
aaeaea e?ioeaaith oi/eith Aaaaeaaenueei? cae?cieoe? iaa noaoe Eoaaeo.
Ao?ooeeany ? Oo?a//eia c ?i?oe?aoeae I?ia//eie, iineaea nai? a?enueea o
Eoaaeo, aea aiae?eoe? aaea aoee oai. Aoei i?aeienaii aiaei-oo?aoeueeo
oaiaeo ca yeith aiae?eoe? aeciaaaee noaa?ai?oao Oo?a//eie iaae Eoaaeoii,
a inoaiiy ia aoaea iineeaoe ooaee a?enueea. ?in?y a 1902?. iai?aaeea a
Eoaaeo e?aena? „Aa?ya”, uia c?iaeoe oene ia oaeoa, aea aeiaia?? i?i
Aioaioo 1904?. ? oaiaea c ?in??th 1907?. iaaeaee Aiae?? iiai? i?aaa a
Eoaaeo?. A 1913?. iiaee aiaei-oo?aoeueeee aeiaia??, ca yeei Eoaaeo aoa
aeciaiee aaoiiiiiith oa?eoi???th c nai?i i?aii?ii, a i?ney ii/aoeo
Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie Aiae?y i?iaieineea Eoaaeo „iacaeaaeiei eiyc?anoaii
i?ae aiae?enueeei i?ioaeoi?aoii”.

Eoaaeo aanue i?aeai?iiee ia??iae caeeoaany a?aenoaeei oaiaeaeueiei
ai??aoii, ianaeaiiy 35 oen. /ie. ?c ieo 15 oen. aaaeo?ie-ei/?aieee.
?icaiaeeee iaaoeue, aa?aethae?a, e?c. Iniiai? o?iainia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
a?ae o?aiceoii? oi?a?ae? ? iinoaaee ia?e?a ia na?oiaee ?eiie.
Noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Eoaaeo caaacia/oaaa naaa ?eaith, 3 – 4 % caie?
ia?iaeyeiny – eoeo?oaeca, ioaieoey, y/i?iue, i?ini, aiaia? ? aao/aa?
eoeueoo?e, o?i?eiaa iaeueia.

C 1920 ii 1921?. ieoiaoe?y /anoeie oa?eoi??? Eoaaeoo Naoae?anueeith
A?aa??th. Aea c anooiii ia i?anoie Eoaaeoo Aoiaaea aeue-Aeaeaaa?a
ieoiaoe?y i?eieieeany. Eiee a 1908?. a ??ai? ciaeoee iaooo, ?iicaii?
aea?aeaae ii/aee i?iyaeyoe ?ioa?an ? aei Eoaaeoo. A aeiaoi? 1913?. ai??
Ioaa?ae caa??ea aiae?eoe?a, ui yeui ia oa?eoi??? Eoaaeoo aoaea ciaeaeaii
iaooo, oi eiioean?th ia ?? aeaeiaooie io?eia? o?eueee a?eoainueea
eiiiai?y.

A 1923?. ia?aaiai?e c ai??ii Aoiaaeii V aaea „Aiaei-Ia?oi Iee Eiiiaie”
(AIIE), aea eiioean?th io?eiaea aia?eeainueea „Enoa?i Aaeo Iee Eiiiaie”,
yea a 1931?. iii?ineea aeiiiiiae o aia?eeainueeiai o?yaeo. I?ae oeneii
Aaoeiaoiio aiae?eoe? iiaiaeeeeny ia ia’?aeiaiiy ? 14.O??.1933?. AIIE ?
„Enoa?i Aaeo Iee Eiiiaie” ia ia?eoaoieo ia/aeao noai?eee „Eoaaeo Iee
Eiiiaie”(EIE) yea 23.O??.1934?. io?eiaea i?aai ia i?ioyc? 75 ?ie?a
cae?enithaaoe ?ica?aeeo ? aeiaoaaiiy iaooe ii an?e oa?eoi??? Eoaaeoo. A
1938?. aoee a?aee?eo? aeoaea aaaao? caiane iaooe a Ao?aai?, aea
i?iieneiaa ?ic?iaea ii/aeany o?eueee i?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.

Na?oiaa aeiiii?/ia e?eca aaea?eea ? ii Eoaaeoo. Cieceany aeeoo?aee
??aaiue ianaeaiiy, eiee na?aaei?e i?eaooie n?i’? ia ia?aaeuoaaa 175
aeiee. NOA ia ??e. No?aeee, oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai „?ooo
iieiaeieoaaeooe?a”. I?ia?aia ?o iieyaaea a ianooiiiio: aeaiie?aoecaoe?y
nenoaie, nioe?aeuei? ?aoi?ie, i?ioe eieii?ae?cio, a /anoeia ?c ieo uia
cae?enieoe oe? ieaie i?iiiioaaea i?e?aeiaoe Eoaaeo aei ??aeo.

Ai?? Eoaaeoo noai?ea Caeiiiaeaa/o ?aaeo c 14 /ie., yea ?ic?iaeyea
eiinoeoooe?th ? ?aoi?ie. Aea i?ae oeneii aiae?eoe?a caoaa?aeaeaia
eiinoeoooe?y 1939?. i?iaieiooaaea Eoaaeo a?aanueeith aea?aeaaith, yea
„ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aiae?enueeei i?ioaeoi?aoii”. I?ae /an Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie noaiiaeua o Eoaaeo? ua a?eueoa iia??oeeinue. Ca?eueoeeany
e?euee?noue caai?ooaiue, iieiaeieoaaeooe? aenooiaee iaa?oue ca nithc ?c
a?oea??anueeith I?ia//eiith, aea aoee ?ica?iieai?, aaei?i?no?aoe?y
iineeeea ?ai?an?? ? eiio?ieue o e?a?i?.

Ia’?aeiaii? A?aanuee? Ai??aoe

No/ania aea?aeaaia ia’?aeiaiiy IAA aei io?eiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? a 1971?.
iaceaaeiny Aeiaia??iee Iiai (c 1820?.) ? aoei i?ae i?ioaeoi?aoii Aiae??.
Oaiaeaeueiee, ?iaeiieai?iiee eaae, aea an?i ea?oaaa oaeo. Oa?eoi??y
Aeiaia??iiai Iiaio ?noi?e/ii ae?eeeany ia ?yae iaeanoae – ai??ao?a ye ?
oaia? – Aao Aeaa?, Aeoaae, Oa?aeae? ? ?an-Oaei, Aaaeaeiai, Oo?aeaeae,
Oii aeue-Eaeaaei. Aeaaea ia?aaeaaaeanue o niaaeie. Aiae?eoe? i?iaiaeeee
ooo iie?oeeo iai?yiiai oi?aae?iiy. Noai?eee eiiiai?th ii aeaeiaooeo
iaooe „Iao?ieaoi Aeaaaeiiiaio io O?ooeee Eiono”, yea a 1939?. io?eiaea a
eiioean?th iaeaea anth oa?eoi??th Aeiaia??iiai Iiaio ia 75?. Aoaeoaaeeny
aa?iii?oe aeey iia?o?yieo e?i?e ?a?iia – Aeaeaeee No?ae, Aiae??th a 30-o
??. ?ic?iaeyeeny ieaie ia’?aeiaiiy aea?aeaa ?aa?iio, ye? aiia
eiio?iethaaea. Aea/aeany iiaeeea?noue ?o aeeth/aiiy a yeonue „ae?oaeith
a?aanueeo oaaea?aoe?th”, aei neeaaeo yei? aa?eoee a oaeiae ??ae,
O?ain?i?aeai?? ? Iaeanoeia. Aea ieaie ia aaeaeeny.

A ?iee 1914 – 1939 Iiai a?a aino?o noia?a/eo c Ianeaoii, iineethaaeeny
iiceoe?? Aiae??. O eeii? 1937?. noeoai iaaeaa „??ae Iao?ieaoi Eiiiaie”
eiioean?th ia ?ica?aeeo ? aeiaoaaiiy iaooe a Iiai? oa?i?iii ia 75 ?ie?a.

I?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie Ianeao i?aeo?eiaa e?a?ie
Aioea?oea??anueei? eiae?oe??, iaaeaa aace. A neooaoe?y o aioo??oi?o
?aeiiao Iiaia caeeoaeanue ianoaa?eueiith, oaeoe iaieineee iaaeia??o
i?aaeoaeth e?a?ie ? i?aaiaiiy noaoe i?aeaeaieie Ianeaoa.

Aao?aei ? Eaoa?

Ua o 80 – 90-o ??. O?O no. Aiae?y i?aeienaea ?yae aeiaiai??a c
i?aaeoaeyie Aao?aeio, ye? ii noo? icia/aee i?ioaeoi?ao Aiae?? iaae
on??th oa?eoi???th.

Aao?aei ia ii/aoeo OO no. a?aenoaea e?a?ia c iaioaaiiyi
iai?aoaiaeaeueieo oa ?iaeiieai?iieo a?aeiinei. Ia?oee caaaeueiee ia?aien
ianaeaiiy aoa i?iaaaeaiee a 1941?. ca?aeii eiai aeaieo o Aao?aei?
i?iaeeaaei a oie /an 89970 /ieia?e, ?c ieo 15930 ?iicaioe?. Caiyooy
ianaeaiiy — aeiaoaaiiy ia?e?a, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, oi?a?aey. O
30-o

E?OA?AOO?A

1. Iiaaeoay enoi?ey a?aaneeo no?ai Acee 1917 – 1985 aa. I., 1988.

2. Iiaaeoay enoi?ey a?aaneeo no?ai Acee 1917 – 1987 aa. I., 1990.

3. Ai?enia A.A. A?aaneee ie?: i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa. I., 2002.

4. Aaneeueaa E.N. Enoi?ey Ainoiea. I., 1994; 1998. o.1,2.

5. Iiaaeoay enoi?ey no?ai Acee e Ao?eee OO aae. 1900 – 1945aa. Iiae
?aae. ae.e.i. A.I.?iae?eaana, I., Aeaaein., 2003, o.1.

6. Eiceoeueeee A.I. Iia?oiy ?noi??y Ac?? oa Ao?eee. Euea?a, 2004.

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11. Oiiei I. Ne?ey e Eeaai a aiaei-o?aioeocneeo ioiioaieyo (1918-1920
aa.).// Ainoie.- 2003.- ?2.

12. O?aieaeue I. Aoi?ie o?iio a Aa?iia eee Ao?eea? (Iaecaanoiua
no?aieoeu enoi?ee).// Ainoie.- 1995.- ?3.

13. O?aieaeue I. Ao?eea e Aeeaeiee Ainoie a no?aoaaee Aa?iaiee a 1940 –
1942 aa.// Ainoie.- 1995.- ?1.

14. sseiaeaa A. Naoaeianeay A?aaey. Noaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.//
Acey e Ao?eea naaiaeiy.- 1996.- ?1.

15. O?aeoiia I. Ia?ieei. Aa?aa?neee neaae.// Acey e Ao?eea naaiaeiy.-
1996.- ?1.

16. Eaiaea ?.A. Ionoeueiaineee ie? e Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia.// Ainoie.-
2004.- ?1.

17. Nooiaa?oia A.A. Aaia?ae aea Aieue e A?accaaeeueneay eiioa?aioeey
1944a. // AE.- 2001.- ?2.

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