AeAAI?E EEOAE

I?e?iaei? oiiae ? caiyooy ianaeaiiy

Aeaai? eeoaeoe? aeeee ia I?ai?/ii-Eeoaenuee?e ??aiei?, ui ciaoiaeeoueny
ia E?aeiueiio Noiae? Ac??. ?c caoiaeo ia no?ae ??aieio ia?aoeia? Ooaioa
(AEiaoa ??ea), ui iana c niaith aaaaoi ?iaeth/iai ioeo. In?aeath/e, a?i
caiiaiy? ?onei ? i?eiooo? ??eo ci?ithaaoe eiai. Ooaioa caoiiethaaea
iiey, cieaath/e iinaeaiiy. Aeieeia ??ee ssioece (Aeaeeoia ??ea),
?icoaoiaaia ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Ooaioa, aoea inai?ia eeoaeoeyie i?ci?oa.

O na?aaeei? II oeny/ie?ooy aei i. ?. iaeanoue Ooaioa aoea canaeaia
/eneaiieie ?eaaeuenueeeie ? ieneeanueeeie ieaiaiaie. Iaeiiio c ieo,
ieaiai? ?iue, aaeaeiny i?aeei?eoe non?ae?a. I?ci?oa iniiaiei caiyooyi
aeaai?o eeoaeoe?a, ui aeeee a aeieei? Ooaioa, noaei caiea?ianoai.
Oaa?eiieoeoai, ?eaaeuenoai ? ieneeanoai aoee aeiiii?aeieie caiyooyie.
Na?aae ?aianae aoee iioe?ai? eeaa?ia ni?aaa, aii/a?noai, aeaioiaeaiiy
oiaeiaeo oeaiei.

C ?icaeoeii caiea?ianoaa ? ?aianae ?icoe?thaaeany oi?a?aey. ?ieue a?ioae
aeeiioaaee ??aee?ni? aei?iaioe?ii? /a?aiaoee, i?ci?oa iaoaeaa? ceeoee, a
ua i?ci?oa — iiiaoe.

Iaeaeaai?o? aea?aeaae

O II oeny/ie?oo? aei i. ?. o eeoaeoe?a aeieeei ?aanoai, aieiaiei
aeaea?aeii yeiai aoee a?eie c non?aei?ie ieaiaiaie, iniaeeai c
ei/iaieeaie I?aii/?.

Iaei??th c ia?oeo aeieeea aea?aeaaa Oaiue-?iue, yeith ea?oaaa
a?enueeiaee aiaeaeue — aai, ui nie?aany ia ciaoue ? /eneaiieo
/eiiaiee?a, ye? cae?aee c ianaeaiiy aaeee? iiaeao?. Ia caoiae? a?ae
Oaiue-?iue ooai?eeany aea?aeaaa *aeio. Aeieeei e e?eueea ?ioeo aea?aeaa.

Caiea?iae a oeeo aea?aeaaao aeeee iaueiaie, aea eiaeia n?i’y io?eioaaea
a ei?enooaaiiy caiaeueiee iaae?e. Cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, ian?iiy, ooaeiaa
oaeiae aoee o i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ie?aii? n?i’?. ?iaeiaa ? ieai?iia
ciaoue caoiiethaaea, ei?enooth/enue nai?i i?ea?eaeiaaiei noaiiaeuai,
e?au? caie?. A?euei? iaueiieee /a?ac iaeicaiaeey iio?aieyee o ai?aiao
caeaaei?noue aei nai?o aaaaoeo non?ae?a — aaee-e eeo caieaaeaniee?a.

Ia’?aeiaiiy Eeoath

O na?aaeei? ? no. aei i. ?. a Eeoa? aoei e?eueea naiino?eieo aea?aeaa,
i?ae yeeie o oi/eeeny o?eaae? ? e?iaii?ieeoi? a?eie. Na?aae oeeo
aea?aeaa aeae?eyeinue oea?noai

Oe?iue ia i?ai?/iiio caoiae? e?a?ie, ui o III no. aei i. ?. noaei
iaeiiaooi?oei na?aae ?ioeo eeoaenueeeo aea?aeaa.

O caiaee?e ai?iouea? c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie o III no. Oe?iue i?e?aeiaei ?o
caie? ? ia’?aeiaei aanue Eeoae. Oe?inueeee ?iia?aoi? Oe?iue Oeooaiae?
iaieinea naaa aieiaea?ai on??? e?a?ie.

Oe?iue Oeooaiae? ?icae?eea onth e?a?io ia 36 iaeanoae, i/iethaaieo
niaoe?aeueieie /eiiaieeaie, ca yeeie noaaeeee ethaee, ui
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue ?iia?aoi?ia?. I?aaio/e i?eieieoe i?aeoniaio
ai?ioueao oa ?icca?i?oe nai?o ai?ia?a, Oe?iue Oeooaiae? iaeacaa
a?ae?a?aoe anth ca?ith a e?a?i? ? ia?anaeeoe 120 oeny/ n?iae ciao? o
noieeoeth, aea ca ieie aoei anoaiiaeaii iaaeyae. A on?e e?a?i?
aaiaeeeeny ?aeei? i??e aaae, aeiaaeeie, ?aeeia ienueii. Aeey caoenoo
e?a?ie a?ae iaa?a?a ei/iaee?a ca iaeacii Oe?iue Oeooaiae? ii/aeiny
nii?oaeaeaiiy Aaeeei? Eeoaenueei? no?ie. Ia ?? aoae?aieoeoa? i?aoethaaee
aeanyoee oeny/ ethaeae, ye? /anoi oai aeioee a?ae iaiineeueii? i?aoe?.
Oe?eia no?ie aoea oaeith, ui ii i?e iiaei i?i?oaoe a ?yae o?noue
aa?oiee?a. ?? aeiaaeeia i?ci?oa i?inoyaeany ia 4 oeny/? e?eiiao??a.
?yooth/enue a?ae i?eioniaeo ?ia?o ia aoae?aieoeoa? Aaeeei? Eeoaenueei?
no?ie, oea?nueeeo iaeaoe?a, a?ae iaiineeueieo iiaeaoe?a naeyie ?
?ai?nieee o?eaee a ai?e ? noaie, i?aei?iaee iianoaiiy. I?ae /an
iianoaiiy ianooiiee Oe?iue Oeooaiae? aoa oaeoee, a eiai aea?aeaaa
?iciaeany.

Aea?aeaaa Oaiue

206 ?. aei i. ?. a Eeoa? aoei anoaiiaeaii aeaaeo oea??a aeeiano?? Oaiue.
Aeey ci?oeiaiiy naiai noaiiaeua aiie cae?enieee ieceo ?aoi?i: iaiaaeeee
i?aaa ciao?, ?icoe?eee aoae?aieoeoai c?iooaaeueieo nii?oae. Aeaui
iieaaoaii aoei noaiiaeua naeyi.

Ca oaiuenueeeo i?aaeoae?a aoee anoaiiaeai? oi?aia? ciineie Eeoath c
aaaaoueia ia?iaeaie. A e?a?ie, ui ciaoiaeeeenue ia caoiae? a?ae Eeoath,
aeaiceeeny oiae, eeeeie, cae?ci, eaeia? ae?iae. Oeyo, ui niieo/aa Eeoae
c ieie, ae?noaa iacao Aaeeeiai oiaeiaiai oeyoo. Ii iueiio a Eeoae
i?eaaiyee oaaoie eiiae, aiaee ?aa?a.

O II no. aei i. ?. oaiuenuee? a?enueea o caiaeeeo aeoaao a?aeaithaaee o
ei/iaee?a aoii?a caie?, a?aeo?nieaoe ?o ia i?ai?/.

Iane?i/aii? a?eie aeiaaaee aaee/acieo aeo?ao. Oea i?ecaiaeeei aei
c?inoaiiy iiaeaoe?a ? iiaeiiinoae.

Ia?iaei? ?ooe a Eeoa?

Oyaeea noaiiaeua o aea?aeaa? i?inoeo ethaeae noaaaei i?e/eiith /eneaiieo
ia?iaeieo iianoaiue. 18 ?. i. ?. a?aeaoeiny iianoaiiy «/a?aiiia?iaeo»
(iianoae? iioa?aoaaee nai? a?iae a /a?aiiee eie??, uia a?ae??ciyoeny
a?ae ai?ia?a). Aiii ioiieei anth e?a?io. Iianoae? oa??aaeenue o iaeaoe ?
aaeee ?iia?aoi?a. Ciaaeiaeeiny aeanyoue ?ie?a, uia i?eaeooeoe oea
iianoaiiy.

Ia ni?aaaeith ia?iaeio a?eio ia?aoai?eeiny iianoaiiy «aeiaoeo iia’ycie»,
ui ii/aeiny 184 ?. i. ?. Iianoaiiy i/ieeee a?aoe *aeai. Noa?oee c ieo —
*aeai Oeyi i?iiia?aeoaaa a/aiiy «Oeyo aei aaeeeiai ca?eueiaiiy», A?i
caeeeeaa nai?o i?ea?/iee?a cieueoe iani?aaaaeeeaee eaae, yeee ia?acii
iaceaaa «nei? iaai», ? anoaiiaeoe iiaee, e?auee eaae i?ae iacaith
«aeiaoa iaai» (ca?aene aeiao? iia’ycee ia aieiaao iianoaeeo). Oea
iianoaiiy o?eaaei iiiaae 20 ?ie?a ? aoei i?eaeooaia c aaeeeith
aei?noie?noth. Aiii i?ecaaei aei caiaiaaeo e?a?ie. Aoee c?oeiiaai?
i?noa, naea ? c?iooaaeuei? eaiaee. 220 ?. i. ?. ?iia??y Oaiue i?eieieea
nai? ?nioaaiiy. Eeoae ?icae?eeany ia o?e aea?aeaae.

?ae?a?y oa eoeueoo?a Aeaaiueiai Eeoath

Aeaai? eeoaeoe? iieeiiyeeny neeai i?e?iaee, ye? oyaeyeenue ?i o aeaeyae?
aeia- o ?eo ? ceeo aia?a oa aeoo?a. Iaea?eueoa oaioaaee aiie i’youe
iaeaeueo a?? Eeoath —Oyiue-Oaiue, Ai-Oaiue oa ?i. Eeoaeoe? c aeeaieith
iiaaaith.noaaeeeny aei nai?o i?aaee?a, ia iiaeeao yeeo i?eiineee
aea?oae.

O aeeaieo aeaaieio a Eeoa? aeieeei ???iae?o?/ia ienueii. ???iae?o?a aoei
e?eueea oeny/. Noai?aiiy ienueia iaaeaei iiaeeeaino? caienoaaoe oai?e
onii? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?. Oae aoei noai?aii «Eieao i?naiue».

Ia na?oiaeyae eeoaeoe?a aieeioei a/aiiy o?einioa Eiioooe?y, ui.aeea o VI
no. aei i. ?. A?i aeacoaaa, ui ca aeeooy eiaeia ethaeeia ca aieath Iaaa
iin?aea? i?ecia/aia ?e i?noea. Eiaeiee ioneoue noie?iii aeeiioaaoe nai?
iaia’ycee ia nai?io i?noe?. *a?ac ii?ooaiiy caeii?a, anoaiiaeaieo Iaaii,
ii/eiathoueny i?aeoniaeoe?, /aa?e, aaceaaeaey.

Iaeii/anii c Eiioooe??i o VI no. aei i. ?. aeea o?einio Eai Oece, ui
noai?ea iiao ?ae?a?th — aeaineci, (a?ae eeoaenueeiai neiaa «aeai» —
«aei?iaa»). A?i a/ea, ui aieiaia aeey ethaeeie — ooeaoe i?aaeeueiee oeyo
o nai?io aeeoo?, naiiaaeineiiaethaaoenue.

Eeoaeoe? o aeaaieio iaee aaeee? iaoeia? ciaiiy. O II no. aei i. ?. aiie
aeiaeoee i?eeaae, ui o?enoaaa caieao?on. Eeoaenuee? iaoaiaoeee ?iaeee
?ic?aooiee aeey aoae?aieoeoaa a?aaaeue oa ?ioeo c?iooaaeueieo nii?oae.
Eeoaeoeyi aoa a?aeiiee eiiian, ui aeiiiiaaaa ea?aaaiai ooeaoe oeyo
na?aae ionoaeue. Aiie noai?eee /eiaei o?aeoao?a c n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iaaeeoeeie, ?noi??? oa ?ioeo iaoe. Ieie aoa aeiaeaeaiee
iai??, yeee ?iaeee aeaa?thaaiiyi aai/??ie oa aea?aaeie, ui ia?aae oei
iiae??aithaaeeny. Iai?? aeo?niea iac?o/i? aeey caien?a aaiaoeia? aeioee
oa aei?iaee oiae, ia yeiio ienaee ?ai?oa.

AIOE*IEE NA?O AeAAIss A?AOe?ss

I?e?iaei? oiiae oa ia?o? aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi??? Aeaaiuei? A?aoe??

A?aoe?y ?icoaoiaaia ia Aaeeainueeiio i?aino?ia?, a eiai i?aaeaii?e
/anoei?. Oea a??nueea e?a?ia. Na?aae a?? aaaaoi ?iaeth/eo aeieei. Oceieo
a A?aoe?? eaeooue aeiu?, ?io? ii?e ?ieo oaie? ? niiy/i?. Ii?nuee? caoiee
a?aeie?aieththoue I?aaeaiio A?aoe?th (Ia-eiiiian) a?ae Na?aaeiuei?
A?aoe??, ai?e ?icae?eythoue Na?aaeith ? I?ai?/io A?aoe?th, ?aeeia
aei?iaa na?aae a?? — Oa? iai?euenueeee i?io?ae. A Aaaenueeiio ii??
aaaaoi ino?ia?a, iaea?eueoee c yeeo — E??o.

O I?—II oeny/ie?ooyo aei i. ?. ia E??o? aeieeea ia?oa a ?a?ii?
aea?aeaaa. Noieeoeath oe??? aea?aeaae aoa Eiinn. Ooo ciaeaeaii caeeoee
aaee/aciiai oea?nueeiai iaeaoeo, caee yeiai ?icienai? o?aneaie. Ooo aoee
iaenoa?i?, eiii?e c? ca?i?th, eiooiaiinoyie, i?iaeiaieuenoaii.

E??oyie oni?oii caeiaeeny n?euenueeei ainiiaea?noaii. Aiie aeinyaee
aaeeei? iaenoa?iino? o aeaioiaeaii? a?iiciai? ca?i? oa cieioeo i?ee?an,
a oaeiae o aoae?aieoeoa? noaeai ? nii?oae. O ieo ?nioaaei ienueii. Aea
eiai ciaee aein? ia ?icoeo?iaai?. E??oyie caoiieee aaaaoi ino?ia?a
Aaaenueeiai ii?y oa iaeano? a nai?e A?aoe??.

O na?aaeei? I oeny/ie?ooy aei i. ?. ia iaaaee/eiio ino?ia? Oa?a
i?ai?/i?oa E??oo noaeiny a?aiae?icia aeaa?aeaiiy aoeeaia. Caieao?on
caaaeaa E??oo iaiii?aaii? oeiaee, cieueaoe aaaaoi aoae?aaeue, naaee ?
iiey. Nionoioaiee E??o aoa eaaei caaieiaaiee aoaeoeyie — a?aoeueeeie
ieaiaiaie, ui ia?ai?aaeeeny nthaee c Iaeiiiiiano.

Eaoano?ioa ia E??o? ia i?ecaaea aei iiaiiai cieuaiiy ia iueiio
eoeueoo?e. Aiia aoea cia/iith i??ith ia?aianaia aoaeoeyie ia
Aaeeainueeee i?aino??a. Aia?oa a?oaieiae ciaeoee ?? iai’yoee i?e
?iceiieao i?noa I?eaie ia Iaeiiiiian?. Oiio oey eoeueoo?a ae?noaea iacao
i?eainueei?.

O I?eaiao oni?oii ?icaeaaeiny n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. ?ai?nieee
aeaioiaeyee a?iiciao ca?ith, aeeiyiee iinoae, iaeya. A aoaenueeeo i?noao
aoaeoaaeenue eai’yi?

oe??ieaiiy, iaeaoee oa ?io? nii?oaee. Aoaeoe? i?enoinoaaee aei nai??
iiae e??onueea ienueii, yea /anoeiai ?icoeo?iaaia.

Aaeee? ?iceiiee, i?iaaaeai? a e?ioe? XIX no. i?iaoeueeei a?oaieiaii
Aai??oii Oe?iaiii a Iae?e Ac??, caaa?oeeeny a?aee?eooyi aeaaiueiai i?noa
O?i?. A?i i?aeoaa?aeea aeaai? iiia?ae? i?i ii?nueeee iio?ae a?ae?a ia
O?ith, ui a?aeaoany aeecueei 1200 ?. aei i. ?.

O?eaaea a?eia i?ioe O?i? ae/a?iaea neee a?aoeueeeo i?no. O e?ioe? II
oeny/ie?ooy aei i. ?. a Aoaenueeo A?aoe?th aoi?aeeny c i?aii/? iia?
a?aoeuee? ieaiaia — aei??eoe?. Aiie iia?aaoaaee ? c?oeioaaee I?eaie oa
?io? aoaenuee? i?noa ? canaeeee Iaeiiiiian. Aoi?aiaiiy aei??eoe?a
i?ecaaei aei ??ceiai caiaiaaeo ainiiaea?noaa oa eoeueoo?e a A?aoe??.

A?aoeuee? i?oe oa ?ae?a?y

O nai?o neacaiiyo — i?oao — a?aee iaiaaaeeny iiynieoe iioiaeaeaiiy
anueiai, ui ioi/oaaei ethaeeio: yaeua i?e?iaee, noinoiee i?ae ethaeueie.

Aaaaoi i?o?a i?enay/aii iiaeaeaai aa?i?a, ui a?aecia/aeeny iaaaeyeith
neeith, oi?ia??noth oa ioaei?noth. Iaeiei ?c iaeoethaeai?oeo ia?iaeii
aa?i?a aoa Aa?aee, ui cae?eniea i?aeoi 12 iiaeaea?a. A?i ai?iany c
oeaeaeaie, ui iaiaaeaee ia ethaeae, aeany c aaeaoiyie, aeeiioaaa
iaeaaae/? ?iaioe, cae?enithaaa iiaei?iae? a iaa?aeii? e?a?ie ? caaaeaee
aeoiaeea ia?aiiaeoeai.

I?o i?i a?aiiaao?a ?iciia?aea? i?i iiaei?iae a?aoeueeeo aa?i?a ia /ie? c
ssniiii aei Eieo?aee (Eaaeac) ca cieioei ?oiii ia ei?aae? «A?ai». I?oe
i?i Aeaaeaea oa ?ea?a, iiaeaeae Oanay, Aeaiao?o ? Ia?nioiio oa ?io?
oaeiae aoee aeoaea iiioey?i? o a?ae?a.

Iniaeeai aaaaoi i?o?a aoei noai?aii i?i iio?ae a?ae?a ia O?ith. Ca
ia?aeacii, ne?iee iiao Aiia? noai?ea ia iniia? oeeo i?o?a iiaie
«?e?aaea» oa «Iae?nnay». Iiaie aoee caienai? o VI no. aei i.a., oi/a
noai?ai? ?ai?oa — o VIII no. aei i. ?. O ia?o?e c ieo ?iciia?aea?oueny
i?i iiaeaeae a?aoeueeeo aa?i?a Ao?eea, Iao?ieea, Iae?nnay oa o?iyinueeeo
Aaeoa?a, Ia??na oa ?ioeo i?ae /an o?iyinueei? a?eie. «Iae?nnay»
i?enay/aia aeanyoee?oi?i iaiae?ai Iae?nnay i?ae /an iiaa?iaiiy c oe???
a?eie, oa i?eaiaeai, a ye? a?i iio?aiea ia oeyoo aeiaeiio.

A?aee, ye e ?io? ia?iaee, a??eee a ?nioaaiiy aia?a. Aiie oyaeyee ?o nia?
noiaeeie ia ethaeae, aea neeueieie ? aacnia?oieie, aaaaeath/e, ui aiie
aeeaooue ia ai?? Ie?ii (o I?ai?/i?e A?aoe??). Ca?aeoe, ia aeoieo a?ae?a,
aiie i?aaeyoue na?oii. Aieiaieie ?c aia?a aiie aaaaeaee a?iiiaa?aeoey
Caana. Ii?nueeith noeo??th «a?aeaa» Iinaeaeii. Aiaii niioey, ui ?caeea o
cieio?e eie?nieoe? ii iaao, aoa Aae?in. Aea- ? iao?a aoea aiaeiath
?iaeth/ino?, a A?ae — aiaii i?aecaiiiai oea?noaa.

Aaaaeaeinue, ui aiae ia o?eueee ea?othoue i?e?iaeith, a e ii?eothoueny
ainiiaea?nueeeie caiyooyie. Oae aia Ae?ii?n i?aeoi iaa/ea ethaeae
ae?iuoaaoe aeiia?aae ? ?iaeoe aeii. Aaoano aoa canooiieeii eiaae?a.
Aa?ian — oi?a?ae?, A?oai?-aea — iiethaaiiy, Aiieeii — ienoaoeoaa.
Aiaeiath ethaia? ? e?ane aoea Ao?iae?-oa, a ioae?ino? — Ao?ia.

Ia /anoue aia?a a?aee aoaeoaaee o?aie, anoaiiaethaaee noaoo?, i?iaiaeeee
?ae?a?ei? nayoa ? ia?yaee.

Ainiiaea?noai oa nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie a A?aoe?? a XI—?O no. aei i. ?.

Aieiaieie caiyooyie a?ae?a o XI—IX no. aei i. ?. aoee neioa?noai ?
caiea?ianoai.

O oeae ia??iae a?aeai aaea aoei a?aeiia cae?ci, aea aiii eioooaaei
aei?iai. Oiio ia?aaaaeaee i?aei? ? a?iicia? cia?yaeaey i?aoe?. A?aee
caeiaeeny ?aianeaie ? oi?a?aeath, a oiio /ene? ? ii?nueeith.

O XI—IX no. a?aee aeeee ua ?iaeiaei eaaeii. Ieaiaia, ui ianaeyee aeieeie
A?aoe?? oa ino?iae Aaaenueeiai ii?y, iiae?eyeeny ia o?ao?i (ia’?aeiaiiy
e?eue-

eio ?iae?a) ? ?iaee. O ?iaee/?a aoee ni?euei? ianiaenueea. Ia caie?, ui
iaeaaeaea iauei?, eiaeiiai ?iaee/a noa??eoeie iaae?eyee ae?eyieith
caie?.

On? a?euei? /ieia?ee-iaueiieee neeaaeaee a?enueei, i?e/iio eiaeia
o?ao??y ? ??ae o oeueiio a?enueeo noaiiaeee ie?aiee i?ae?icae?e.
A?enueeii eiiaiaeoaaa aaneeae — nii/aoeo a?enueeiaee aiaeaeue, a i?ci?oa
oea?, ui ia?aaeaaaa naith aeaaeo o niaaeie. Aaneea? ciooai? aoee
caaaeaoe ia ?aaeo noa??eoei oa ia?iaei? cai?e, aea inoaii? iinooiiai
ao?a/aee nai? cia/aiiy.

A XI—IX no. aei i. ?. a?aee /anoi cae?enithaaee a?enueeia? iioiaee i?ioe
non?ae?a. O a?eiao a?aee caoiiethaaee iaeii ia?aiiaeaieo, a iieiiaieo
ia?aoai?thaaee ia ?aa?a. Aeaye? ?yaeia? iaueiieee ?ici?yeeny, ao?a/aee
nai? ae?eyiee ? i?aoethaaee ia caie? aaneea?a ca /anoeio a?iaeath.

Oaeei /eiii, o A?aoe?? ii/aee neeaaeaoeny oiiae aeey noai?aiiy
?aaiaeanieoeueeeo aea?aeaa.

Ooai?aiiy a?aoeueeeo i?no-aea?aeaa

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ainiiaea?noaa o VIII—IV no. aei i. ?., aeaaeae?
oe?oa canoinoaaiiy cia?yaeue i?aoe?, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
coiiaethaaei cieuaiiy ia?a?niiiaueiiiai eaaeo. Cieeea ii/aoeiaa
??ai?noue. Caiey iinooiiai cina?aaeaeoaaeanue o ?oeao i?aaenoaaiee?a
ciaoieo ?iae?a — a?enoie?ao?a, ye? caoiiethaaee iaae?ee i?inoeo
caiea?ia?a neeii?oeue aai ca ai?ae. Ia iie? ai?aeiee?a noaaeany ai?aiaee
eai?iue, aea caienoaaany ?ici?? ai?ao ? oa?i?i eiai iiaa?iaiiy. sseui
ai?a ia iiaa?oaee, oi caiea?ia?a iicaaaeyee caie?. Aoaeo/e ia a ciic?
i?iaiaeoaaoeny ? nieaoeoe ai?ae, aaaaoi ooi i?iaeaaaa o ?aanoai nai?o
ae?oae aai nai noaaaa ?aaii. Aoee e ?aae-?iicaioe?, caoiieai? a iieii
i?ae /an a?ei.

O VIII—VI no. aei i. ?. a A?aoe?? aeieeee i?noa-aea?aeaae (iie?ne), ui
neeaaeaeeny c i?noa, n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue oa ianiaeu ? iea,
?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco. AEeoae? i?no ? n?e aaaaeaeeny a?iiaaeyiaie iaei???
aea?aeaae ? iaceaaeeny ca iacaith i?noa. A eiaei?e aea?aeaa? aeeee
iiaiii?aai? a?iiaaeyie c? nai?ie n?i’yie, a?euei? /oaeicaioe? oa ?aae. A
A?aoe?? aoei aaaaoi iie?n?a. Iaea?eueoeie c ieo aoee Ao?ie ? Nia?oa.

Ao?inueea aea?aeaaa o VIII—VI no. aei i. ?.

Ao?ie ciaoiaeeeeny a Aooeoe? — i?aino?ia?, ?icoaoiaaiiio ia i?aaeaiiiio
noiae? Na?aaeiuei? A?aoe??.

Ianaeaiiy Aooeee i?iae?eyeiny ia a?enoie?ao?a ? i?inoee ia?iae — aeaiin,
ui neeaaeaany c caiea?ia?a, ?ai?niee?a ? eoioe?a. A?enoie?aoe aeiiiaeeny
neanoaaiiy Oe aeaaee aaneeay, ui nii/aoeo i?aaea a Ao?iao, ? iaieiae?ee
an??th Aooeeith. Ia?ai? c-iii?ae a?enoie?ao?a iinaaeia? iniae —
a?oiioe — iiae?eeee i?ae niaith iaia’ycee o aaneeay. A?enoie?aoe ii/aee
iiiaaiethaaoe i?noeaaeo caiea?ia?a ? ca ai?ae ia?a?a oai?thaaoe ?o ia
?aa?a. Aeaaeith a?enoie?ao?a aoee iaaaeiaieai? i?aaenoaaieee aeaiino. ^
I?ae a?enoie?aoaie ? aeaiinii iaiaeii?aciai a?aeaoaaeeny e?eaaa?
nooe/ee. I?ae oeneii aeaiino a?enoie?aoe ciooai? aoee i?oe ia iinooiee,
ui iaee ae-§ aeyae ?aoi?i, ye? 594 ?. aei i. ?. cai?iaaaeea i?aaeoaeue
Nieii. Nieii neanoaaa ai?ae a ae??aieo caiea?ia?a. C iie?a aoee ciyo?
ai?aia? eaiai?. Aoei caai?iiaii ai?aiaa 2 ?aanoai. ?aaai-ai?aeieeai
aeaee naiaiaeo. An?o a?eueieo a?iiaaeyi Nieii iiae?eea caeaaeii ^ a?ae
i?eaooe?a ia /ioe?e eeane: Ue 1) eean i’yoenioi??iee?a — iaeaaaaoo?
ethaee, i?eaooie yeeo aei??aithaaa

aa?oino? i’yoenio i?? ca?ia;

eean aa?oiee?a, aai o?ueionioi??iee?a;

eean caaa?o?a, ui io?eioaaee aeioiaee ia iaioa aeaionio i?? ca?ia;

eean oao?a, ye? iaee iaaaee/e? ae?eyiee ? aeioiae a?aeiia?aeii iaioa
aeaionio i??.

Eiaeai c oeeo eean?a iaae?eyany a?aeiia?aeieie i?aaaie ? iaia’yceaie.

?aoi?ie Nieiia aeeeeeaee iacaaeiaieaiiy a?enoie?ao?a. Iacaaeiaieaiee aoa
? aeaiin: i?ino? a?iiaaeyie aaaeaee iiaii? ??aiino?. Iianoaiiy i?ioe
Nieiia cioneei eiai caeeoeoe Ao?ie. O 560 ?. aei i. ?. aeaaeo a Ao?iao
caoiiea I?n?no-?ao, ui noaa oe?aiii (i?aaeoaeai c iaiaiaaeaiith
aeaaeith). A?i nie?aany ia a?aeieo naeyi, aeeoae?a a??nueeeo ?aeii?a,
i?nueeo a?aeiioo, caoeuath/e ?o ?ioa?ane. Eiio?neoaaaoe /anoeio caie? a
a?enoie?ao?a, a?i ?icaeaa ?? iacaiiaeiei naeyiai, aa?a aeey naeyi
aeiaaino?ieiaee aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo, i?aai?coaaa ieaoi? a?iiaaenuee?
?iaioe aeey a?aeiye?a, noai?ea iaeiaia a?enueei.

I?ney nia?o? I?n?no?aoa aeayeee /an i?aaeee eiai neie, aea ?oi?
i?aae?iiy aaaaoueii ia iiaeiaaeinue. 509 ?. aei i. ?. aoei cae?eniaii
ia?aai?io ? aeaaeo caoiiea Ee?-noai — noi?ioeaiee nei?a I?n?no?aoa e
a?enoie?ao?a. Ee?noai ci?oeiea aeaaeo ia?iaeieo cai??a. Ia?iaei? cai?e
iae?aee a?aee?eoei aieinoaaiiyi 10 no?aoaa?a (?c ciaoieo ethaeae). Aiie
ii /a?c? eiiaiaeoaaee ao?inueeei a?enueeii. ?aoi?ie Ee?noaia caaa?oeee
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy Ao?inueei? aeaiie?ao??.

Nia?oainueea aea?aeaaa

Aei??enuee? ieaiaia, ui aoi?aeenue o A?aoe?th iai?ee?ioe? II oeny/ie?ooy
aei i. ?., in?ee a iaeano? Eaeii?ea ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? Iaeiiiiiano.
Caaieiaieee ii/aee iaceaaoe naaa nia?oaioeyie ca iacaith ?o aieiaiiai
iinaeaiiy Nia?oe.

I?aeei?aia nia?oaioeyie i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy iaceaaeiny ?eioaie. ?eioe
aeeee n?i’yie a naeao ? ioneee aiaeoaaoe nia?oaioe?a.

E??i cian?i aaci?aaieo ?eio?a, o Nia?o? aeeee ia??aee («non?aee») —
oaeiae iauaaeee ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy Iaeiiiiiano, ye? aoee a?euei? ? yeei
aeicaieyeiny caeiaoeny ?aianeii, oi?a?aeath, caiea?ianoaii. I?ioa
aeiaeieo iie?oe/ieo i?aa, ye ?eioe, ia??aee ia iaee. Aiie niea/oaaee
aeaieio nai?i aieiaea?yi-nia?oaioeyi. Eeoa nia?o?aoe iaee an? i?aaa o
aea?aeaa?. Aiie ia caeiaeeny i? ainiiaea?noaii, i? oi?a?aeath. ?o
aieiaiei caiyooyi aoea a?eia.

Aeaaea a Nia?o? iaeaaeaea ?aae? noa??eoei — aa?on??, eoaee aoiaeeei 28
in?a, ye? aeinyaae 60-??/iiai a?eo. Aiia neeaaeaea caeiie ? aecia/aea
iie?oeeo aea?aeaae. Caeiie caoaa?aeaeoaaeenue ia?iaeieie cai?aie, a yeeo
a?aee o/anoue on? /ieia?ee nia?o?aoe, ye? aeinyaee 30-??/iiai a?eo. Ia
ia?iaeieo cai?ao iae?aeeny 5 aoi??a — aeueo iinaaeiaeo in?a, ui
eiio?iethaaee ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae ? /eai?a aa?on??. A?enueeii
eiiaiaeoaaee aeaa oea??.

Neeaaeath/e iaio?noue ianaeaiiy, nia?o?aoe i?aaioee caa?aaoe
cao?oiaai?noue nai?o eaa. ?iaeoa aiie ia ciiaee a ao?eiaoe aeaaeo iaae
i?aeei?aiei ianaeaiiyi. Aeey oeueiai ia?aaeaa/aeeny caoiaee, ye? iaee ia
iao? aoaeue-ui oieeiooe ?icoa?oaaiiy i?ae nia?o?aoaie. ?i aoei
caai?iiaii iaa?iiaaeaeoaaoe aaaaonoaa. Caie? Nia?oe aoee ?icae?eai? ia
ae?eyiee, e?euee?noue yeeo aei??aithaaea e?eueeino? nia?oaioe?a. I?ooi
ia i?a io?eiaoe ae?eyieo a?eueoo, i?ae ?ioee.

Nia?oa iaea neeueia a?enueei, iaiao?aeia aeey oiai, uia o?eiaoe o iiei??
?eio?a, ye? iaaaaaoi ia?aaaaeaee ca /enaeuei?noth nia?oaioe?a. Ai?i?a
aeey oeueiai a?enueea < aiooaaee c aeeoeinoaa. Ii/eiath/e c 7 ?ie?a, oeii/ee?a iaa/aee a?enueeiai? ni?a- § ae, i?ea/aee oa?i?oe a?eue, aieiae, ni?aao, aooe aei?noieeie. A aith nia?oaioe? aeeeny o oaeaiaith (aieiaei ii?yaeeii) — oa?aiaith, ui neeaaeaeany c e?eueeio ?yae?a aaaeei i; ica?i?ieo (a?iiciaee iaioee?, oieii, aeiaaee nien ? cae?ciee ia/) ai?i?a. Nia?oa caaithaaea non?aei? iaeano? ? cioneea i?noa Iaeiiiiiano anooieoe c iath a nithc. F A?aoeueea eieii?caoe?y Aino?a ai?ioueaa i?ae aeaiinii oa a?enoie?aoaie o a?aoeueeeo iie?nao, ia?aiana- o eai?noue e?a?ie ? ianoa/a caie?, ui aoea i?eaeaoia aeey ia?iaee, oa iaiao?aei?noue o ?icoe?aiiy oi?a?ae? noaee i?e/eiith oiai, ui aaaaoi a?ae?a ciooai? aoee caee- aaoaoe aaouee?aueio ? caniiaoaaoe nai? iinaeaiiy ia aa?aaao Na?aaecaiiiai ? *i?iiai ii??a — eieii??. Iaeaaaaoo? c eieii?e, caniiaai? o VIII—VI no., aoee ?icoaoiaai? ia aa?aaao I?aaeaiii? ?oae?? oa Neoeee??. Oae? .a?aoeuee? eieii??, ye Ne?aeoce a Neoeee?? oa Oa-?aioi o I?aaeaii?e ?oae??, ia iinooiaeeny i?/ei ca ?ici??aie oa aaaaonoaii aaeeeei i?noai A?aoe??. O I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?'? c'yaeeenue a?aoeuee? eieii?? Ieuea?y (ae?ei I?aaeaiiiai Aoao), Oa?niian (a?ey Naaanoiiiey), Iaio?eaiae (a?ey Ea?/?) oa ?io?. Eieii?noe caeiaeeny ?aianeii, caiea?ianoaii, oaa?eiieoeoaii, oia?aeath c i?noeaaeie ieaiaiaie. A iai?i ia a?aoeuee? ae?iae eieii?noe io?eioaaee ?aa?a oa ?io? oiaa?e, /anoeio yeeo a?aei?aaeyee aei A?aoe??. Oi/a aeaai? a?aee ?icnaeeeeny ia aaee/aci?e oa?eoi???, an? aiie aaaaeaee naaa iaeiei ia?iaeii, iaceaath/e naaa aee?iaie, a naith aaouee?aueio — Aeeaaeith. Aee?i?a ia'?aeioaaee ni?euei? iiaa, cae/a?, aeaai? neacaiiy, ?ae?a?y, ienueii (o IX—VIII no. aei i. ?. ia iniia? o?i?e?enueeiai aoa ?ic?iaeaiee a?aoeueeee aeoaa?o, ui neeaaeaany c? ciae?a, ye? icia/aee ye i?eaieini?, oae ? aieini? caoee). A?aoeueei-ia?nuee? a?eie Iai?ee?ioe? VI no. aei i. ?. Ia?n?y i?aeei?eea a?aoeuee? i?noa Iaei? Ac?? ? ia?nueeee oea? Aea??e ? ae??oea caaithaaoe anth A?aoe?th. Eiee ia?nueea a?enueei aenaaeeeinue o A?aoe??, aaaaoi iie?n?a aac aith aeciaee aeaaeo iaae ieie Aea??y ?. A?aeiiaeeenue oea c?iaeoe eeoa Ao?ie ? Nia?oa. 490 ?. aei i. ?. ia?nueea a?enueei aoi?aeiny a Aooeeo ? ?icoaooaaeiny ia ??aiei? a?ey i?noa/ea Ia?aoii ca 40 ei a?ae Ao?i. Nthaee ae i?eaoei iaioa ca /enaeuei?noth ao?inueea a?enueei ia /ie? c? no?aoaaii I?eueo?aaeii, yea ia?aai?iaeeei ia?nai oeyo ia Ao?ie. Iacaaaeath/e ia naith ia/eneaii?noue, a?aee ianiiae?aaii aoaeoaaee ai?iaa ? cioneee ia?n?a o?eaoe aei ei?aae?a oa caeeoeoe A?aoe?th. Caciaaoe ii?acee i?e Ia?aoii?, ia?ne ia ao?aoeee iaae?? caaithaaoe A?aoe?th. 480 ?. aei i. ?. a e?a?io aoi?aeinue aaee/acia ia?nueea a?enueei iiaiai oea?y Ena?ena. A?aee aeia?a i?aeaiooaaeenue aei cono??/? c ai?iaii. Ao?iyie iiaoaeoaaee oeio, oe??ieee aaaai? ? niiioeaee ?io? a?aoeuee? i?noa ia'?aeiaoeny a nithc aeey ai?ioueae c ia?naie. Ea??aieoeoai a?enueeiaeie neeaie ocyea ia naaa Nia?oa. Ena?en ?c aaee/aciith a?i??th i?yioaaa ia i?aaeaiue ocaeiaae a?aoeueeiai aa?aaa ia ei?aaeyo. Iaeei ca iaeiei eiai aeaaeo aeciaaaee a?aoeuee? i?noa. Iaaaeeea a?i?y nia?oaioe?a oa ?o nithciee?a, i/iethaaia oea?ai Eaii?aeii, caeiyea Oa?iii?euenueeee i?io?ae, ui aoa ?aeeiith aei?iaith o Na?aaeith A?aoe?th. Ca aeiiiiiaith c?aaeieea ia?ne ciaeoee iao?aeio noaaeeio ? caeoee a oee a?aeai. Ae?ciaaoenue i?i ioi/aiiy, Eaii?ae a?aeionoea a?eueoo /anoeio naiai a?enueea, uia caa?aaoe neee aeey iiaeaeueoi? ai?ioueae, a nai ?acii c o?ueiia nioiyie nia?oaioe?a aa?i?/ii caaeioa, i?ee?eaath/e ?o a?aeo?ae. I?ney aeoae i?e Oa?iii?eao ia?ne caoiieee Ao?ie ? c?oeioaaee ?o. Ie?ia ianaeaiiy i?noa aaeaeiny cacaeaeaa?aeue ia?ai?aaeoe a Iaeiiiiian oa ia ino??a Naeai?i, a?aeaeaeaiee a?ae Aooeee aocueeith i?ioieith, a ye?e ciaoiaeeany a?aoeueeee «i oeio. A?ey oeueiai ino?iaa a?aeaoany ae??oaeueiee ii?nueeee a?e. Iaaaeee? a?aoeuee? e ei?aae? aoaeoaaee ia?n?a, eaiath/e ?oi? aanea, i?iaeaath/e ai?oe ai?iaeeo ei?aae?a ^ aino?eie oa?aiaie, ?icoaoiaaieie ia ??ai? aiaee. Aaeee? ? a?ii?caee? ei?aae? ia?n?a F ia ciiaee ?icaa?iooeny a o?ni?e i?ioioe?. Aiie n?aeaee ia i?eeio ? ?icaeaaeeny ia neae?. Aaaaoi noaeai ai?iaa aoei iioiieaii, ?aooa a?aenooieea. A?aee caeiaoee ia?aiiao. 5? Ii?acea ia?nueeiai oeioo cioneea Ena?ena ni?oii caeeoeoe A?aoe?th c /anoe-o iith naiai a?enueea. A?i aiyany, ui a?aoeuee? ei?aae? ia?aai?iaeyoue eiio oeyo aei aa Ia?n??. Ianooiiiai, 479 ?. aei i. ?., ia'?aeiai? neee a?ae?a caaaeaee ii?acee ia?naio aeoa? a?ey i?noa/ea Ieaoa?. A?eia o?eaaea ua CI ?ie?a. Aea oaia? aaeany aieiaiei /eiii ia ii??. Aeey aaaeaiiy a?eie i?eii?nuee? iie?ne A?aoe?? oeeaee i?ae niaith nithc, aieiaio ?ieue a yeiio a?ae?a?aaaee Ao?ie (Ao?inueeee ii?nueeee nithc). Ia'?aeiai? a?aoeuee? neee ia /ie? c ao?iyiaie caaaeaee oyaeeeo ii?acie ia?nueeiio oeioia? ? cae?enieee ieceo ni?eeaeo iaiaae?a ia aa?aae Iaei? Ac??. Ia?n?y ciooaia aoea oeeanoe ie? oa aeciaoe iacaeaaei?noue I?eaoa e ?ioeo a?aoeueeeo i?no, ?icoaoiaaieo ia ino?iaao Aaaenueeiai ii?y oa a Iae?e Ac??. Ia?nueeiio oeioo aoei caai?iiaii ieaaaoe ii Aaaenueeiio ii?th. C?inoaiiy ?aaiaeanieoeoaa a A?aoe?? A?eie c ia?naie ni?eyee c?inoaiith ?aaiaeanieoeoaa a A?aoe?? ca ?aooiie caoiieaiiy aaee/acii? e?eueeino? iieiiaieo. ?aaaie a A?aoe?? aoee caeaa?eueoiai ethaee iaa?aoeue-eiai iioiaeaeaiiy. ?ioei aeaea?aeii ?aanoaa aoa ii?nueeee ?ica?e. O A?aoe?? ?nioaaee ?eiee ?aa?a. Aiie aoee a Ao?iao, ia ino?ia? O?in, o a?aoeuee?e eieii?? A?caio?e oa a ?ioeo i?noeyo. C?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ?aa?a o A?aoe?? cieceei ?o oe?io. Oaia? noaoe ?aaiaeanieeii i?a ? naeyiei, ? ?ai?niee. ?aae aeeiioaaee a naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noaao oa iaenoa?iyo iaeoyae/? oa iaeieaae?o?eiaai? ?iaioe. Aiie oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ye iaeieoe o aeiiaoiueiio ainiiaea?noa?. Aoee oaeiae aea?aeaai? ?aae. A Aooeoe? /eiaei aea?aeaaieo ?aa?a i?aoethaaei ia n??aieo eiiaeueiyo. Aiie oaeiae aeeiioaaee iena?nueeo ?iaioo ? iaa?oue ioi?iiyee ii?yaeie o a?iiaaenueeeo i?noeyo. AEi?noie?noue ainiiaea??a uiaei ?aa?a, iaiineeueia i?aoey niiioeaee ?aa?a ai?ioeny i?ioe ?aaiaeaniee?a. Oiio /anoeie aoee aoa/? ?aa?a, iaa?oue iania?. 464 ?. aei i. ?. a Nia?o? ii/aeiny aaeeea iianoaiiy ?eio?a, yea o?eaaei 10 ?ie?a. Eiai aaeaeiny i?eaeooeoe o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith ao?iyi, ye? aiyeeny, ui iianoaiiy ia?aeeiaoueny ? ia ao?inueeeo ?aa?a. O III no. aei i. ?. a?aeaoeiny iianoaiiy ?aa?a ia ino?ia? O?in, yea i/ieea ?aa Ae?eiae. Aiii oaeiae aoei i?eaeooaia. O V no. aei i. ?. ?aaiaeanieoeoai a A?aoe?? aeinyaei a?eueoiai ?icaeoeo o ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?ie /anaie oa e?a?iaie Aeaaiueiai Noiaeo. Ao?inueea aea?aeaaa o V no. aei i. ?. I?ney ia?aiiae iaae ia?naie iaeiiaooi?oith aea?aeaaith o A?aoe?? noaee Ao?ie. Aiie ia o?eueee ia ?icionoeee, a e oe??ieee noai?aiee ieie i?ae /an a?eie ii?nueeee nithc. Ao?inuee? no?aoaae i?ney a?eie, iineeath/enue i?ae ia ni?eueio iaaaciaeo, i?iaeiaaeoaaee cae?aoe aianee, aeo?a/ath/e ?o o?eueee ia iio?aae Ao?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ao?ie ao?o/aeeny o aioo??oi? ni?aae nai?o nithciee?a, a?aei?aaeyth/e ooaee nai?o i?aaenoaaiee?a aeey eiio?ieth ca cae?aiiyi aiane?a. C aea?aeaaaie, ui aaaeaee aeeoe ?c nithco, Ao?ie noai?i ?ici?aaeyeenue. Ao?iyie caoiieee o nai? ?oee oi?a?aeth, yeo aaee aei oiai a?aoeuee? i?eii?nuee? i?noa Iaei? Ac??. Aieiaiei ii?oii Aaaenueeiai ii?y noaa I??ae, ui ciaoiaeeany ca 7 ei a?ae Ao?i. Nthaee i?eoiaeeee ei?aae? c ??ciiiai?oieie oiaa?aie c ?aeioo, Ne???, ?oae?? oa ?ioeo i?noeue. A Ao?iao o?eaaa ?icea?o ?aianea. Ao?inuee? eiaae?, oea/?, aii/a?? neaaeeeny nai?th iaenoa?i?noth. ?aianei aeaaaei ca?ia?oie a?aeiyeai — a?iiaaeyiai Ao?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ao?inueea aea?aeaaa caaacia/oaaea ?ai?niee?a caiiaeaiiyie, aeei?enoiaoth/e eiooe ii?nueeiai nithco. Aiia caeo/aea ?o aei aoae?aieoeoaa a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae, ye? i?ee?aoaee Ao?ie ? noai?eee ?i neaao iaei?ae?ani?oiai i?noa o oiai/aniiio na?o?. I?ae /an a?eie c ia?naie inoaoi/ii neeaany ? oe??ieany a Ao?iao aeaiie?aoe/iee eaae. Aa?oiaia aeaaea a Ao?iao iaeaaeaea ia?iaeiei cai?ai. Aiie cae?aeeny o?e ?ace ia i?nyoeue. Ia ia?iaeieo cai?ao ae??ooaaeenue ieoaiiy a?eie ? ie?o, ooaaethaaeenue iia? caeiie ? neaniaoaaeenue noa??. A?aoe o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaith ? i?inoi aooe i?enooi?ie ia ia?iaeieo cai?ao iiaee o?eueee ao?inuee? a?iiaaeyie. Ieie aaaaeaeeny eeoa /ieia?ee a?eii a?ae 20 ?ie?a, ui aaoueeaie iaee a?eueieo aeeoae?a Ao?i. Aea?aeaai? iinaaee o V no. aei i. ?. aoee aeinooii? an?i a?iiaaeyiai ? ia?eiaeeny ca aeai?ii ia?iaeo aai aea?aaeoaaiiyi. Aeueie noaee iinaaee no?aoaa?a, ye? eiiaiaeoaaee a?i??th oa oeioii. Ca o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaith ii/aee aeaeaaaoe aeiaai?iaeo. Caaaeyee oeueiio e a?aei? ae?noaee ciiao ia?eiaoe aea?aeaai? iinaaee. ?aae, ia?anaeaioe? c ?ioeo i?no oa i?aaenoaaieee nithcieoeueeeo aea?aeaa caeeoaeeny aaci?aaieie. Iaea?eueo aieeaiaei iie?oe/iei ae?y/ai Ao?inueei? aea?aeaae o V no-. aei i. ?, aoa Ia??ee. A?i no?eei caoeuaa ?ioa?ane aeaiino ? oiio i?ioyaii 15 ?ie?a eiai iae?aee ia?oei no?aoaaii. Ca Ia??eea Ao?ie ia?aoai?eeeny ia iaeia c iaee?anea?oeo oa iaeaaaaooeo i?no A?aoe??. A?i ii?eoaaa ?aianei e oi?a?aeth. Ia??ee i?eae?eya aaaaoi oaaae ci?oeiaiith Ao?inueeiai ii?nueeiai nithco. Uia o?eiaoe nithciee?a o iiei??, a?i i?aai?coaaa iinaeaiiy ao?inueeeo a?iiaaeyi ia caieyo nithciee?a. Ia??ee iaeacaa, uia iino?eii aoa iaiiaioia? oeio c 60 a?enueeiaeo ei?aae?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ao?iyie cioooaaee nai?o nithciee?a niea/oaaoe aeaieio. ?iee i?aae?iiy Ia??eea aoee /anii iaea?eueoiai i?aeianaiiy iiaooiino? Ao?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iaeiiiiianueea a?eia ? caiaiaae a?aoeueeeo iie?n?a Nia?oainueea aea?aeaaa aoea iacaaeiaieaia i?aeianaiiyi Ao?i. Noia?ieoeoai i?ae Ao?iaie ? Nia?oith 431 ?. aei i. ?. i?ecaaei aei ii/aoeo a?eie i?ae ieie. Oey a?eea o?eaaea iaeaea 30 ?ie?a ? ae?noaea iacao Iaeiiiiianueei?. A i?e a?aee o/anoue iaeaea an? iie?ne A?aoe??: iaei? ia aioe? Ao?i, ?io? — ia aioe? Nia?oe. Ai?ii? ae?? o?eaaee c ia?ai?iiei oni?oii ? i?ecaaee aei iiaiiai ?oeioaaiiy ainiiaea?noaa iaio noi??i. A?eia caaa?oeeany ii?aceith Ao?i, aiane?aeie /iai Ao?inueeee ii?nueeee nithc aoa ?iciouaiee, ao?iyiai aoei caai?iiaii o?eiaoe a?enueeiaee oeio ? aiie ciooai? aoee caieaoeoe Nia?o? eiio?eaooe?th. Iaeiiiiianueea a?eia i?ecaaea aei caiaiaaeo an?o a?aoeueeeo iie?n?a, a oaeiae caaino?eea noia?ieoeoai i?ae ieie. A?eie i?ae iie?naie o?eaaee e o IV no. Oa e ona?aaeei? aaaaoueio i?no-aea?aeaa aoei ianiie?eii. Ooo a?aeaoaaeeny aino?? nooe/ee i?ae aeaiinii ? a?enoie?aoaie. Aeaaiueia?aoeueea eoeueoo?a I?aeianaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy o A?aoe?? ni?eyei ?icaeoeo a?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Aaeeeeo oni?o?a aeinyaea iaoea Aeaaiuei? A?aoe??. A?aoeueeeo ieneeoae?a caaaeaee : oe?eaaeee iioiaeaeaiiy na?oo oa eiai ono??e. Aiie iaiaaaeeny ?aoe?iiaeueii iiynieoe yaeua i?e?iaee. Iaei? aaaaeaee, ui ii/aoeii onueiai aoea aiaea, ?io? — iia?o- ' ?y, o?ao? — aiaiiue. Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaei a/aiiy Aeaiie?eoa, yeee aenoioa a?ii- ! oaco i?i oa, ui ana, ui ?nio?, neeaaea?oueny c aoii?a. A/aiee Aa?aee?o aaaaeaa, ui ! ana a na?o? ia?aaoaa? o aacia?a?aiiio ?on? ? ?icaeoeo. Aaeeeee aianie o iaoaiaoe/io ? iaoeo c?iaea I?oaai?, aaoi? ciaiaieoi? oai?aie. I?aoe? e?ea?y A?iiie?aoa ni?eyee ?icaeoeo iaaeeoeeie. Aeaaiy A?aoe?y aaaaea?oueny aaouee?aueiith o?einio??. Iaeaeaeaoi?oeie o?einioaie a Ao?iao aoee Nie?ao, Ieaoii ? A??noioaeue. Oe? oa ?io? o?einioe iaiaaaeeny iiynieoe aaaaoi aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, ui noinoaaeeny ye i?e?iaee, oae ? ethaeeie. I?aoe? ?noi?ee?a Aa?iaeioa ? Ooe?ae?aea iieeaee ii/aoie ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?. C ieo iiaeia ae?ciaoeny ia o?eueee i?i iiae?? naia a?aoeueei? ?noi???, a e ?noi??? non?aei?o c a?aeaie ia?iae?a. Ia aenieiio ??ai?, iniaeeai a Ao?iao, ciaoiaeeeany ina?oa. Iaeaea an? ae?oe a?eueieo a?ae?a a?aea?aeoaaee oeieo. Ae?oe naeyi ? ?ai?niee?a iaa/aeeny o?eueee ienueia oa /eoaiiy, ine?eueee c thieo ?ie?a iaee aeiiiiaaaoe aaoueeai. Ae?oe ciaoieo aaouee?a iaa/aeeny o a?iiac?yo aei 18 ?ie?a. O a?iiac?yo, ie??i iaoe, iaa/aee oaioe?a, ni?ao, a?? ia e???. Aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eyeiny o?ce/iiio aeoiaaiith, a?ao, ai?iouea?, no?eaeai, eeaeaiith niena oa aeenea. O A?aoe?? ca?iaeeeiny oaao?aeueia ienoaoeoai. Aiii aeieeei c? nayo, i?enay/aieo aiao Ae?ii?no, eiee eoee aoee/i? i?ioean??, ye? cia?aaeoaaee Ae?ii?na c? naeoith naoe??a oa ?ic?a?oaaee noeaie c aeeooy oeueiai aiaa. I?ci?oa oea ia?a?inei o oaao?aeueia ae?enoai. Aoee iiaoaeiaai? oaao?aeuei? nii?oaee, ui yaeyee niaith y?one eaaie, ?icoaoiaai? i?aeieii c iaeaeai/eeii aeey aenoaa iina?aaei?. Ooo ?ic?a?oaaeeny i'?ne (o?aaaae?? ? eiiaae??) ye ia i?oieia?/i? nthaeaoe, oae ? ia iiaooia?. Aeaeaoieie ae?aiaoo?aaie aoee aaoi?e o?aaaae?e Ano?e, Nioiee, eiiaae?ia?ao A?enoioai. Aaeeeeo oni?o?a aeinyaee a?aee a aaeoc? a?o?oaeoo?e. Aieiaiei a?o?oaeoo?iei aeaiaioii a?aoeueeeo aoae?aaeue aoea eieiia, yea iaea o?e oeie (i?aea?e). Iaeia?oa aeieeee aei??enuee? eieiie. I?ino? ? noai??, aiie aoee ae?eo? aeieiaeaie, a aa?oiy /anoeia (eai?oaeue) yaeyea niaith ianeaio ieeoo. ?ii?enuee? eieiie aeieeee i?ci?oa. Aiie no?oie?o? ? oiio? ca aei??enuee?. ?oiy eai?oaeue iaea aeaeyae aeaio caaeoe?a. Iaei?ci?oa aeieeee ei?eionuee? eieiie c eai?oaeeth o aeaeyae? eioeea c eenoyi. *anoi ?iaeeenue eieiie o aeaeyae? /ieia?/eo (aoeaioe) ? ae?ii/eo (ea??aoeaee) o?ao?. Iaea?eueo a?aeiiei ? o?aiiaee eiiieaen Ao?inueeiai ae?iiiey, aieiaiith /anoeiith yeiai aoa o?ai aiaei? Ao?ie Ia?oaiii. A?aoeuee? a?iiaaenuee? aoae?ae? iaia'yceiai i?ee?aoaeeny ?yaeaie eieii, iaee i?yiieooio oi?io oa aeainoeeee aeao. O?iioiie oeeo aoae?aaeue i?ee?aoaee ia?io?iaeie aa?aeue?oaie, ui a iniiaiiio cia?aaeoaaee i?oieia?/i? noeaie. Aeaaiy A?aoe?y oneaaeeany nai?th neoeueioo?ith. A?aoeuee? neoeueioi?e iaenoa?ii ia?aaeaaaee e?ano ethaenueeiai o?ea, aeeiai?eo ?oo?a ethaeeie. Oaeeie, iai?eeeaae, ? noaooy nieniiinoey ?iaioe neoeueioi?a Iie?eeaoa, aeeneiaiea neoeueioi?a I??iia oa ?io?. Noaoo? cia?aaeoaaee aia?a, i?oieia?/ieo aa?i?a ? ?aaeueieo ethaeae. Noaoo? ?iaeee c ia?io?o, aea?aaa, a?iice. *anoi ia aea?aa'yio iniiao iaeeathaaee ieanoeie ?c neiiiai? e?noee, a aeaiaioe iaeyao cieioeee. Oaeeie ? noaooy aiaa Caana a Ie?ii?? (ia Iaeiiiiian?) ? cia?aaeaiiy aiaei? Ao?ie ana?aaeei? o?aio Ia?oaiii ?iaioe aaeeeiai a?aoeueeiai neoeueioi?a O?ae?y. A?aoeueeee aeeaiien aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee aieiaiei /eiii ia aacao. O VI no. aei i. ?. ia /a?aiioaaoee oii aeeie iaiineeeny o?ao?e /i?iei eaeii. Oe? aace iaceaathoue /i?iio?ao?ieie. O V no. /i?iei oa?aoaaee oii, a aeey o?ao? caa??aaee /a?aiiee oii aeeie. Oae? aace ae?noaee iacao /a?aiiio?ao?ieo. Ooaeiaeieee iaethaaee ia aacao noeaie c no/aniiai ?i aeeooy, i?o?a, noeaie c oaao?aeueieo eiiaae?e ? o?aaaae?e. ?nioaaee ea?oeie o aeaeyae? o?anie oa ia aeioeao, aea an? oe? aeoai?e ienoaoeoaa ia caa?aaeeny aei oaia??oiueiai /ano. O Aeaai?e A?aoe?? aeoaea iiioey?ieie aoee nii?oeai? ciaaaiiy, ui, ye i?aaeei, i?enay/oaaeenue aiaai. Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie aoee nii?oeai? ?a?e ia /anoue aiaa Caana a Ie?ii??, ye? a?aeii? ye ie?ii?enuee?. Ie?ii?aaee i?iaiaeeeenue c 776 ?. aei i. ?. ?ac ia /ioe?e ?iee. Ia /an i?iaaaeaiiy Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai? o A?aoe?? i?eieiyeeny an? a?eie. Iniiaieie aeaeaie nii?oo aoee: a?a, a?a o iiai?e ae?i??iaoe? ai?ia, no?eaee o aeiaaeeio, eeaeaiiy niena ? aeenea, eoea/iee a?e, ai?ioueaa, iai-e?ao?ii (ai?ioueaa c aeaiaioaie eoea/iiai aith), ia?aaiie eie?nieoeue. Ia?aiiaeoe? Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai? ei?enooaaeeny aaeeeith iioaiith. ?o iaai?iaeaeoaaee a?ieii c ieeaeiaiai aea?aaa, ia /anoue /aii?ii?a nii?oaeaeoaaee ?oi? noaoo?. O/anieeaie Ie?ii?enueeeo ?ai? iiaee aooe eeoa a?euei? /ieia?ee — iiaiii?aai? a?iiaaeyie iie?n?a. AE?ieai i?ae no?aoii nia?o? aeinooi aei Ie?ii?aae aoa caai?iiaiee. AEE?I?CI I?aeei?aiiy A?aoe?? Iaeaaeii??th O oie /an, ye a?aoeuee? aea?aeaae caiaiaaeaee, ia i?aii/? Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa iineethaaeiny Iaeaaeiinueea oea?noai. Iaea?eueoi? iiaooiino? Iaeaaeii?y aeinyaea ca oea?y O?e?iia II. A?i noai?ea neeueia a?enueei ca a?aoeueeei c?aceii, aieiaiith neeith yeiai aoea i?oa oaeaiaa — c?ieiooa oa?aiaa ai?i?a o 16 ?yae?a, oaea? yei? ia ??ai?e i?noeaaino? iaiiaeeeai aoei nieieoe. O?e?ii II ae??oea nei?enoaoeny ?ica?aoii i?ae a?aeaie ? caoiieoe a?aoeuee? aea?aeaae. Aaaaoi a?aoeueeeo ?aaiaeaniee?a i?aeo?eioaaee iaeaaeiioe?a o iaae??, ui aiie caoenoyoue ?oi? aeeooy ? iaeii. Aiie ?ic?aoiaoaaee oaeiae, ui, i?aeei?eaoe A?aoe?th, O?e?ii II i?aea a?eiith ia Ia?n?th ? oiae? aiie aoaeooue iicaaaeai? caa?ice c aieo a?aeiye?a, yeeo iaeaaeiinueeee oea? a?cueia a nai? a?enueei. O A?aoe?? ooai?eeany a?oia i?ea?/iee?a Iaeaaeii?? c-iii?ae a?enoie?ao?a. A?eueoa /anoeia a?eueiiai ianaeaiiy ia aaaeaea i?aeei?eoeny iaeaaeiioeyi. I?ioeaiee?a Iaeaaeii?? i/ieea ciaiaieoee ao?inueeee i?aoi? Aeaiinoai, yeee caeeeeaa on?o a?ae?a aei ai?ioueae i?ioe iaeaaeiinueeiai oea?y, aei caoenoo aeaiie?ao?? ? naiaiaee A?aoe??. I?ioe Iaeaaeii?? i?aeiyeiny aaaaoi i?no Na?aaeiuei? A?aoe?? ia /ie? c Ao?iaie. 338 ?. aei i. ?. a?ey i?noa Oa?iia? a?aoeuee? nithcieee aoee ?icaeo? iaeaaeiioeyie. I?ney oe??? ia?aiiae O?e?ii II i?iaieinea naaa eiiaiaeoaa/ai on?o ca?ieieo nee a?aoeueeeo aea?aeaa. Oaeei /eiii, A?aoe?y ao?aoeea naith iacaeaaei?noue. Caaithaaiiy Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai Caaithaaaoe A?aoe?th, O?e?ii II noaa aiooaaoeny aei iioiaeo ia Ia?n?th, aea iacaaeiaai aei eiai ii/aoeo aoa oaeoee caeieioieeaie. 336 ?. aei i. ?. iaeaaeiinueeei oea?ai noaa eiai 20-??/iee nei Aeaenaiae?. Aeaenaiae? c?a?aa aeia?a ica?i?ia a?enueei ? aenaaeeany c iei a Iae?e Ac??, ui . iaeaaeaea ia?nai. Ooo o aeoa? ia ??/oe? A?ai?e a?i ?icaea a?enueei ia?nueeiai nao?aia ? ca?eueiea a?ae ia?n?a a?aoeuee? iaeiac?enuee? i?noa. I?ney oeueiai a?aei-iaeaaeiinueea a?enueei ?ica?iieei ia?nueea a?enueei ia /ie? c oea?ai Aea??ai III a?ey i?noa ?nn, aea caoiieei aaeeeo caeiae/: aanue oea?nueeee iaic ? n?i'y Aea??y III iio?aieea a ?oee ia?aiiaeoey. Aac aith Aeaenaiae? caoiiea ?aeiao, aea aea?oe?, yeeo a?i i?aaioa ia?aoyaoe ia na?e a?e, i?iaieineee iaeaaeiinueeiai oea?y aiaii. I?iaeiaaeoth/e caaithaaiiy Ia?n??, Aeaenaiae? 332 ?. aei i. ?. aeaa ae??oaeueiee a?e Aea??th III i?e Aaa-aaiaeao (ia aa?ac? Oea?o). O aei?noie?e aeoa? ia?nueea a?enueei aoei ?ica?iieaia. Aea??e O oo?e ? iacaaa?ii aoa oaeoee nai?ie i?eaeai?ieie. Ia?nueea aea?aeaaa ?iciaeanue. ; Caoiieaoe aeaai?e Aaaeeii, Aeaenaiae? c?iaea eiai noieeoeath nai?? aea?aeaae. 329 ?. aei i. ?. a?aei-iaeaaeiinueea a?enueei ae?ooeei ia Na?aaeith Ac?th. Ceiieaoe ii?? i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, oi?iaeiaae ianooiieo o?ueio ?ie?a Aeaenaiae?o aaeaeiny i?aeei?eoe oeth e?a?io. Aeae? a?aeaoany iio?ae a ?iae?th. A?ey ??ee ?iae iaeaaeiioe? noaee aei aith c a?enueeii ?iae?enueeiai oea?y Ii?a, a yeiio aoee aieia? neiie. Iaeaaeiinueea a?eaueei caciaei aaeeeeo ao?ao, aea aeeoei ia?aiiaeoeai. Neeueiee ii?? ?iae?enueeiai ianaeaiiy, iacae/iee ee?iao, ooiia a?ae /eneaiieo aieiaeo nooe/ie noaee i?e/eiith caai?ooaiue o a?enueeo Aeaenaiae?a. Eiai ai?ie aeiaaaee iiaa?iaiiy. 325 ?. aei i. ?. Aeaenaiae? ciooaiee aoa i?eieieoe iio?ae ? iiaa?iooeny aei Aaaeeiia. ?iciaae aea?aeaae Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai sse ?acoeueoao a?aei-iaeaaeiinueeeo caaithaaiue ooai?eeany aaee/acia aea?aeaaa, ui i?inoyaeany a?ae Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa aei ??ee ?iae. Ca i?eeeaaeii ia?nueeeooea??a Aeaenaiae? ioi/ea naaa aaee/aciith ?ice?ooth, aeiaaaa, uia eiai aaaaeaee Iiaii ? eeaiyeenue eiio a iiae. Ia noiae? c'yaeeeny iia? i?noa, eoaee ia?anaeyeiny a?aoeueea ianaeaiiy. ??aee iiaa/eee aeeooy ? iiciaeiieeenue c eoeueoo?ith ?ioeo ia?iae?a. 323 ?. aei i. a. Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiinueeee ?aioiai iiia?. Ine?eueee eiai aea?aeaaa neeaaeaeany c ?ic??ciaieo caiaeue iaeaea ia ca'ycaieo i?ae niaith i? ainiiaea?noaii, i? eoeueoo?ith aiia oaeaeei iiOiae'any Ue i?ioean i?enei?eea i?aeoniaia ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo i?ae iieeiaiae-Ayie a?aei-?aeaaenueeiai a?enueea (ae?aaeioaie). Aiane?aeie oe??? ai?ioueaeaea?aeaaa Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai aoea iiae?eaia ia e?eueea oea?noa. Aieiaieie c ieo aoee Iaeaaeiinueea, ?aeiaonueea ? Ne??enueea. Ainiiaea?noai ? eoeueoo?a No?aeiiai Na?aaecaiiiii?'y o ? ? ?-?? no. aei i. ?. O aea?aeaaao, ui ooai?eeeny i?ney ?iciaaeo aea?aeaae Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiinueeiai, oea?yie noaee iaeaaeiinuee? iieeiaiaeoe? oa ?oi? iauaaeee, iii?ith yeeo aoee ia?anaeaioe? A?aoe?? ? Iaeaaeii??. Oe? aea?aeaae ae?noaee iacao aee?i?noe/ieo, ine?eueee ?o ?icaeoie aeaoaaany i?ae aieeaii a?aoeueei? eoeueoo?e. C-iii?ae a?ae?a ? iaeaaeiioe?a oea?? iicia/aee no?aoaa?a, ia/aeueiee?a iaeanoae, noaeoe?a ? /eiiaiee?a. I?noeaa? naeyie niea/oaaee ? aaeee? iiaeaoee i?iaeoeoaie nai?? i?aoe? ? ia?iaeyee caie? oea?y, aaeueiiae ? i?a ?ai?nia ae?iaieoeoai ? oi?a?aey oaeiae ciaoiaeeeeny a ?oeao a?ae?a ? iaeaaeiioe?a. Iaeii/anii a aee?i?noe/ieo e?a?iao c?inoaee noa?? i?noa ? oaeaeei c'yaeyeenue iia? Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueoeo iiaeo i?no aoea Aeaenaiae??y - noieeoey ?aeioo, aea i?aaeea aeeiano?y Ioieaia?a. Nthaee I?eii aacee oe?a c ?aeioo, cieioi ? neiiiao e?noeo c Ioa?? Ocaeiaae eaiaeo, i?i?eoiio i?ae I?eii ? *a?aiiei ii?ai ?oia oeyo aei ?iae??. Ia?aae Aeaenaiae???th ia ino?ia? Oa?in aeni/?a aaee/aciee, 140-iao?iaee iaye, aiaiiue yeiai aoei aeaeii ca e?eueea aeanyoe?a e?eiiao??a. A Aeaenaiae??? aoee i?yi? aoeeoe? oaao?Oice?oi? iaeaoee oea??a ? ciao?, ? ciaiaieoee Ionae, oiaoi nayoeeeua ioc (iie?iaeoae?a iaoe ? ienoaoeoa), aea ?nioaaee iana?aaoi??y iaaanieie na?oeeaie ? aaee/acia a?ae?ioaea, ui neeaaeaeany c 700 oeny/ ?oeiien?a. A aee?i?noe/ieo aea?aeaaao c'yaeany iiaee iaoa??ae aeey ienueia (iacaa a?ae i?noa Ia?aai, aea aoa oeaio? eiai ae?iaieoeoaa), ui yaeya niaith nia-i?aeueii ia?iaeaio oe??o oaeyo ? yaiyo. A?i aoa aeoaea i?oeiee, aea aei?iaee A Aeaenaiae??? i?aoethaaee a?aoeueeee aaiiao? Aaee?ae, aeaeaoiee a/aiee A?o?iaae Ano?iiiie ? aaia?aoe ia/eneeee aeiaaeeio aeaaoi?a caiii? eoe?, ooi/ieee o?eaae?noue ?ieo ia o?eueee aei aiaeei, a e aei oaeeei. Aaeeeeie aeoai?aie aee?i?noe/iiai ienoaoeoaa noaee a?iaieoey oea?y Iaaciea (iaacieae) a Aae?ea?ian?, noaooy aiaa Aae?ina ia ino?ia? ?iaein (eiein ?iaeinueeee), yeeo no/anieee aeciaee aeeaaie na?oo. Caaithaaiiy ?eiii ?oae?? oa i?aai?caoe?y ?einueeiai a?enueea I?ioyaii e?eueeio noie?oue ?ei a?a caiaee? a?eie c ?oaeuenueeeie ieaiaiaie. A na?aaeei? IV no. aei i. ?. i?ney o?eaaei? a?eie c ieaiaiai naii?o?a ?eieyie caaithaaee aaaaoo iaeanoue Eaiiai?th. I?ney oeueiai aiie caaithaaee i?aaeaiue ?oae??, aea ?icoaoiaoaaeenue a?aoeuee? i?noa-aea?aeaae. Neeaaeiith aoea ai?ioueaa ia i?aii/? ?oae?? i?ioe aaee?a. Aiie iaa?oue o IV no. aei i. ?. ciiaee caoiieoe a?eueoo /anoeio ?eio, ? ioi/eee Eai?oie?e, aea noiaaeeny aeeoae? i?noa. Uia a?aeeoieoeny a?ae aaee?a, ?eieyie nieaoeee ?i 300 ea cieioa. I?ci?oa aaeee aoee ia?aiiaeai?. Ia?aiiaee ?eieyie caaaeyee aeia??e i?aai?caoe?? a?enueea. Aiii neeaaeaeiny c a?iiaaeyi a?ae 17 aei 46 ?ie?a ? iiae?eyeiny ia eaa?iie (iieee) ii 4500 (i?ci?oa 6000) ai?i?a. Aeey aith eaa?ii oeeoaaany o o?e e?i?? caaii?a (eiai?o). A?i aoa aeoaea ?ooiiee ? i?a aeoeny o aoaeue-yeeo oiiaao. O ?einuee?e a?i?? aoea noai?a aeenoeeie?ia. O. ia?aiiaeaieo ?eieyie a?aeae?aee aei 2/3 i?ii? caie? oa ianiaeu. Ia ?ioeo caieyo ?ei caniiaoaaa eieii?? aeey nai?o iaeicaiaeueieo naeyi. Caaieiaai? i?noa ? ieaiaia ?oae?? o?eiaee a iiei?? ia o?eueee neeueiei a?enueeii, aea e ca aeiiiiiaith ?einueei? aeeieiiao??. Iaei? i?noa aoee ciooai? niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee, ?io? aoee a?ae ieo ca?eueiai?, aea iinoaaeyee ai?i?a, o o?ao?o aoea a?ae?a?aia caiey, /aoaa?o? ei?enooaaeeny oeie ae i?aaaie, ui e ?eieyie. A oi?aae?ii? ?oae??th ?ei aeio?eioaaany i?aaeea: «Iiae?eye ? aieiaea?the». Ioi?/i? a?eie I?ney i?aeei?aiiy ?oae?? ?ei i?aaioa i?aeei?eoe ?iaeth/o Neoeee?th. Oea i?ecaaei aei a?eie c Ea?oaaaiii, yeee aieiae?a cia/iith /anoeiith na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai ocaa?aaeaey Ao?eee, /anoeiith Neoeee??, ino?iaaie Na?aeei??th ? Ei?neeith, i?aaeaiii-no?aeiei ocaa?aaeaeyi ?niai??. Ii/aeeny o?eaae? a?eie i?ae ?eiii ? Ea?oaaaiii, ui ae?noaee iacao Ioi?/ieo a?ei (?eieyie iaceaaee ea?oaaaiyi ioiaie). Ia?oa Ioi?/ia a?eia o?eaaea 23 ?iee (c 264 ii 241 ??. aei i. ?.). A i?e ?eieyie Ia?aiiaee ? cioneee Ea?oaaai a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae Neoeee?? ? Ei?neee oa nieaoeoe aaeeeo eiio?eaooe?th. Iaeiae Ea?oaaai iaa ua aaaaoi nee ? aiooaaany aei iiai? a?eie. Ea?oaaainueeee iieeiaiaeaoeue Aai?eueea? Aa?ea caaithaaa ?niai?th, iei aoea noai?aia i?oeia a?i?y, yeo i?ney nia?o? Aai?eueea?a i/ieea eiai nei Aaii?aae. Aaii?aae aaniith 218 ?. aei i. ?. iia?a a?enueei c ?niai?? aei ?oae?? /a?ac Aeueie. Nionoeaoenue c a?? o aeieeio ??ee Ii, Aaii?aae i?e?aeiaa aei naiai a?enueea i?noeaa? ieaiaia, iauiaeaaii i?aeei?ai? ?eiii. Ae??oaeueia aeoaa a?aeaoeany 216 ?. aei i. ?. i?e Eaiiao. Ooo Aaii?aae ci?a caiaieoe aaea?/? ia?aaaaeath/eo ?eieyi o ianoeo, a iio?i ioi/ea ?o ? cieuea. Ii?acea i?e Eaiiao iinoaaeea ?ei o aeoaea neeaaeia noaiiaeua, aea aiia ia icia/aea e?ioey a?eie. ?eieyie ciiao c?a?aee aaeeeo a?i?th, aea oieeaee aaeeeeo aeoa, /eiy/e iaiaaee ia ea?oaaaiyi oa ia?aoeiaeaeath/e iiiiaiaiith a?enueea Aaii?aaea. Oiio neee ea?oaaaiyi oaioee. O ai?iouea? i?ioe ea?oaaaiyi a?aecia/eany iieiaeee iieeiaiaeaoeue Noeei?ii. A ?niai?? a?ae caaaeaa ea?oaaainueeiio a?enueeo aeae?eueea ii?acie. I?ney oeueiai Noeei?ii ae?ooea aei Ao?eee. Ea?oaaainueeee o?yae, iaeyeaiee iiyaith ?eieyi, aeiaaaa iaaaeiiai iiaa?iaiiy Aaii?aaea c ?oae??. A aeoa? iiaeeco i?noa Caia Aaii?aae caciaa ii?acee. 201 ?. aei i. ?. aoa oeeaaeaiee ie? ia aeoaea oyaeeeo aeey Ea?oaaaia oiiaao. Ea?oaaai ionea a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae an?o nai?o iaao?eeainueeeo aieiae?iue, ia?aaeaaaa ?eieyiai oeio oa aieiaeo neii?a, iaa nieaoeoe aaee/acio eiio?eaooe?th. ?eieyie noaee iiaieie ainiiaea?yie o Cao?aeiiio Na?aaecaiiiii?'?. A?eie ?eio o ??-? no. aei i. ?. oa oi?aae?iiy i?e?aeiaieie caieyie Ia?aiiaa iaae Ea?oaaaiii a?aee?eea ia?aae ?eieyiaie iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ca- a aa?aaiue o Na?aaecaiiiii?'?. Ia noiae? o I no. aei i. ?. ?nioaaei e?eueea aaeeeeo ai?iaoth/eo ,, i?ae niaith aea?aeaa: Iaeaaeii?y, Ne??y, ?aeiao. ?ei, ei?enooth/enue ?o noia?ieoeoaii, a ?ica?iiea eiaeiiai c? nai?o i?ioeaiee?a iiiaeeioe?. ?eieyie aaee o?e a?eie c • Iaeaaeii??th ? a na?aaeei? II no. aei i. ?. i?aeei?eee Iaeaaeiinueea oea?noai. Aoea caaieiaaia ? A?aoe?y. ?ica?iieaoe Ne??th, ?eieyie caoiieee Cao?aeia ocaa?aaeaey Iaei? ? Ac??. O ia?o?e iieiaei? ? no. aei i. ?. ?ei a?a o?eaae? a?eie c Iiio?enueeei oea?noaii, ui aoei ?icoaoiaaia ia i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiio ocaa?aaeae? *i?iiai ii?y. >
A?aoo?-?aoo aiie caaaeaee ii?acee iiio?enueeiio oea?th I?o??aeaoo VI
?aiaoi?o, ] ? aeaaea ?eio 64 ?. i. ?. iioe?eeany ia anth Iaeo Ac?th. O
caeaaei?noue a?ae ?eio | iio?aieee oaeiae A??iai?y oa a?aoeuee? eieii??
o I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?. 146 ?. aiane?aeie ia?aiiae o III Ioi?/i?e
a?ei? ?eieyie caoiieee ? c?oeioaaee ] Ea?oaaai. Caaieiaai? iica iaaeaie
?oae?? iaeano? iaceaaeeny i?ia?ioe?yie. I?ia?ioe?? | aaaaeaeeny
«caeiae//th» ?einueeiai ia?iaeo. sse i?aaeei, i?ia?ioe?y oi?aaeyeany
iai?n- ? ieeii, yeee i?ecia/aany ia iaeei ??e c-iii?ae naiaoi??a.
Ianaeaiiy i?ia?ioe?e iaeea- ? aeaeiny iaiineeueieie iiaeaoeaie.
Iaioaaiiy ?eio ?ici?yei ia?iaee Na?aaecaiiiii?’y.

?aanoai a ?ei? oa iianoaiiy ?aa?a.

Aei II no. a ?ei? neeaeiny ?icaeiooa ?aaiaeanieoeueea noni?euenoai.
Aaeee? a?eie ni?eyee iiiiaiaiith iaa?eueieoeueeeo ?eie?a nioiyie oeny/
?aa?a. ?aaaie noaaaee oaeiae aeeoae? i?ia?ioe?e ca—ianieaoo iiaeaoe?a,
ia?iaeaeai? a ?aanoa?, a oaeiae iniae, caoiieai? i??aoaie a iieii.

Aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ?aa?a o ?ei? iaaoei a?eueoiai iioe?aiiy, i?ae o
A?aoe??. Aaaaoi ?aa?a i?aoethaaee o eaoeooiae?yo — aieiae?iiyo aaeeeeo
caieaaeaniee?a. ?aae aeiaoaaee ?oaeo, aoaeoaaee oeyoe, o?aie, aiaeiaiie.
?o aeei?enoiaoaaee ye oaoith i?eneoao, aiie iaa/aee ae?oae, aoee
aeoi?aie a oaao?ao, e?ea?yie, nae?aoa?yie oiui. ?aa aaaaeaany «??//th,
ui ?iciiaey?». Iaea?eueo neeuei? ? ni?eoi? ?aae iio?aieyee a
aeaae?aoi?nuee? oeiee, aea ?o a/eee «e?aneai aeoeny ? iiie?aoe» ia
iio?oo ?einueeiio iaoiaio. Ia a?aiao oee?e?a a?aeaoaaeeny ii?aeeiee, ai?
aeaae?aoi?nueeeo caaii?a, aeaae?aoi?e aeeeny c aeeeeie ca??aie.

Oyaeea noaiiaeua cioooaaei ?aa?a i?aei?iaoeny ia ai?ioueao ca naith
naiaiaeo. Iaea?eueoei noaei iianoaiiy, i/ieaia Nia?oaeii. Aiii
niaeaoioei o aeaae?aoi?nuee?e oeie? i?noa Eaio? 74 ?. aei i. ?. C
a?oiith i?eoeeueiee?a Nia?oae ao?e ?c oeiee-oth?ie ? noiaaany ia
Aacoa??. Aei Nia?oaea ii/aee i?e?aeioaaoeny ?aae c iaaeieeoi?o ia?oe?a.
?einueea a?enueei aeieoaaei oaa?? iianoaeeo, aea o? ii ieaoaieo
no?aeoeyo nionoeeeny c Aacoa?th, aea ia aoei ?eieyi, ? cieueee ?einueeee
oaa??. I?ney oeueiai a?i?y Nia?oaea ii/aea c?inoaoe. A?i caeiaoa e?eueea
ia?aiia iaae ?eieyiaie. O?eaaeee /an o ?eieyi ia aenoa/aei nee aeey
?ica?iio Nia?oaea. C /anii i?ioe iianoaioe?a aenooieei a?enueei, i/ieaia
?einueeei iieeiaiaeoeai E?annii. 71 ?. aei i. ?. a inoaii?e aeoa? a?ey
ii?oo A?oiaeec?e a?enueei Nia?oaea aoei ?icaeoa. Nai Nia?oae caaeioa o
aith. Iianoae? aoee /anoeiai cieuai? ia aieiaeu?, a oeo, ui caoiieee a
iieii, ?ic?i’yee. Oae iianoaiiy aoei i?eaeooaia.

Ai?ioueaa naeyi ca caieth

?icaeoie ?aanoaa iicia/eany ia noaiiaeu? a?eueieo naeyi a ?oae??.
?aanueea i?aoey aoea a?eueo aeaoaaith, i?ae naeyinueea. Oiio naeyie
?ici?yeenue, ioaea ciaioeeany e?euee?noue ethaeae, ui iaae?aeany aei
a?enueea. ?einueea a?i?y aeaaeae? /ano?oa caciaaaea ii?acee. Aeaye?
iaea?eueo aeaeaeiaeyaei? ?eieyie i?iiiioaaee ?aoi?ie. Caiaiaae ?einueei?
?anioae?ee

C e?ioey II no. aei i. ?. aei na?aaeeie ? no. i. ?. ?einueea aea?aeaaa
ia?aaeeaaea ia??iae caiaiaaeo. Ca oiia, eiee aiia ?ic?ineany iaeaea ia
ana na?aaecaiiiii?nueea ocaa?aaeaey, ia?iaei? cai?e, ye ? ?ai?oa,
ae?aaeaee aieth o?eueee aeeoae?a ?eio oa eiai ieieeoeue, oiae? ye
?einuee? a?iiaaeyie /anoi ciaoiaeeeeny ca iaaeaie ?oae??. Aei oiai ae
aeaeaei ia caaaeaee aeai?i? iinaaee ia?eiaee ethaee, ye? aoee aa?o?
oiai. Uia caeiaooe iinaaeo, aaaao? a?enoie?aoe /anoi canoiniaoaaee
i?aeeoi ?einueei? a?aeiioe, ?icaeath/e oe?a, a?io?, aeaooiaoth/e
aeaae?aoi?nuee? aeaeiaeua oiui. Ana oea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ai?ioueaith
i?ae a?enoie?aoe/ieie oa?oiiaaiiyie, ye? /anoi ia?a?inoaee o e?eaaa?
nooe/ee, caeieioe, oe?eo na??th a?iiaaeyinueeeo a?ei.

A?eie, ye? aaee ?eieyie, aiane?aeie iineaaeaiiy ?einueeiai a?enueea ia
caaaeaee ?icaeaaeeny oni?oii. Uia oe??ieoe ?einueeo iiaooi?noue, Aae
Ia??e o e?ioe? II no. aei i. ?. i?ia?a ?aoi?io a a?i??, c?iaeaoe ??
iaeiaiith. Oea ci?oeieei ?ieue iieeiaiaeoe?a o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
?einueei? aea?aeaae, ine?eueee aiie nie?aeeny ia neeo caeaaeiiai a?ae
ieo a?enueea. Nie?ath/enue ia i?aeo?eieo a?i??, iieeiaiaeoe? aeiiaaaeeny
aeueo aea?aeaaieo iinaae. Ca aeiiiiiaith a?i?? aiie aei?noiei
i?eaeoooaaee ii?? nai?o noi?ioeaiee?a.

Aeeeoaoo?a Noeee

*anoeia ?einueeeo ae?y/?a aaaaeaea, ui aeey ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee o?aaa anoaiiaeoe neeueia i?aae?iiy. ?einueeee iieeiaiaeaoeue
Eooe?e Ei?iae?e Noeea, ui o 88 ?. aei i. ?. noaa eiinoeii, cai?iiiioaaa
naiaoo ooaaeeoe iinoaiiae, ui ci?ieee a aea?aeaai? ii?yaeee: iaiaaeeoe
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ia?iaeieo cai??a, ia?iaeieo o?eaoi?a, iiiiaieoe naiao
300-ie i?aaenoaaieeaie ciao?. Noi?ioeaieee Noeee, i/iethaai? Aa?i
Ia???i, i?aai?coaaee caeieio, a?aei?ieaoe eiai iinoaiiae. O ?einuee?e
?anioae?oe? ii/aeany a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie oa
noi?ioeaieeaie Noeee (noeeaioeyie ? ia??aioeyie). O 82 ?. aei i. ?. i?ae
?eiii Noeea ?icaea a?i?th nai?o noi?ioeaiee?a ? naiao i?iaieinea eiai
aeeeoaoi?ii.

Noaaoe aeeeoaoi?ii, Noeea iaieinea nai?o ai?ia?a iica caeiiii, ui
icia/aei aeica?e ia ?o aaeanoai an?i, ooi oiai caaaaea?, ? iaa?oue
ii?eethaeiea nienee oeeo ethaeae (i?ine?eioe??). Ca ?iee eiai aeeeoaoo?e
(82—79 ??. aei i. ?.) caaeioei 40 naiaoi??a ? 1500 aa?oiee?a
(i?aaenoaaiee?a aaaaoeo caieaaeaniee?a) oa aaaaoi ?ioeo ethaeae. Iaeii,
caieth ? ?aa?a no?a/aieo a?i ?icaeaaaa nai?i i?eoeeueieeai.

Noeea aenooiaa ca ci?oeiaiiy aeaaee a?enoie?ao?a o naiao?. A?i
iaiaaeoaaa aieea ia?iaeieo o?eaoi?a.

O 79 ?. aei i. ?. Noeea cayaea i?i na?e a?aeo?ae a?ae iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. Iaioaaiiy Noeee caaaeaei ieu?aiiai oaea?o ii
?anioae?eainueeiio eaaeo a Aeaaiueiio ?ei?. I?ney eiai nia?o? 78 ?. aei
i. ?. i?iaeiaaeeeany ai?ioueaa ca a?aeiiaeaiiy ?anioae?ee, aea aieea
iieeiaiaeoe?a ia iie?oe/i? iiae?? iaeiaeiai caeeoaany aaee/aciei.

Ia?oee o??oia??ao

O 60-o? ??. aei i. ?. a ?ei? iaea?eueoee aaoi?eoao iaee o?e iieeiaiaeoe?
oa iie?oe/i? ae?y/?: Aiae Iiiiae, THe?e Oeaca? oa Ia?e E?ann.

Aoaeo/e ia a ciic? caoiieoe iaeiiin?aio aeaaeo, Oeaca?, E?ann ? Iiiiae o
60 ?. aei i. ?. oeeaee i?ae niaith oa?iiee o?i?noee nithc — o??oia??ao.

Ianooiiiai, 59 ?. aei i. ?. Oeaca? aoa ia?aiee eiinoeii ? aaeea ieceo
caoiae?a, aea?aeieo o/anieeai o??oia??aoo — o??oia??ai. Nieaeaoe
(aaoa?aie), ui caeeoeee neoaeao o Iiiiay, io?eiaee caiaeuei? iaae?ee,
ye? a?aeiiaeany ?i iaaeaoe naiao. Iiiiath ? E?anno a?o/eee aeey
oi?aae?iiy aaaao? i?ia?ioe??.

A?eie Oeaca?y ? E?anna

O 58 ?. aei i. ?. Oeaca? io?eiaa a?ae naiaoo a oi?aae?iiy ia 5 ?ie?a
Oeecaeuei?enueeo Aaee?th, c yeith non?aeeee caie? iacaeaaeieo a?ae ?eio
aaeuenueeeo ieaiai, ui aeeee ia?a?niiiaueiiei eaaeii ? ai?aaoaaee i?ae
niaith. Oeaca? ii/aa c ieie a?eio, ui o?eaaea a?n?i ?ie?a. A?i oi?ei
aeei?enoaa ai?iaeia/o i?ae aaeuenueeeie ieaiaiaie. Oeaca? noaaaa ia a?e
iaeieo ieaiai i?ioe ?ioeo, iiiaeeioe? a?iiea nai?o^ i?ioeaiee?a ?
iinooiiai caoiiea onth Aaee?th.

I?ae /an Aaeeuenueei? a?eie a?i c?oeioany ? c ieaiaiaie aa?iaioe?a, ui
aeeee ca ?aeiii. Ia?aeoiaoe /a?ac ?aei, eiai a?enueei caaaeaei
aa?iaioeyi ii?acee. Aea ?icoi?th/e, ui caoiieaiiy aaee/acii? ? aeeei?
e?a?ie aa?iaioe?a aei?iai eioooaaoeia ?eio, Oeaca? a?aenooiea o Aaee?th.
A?i oaeiae cae?eniea o 55—54 ??. aei i. ?. ia?aiiaeiee iio?ae o
A?eoai?th, aea i?eionea i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a ieaoeoe ?eio aeaieio.

A?eie c aaeeaie, aa?iaioeyie oa a?eoaioeyie aeaee ?eio aaee/acio caeiae/
o aeaeyae? ooaeiae, ?aa?a, cieioa ? n??aea. Ca aeiiiiiaith oe???
caeiae/? Oeaca? ci?oeiea na?e aaoi?eoao na?aae ?einueei? ciao?, ui aoea
ioi/ith aei aaaaonoaa oa ?iceio?. A?i oaea?/? ca?eueoea ieaoo nai?i
nieaeaoai, uia aiie aoee a?aeaeaieie. O Aaee?? Oeaca? noai?ea neeueia
a?enueei ?c ?eieyi, ia?aiaaeaieo aaeeaie ? aa?iaioeyie.

Oiai, /iai aeii?any Oeaca? ia Caoiae?, aaaeaa aeinyaoe E?ann ia Noiae?.
Ia /ie? 9-eaa?iiii? a?i?? a?i ii/aa a?eio i?ioe ia?oyi. Ia?oyie ia noaee
aei aith, a ii/aee a?aenooiaoe, cioneaoe ?eieyi cae?enieoe oyaeeee ?
aeniaaeeeaee iio?ae /a?ac ionoaeth. Eiee ae o 53 ?. aei i. ?. ?eieyie
aeinyaee i?noa Ea??e, ia?oyie ciaiaoeueea aoaeoaaee ?o. ?einueea
a?enueei aoei ?ica?iieaia, a E?ann caaeioa.

?c caaeaaeeth E?anna o??oia??ao ?iciaany. I?ae aeaiia ?ioeie eiai
o/anieeaie ii/aeany o?eaaea ai?ioueaa.

Ai?ioueaa i?ae Oeaca?ai ? Iiiiaai

Ca?o/eaoenue i?aeo?eieith naiaoo, Iiiiae aeiaaaa a?aeeeeeaiiy Oeaca?y a
?ei ? ?icioneo eiai a?enueea.

Aea Oeaca? ia i?aeei?eany ? eeoa c iaeiei eaa?iiii ia?aeoia ?oa?eii ?
?ooea ia ?ei, yeee caeiya aac aith, ine?eueee iaeyeai? eiai ??oo/?noth
Iiiiae ? eiinoee aoaeee ia Aaeeainueeee i?aino??a. Aieiai? neee Iiiiay —
7 eaa?ii?a — ciaoiaeeeeny a ?niai??. Uia caaacia/eoe na?e oee, Oeaca?,
ae?ooeaoe a ?niai?th, ?icaea oai a?enueei Iiiiay.

I?ney oeueiai, i?iaieineaoe naaa eiinoeii, Oeaca? ia?ai?aaeany a
A?aoe?th, aea o aeoa? i?e Oa?nae? a 48 ?. aei i. ?. ?icaea iaoaeaeeo?o/
c?a?aio a?i?th Iiiiay., Iiiiae oo?e aei ?aeioo, aea aoa oaeoee ca
iaeacii ?aeiaonueeeo i?aaeoae?a, ye? ? aiyeeny naa?eoeny c ?eiii.

Ia?ane?aeoth/e Iiiiay, Oeaca? i?eaoa aei ?aeioo. Cono??ioo? c ii/anoyie
?eieyie ii/aee ao?o/aoeny o aioo??oi? ni?aae oe??? e?a?ie ? ii/oaaee
naaa ooo iiaieie ainiiaea?yie, /eiy/e ooenee i?noeaaiio ianaeaiith. Oea
ni?e/eieei iianoaiiy ?aeioyi a Aeaenaiae???. I’youe i?nyoe?a Oeaca? aoa
a iaeic? nii/aoeo a oea?nueeiio iaeaoe?, a iio?i ia ino?ia? Oa?in, aea
ciaoiaeeany ciaiaieoee iaye. Oeaca?y a?yooaaee a?enueea, ui i?eaoee c
Ac??. Aeaenaiae??th caoiieee ?eieyie. Ia ?aeiaonueeee i?anoie Oeaca?
iinaaeea naith noaaeaieoeth ? eioaieo oea?eoeth Eeaiiao?o.

O?eaiaei? ca?noee c Iaei? Ac?? cioneee Oeaca?y iieeiooe ?aeiao. Iaeei ?c
nei?a I?o??aeaoa, Oa?iae, i?aeiyany ia ai?ioueao ? caoiiea /anoeio
?einueei? oa?eoi???. Oeaca? ?icaea eiai ca o?e aei?.

?c Iaei? Ac?? Oeaca? ae?ooea o ?ei, a ca?aeoe — a Ao?eeo oa ?niai?th,
aea aithaaa c i?ea?/ieeaie Iiiiay, ia ia?aiiao yeeo ciaaeiaeeiny o?e
?iee

Ia caoeno naeyi, ui ?ici?yeeny, aenooieee a?aoe A?aeoe. 133 ?. aei i. ?.
noa?oee ?c a?ao?a -— O?aa??e -— aoa ia?aiee ia?iaeiei o?eaoiii. A?i
cai?iiiioaaa caeii, yeee ae caai?iiya ei?enooaaoeny ae?eyieith iiiaae
500 thaa??a (thaa? — 1/4 aaeoa?a) caie? «iaueiiiai iiey». Iaaeeeoie
oaei? caie? i?iiiioaaeiny a?ae?a?aoe o aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a ?
ia?aaeaoe iaaaeeeeie ae?eyieaie aaccaiaeueiei a?iiaaeyiai. Oaeei /eiii,
O?aa??e A?aeo ?ic?aoiaoaaa a?ae?iaeeoe naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai ? oeei
ci?oeieoe ?einueeo a?i?th oa icaei?iaeoe ?einueea noni?euenoai. Oey
i?iiiceoe?y cono??ea ii?? c aieo naiaoo, ui neeaaeaany c aaeeeeo
caieaaeaniee?a. Ia?iae i?aeo?eiaa O?aa??y, ? eiai i?iiiceoe?y noaea
caeiiii. Ii/aany ia?aae?e «iaueiiiai iiey», iaeiae caaa?oeoe ?aoi?io ia
aaeaeiny. Naiaoi?e caeioaaoeee O?aa??y a oiio, ui a?i aaaea?
e?ea?aeoaaoe ?anioae?eo ? a?aeiiaeoe oea?nueeo aeaaeo. Ni?iaieoaaaoe
i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ia?iaeieo cai??a a?eeo, aiie aaeee ia?iaeiiai
o?eaoia.

Iaeiae ai?ioueaa ca caieth ia i?eieiyeany. 123 ?. aei i. ?. ia?iaeiei
o?eaoiii aoa ia?aiee iieiaeoee a?ao O?aa??y — Aae A?aeo. A?i ae?ya
iaa?oue ??oo/?oa ca a?aoa, i?iaiaey/e ieceo caeii?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia oa,
uia iaiaaeeoe aieea naiaoo. Iaeiae naiaoi?ai ciiao aaeaeiny ni?iaieoaaoe
a ?ei? cai?ooaiiy. O e?iaii?ieeoi?e ai?iouea? Aae A?aeo ? 3 oeny/?,eiai
i?ea?/iee?a caaeioee.

I?ney oe??? ?ici?aae ?einueea a?enoie?ao?y oe??ieeany. *a?ac 20 ?ie?a
i?ney caaeaae? Aay A?aeoa aoea aeicaieaia eoi?aey-i?iaeaae ae?eyiie,
io?eiaieo ca caeiiaie A?aeo?a. Caiey ciiao ii/aea cina?aaeaeoaaoenue o
?oeao aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a.

Aeeeoaoo?a Oeaca?y a ?ei?

45 ?. aei i. ?., ceaiaaoe ii?? noi?ioeaiee?a, Oeaca? iiaa?ioany a ?ei. O
eiai ?oeao aoea cina?aaeaeaia a?enueeiaa, oeea?eueia ? ?ae?a?eia aeaaea.
Oeaca? noaa aeia?/iei aeeeoaoi?ii, eiinoeii, ia?iaeiei o?eaoiii,
aa?oiaiei ae?aoeai ? aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/ai (?iia?aoi?ii).

Oeaca?y i?aeo?eioaaee caiiaei? aeeoae? ?oae?enueeeo i?no, ine?eueee
aaaaoi c ieo; ?icaaaao?ee a iioiaeao Oeaca?y. Oeaca? niaoe?aeueiei
caeiiii aii?yaeeoaaa aeeooy ? ?oae?enueeeo i?no. O ieo aoee nai? naiaoe,
ia?iaei? cai?e ? iaa?no?aoe, ui neeaaea- > eeny ?c caiiaeieo in?a.

Oe?e? Oeaca?y ?icoiaeeeeny c ?ioa?anaie ?einueei? ciao?, ui caeeea /a?ac
naiao ] oi?aaeyoe aea?aeaaith ? iaoe c oeueiai aaeee? aeioiaee. Oeaca?
?ai?aai?coaaa naiao. E?euee?noue! naiaoi??a a?i aeia?a aei 900, i?e/iio
an? iaaaaeai? naiaoi?e aoee cai?iai? eiai i?ea?/ieeaie c-iii?ae
a?enueeiai? ciao?, aaaaoeo ?aaiaeaniee?a c ?oae?enueeeo i?no.

Iacaaeiaieaia /anoeia ?einueeeo a?enoie?ao?a i?aai?coaaea ciiao i?ioe
aeeeoaoi?a, yeo i/ieea aeaai?e ae?oa Oeaca?y — A?oo. 15 aa?aciy 44 ?.
aei i. ?. Oeaca? > aoa caeieioee i?ae /an can?aeaiiy naiaoo.

Ni?iaa Oeaca?y anoaiiaeoe a ?ei? iino?eio iaeiiin?aio aeaaeo cae?i/eeany
iaaaeaei. •]

Ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo i?ney nia?o? Oeaca?y

I?ney nia?o? Oeaca?y a ?ei? ii/aeany ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo. Caeieioieee,
cacia-1 aoe ii?acee, ciooai? aoee aoaeoe c ?eio. Aiie ii/aee cae?aoe
a?enueea o no?ae-1 ieo i?ia?ioe?yo aeey aaaeaiiy a?eie.

A naiiio ?ei? naiao aeyaeany aacneeei a?aeiiaeoe naith caa?oi?noue.
Aeaaeo iaee | o?, ca eei noiyea a?i?y. Aaeeeee aeea iaa Ia?e Aioii?e —
iaeaeeae/ee ii- ? i?/iee Oeaca?y. Aea a Aioii?y aoa noia?iee — ieai?iiee
Oeaca?y Ieoaa?ai, yeee | ca?o/eany i?aeo?eieith naiaoo, ui aaaaeaa eiai
caoenieeii ?anioae?ee.

O Ieoaa?aia aoea cia/ia a?i?y, ui neeaaeaeany aieiaiei /eiii c
aaoa?ai?a:| Oeaca?y. Ia’?aeiaaoe nai? neee c a?enueeii naiaoo, Ieoaa?ai
caaaeaa ii?acee Aioii?th, aea iacaaa?ii oeeaa c iei nithc, ine?eueee ia
iaaaaeoaaany iaiaeeioe? aanoe ? ai?ioueao c ?anioae?eaioeyie. Aei nithco
caeo/eee ? eiiaiaee?a ?einueei? e?iiioe] Eai?aea. Oae 43 ?. aei i. ?.
aeiee ae?oaee o??oia??ao (Ieoaa?ai, Aioii?e, Eai?ae). Naiao ia?aaeaa
o??oia??ai anth iiaiioo aeaaee. Aiie iae?aco ae ii/aee iaae?aoe a?enueei
aeey ai?ioueae c ?anioae?eaioeyie.

Ae??oaeueia aeoaa i?ae a?enueeaie o??oia???a ? ?anioae?eaioe?a
a?aeaoeany 42 ?. a?ey i?noa O?e?iee a Iaeaaeii??. ?anioae?eaioe? caciaee
ii?acee. A?oo iie?i/ea ce aeeooy naiiaoanoaii, eeioaoenue ia ia/.

Aea c ia?aiiaith iaae ?anioae?eaioeyie a?iiaaeyinuee? a?eie ia
i?eieieeenue, ine?eueee o??oia??ao ?iciaany, ? Ieoaa?ai nii/aoeo onoioa
Eai?aea, a i?ney ?icii/aa ai?ioueao i?ioe Aioii?y. Aioii?e oe??ieany ia
noiae? ?einueei? aea?aeaae. A?i iae?oaeeany , ?c oea?eoeath ?aeioo
Eeaiiao?ith. Ieoaa?ai iaieinea Aioii?th a?eio. 31 ?. aei i. ?, o
ae??oaeuei?e ii?nuee?e aeoa? a?ey ieno Aeoe?e (ia cao?aeiiio ocaa?aaeae?
Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa) oeio Aioii?y ? Eeaiiao?e aoa ?icaeoee.
Aioii?e, a iio?i ?? Eeaiiao?a iie?i/eee aeeooy naiiaoanoaii, a ?aeiao
noaa ?einueeith i?ia?ioe??th; Aieiaea?ai ?einueei? aea?aeaae caeeoeany
Ieoaa?ai.

I?aae?iiy Ieoaa?aia Aaaonoa

Anoaiiaeaoe naith aeaaeo o ?einuee?e aea?aeaa?, Ieoaa?ai 27 ?. aei i. ?.
ioiei nea a?aeiiaeaiiy ?anioae?ee. Naiaoi?e i?enai?ee Ieoaa?aio ii/ania
i??caenueei Aaaon o (nayuaiiee). A?aeiiaeaiiy ?anioae?ee aoei eeoa
iie?oe/iei oiaeii Aaaonoa, yee! aa o?eiaa onth aeaaeo a aea?aeaa? o
nai?o ?oeao. A?i iaeii/anii aoa eiinoeii ? ia?iaei?iei o?eaoiii. Aeua
a?enueeiaa aeaaea aeaea eiio oeooe ?iia?aoi?a. Aaaonoa iace-eaee
i?eioeainii — ia?oith ethaeeiith. Ca?aene iioiaeeoue iacaa anoaiiaeaiiai
Aaao-noii iie?oe/iiai eaaeo — i?eioeeiao.

Ia?iaei? cai?e ca Aaaonoa ao?aoeee nai? cia/aiiy. Naiao neooiyiii
aeeiioaaa iieth ?iia?aoi?a, iii?ith yeiai aoea a?i?y. ?iia?aoi? i?aaea
aeia?/ii, ia?aaeath/e ?)eaaeo o niaaeie.

Aeey ?ici?aae c noi?ioeaieeaie eiai iie?oeee Aaaono noai?ea iniaeeaa
a?enueei — i?aoi??ainueeo aaa?ae?th,. ?? caaiie aioia? aoee i?eaeooeoe
aoaeue-yeee caiao ia ?iia?aoi?nueeo aeaaeo.

Aaaono i?eae?eya aaaaoi oaaae i?aai?caoe?? a?i??. A?i noai?ea 25
eaa?ii?a, ?icoaooaaa ?o ocaeiaae ei?aeii?a ?iia???, ui i?ieyaaee ii
?aeio oa Aeoiath. Ia ii/eiath/e o?eaaeeo a?ei, ?iia?aoi? iaiaaeoaaany
eeoa iaeeie ia ei?aeiiao. Ni?iae ?eieyi ia?aeoe ?aei ? i?aeei?eoe
aa?iaioe?a ne?i/eeeny ii?aceith o aeoa? a Oaaoi-aocueeiio e?n? 9 ?. i.
?.

?acii ?c anoaiiaeaiiyi ?iia??? ci?oeieeiny ?aaiaeanieoeoai. Aoee
ooaaeai? caeiie, ca?aeii c yeeie ca aaeanoai ainiiaea?y no?ao?
i?aeeyaaee an? ?aae, ui aoee o aoaeeieo i?ae /an aaeanoaa.

?einueea ?iia??y o ?-?? no. i. ?.

O ?—II no. i. ?. ?einueea ?iia??y aoea ia aa?oei? iiaooiino?,
?aaiaeanieoeueeee eaae aeinya iaea?eueoiai ?icea?oo. ?ei ia?aoai?eany ia
iaea?eueoa i?noi Na?aaecaiiiii?’y. A iueiio i?iaeeaaei oiae? iiiaae
i?eueeii aeeoae?a.

I?ioa iiaooi?noue ?iia??? aoea iaaeiaaia?/iith: iianoaaaee ?aae ?
i?aeei?ai? ia?iaee, oi/eeany aei?noiea ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo.

I?ney nia?o? Aaaonoa aeaaea ia?aeoea aei eiai ianeiea O?aa??y. Naiao
caoaa?aeea eiai niaaeei?ioeai Ieoaa?aia, aea ana aeeooy O?aa??th
aeiaaeiny ai?ioeny ?c caeieioieeaie, na?aae yeeo aoee e /eaie eiai
?iaeeie. I?ney nia?o? O?aa??y 37 ?. ?iia?aoi?ii noaa iieiaeoee nei
ieai?iieea O?aa??y Aae Oeaca? Eae?aoea, aea a?i aoa oaeoee 41 ?.
Ianooiiei ?iia?aoi?ii noaa iieiaeoee a?ao ieai?iieea O?aa??y— Eeaaae?e.
A?i aoa io?o?iee ae?oaeeiith — o/anieoeath ciiae. Eiai iane?aeoaaa ??
nei Ia?ii, yeee a?aecia/aany ?icaauai?noth. Eiee aiane?aeie eiai
aei?noieiai i?aae?iiy a ?ei? niaeaoioei iianoaiiy, a?i iaeeaa ia naaa
?oee. C? nia?oth Ia?iia aeaaea ia?aeoea aei aeeiano?? Oeaa??a (66—96).
Caniiaieeii aeeiano?? Oeaa??a aoa Aanian?ai, eiiaiaeoaa/ ?einueeith
a?i??th a ?oaea?. Inoaii?e i?aaenoaaiee oe??? aeeiano?? Aeii?i?oe?ai aoa
oaeoee ciiaieeaie o aeaniiio iaeaoe?. I?ney oeueiai . noaea i?aaeoe
ae?iano?y Aioii?i?a.

Iaea?eueoeo ?ici???a ?einueea ?iia??y aeinyaea a ?iee i?aae?iiy
?iia?aoi?a O?ayia (98—116), yeee a?eueoo /anoeio naiai aeeooy i?ia?a o
a?enueeiaeo iioiaeao. Eiai e?enueei ia?ai?aaeeiny /a?ac Aeoiae ?
i?aeei?eei ieaiaia aeae?a. Eaa?iie O?ayia o i?ei? c, ia?oyinueeei
oea?noaii caaaeaee eiio iecee ii?acie ? iaieiae?ee Ianiiioai??th.
Iioiaee O?ayia aoee inoaii?ie caaieiaieoeueeeie a?eiaie ?eio. ?iia???
iio??aii ??oei aaaaoi a?enueea aeey i?eaeooaiiy iianoaiue oa caoenoo
aeanieo ei?aeii?a. Oiio a na?aaeei? II no. ?einueea ?iia??y aoea ciooaia
ia?aeoe a?ae caaithaaiue aei iai?iie nai?o iaee/acieo aieiae?iue.

Aeieeiaiiy o?enoeyinoaa

Ia ii/aoeo iaoi? a?e ii/aea iinooiiai caanaoe a??a a a?aoeueeeo ?
?einueeeo aia?a.

?eieyie ii/aee caoiiethaaoeny aeayeeie no?aeieie aiaaie. Iaaecae/aeii
iiioey?iei noaa eoeueo ?aeiaonueei? aiaei? ?c?aee, ui cia?aaeoaaeany
iao??’th c aeeoeiith ia ?oeao. Aioe/i? o?einioe i?iiaaoaaee ?aea?
i?inoiai ? iaaeaaaeeaiai aeeooy oa ieeina?aey. Ana oea aoei
ia?aaeoiiaaie aeieeiaiiy iiai? ?ae?a?? — o?enoeyinoaa.

Aiii aeieeei a Iaeanoei?, yea 63 ?. aei i. ?. noaea ?einueeith
i?ia?ioe??th ?oaeay ? ianaeaiiy yei?, ye e ?io? ia?iaee, i?aaioei
ca?eueieoeny a?ae ?einueeiai ai?oo. ?a?a? a??eee, ui o?eueee aia ssaaa
ca?eueieoue ?o c-i?ae ?einueei? aeaaee.

Ia ii/aoeo ? no. i. ?. a Iaeanoei? aoei aaaaoi iaiae??aieo
i?iiia?aeiee?a, ye? niia?uaee i?i nei?a i?eoanoy Ian??
(aiaa-aecaieeoaey). Io?oe?ei? ??onaeeinuee? nayuaieee ia?ane?aeoaaee ?
noai?i ea?aee oaeeo i?iiia?aeiee?a.

Ca oeeo oiia aeieeea a??a a ?nona O?enoa, ?c a/aiiy yeiai iinoaea iiaa ;
?ae?a?y. Iiaeeeai, ui nai ?non aoa iaeiei c oaeeo i?iiia?aeiee?a
?aaiaae?y (a ia?aeeaae? c a?aoeueei? — «aeia?a ca?noea»), aea
iieno?oueny a?ia?ao?y O?enoa, ?iciia?aea?oueny i?i eiai neoae?iiy
ethaeyi, /oaeana, ye? a?i oai?ea, io/aieoeueeo nia?oue ia o?ano? ?:
aine?an?iiy c ia?oaeo. Ooo aeneiaeth?oueny ia?aeiiaiiy, ui ?non O?enoin
— nei Aiaa, ui a?i iaaaeiac? c?eaea ia caieth ? oiae? aoaea «no?aoiee
noae», i?ney yeiai i?aaaaeieee iio?aieyoue o ?ae, a a??oieee — o iaeei.
?aaiaae?? oa?eoee aei Ii-aiai Caa?oo — ae?oai? /anoeie A?ae??.

Iia? i?eioeeie ciaeoee a?aeaoe na?aae oeo, ooi no?aaeaeaa ? aoa
i?eaiiaeaiee, ianaiia?aae na?aae ?aa?a, ye? a??eee, ui a Oea?noa?
Iaaaniiio Aia aicaeanoue ni?aaaaeeeai ? aeia?ei, ? ceei. C Iaeanoeie
o?enoeyinoai iioe?eeiny ia ?io? iaeano? ?einueei? ?iia???. O?enoeyie
i?iiia?aeoaaee cai?noue iiinoe — ethaia aei aeeaeiueiai, ieeina?aey oa
anai?iuaiiy; cai?noue ai?iaeia/? ?aa?a ? iai?a — iaae?th ia nian?iiy ?
a?/ia aeaaeainoai.

Nii/aoeo ?einueea aeaaea aaeaeoaea noaaeeany aei oaeeo i?iiia?aeae. Aea
o III no. aei i. ?. ii/aeany e?eca ?einueei? aea?aeaae, aeeooy
iia??oaei. Aeieeea aeoiea, ui . oe? _ Ea?a ca oa, ui ?eieyie caaoee
nai?o aia?a ? ia?anoaee ?i neoaeeoe. ?einuee? ?iia?aoi?e ii/aee
aoaeoaaoe iia? o?aie ? aeiaaaee a?ae i?aeaeaieo ?aoaeueiiai aeei-; iaiiy
?ae?a?eieo ia?yae?a. Oiio ii/aeiny ia?ane?aeoaaiiy o?enoeyi, ye ethaeae
/oaei? a??e. ?o io/eee, eeaeaee ia iioaeo aeeeei ca??ai, ?icieiaee ia
o?anoao.

A??oth/? o?enoeyie noai?eee naith i?aai?caoe?th — oea?eao. Oea neiai
icia/a? ? «a?iiaaea». Ia /ie? o?enoeyinueei? a?iiaaee noiya ?ieneii.
Ea??aiee aaeeei? a?iiaaee ? iaceaaany iao??a?oii. Ia?o? o?enoeyie /a?ac
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ia iiaee a?aee?e-1 oi i?iaiaeeoe aiaineoae?iiy ? oiio
cae?aeeny aeey a?aei?aaeaiiy eoeueoo a ?einueeeo ‘ i?aecaiaeeyo.

?einueea ?iia??y a II no.

O oeae ia??iae ?aanoai ii/aei cao?eioaaoe ?icaeoie ainiiaea?noaa
?einueei? ?iia???. ?aae iiaaii i?aoethaaee, ?i ia iiaeia aoei aeia??eoe
neeaaei? cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, ui! aoee aeiaeaeai? a oeae /an: ieoa c
a?aeaaeii, aeieaa?ea, naaeia? iiae?, aiaeyi? ieeie ] oa ?i. I?aoey ?aa?a
noaaaea iaaea?aeiith aeey ?aaiaeaniee?a. ?oi? ainiiaea?noaa caiaiaaeaee.
Oiio ?aaiaeanieee aeaaaee ?aaai ae?eyiee caie?, aeicaieyee aoaeoaaoe
aeeoei, caaiaeeoe n?i’th. Ca oea ?aae niea/oaaee ainiiaea?aa? /anoeio
a?iaeath aai aeciaia-! io ieaoo. Oaeeo ?aa?a iaceaaee «?aaaie, c
oaoeiaie». A?euei? a?aeiyee iaeiaeeny aei ?aaiaeaniee?a, i?aiaeoth/e a
ieo caieth aeey aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiae aea?noaa. ?o iaceaaee
eieiiaie. Eieiie ca ai?ae ia iiaee i?oe a?ae ainiiaea?y;! ? iieiyeeny a
iiai?e caeaaeiino? a?ae iueiai

Iaeii/anii ia ?einueeo ?iia??th iineethaaany oene aa?aa??a ?c i?aii/?.
Oea aoee| aa?iainuee? ieaiaia — aioe, aeaiaie, o?aiee, oa?onee, ye? aoee
a?aenoaeeie| o ii??aiyii? c ?eieyiaie. ?einueea a?i?y eaaeaa no?eioaaea
?oi?e iaoene.

O oeae ia??iae ?iia??y ia?aaeeaaea ? aioo??oi? iaaa?acaee. A Aaee??
ii/aeiny! iianoaiiy aaaaoae?a (ai?oe?a), o/anieeaie yeiai aoee naeyie ?
ianoooe, yea ?eieyiai,! eaaeaa aaeaeiny i?eaeooeoe. Naeyinuee?
caai?ooaiiy niaeaoioee ? a ?aeio?. O I?ai?/i?e;! Ao?eoe? ae?yea
ni?aaaeiy a?i?y ?aa?a ? eieii?a, ui ai?ieiny i?ioe ?aaiaeaniee?a.

?iia?aoi?e aaaaeaee: uia a?yooaaoe ?einueeo ?iia??th a?ae ?iciaaeo,
o?aaa aaano a ?oae?? ? ?einueeeo i?ia?ioe?yo ai?ii? ii?yaeee, ? noai??
caeiie.

Iai?ee?ioe? II no. ?einueeei ?iia?aoi?ii noaa iieeiaiaeaoeue Naioei?e
Naaa?, ?iaeii c Ao?eee. I?e iueiio naiao, /eiiaieoeoai ? eiiaiaeoaaiiy
a?i??th iiiiaieeiny aeo?aeoeyie c? no?aeieo i?ia?ioe?e. A aei a?i??
ii/aee a?aoe eieeoi?o a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo aa?aa??a. Eiaeiee ai?i i?a
i?inoiooeny ii neoaea? e aeineoaeeoeny aei eiiaiaeoaa/a.

Naioei?y Naaa?a ?iia?aoi?ii i?iaieineea a?i?y. A na?aaeei? III no.
a?enueea o no?aeieo i?ia?ioe?yo ii/aee aenoaaoe nai?o ?iia?aoi??a.
Naiao, aiy/enue iineeaiiy aeaaee oaeeo «nieaeaonueeeo ?iia?aoi??a»,
ii/aa i?ecia/aoe ?iia?aoi??a nai. ? I?ae naiaonueeeie oa nieaeaonueeeie
?iia?aoi?aie oi/eeany aino?a ai?ioueaa. Iacaiaee ? aoee ? i?ae naieie
nieaeaonueeeie ?iia?aoi?aie. ?iia?aoi?e ci?ithaaeenue /a?ac 2— ‘ C ?iee,
a ?iiae? ? /a?ac 1—2 i?nyoe?. sse i?aaeei, ?o aaeaaee caeieioieee aai
aoio?ai? eaa?iia?e. ?iiae? a ?iia??? iaeii/anii aoei e?eueea
?iia?aoi??a, ui aithaaee iaeei i?ioe iaeiiai. Iane?aeeii oaeiai
noaiiaeua noaei oa, ui a na?aaeei? III no. a?ae ?eio a?aeae?eeeeny
Aaee?y, ?niai?y, ?aeiao, iaeaea an? i?ia?ioe?? a Ac?? oa ia ieaeiueiio
Aeoia?.

Ia iaaiee /an i?ecoieieoe ?icaae ?einueei? ?iia??? aaeaeiny ?iia?aoi?o
Ae?i-eeao?aio (284—305). Ae?ieeao?ai iiai?noth onoioa naiao a?ae
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith. Aaaeeea? ieoaiiy oaia? ae??ooaaeenue o aocueeiio
eie? i?eaeai?ieo ? ai?ia/aeueiee?a. Aeaaea eiai iaaaaeoaaea aeaaeo
no?aeieo i?aaeoae?a. Oaea oi?ia i?aae?iiy ae?noaea iacao aeii?iao (c
eaoeinueei? «aeii?io?» — iai).

Ae?ieeao?ai iiae?eea ?iia??th ia /ioe?e /anoeie, i?ecia/eaoe o?ueio
ni?ai?aaeoae?a — oao?a?o?a. A?i?y aoea iiae?eaia ia aea? /anoeie. Iaeia
ciaoiaeeeany o oeaio?? ? canoinoaaeanue aeey i?eaeooaiiy aioo??oi?o
caai?ooaiue. Ae?oaa ?icoaoiaoaaeanue ia ei?aeiiao ? iaea caoeuaoe
?iia??th a?ae ciai?oi?o ai?ia?a. ?iia?aoi? ci?a i?eaeooeoe an?
iianoaiiy, aeaiaoe aa?aa??a, caoaeoaaa ia ei?aeiiao iai?iii? nii?oaee.

Oe??ieaoe ia aeayeee /an ?iia??th, 305 ?. Ae?ieeao?ai c??eny i?anoieo.

?einueea ?iia??y o IV no.

306 ?. iaeiei ?c oao?a?o?a noaa a?ae ca iioiaeaeaiiyi Einoyioei. 324 ?.,
ia?ai?aoe o i?aeoniai?e ai?iouea? nai?o noia?iee?a, a?i cina?aaeea o
nai?o ?oeao onth aeaaeo a ?iia???, iie?i/eaoe c oao?a?o??th.

313 ?. Einoyioei aeicaieea o?enoeyiai a?aee?eoi a?aei?aaeyoe na?e
eoeueo, a nai i?eeiya o?enoeyinoai, ine?eueee eiai a/aiiy aeacoaaei, ui
aoaeue-yea aeaaea a?ae Aiaa. Einoyioei nai ao?o/aany o oea?eiai? ni?aae,
onoaaa iaoaiaeieo eiio ?ieneii?a. Iaeii/anii a?i aea?oaaa oea?ea? caie?,
a?io? ? eiooiaiino?. Ioaea, oea?eaa noaea iii?ith aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

Ca Einoyioeia aaea ia aoei naiaoo. Aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a a?i
i?ecia/aa nai c a??ieo eiio ethaeae. Einoyioei canioaaa iiao noieeoeth
?iia???. O 330 ?. iath noaea eieeoiy a?aoeueea eieii?y A?caio?e ia
aa?ac? Ainoi?o, yea aoea ia?aeiaiiaaia o Eiinoaioeiiiieue.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? IV no. iineeeany iaoene aa?aa??a ia ei?aeiie ?iia???,
ii-e’ycaiee c ii/aoeii «aaeeeiai ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a». Aiii aoei
ni?e/eiaii oei, ?oei ia ?a?iio noioee aieiaie/? ei/iaeee-aoie, ia?iae
ac?aonueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A?ae aoi?a aeoaea no?aaeaeaee aa?iainuee?
ieaiaia aio?a, ye? oiae? aeeee i?ae Aeoia?i oa Aeiiii. Uia a?yooaaoeny
a?ae aoi?a, aioe ae?noaee aeica?e o ?einueeiai ?iia?aoi?a ia?anaeeoenue
ia Aaeeainueeee i?aino??a. Aea ?einuee? /eiiaieee ia i?noeyo a?aaoaaee ?
i?eieaeoaaee aio?a. Aeiaaaeai? aei iiaiiai a?ae/ath, aioe iianoaee i?ioe
?eio. 378 ?., i?e ni?ia? i?eaeooeoe iianoaiiy, ?einueea a?enueei,
i/iethaaia ?iia?aoi?ii Aaoeaioii, aoei ?icaeoa. Nai Aaeaio caaeioa o
oe?e aeoa?, yea a?aeaoeany i?ae Aae??aii- |A iieai. Iiaee ?iia?aoi?,
Oaiaein?e ?, i?eieiea ai?ii? ae??. Aioai aoee iaaeai? caie? i ia
i?ai?/iiio caoiae? Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa. Iinaeaiiy aa?aa??a o
oeaio?? ?iia ??? aoei aeoaea iaaacia/iei.

I?ye? caoiaee ?iia?aoi??a ia iiaee coieieoe ?iciaaeo ?einueei? ?iia???.
395 ?. ?iia??th aoei iiae?eaii ia aea? /anoeie — Cao?aeio ? No?aeio.
No?aeia /anoeia ae?noaea iacao A?caio?y. Aei ?? neeaaeo aoiaeeee
A?aoe?y, Iaea Ac?y, ?aeiao, Ne??y, Iaeanoeia. Noieeoeath. A?caio??? noaa
Einoyioeiiiieue. Cao?aeia /anoeia aeeth/aea ?oae?th, Aaee?th, ?niai?th,
I?ai?/io Ao?eeo. Aieiaiei ?? i?noii noaea ?aaaia. Nai ?ei aaea ia
a?ae?a?aaaa aeiaeii? ?ie? a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?. A?i noaa oeaio?ii
o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a?? ? i?noeai ia?aaoaaiiyi ?einueeiai ?ieneiia —
Iaie. I?ae i?aaeoaeyie Caoiaeo ? Noiaeo ia aoei caiaee, aiie iino?eii
ai?iaoaaee i?ae niaith.

Caaeaaeue Cao?aeii? ?einueei? ?iia???

?einueea ?iia??y aoea aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiith aea?aeaaith. Iaiieiaeio
?iicaiiith noaea ?einueea a?i?y. Iaa?oue na?aae iieeiaiaeoe?a aoei
aaaaoi aa?aa??a. Aiie aoee e na?aae nieaeaonueeeo ?iia?aoi??a.
Iai?ee?ioe? ?nioaaiiy ?iia??? aa?aa?e ia?aaoaaee iaeaea ia an?o ea??aieo
iinaaeao. Aiie ia aoee iao??ioaie ?eio.

I?aeei?ai? ia?iaee i?iaeiaaeoaaee aanoe ai?ioueao ca naith naiaiaeo. 407
?. ?einueea a?i?y ciooaia aoea caeeoeoe i?ia?ioe?th A?eoai?th. I?ci?oa
aoee caeeoai? Aaee?y oa ?niai?y. Aa?aa?e, ui i?i?eaaeeny /a?ac ei?aeiie
?iia???, ooai?thaaee ia ?? caieyo naiino?ei? aea?aeaae. Oae aa?iainueea
ieai’y aaiaeae?a, i?ieoiaoe /a?ac ?einuee? i?ia?ioe?? Aaee?th oa
?niai?th, ia?ai?aaeeiny ia caoaeiaaiiio oeio? a Ao?eeo. Oai, ia i?noe?
eieeoiueiai Ea?oaaaio, 429 ?. aiie canioaaee nai? ei?ie?anoai.

Aioe ia /ie? c aiaeaeai Aea??oii, nei?enoaaoenue neaae?noth ?iia???,
aoi?aee-ny a ?oae?th ? 410 ?. caoiieee ?ei, a iio?i ?ica?iieee i?noi.

Na?eiciith caa?icith aeey ?einueei? ?iia??? o na?aaeei? V no. noaee
ieaiaia aoi?a ia /ie? c aiaeaeai Aoo?eith, ui ?ooeee c? noiaeo. Aea
?eieyie, ia’?aeiaaoenue ?c aa?iainueeeie ieaiaiaie ? noai?eaoe
ai?caeaoia a?enueei, i/ieaia ?einueeei iieeiaiaeoeai Aaoe??i, 451 ?.
?ica?iieee aoi?a o aeoa? ia Eaoaeoinueeeo iieyo a Aaee??. I?ney oeueiai
aea?aeaaa aoi?a ?iciaeany.

Ia?aiiaa iaae aoiaie ia a?yooaaea ?iia??th. 455 ?. ieai’y aaiaeae?a c
ii?y iaiaei ia ?ei ? caoiieei i?noi. Aaiaeaee c?oeioaaee aaaaoi iai’yoie
ienoaoeoaa ? /oaeiaeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae. (C oeo /an?a aei?noiea
?oeioaaiiy iai’yoie eoeueoo?e ae?noaei iacao «aaiaeae?ci».)

A inoaii? ?iee ?nioaaiiy Cao?aeii? ?einueei? ?iia??? ?einuee? ?iia?aoi?e
ia?aoai?eeenue ia ?a?aoee a ?oeao aa?aa?nueeeo aiaeae?a. 476 ?. iaeei c
aa?iainueeeo iieeiaiaeoe?a Iaeiae? neeioa inoaiiueiai ?einueeiai
?iia?aoi?a, 14-??/iiai ?iioea Aaaonooea. Oae i?eieieea ?nioaaiiy
Cao?aeia ?einueea ?iia??y.

Aei ii/aoeo VI no. aa?iainuee? ieaiaia ?icnaeeeeny ia an?e ?? oa?eoi???,
noai?eaoe ‘ aa?aa?nuee? ei?ie?anoaa: aaiaeaee — a I?ai?/i?e Ao?eoe?,
aanoaioe (cao?aei? aioe) — ,? a ?niai??, inoaioe (no?aei? aioe) — a
?oae??, o?aiee — a Aaee??, aiaee ? naene — 5 a A?eoai??.

Iaae?iiy Cao?aeii? ?einueei? ?iia??? cacae/ae aaaaeathoue e?ioeai
?noi??? Noa?iaeaaiueiai na?oo.

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